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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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state to maintain itself. Thus the colonists lived for some years, and in time the productions in which their commerce consisted, increased to such a degree as to have caused them to excel all the other English colonies,

ALUEMAur.E, another county or part of Vir- ginia, washed by the river Fluvana on the s. which divides itself into several branches, and adds much to the fertility of the country. It is bounded e. by the county of Goochland, w. divided by a chain of mountains of Augusta, and by that of Louisa on the «. [It contains 12,585 inha- bitants, including 5579 slaves. Its extent, about S5 miles square.]

Albemarle, a strait, which is the mouth or entrance into the sea of the river Roanoke.

ALBERTO, a small settlement or ward of the head settlement of the district of Tlazintla, and alcafdia mayor of Ixmiqailpan, in Nueva Espana.

[ALBION, New, the name given by Sir Francis Drake to California, and part of the n. w. coast of America, when he took possession of it. A large uncertain tract of the n. w, coast is thus called. Its limits, according to Mr. Arrow- smith’s chart, are between 27° 12' and 41° 15' 71. lat. Humboldt asserts, that, agreeably to sure historical data, the denomination of New Albion ought to be limited to that part of the coast which extends from the 43° to the 48°, or from Cape White of Martin de x\guilar, to the entrance of Juan de Fuea. Besides, he adds, from the mis- sions of the Catholic priests to those of the Greek priests, that is to say, from the Spanish village of San Francisco, in New California, to the Russian establishments on Cook river at Prince William’s bay', and to the islands of Kodiac and Unalaska, there are more than a thousand leagues of coast inhabited by' free men, and stocked with otters and Phocre! Consequently, the discussions on the extent of the New Albion of Drake, and the pre- tended rights acquired by certain European na- tions, from planting small crosses, and leaving inscriptions fastened to trunks of trees, or the burying of bottles, may be considered as futile. The part of the coast on which Capt. Cook landed on the 7th of March 1778, and which some desig- nate as Nezo Albion, is in n. lat. 44° 33'. e. long. 235° 10', which he thus describes : “ The land is lull of mountains, the tops of w hich are covered with snow, while the vallies between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, are covered with trees, which form a beautiful prospect, as of one vast forest. At first the natives seemed to prefer iron to every other article of

commerce; at last they preferred brass. They were more tenacious of their property than any of the savage nations that had hitherto been met with ; so that they would not part with wood, water, grass, nor the most trifling article without a compensation, and were sometimes very unrea- sonable in their demands.” See Calii^ornia, New.]

ALBOR, a small island of the N. or Atlantic sea, one of the Bahamas, between those of Neque and 8. Salvador.

ALBUQUERQUE, Santa Rosa de, a settle- ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espana. It is 19 leagues s. w. of the head settlement of the district of Tlaltcnango.

Albuquehque, a townof New Mexico, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande (large river) of the N. [opposite the village of Atrisco, to the w. of tlie Sierra Obseqra. Population 0000 souls.]

Albuquerque, a small island, or low rocks, of the N. sea, near that of 8. Andres.

ALCA, a settlement of the province and corre- gimienlo of Condensuyos of Arequipa in Peru.

ALCALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Gua- temala, in the division and district of that city.

ALCAMANI, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa in Neuva Espana, and two leagues to the n. of the same.

ALCANTARA, S. Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Maranam' in the kingdom of Brazil. It luis been frequently invaded by the infidel Indians, who destroyed its work- shops, so that its inhabitants have been much reduced.

Alcantara, S. Antonio de, another settle- ment in the province and district of Chanco, in the kingdom of Chile, near the shore of the rivec Mataquino.

ALCARAI, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the river La Plata between those of Lay- man and Gomez.

ALCATRACES, Ishmd of the, one of those which lie n. of St. Domingo, between the s. point of the Caico Grande, and the Panuelo Quadrado, (square handkerchief).

ALCIIICHlCd, 8 . Martin de, a ward of the head settlement erf the district and alcaldia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana, belonging to that of Santa Maria de la Asuncion.

ALCHIDOMAS, a settlement of the province of the Apaches in Nuevo Mexico, situate on the

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It was formerly a very rich tract of land, si-tuate on the shore of the river Cazanare, a streamwhich crosses and stops the pass into the coun-try and for this reason there was a consider-able establishment formed here by persons whobelonged to tlie curacy of Santa Rosa de Chire.Its temperature is hot, but it is very fertile, andabounds in productions, which serve to provide forthe other settlements belonging to the same mis-sions : at present it is under the care of the reli-gious order of St. Domingo.

