Search for Villalta*
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
A I A
AIAPANGO, the head settlement of the districtof the akaldia mayor of Chaleo in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 100 families of Indians, and isannexed to the curacy of Amecaraeca, at twoleagues to the s. of its capital.
AIAPATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, and veryopulent, on account of its silver mines. The sandson the banks of the rivers here have been known sorichly impregnated with this metal, that lumps ofit have been at different times picked up. It is themost considerable population in the province, andthe temperature is so salutary, that it is very com-mon to meet with persons of 90 years of age, andmany also of 100.
AIAPEL, a town of the province and govern-ment of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Gra-nada, situate on the bank of a large lake or swampof the same name, and which is formed from thewaters of the rivers Cauca, San Jorge, and others.In its district are the lavaderos, or washing placesfor gold, of La Cruz, San Mateo, Thuansi, Can,Ure, Man, San Pedro, and La Soledad.
AIATASTO, a large river of the province andgovernment of Tucuman, in the district and juris-diction of the city of Salta, on the banks of whichare some pasture grounds of the same name, uponwhich are fed 40,000 head of neat cattle, and 6000of horses for breeding.
AIAUIRI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lamoa in Peru. In its vicinity aresome forts, which were built by the Indians in thetime of their gentilism, and now in a state of greatdilapidation. There is a lake of warm water here,the bottom of which has never yet been found.The water always keeps at one height, so that it ispresumed that it finds its way out through somesubterraneous channel. There is also another warm
water spring at two leagues distance, which is verynoxious, and, as it runs, has the property of petri-fying, in like manner as the spring of water inGuancavelica.
AIAUTLA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teutila inNueva España, of a warm temperature, and inha-bited by 100 Indian families, who support them-selves by cultivating and selling the vaynilla plant.Nine leagues s. of its capital.
AICAROPA, a small river Of the province andgovernment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. Itrises in the country of the Armocotos Indians, runsfrom e. to w. with a slight inclination to the s. andenters the Caura.
AIMARAEZ, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded n. w. and w. by the province ofAndahuailas, of the bishopric of Guamanga, s. byParinacocha of the same, s. e. by Ghumbivilcas,and e. by Cotabamba. It is 40 leagues in lengthfrom «. to s. and 26 in width from e. to ti). includ-ing in its figure on the w. side the last mentionedprovince. It js one of the most uneven soils in thekingdom, being full of lofty sierras and snowymountains. It is on this account that its climate isvery cold, excepting, however, in some vallies,where it is more temperate, and where, on somesmall sloping grounds, the inhabitants sow seed andgrain, and cultivate fruit trees and cane plantations,
A I U
which the inhabitants trade. These are composed of34 Indian families. It is a little more than threeleagues from its head settlement,
AIOZINGO, a settlement of the alcaldía mayorof Chaleo in Nueva España, situate on the shoreof the lake of Mexico, with a good port, at whichare embarked the fruits of many provinces for thesupply of that capital, (Chaleo), which is withineight or ten hours sail from hence. It has a goodconvent of S. Augustin, where a most beauti-ful image of the virgin is reverenced, and sup-posed to be wonder-working. Its inhabitants con-sist of 120 Indian families and some Spanish. Itis distant one league s, s. e. from its capital.
AIRICOS, a nation of Indians who inhabit theplains of Cazanare and Meta, of the new kingdomof Granada, to the c. of the mountains of Bogota,on the borders of the river Ele. It is numerous,and feared by all its neighbours, on account of itsvalour and dexterity in the use of arms.
Airicos, with the dedicatory title of SanFrancisco Xavier, a settlement which belongedto the Jesuits, and founded in 1662 by father An-tonio de Monteverde, and composed of some ofthose Indians who were thus reduced to the Catho-lic faith.
AIRIHUANCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru.
AIRS, a small city of the province and colonyof New Jersey, in the county of Burlington.
AIUDA, Nuestra Senora be la, a villageand settlement of the Portuguese, in the provinceand captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situateupon the sea-coast, and on the shore of the riverS. Miguel.
Aiuda, another settlement in the province andcaptainship of Puerto Seguro, situate upon thecoast on the shore of the port.
AIUILA, a river of the province and alcaldiamayor of Soconusco, in the kingdom of Guate-mala: It runs into the S. sea between the settle-ment of Suchitepec and the river Coatlan.