CARIBANA, a large country, at the presentday called Guayana Maritania, or Nueva Anda-iucia Austral. It extends from the mouth of theriver Orinoco to the mouth of the Marahon ; com-prehends the Dutch colonies of Esquibo, Surinam,and Berbice, and the French colony of Cayenne.It takes its name from the Caribes Indians, whoinhabit it, and who are very fierce and cruel,although upon amicable terms with the Dutch.Nearly the whole of this province is uncultivated,full of woods and mountains, but watered bymany rivers, all of which run for the most partfrom s. to e. and empty themselves into the sea ;although some flow from s. ton. and enter the Ori-noco. The climate, though warm and humid, ishealthy ; the productions, and the source of itscommerce, are sugar-cane, some cacao, wild wax,and incense. The coast, inhabited by Europeans,forms the greater part of this tract of country, ofwhich an account will be found under the respec-tive articles.

Caribana, a port on the coast of Tierra Firme,in the province and government of Darien, at theentrance of the gulf of Uraba.

CARIBE, a small port of the coast of TierraFirme, in the province and government of Vene-zuela, to the w. of cape Codera.

Caribe, Caribbee, or Charaibes, someislands close upon the shore of the province andgovernment of Cumana, near the cape of TresPuntas. [The Caribbee islands in the West In-dies extend in a semicircular form from the islandof Porto Rico, the easternmost of the Antilles, tothe coast of S. America. The sea, thus inclosedby the main land and the isles, is called the Ca-ribbean sea; and its great channel leads n. zo. tothe head of the gulf of Mexico through the sea ofHonduras. The chief of these islands are, SantaCruz, Sombuca, Anguilla, St. Martin, St. Bar-tholomew, Barbuda, Saba, St. Eustatia, St. Chris-topher, Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat, Guadalupe,Dcseada, Mariagalante, Dominica, Martinica,St. Vincent, Barbadoes, and Grenada. These areagain classed into Windward and Leeward isles bv

seamen, with regard to the usual courses of shipsfrom Old Spain or the Canaries to Cartagenaor New Spain and Porto Bello. The geographi-caltablesand maps class them into Great and LittleAntilles ; and authors vary much concerning thislast distinction. See Antilles. The Charaibesor Caribbecs were the ancient natives of the Wind-ward islands ; hence many geographers confine theterm to these isles only. Most of these were an-ciently possessed by a nation of cannibals, the ter-ror of the mild anti inotfensive inhabitants of His-paniola, who frequently expressed to Columbustheir dread of these fierce invaders. Thus, whenthese islands were afterwards discovered by thatgreat man, they were denominated Charibbeanisles. The insular Charaibs are supposed to beimmediately descended from the Galibis Indians,or Charaibes of S. America. An ingenious andlearned attempt to trace back the origin of the Ca-ribes to some emigrants from the ancient hemis-phere may be found in Bryan Edwards ; and itis to the valuable work of this author that we areindebted for the following illustrations of the man-ners and customs of this people. — The Caribesare avowedly of a fierce spirit and warlike dispo-sition. Historians have not failed to notice theseamong the most distinguishable of their qualities.Dr. Robertson, in Note X Cl II. to the first vol. ofhisHistory of America, quotes from a MS. Historyof Ferdinand and Isabella, Avrittenby Andrew Ber-naldes, the cotemporary and friend of Columbus,the folloAving instance of the bravery of the Caribes :A canoe with four men, two Avomen, and a boy, un-expectedly fell in with Columbus’s fleet. A Spanish,bark with 25 men was sent to take them; and the fleet,in the mean time, cut off their communication withthe shore. Instead of giving way to despair, theCaribes seized their arms with imdauntcd resolu-tion, and began the attack, wounding several ofthe Spaniards, although they had targets as wellas other defensive armour ; and even after thecanoe was overset, it was with no little difficultyand danger that some of them Avere secured, asthey continued to defend themselves, and to usetheir bows with great dexterity while swimmingin the sea. Herrera has recorded the same anec-dote. Restless, enterprising, and ardent, it wouldseem they considered war as the chief end of theircreation, and the rest of the human race as theirnatural prey ; for they devoured, without re-morse, the bodies of such of their enemies (themen at least) as fell into their hands. Indeed,there is no circumstance in the history of mankindbetter attested than the universal prevalence ofthese practices among them. Columbus was not]

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(Catherine’s Isle, a pleasant island on theharbour of Sunburj, in the state of Georgia.)