AIUINOS, a nation of Indians of the provinceand government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana,converted to the faith by father Francisco Olinano,of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1624.They live towards the n. of the above province,and in the times of their heathenism they dwelt inthe lofty mountains, in order that they might de-fend themselves from the other nations with whomthey were at war. They are docile, well-inclined,and of good habits.
AIUN, or luMERi, a river of the province and
viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. It runs s. and entersthe Rio Negro.
AIUNCHA, Pago BE, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucuman, in the districtand jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero,from whence it is 22 leagues distant. It is situateon the shore of the river Dulce.
AIUTLA, the head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, containing 187 Indianfamilies, and a convent of the religious order of S.Domingo ; distant 13 leagues to the e. of its capi-tal.
Aiutla, another settlement in the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Autlanof the same kingdom, with 23 Indian families, whohave large stores of pulse and fruit, so rich and fer-tile is their country. It is annexed to the curacy ofTenamaztlani, from whence it lies one league s,
AlUA, a small town of the island of St. Domin-go, situate in the line which divides the Spanishterritory from the French. It was the inhabitantsof this town who chiefly contributed to ensure thevictory which was gained against the Spaniards inthe plain of Puerto Real, by the president DonFrancisco de Segura y Sandoval, in 1691.
AIX, Palmar be, a large beach on the coastof Florida, within the channel of Bahama, nearthe point of Canaveral ; memorable for the ship-wreck of 22 vessels, composing the fleet of NuevaEspana, which took place in 1715, being under thecommand of Don Antonio de Ubila ; memorablealso for the loss of two galleons from Tierra Firme,commanded by Don Antonio de Echevers ; theloss of the one and the other amounting to nearly20 million dollars.
Aix, a river of the same province, which runsinto the sea very near the Palmar.
AJOIANI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Coaza.
[AJOS, a parish situate on the foot of the moun-tains which separate the rivers Paraguay and Pa-rana, about 24 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23°26' 34" s. Long. 56° 30' w.~\
AJOUES, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and government of Louisiana, in which theFrench held a garrison and fort for its defence, onthe shore of a lake near the Missouri.
A joues, another settlement of the same provinceand government, situate on the shore of the riverMissouri.
AKANCEAS, a nation of savage Indians of N.America, who live at the conflux of the riversMississippi, and another abundant stream of its
The antidote, however, is oil taken in abundanceinternally, and applied outwardly. Neither wheatnor barley are known here, but the place aboundsin maize and rice, of which they make cakes, andwhich are the common bread of the natives, andmore particularly so that called cazave^ being asort of cake made of the root yiica^ name, or mo-niato. There are also a great number of cottontrees. The arms of this city are a green crossupon a gold ground, with a lion rampant oneach side. It was sacked in 1593 by RobertBaal, a pirate ; in 1583, by Sir Francis Drake, 23years from the time of its being fortified, and notfrom its foundation, as according to Mr. La Ma-tiniere ; again iti 1695, by Mr. Ducase, assisted bythe adventurers or fiibustiers, who completely pil-laged it : but a great sensation having been causedamongst the inhabitants at the loss of a superb se-pulchre made of silver, in which it rvas usual ona good Friday to deposit the eucharist, they hadthe good fortune to obtain its restitution throughthe interest and favour of Louis XI F. TheEnglish, under the command of Admiral Vernonand Sir Charles Ogle, besieged this city in 1740,when, although its castles were destroyed, andit was completely besieged, it would not surren-der, being gloriously defended by the viceroyDon Sebastian de Esiava, and Don Bias de Lezo,who caused the English to abandon the enterprisewith precipitancy and with great loss. [For thisconduct on the part of the English, several reasonswere assigned besides the strength of the place ;namely, the mortality among the troops, wantof skill in the commanders, and certain ditferencesbetween the admiral and the general. The forti-fications which they demolished have since beenrepaired.] It is the only part of all America wherethere is etfective coin of a fourth part of a real insilver. Its inhabitants amount to 9160 souls incommunion. It has been the native place of manycelebrated persons, such are,
Don Augustin Samiento de Sotomayor, of the or-der of Santiago, viscount of Portillo.
Don Andres de la Vega, professor at Salamanca,a famous lawyer.
Fray Carlos de Melgarejo, a religious Domini-can, an excellent preacher, and a man of unble-mished life.
Don Caspar de Cuba and Arce, head collegiateof San Marcos de Lima, oidor of Chile.
Don Gonzalo de Herrera, Marquis of Villalta,governor of Antioquia.
Don Gregorio Castellar y Mantilla, governor ofCumana, and general of the armada of the guardof the coasts of Cartagena.
Don Joseph de Paredes, captain of infantry,knight of the order of Santiago.
Fray Joseph Pacheco, of the order of St. Au-gustin, master, visitor, and vicar-general i:i his pro-vince of the Nuevo Reyno.
The Father Joseph de Urbina, of the extin-guished company, rector of the college of SantaFe.
Don.Iuan Fernandez Rosillo, dean of the churchof his country, bishop of V^erapez and of Mecho-acan .
Fray Juan Pereyra, a religious Dominican.
Don Lope Duke Estrada, kiiight of the order ofSantiago.
It is in long. 75° 24' and lat. 10° 25' n. [Foraccount of the present revolutions, see Vene-zuela.]
Bishops who have presided in Cartagena.
1. Don Fray Tomas del Toro, a monk of theorder of St. Domingo, elected the . first bishop in1532; but being at Talavera, his country, at thetime, he unfortunately died before he was conse-crated.
2. Don Fray Geronimo de Loaisa, a Dominicanmonk, renowned for his virtue and talent, and forhis experience in Indian affairs ; he was elected inthe room of the former, was consecrated at Valla-dolid, and there he erected the church into a ca-thedral in 1538, the same year in which he enteredCartagena ; from hence he was promoted to thearchbishopric of Lima in 1542.
3. Don Fray Francisco de Santa Maria y Bena-vides, of the order of St. Gerome, of the illustriousfamily of the Marquises of Fromesta ; serving atthat time the Emperor in Flanders, he took to areligious life, and was elected bishop of Cartagenain 1543. The city, in his time, was plundered bytwo pirates, lieaded by the Spanisli pilot AlonsoVexines, who cominitted thisactout of revenge fora flogging he had received ; they also ill-treatedthe venerable prelate, who had the additional griev-ance, in the year L551, of witnessing the city inflames. In 1554 he was promoted to the churchof Modonedo in Galicia, and was succeeded inCartagena by,
4. Don Fray Gregorio de Beteta, a Dominicanmonk, brought up in the convent of Salamanca, andone of the twenty who went to the Nuevo Reynode Gratiada, from whence he passed over to Mex-ico to convert the Indians, and afterwards withthe same object to the provinces of Santa Marta,Uraba, ami Cartagena ; and being teacher amicurate in one of his settlements, he received theorder of presentation to this bishopric in 1555 ;although he endeavoured to decline the dignify,
when he was promoted to the bishopric of Carta-gena in 1746, of which he took possession in thefollowing year, and governed until 1752, whenhe was promoted to the church of Truxillo.
51. Doii Bartolome Narvaez y Berrio, canon ofthis holy church of Cartagena, and native of thiscountry ; presented to this bishopric in^ 1752, andgoverned here until he died in 1754.
52. The Doctor Jacinto Aguado y Chacon, ca-non penitenciario of the holy church of Cadiz ;elected in 1754, and promoted to the bishopric ofArequipa before he embarked for this of Car-tagena.
33. Don Diego Antonio Valenzuela Faxardo,native of the city of Santa Fe of Bogota; electedin 1754 : he died in 1755.
34. The Doctor Don Manuel de Sosa Betancur,archdeacon of the holy church of Caracas ; electedin 1755 : he died in 1765.
35. Don Diego Peredo, native of the town ofLeon of Mechoacan ; elected in 1765, promotedto the bishopric of Yucatan in 1722.
36. Don Augustin de Alvarado y Castillo ; pro-moted to the bishopric of Santa Fe in 1774.
37. The Doctor t)on Bias Sobrino y Minayo ;elected in 1774, and promoted to the archbishopricof Quito in 1776.
38. Don Fr. Joseph Diaz de la Madrid, a monkof the Order of St. Francis, native of the city ofQuito ; elected in 1 777.
Governors of Cartagena.
1. Don Pedro de Heredia, founder of the city ;and its adelantado or governor, a native of Madrid,and a valorous conqueror, in 1532.
2. The Licentiate Badillo, nominated J uez deResidencia,; he exercised the government duringthe commission in 1536.
3. The, Licentiate Santa Cruz, judge of anothersecond residence, who became adelantado in 1537.
4. The Licentiate Miguel Diez de Armendariz;he entered in 1545, had for judge of his resi-dence the Licentiate Juan de Montano, oidor ofSanta F<5, whom he sent to Spain.
5. Don Pedro de Heredia, who for the secondtime was provisional governor until the year 1556,when he died, being drowned in the fleet whichwas wrecked in the Gordas sands.
6. The Doctor J uan de Maldonado, Jiscal of theaudience of Santa Fe in 1556.
7. Jorge de Quintanilla, provisionally nomi-nated by the audience of Santa Fe.
8. The Brigadier Don Go'izalo Ximinez deQuesada ; nominated by the audience as residen-tiary to the three former, in the same year, 1556.
9. Antonio de Castro ; provisionally nominated.
10. Juan de Bustos Villegas, nominated by theking ; he entered in 1 557, and was promoted tothe presidency of Panama in 1563.
11. Anton Davalos de Luna, a field-officer ; heentered in 1563, and governed till 1567, whenhe died.
12. Don Lope de Orozco, as provisional gover-nor in the same year.
13. Francisco Bahamonde y Lugo ; he enteredin 1572, and died in 1573.
14. Hernan Suarez de Villalobos, nominatedprovisonally by the audience of Santa Fe in 1574.
15. Pedro Fernandez del Busto, who entered inthe above year, and was promoted to the govern-ment of Popayan in 1577.
16. Don Pedro de Lodena, in 1593.
17. Don Pedro de Acuna, knight of the orderof San Juan, field-officer, in 1601 ; he had the titleof president of the Philippines, and died the sameyear.
18. Don Geronimo Suazo Casasola, of the habitof Santiago ; he died in 1605.
19. Don Francisco Sarmientode Sotomayor, no-minated in the interim, in 1606.
20. Don Diego Fernandez de Valazco, in 1608.
21. Don Diego de Acuna, in 1614.
22. Don Garcia Giron de Loaysa, who governeduntil 1620.
23. Don Diego de Escobar, knight of the orderof Santiago, who died whilst exercising the govern-ment.
24. Don Francisco de Berrio, nominated in thein the interim, in 1628.
25. Don Francisco de Murga, knight of the or-der of Santiago, a field-officer, and celebratedengineer ; appointed to fortify the Plaza, beingat the time governor of Marmora in Africa : h«died in 1634.
26. Don Nicolas de Larraspuru, nominated inthe interim, in 1636.
27. Don Gonzalo de Herrera, Marquis of Vil-lalta, nominated in the interim, in 1637, on accountof the former not having accepted the office.
28. Don Vincente de los Reyes Villalobos, pro-visional governor in the same year, 1637, being thegovernor of Moxos.
29. Don Melchor de Aguilera, a field-officer;he entered in 1638, was suspended and called toaccount by Don Bernardino de Prado, oidor ofSanta Fe.
30. Don Ortuno de Aldape ; being governor ofMuzo, he was nominated in the interim, in 1641.
31. Don Luis Fernandez de Cordova, of the or-
C H I
C H I
Ingenio del Oro
And in the district of Tarija,
Tarija de Vieja, La Concepcion,
San Bernardo de Tarija, Berraeo.
The district of Tarija is a territory full of que-hradas and craggy mountains, as far as the punasand lofty plains of Escayache and Tacsora, wherethere are two salt lakes. It is composed of fourfertile valleys lying on the skirts of hills, and inthese are found human bones of a prodigious size,petrified, shin-bones of a yard and a quarter long,and teeth larger than a fist. In the midst of one ofthese valleys is the town of San Bernardo de Tarija,which is the capital of the province. Its reparti-miento used to amount to 82,350 dollars, and itsalcavala to 558 dollars per annum. For the settle-ments of this district, see above.
(Chichester, a small township in Rocking-ham county, New Hampshire, about 35 miles n. w.of Exeter, and 45 from Portsmouth. It lies onSuncook river, was incorporated in 1727, andcontains 491 inhabitants.)
CHICHICAPA, a settlement and capital of thealcaldia mayor of the province and bishopric ofOaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tem-perature, and was anciently the real of the mostesteemed silver mines; but is at present muchfallen of, the working of the mines having been for
the most part abandoned from the want of hands,in as much as the natives have given themselvesup to the trade of cochineal, in which its territoryabounds : it produces also much seed and maize.Its jurisdiction includes some of the finest andrichest provinces. It consists of five head settle-ments of districts, to which are subject as manyother. Its capital contains 430 families of Indians,and some of Spaniards, Muslees, and Mulattoes.Ninety leagues s. e. of Mexico. The other settle-ments are.
Rio Hondo or Thequila,
San Agustin de Losi-
CHICHICATEPEC, a settlement and head set-tlement of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in NuevaEspana, is of a cold temperature, contains 26 fa-milies of Indians, and is seven leagues to the s. e.of its capital.
CHICHIMEQUILLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitaquaro, and alcaldiamayor Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacanand kingdom of Nueva Espana. It contains 84families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league tothe s. of its head settlement.
(CHICKAHOMINY, a small navigable riverin Virginia. At its mouth in James river, 37miles from point Comfort, in Chesapeak bay, is abar, on which is only 12 feet water at commonflood tide. Vessels passing that may go eightmiles up the river; those of 10 feet draught 12miles ; and vessels of six tons burden may go 32miles up the river.)
€ H I
C H I
papas; likewise in cattle, from the fleeces of whichgreat quantities of woven clotlis are made. Its'population amounts to 150 house-keepers and 100Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its capital,and near to the settlement of Turmeque.
==CHISCAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate at the foot of the Snowy sierra^and therefore of a cold and unpleasant temperature.Its productions correspond with those of a similarclimate ; it contains about 80 Indians, with a veryfew whites. Thirty-two leagues n. e. of Tunja.
CHISPAS, Punta de las, a point on the s.coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo,in the territory possessed by the French ; lyingbetween the settlement and parish of the English,and the point of Burgados.
[CHISSEL, a fort in the state of Tennessee,two miles and a half from English ferry, on Newriver, 43 from Abingdon, and 107 from Longisland, on Holston.]
CHITA, a province and corregimienlo of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, and vice-royalty ofSanta Fe. It was formerly called Chisca. It isbounded w. by the province of Bogota, and n. bythe country bt the Laches Indians, or province ofCochuy, and e. and s. by the llanuras of theOrinoco. It was discovered by George Spira, aGerman, and he was the first who entered it withhis companions in 1535. This territory is fertile,abounds in wheat and maize, the grain of which isextremely large, as also in other seeds, and hasgoats and neat cattle in plenty. It is of an hotand unhealthy temperature, and has palms similarto those of Palestine and Barbary, producing ex-cellent dates. The capital is of the same name.This is situate at the foot of the mountains of Bo-gota ; it is a large settlement, and was formerly en-titled a city. Its inhabitants consist of upwardsof 700 whites and about 200 Indians. Twenty-four leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.
Same name, another settlement, which is the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofVillalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tempe-rature, contains 90 families of Indians, and is threeleagues and a half to the s. of its capital.
CHITANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians;bounded by that of the Chiscas, but distinct fromit, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. They in-habit the woods to the n. e. of the mountains ofBogota and the shores of the rivers Ele, Cuiloto,and Arauca ; are an intractable and. cruel people,and dreaded by all their neighbours. In 1535,having joined company with the Jiraras, theytook and destroyed the city of Las Palmas.
CHITARAQUE, a settlement of the corregi-mienlo and jurisdiction of Velez in the NuevoReyno de Granada, it is of an hot but healtliytemperature, produces yucas, maize, plantains,cotton, and great quantities of sugar, from whichare made fine and much esteemed conserves.
CHITAREROS, a barbarous and brutal nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada,who inhabit the mountains in the vicinity of Pam-plona ; they are mixed with some families of theLaches. This nation is extremely numerous, andpass a wandering life without any fixed abode ;they go entirely naked, and are much given to sen-sual gratifications ; some of them have embraced2
C H I
the Catholic faith, and are reduced to settlements,though the number of these is very small.
CHITEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapain Nueva Espaiia. It is of a cold temperature,and contains 39 families of Indians, who live bysowing maize, the only vegetable production oftheir territory. Five leagues w. n. w. of its capi-tal.
CHITO, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito, upon the s. shore of the river Sangalla,and in the royal road of Loxa, which leads to To-mependa. In its vicinity are some gold mines,but which are not worked ; its temperature is hotand moist, and consequently unhealthy.
[CHITTENDEN County, in Vermont, lieson lake Champlain, between Franklin county onthe w. and Addison s. ; La Moille river passesthrough its n. w. corner, and Onion river dividesit nearly in the centre.' Its chief town is Burling-ton. This county contained, by the census of1791, 44 townships and 7301 inhabitants. Sincethat time the n. counties have been taken from it,so that neither its size or number of inhabitants cannow be ascertained.]
[Chittenden, a township in Rutland county,Vermont, contains 159 inhabitants. The roadover the mountain passes through this township.It lies seven miles e. from the fort on Otter creek,in Pittsford, and about 60 n. by e. from Ben-nington.]
[CHITTENENGO, or Canaserage, a con-siderable stream which runs n. into lake Oneida,in the state of New York.]
CHIUAO, a small river of theprovince and colony of Surinam, or the part ofGuayana possessed by the Dutch . It rises in themountain of Sincomay, runs n. and turning w.enters another river which is without a name, andwhere several others unite to enter the Cuyuni onthe s. side.
CHIUATA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Cumana in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises from some plains in this territory,runs s. collecting the waters of several otherrivers, particularly that of the Suata, and thenenters the sea, just as it becomes navigable.
CHIUCHIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Canchas. In its district there is amineral hot-water spring, much renowned for thecuring of various kinds of maladies.
CHIUGOTOS, a barbarous na-tion of Indians of the province and government ofVenezuela, bordering upon the settlement of Mara-capana. They are very few, and live retired in themountains ; they are cruel even to cannibalism.
CHIXILA, a settlement and head settlement ofthe district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta inNueva Espana. It is of an hot temperature, con-tains 134 families of Indians, and lies 12 leaguesto the n. of its capital.
CHOCAMAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Zacan, and alcaldia mayorof Cordoba, in Nueva Espana. It is of a coldand moist temperature, contains 103 families ofIndians, and is five leagues to the n, n. w. of thecapital.
CHOCO, a large province and government ofthe jurisdiction of Popayan ; by the territory ofwhich it is bounded e. and s. e . ; on the w. by thePacific or S. sea; n. by the barbarous nations ofIndians, and by the province of Darien ; and s. bythat of Barbacoas. The whole of this provinceabounds in woods and mountains, and is crossedby a chain of the Andes, which run as far as theisthmus of Panama. It is watered by several riversand streams, all of which run w. and enter the S.sea. The districts of Citara and Raposo form apart of this province ; very few of their ancientinhabitants remain at the present day ; the greaterpart of them having perished in the war of the
C H U
[And the Import of Slaves, by report of privycouncil, 1788, at a medium of four years, andby a return to house of commons in 1805, at amedium of two years from 1803, was as follows :
Four years to 1787
Tw o years to 1803
By report of privy council, 1788, and by subse-quent estimate, the population amounted to
See Caribe (Leeward) Islands; and for thelater political inquiries, see West Indies.]
Same name, another settlement of the head settlement of Pinotepa, and alcaldia mayor of Xicayan,in Nueva Espana. It contains 24 families ofIndians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its headsettlement.
C H U 46S
and it lies 15 leagues to the w. of its capital, an^10 to the n. w. of the capital of the province ofGuadalaxara.
Same name, another settlement of the head settle-ment of Axixique, and alcaldia mayor of Zayula,in the same kingdom ; situate on the shore of thegreat lake or sea of Chapala. It contains 70 faj-milies of Indians, who employ themselves in fish-ing and agriculture ; is 13 leagues to the s. of itshead settlement.
Same name another settlement of the provinceand government of Cartagena in the district ofSinu ; situate on the bank of the river Pichelin, inthe division of this jurisdiction and that of Tolu.It is one of those which were founded, in 1776, bythe Governor Don Juan Piraienta.
[CHRISTOPHER, Sr. See Christovae.]CHUAO, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Tierra Firme, in the province and governmentof Venezuela, to the w. of the port of La Guaira.
of Atengo, and alcald'ia mayor of Chilapa, inNueva Espana. It contains 27 families of Indians,and is two leagues to the n. of its head settle-ment.
COMALA, another settlement, in the head settle-ment of Almololoyan, and alcald'ia mayor of Co-lima. It contains 67 families of Indians, who ex-ercise themselves in the cultivation of the lands.Two leagues to the n. e.- of its head settlement.
COMALTEPEC, another, in the alcald'ia mayorof Tecocuilco. It contains 78 families of Indians,who cultivate nothing but cochineal and maize,and these only in as much as is nece.ssary for theirsustenance.
COMANJA, a settlement of the head settlementof Tirindaro, and alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, inthe province and bishopric of Mechoacan. Itcontains 13 families of Indians, and is one leagueto the s. of its head settlement.
=COMANJA==, another settlement and real of minesin the alcald'ia mayor oi Lagos, of the kingdom andbishopric of Galicia ; the population of which con-sists of 30 families of Spaniards, Mustees, andMulattoes, and 50 of Indians, who live by thecommerce of and labour in the mines, which,although these inhabitants are little given to in-dustry, produce good emolument. This settle-ment is at the point of the boundary which dividesthe settlements of this kingdom from the king-dom of Nueva Espana. Seven leagues e. of itscapital.
COMAO, a province of the country of LasAmazonas, to the s. of this river, from the mouthof which it is 40 leagues distant, extending itselfalong the banks of the same; discovered in 1745by Francisco de Orellana. The territory is leveland fertile, and the climate moist and hot. Itabounds in maize, and has some plantations ofsugar-cane. It is watered by different rivers, allof which abound in fish, as do also its lakes ; andin these an infinite quantity of tortoises are caught.This province belongs to the Portuguese, and ispart of the province of Para.
COMARU, or De los Angeles, a settle-
ment of the missions held by the Portuguese in thecountry of the Amazonas, on the shore of the riverNegro.
COMARU, another settlement in the provinceand captainship of Pará, and kingdom of Brazil ;situate on th.e s. shore of the river of Las Ama-zonas, on a point or long strip of land formed bythe mouth of the river Topayos.
COMATLAN, another settlement, the head set-tlement of the district of the alcald'ia mayor of Te-quepexpa ; of a hot temperature. It contains 20families of Indians, who live by cultivating thelands. Fifteen leagues to the s. of its capital.
COMAUUINI, a river of the province andgovernment of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions,on the shores and at the mouth of which they haveconstructed the fort of Amsterdam. It runs n. andafterwards turning to the s. s. e. enters the Co-tica.
COMAYAGUA, or Valladolid, a city andcapital of the province of Honduras in the king-dom of Guatemala ; founded by the CaptainAlonzo de Caceres, by the order of Pedro de Al-varado. It was at first called Nuestra Senora dela Concepcion, and by this title there is still namedan hospital which is well endowed and served.Here are also some convents of the religious orderof La Merced, and a very good church, erectedinto a bishopric in 1539. One hundred and tenleagues from the capital Guatemala. Lat. 20° 58'n. Long. 87° 5 P
Bishops who have presided in Comayagua.
1. Don Fray Juan de Talavera, of the orderof St. Jerome, prior of his convent of NuestraSenora del Prado, near Valladolid : being nomi-nated first bishop, he refused the appointment.
2. Don Christoval de Pedraza, elected bishopfrom the renunciation of the former; at the sametime nominated protector of the Indies, and resi-dentiary judge to the conquerors Pedro Alvaredoand Francisco de Montejo, in 1539,
C R A
C R A
Oaxaca. It contains only 20 families of Indians,wbo live by the cultivation of the cochineal plantand seeds.
COZOCOZONQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor ofViUalta, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains 85 families of Indians, and is29 leagues to the e. of its capital.
COZUMEL, an island of the N. sea, oppositethe e. coast of Yucatan, to the province and go-vernment of which it belongs. It is 10 leagueslong n. w.f s. w. and from four to five wide. It isfertile, and abounds in fruit and cattle, and iscovered with shady trees. The Indians call it Cu-zamel, which in their language signifies the islandof swallows. Here was the most renowned sanc-tuary of any belonging to the Indians in this pro-vince, and a noted pilgrimage, and the remains ofsome causeways over which the pilgrims used topass. It was discovered by the Captain Juan deGrijalba in 1518, and the Spaniards gave it thename of Santa Cruz, from a cross that was de-posited in it by Hernan Cortes, when he demolishedthe idols, and when at the same time the first massever said in this kingdom of Nueva Espana, wascelebrated by the Fray Bartolome de Olrnedo, ofthe order of La Merced, At present it is inhabitedby Indians only. It is three leagues distant fromthe coast of Tierra Firme.
CRABS, or Boriquen, an island of the N. sea ;situate on the s. side of the island of St. Domingo,first called so by the Bucaniers, from the abundanceof crabs found upon its coast. It is large andbeautiful, and its mountains and plains arc covered
with trees. The English established themselveshere in 1718, but they were attacked and drivenout by the Spaniards of St. Domingo in 17^0, whocould not suffer a colony of strangers to settle sonear them. The women and children were, how-ever, taken prisoners, and carried to the capital andPortobelo. See Boriquen.
(CRANBERRY, a thriving town in Middlesexcounty. New Jersey, nine miles e. of Princeton,and 16 s. s. w. of Brunswick. It contains a hand-some Presbyterian church, and a variety of manu-factures are carried on by its industrious in-habitants. The stage from New York to Phila-delphia passes through Amboy, this town, andthence to Bordentown.)
(CRANSTON is the s. easternmost townshipof Providence county, Rhode Island, situated onthe w. bank of Providence river, five miles s. ofthe town of Providence. The corajiact part of thetown contains 50 or 60 houses, a Baptist meetinghouse, handsome school-house, a distillery, and anumber of saw and grist mills^and is called Paw-tuxet, from the river, on both sides of whose mouthit stands, and over which is a bridge connectingthe two parts of the town. It makes a pretty ap-pearance as you pass it on the river. The wholetownship contains 1877 inhabitants.)
CRAVEN, a county of the province and colonyof Carolina in N. America, situate on the shore ofthe river Congaree, which divides the provinceinto South and North. It is filled with English andF'rench protestants. The latter of these disem-barked here to establish themselves in 1706, butwere routed, and the greater part put to death bythe hands of the former. The river Sewee watersthis county, and its first establishment was owingto some families wlio had come hither from NewEngland. It has no large city nor any considerabletown, but has two forts upon the river Saute, theone called Sheuinirigh fort, which is 45 miles fromtlie entrance or mouth of the river, and the othercalled Congaree, 65 miles from the other. [It con-tains 10,469 inhabitants, of whom S658are slaves.}
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 4]
GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL
AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES.
PABLILLO, a settlement of the Nuevo Reyno de Leon in N. America ; situate w. of the garri- son of Santa Engracia.
PABLO, S. or Sao Paulo. See Paulo.
Pablo, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lipes in Peru, of the arch- bishopric of Charcas. It was also called Santa Isabel de Esmoruco, and was the residence of the curate.
Pablo, another, of the province and corregi- miento of Otavalo in the kingdom of Quito, at the foot of a small mountain, from which issues a stream of^ water abounding in very small fish, called prenadillas, so delicate and salutary even for the sick, that they are potted and carried to all parts of the kingdom.
Pablo, another, of the head settlement of the district of S. Juan del Rio, and alcaldia mai/or of Queretaro, in Nueva Espana; containing 46 families of Indians.
Pablo, another, of the province and corregi- miento of Tinta in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Cacha.
Pablo, another settlement or ward, of the head settlement of the district of Zumpahuacan, and alcaldia mayor of Marinalco in Nueva Es- pana.
Pablo, another, of the head settlement of the district, and alcaldia mayor of Toluca in the same kingdom, containing 161 families of Indians ; at a small distance n. of its capital.
Pablo, another, a small settlement or ward
P A B of the alcaldia mayor of Guanchinango, in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Pahuatlan.
Pablo, another, and head settlement of the district, of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta, in the same kingdom ; of a cold temperature, and con- taining 51 Indian families.
Pablo, another, of the missions which were held by the Jesuits, in the province of Topia and kingdom of Nueva Tizcaya; situate in the middle of the S 2 >rra of Topia, on the shore of the river Piastla.
Pablo, another, of the province of Barcelona, and government of Cumana ; situate on the skirt of a mountain of the serrania, and on the shore of the river Sacaguar, s. of the settlement of Piritu.
Pablo, another, a small settlement of the head settlement of the district of Texmelucan, and alcaldia mayor of Guajozinco in N ueva Es- pana.
Pablo, another, of the district of Chiriqui, in the province and government of Veragua, and kingdom of TierraFirme; a league and an half from its head settlement, in the high road.
Pablo, another, of the missions held by the Portuguese Carmelites, in the country of Las Amazonas, and on the shore of this river.
Pablo, another, of the missions which were held by the French Jesuits, in the province and government of French Guayana; founded in 1735, on the shore of the river Oyapoco, and