(Cathehine’s Isle, a small productive islandon the s. coast of St. Domingo, 20 leagues e. ofthe town of St. Domingo.)

(CATHERINE's Town, in Ontario county, NewYork, lies three miles s. of the 5 . end of Senecaake.)

Catilina, a bay of tlie e. coast of the island ofNewfoundland, between the capes Santos andNuevo.

(CATO, a military township in New York state,12 miles s. e. of lake Ontario, and about 20 s. ofOswego fort.)

CATOA, a river of the province and country ofLas Amazonas. It rises in tlie mountains of theAndes, runs n. and enters the Marailon on the s.side, between the rivers Coari and Coyame.

(==CATORCE, or La Purissima ConcepcionDe Alamos de Catorce==, one of the richest minesof New Spain, and in the intendancy of San LuisPotosi. The real de Catorce, however, has onlybeen in existence since 1773, when Don SebastianCoronado and Don Bernarbe Antonio de Zepedadiscovered these celebrated seams, which yield an-nually the value of more than from 18 to ^20 mil-lions of francs, or from 730,460/. to 833,500/.sterling.)

(CATTAHUNK, one of the Elizabeth isles, inthe state of Massachusetts. See Buzzard’sBay.)

CATUARO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near to and s. of the city of Ca-riaco.

CAUACUAN, a river of the province and cap-tainship of Rey in Brazil. It runs e. and entersthe Uruguay, between the rivers Ipau and Pi-ricaya.

CAUAIAMA, a small river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and en-ters the Uruguay, between the rivers Guarey andBracuaenda.

CAUAILLON, a settlement and parish of theFrench, in their possessions in St. Domingo ; situ-ate on the coast and at the w. head, near the bayof its name, between the settlements of Torbec andLos Cayos.

CAUAIU, a small river of the same provinceand government as the former. It runs w. andenters the Parana, between the rivers Verde andYocare-mini.

Cauaiu, a bay of the same island, opposite theIsla Vaca or Cow island.

CAUALA, a settlement of the province and cap-iainship of Espiritu Santo in Brazil ; situate &gt; 1 . ofVillarica.

CAU-ALLERIZAS, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Yaguarsongo in the king-dom of Quito.

CAUANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Conchucos in Peru.

CAUASAN, San Francisco Xavier de, atown of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate in the midst of the sierraof Topia, on the coast of the S. sea, on the shoreof the river Plastin. It has a small port for lesservessels, which has oftentimes been invaded byenemies. It is a curacy administered by the cler-gy, and to which two small settlements of MexicaaIndians are annexed.

CAUCA, a large and copious river of the pro-vince and government of Popayán, which risesin the mountains of the government of Mariquita,and running 160 leagues from s. to?i. in whichcourse it collects the ’waters of many other rivers,it passes near the cities of Popaj'iin, Buga, Cali,and Anserma ; from whence it is navigable until itenters the large river of the Magdalena. It is verynarrow where it passes through the cities of Po-payan and Antioquia, and forms the letter S, tak-ing its course through rocks, which render its na-vigation very dangerous. The Indians, however,are so dexterous in guarding their canoes fromrunning against the rocks by paddles, that it isvery seldom indeed that any accident occurs tothem. They call this strait Las Mamas de Cara-manta, from a city which was here of this name.Many make this navigation for the purpose ofavoiding a round-about journey of many days, andin a bad road through the mountains ; and it issaid that some have had the good fortune to dis-cover a route by water free from all difficulties,and that this was actually made by the pontificateof the bishop of Popayan, Don Diego de Mon-toy.

Cauca, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela. It runs n. and entersthe sea at the mouth of the Golfete or Littlegulf.

CAUCAQUA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate near the riverTuy, opposite the cape of Codera.

CAUCHUPIL, a river of the kingdom of Chile;it runs to the s. s. e. and then turning s. enters theLebo.

CAUIAN, a settlement of the province andcaptainship of Para in Brazil ; situate on the

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appears to have been a settlement towards the n,of the island, from some vestiges still remaining.It is at present frequented only by some of the in-liabitants of Chepo, who cultivate and gather hereoral^ges, lemons, and plantains of an excellent fla-vour, which are found here in abundance. Inlat. 8^ 57' n.

CHEPO, San Christoval de, a settlementof the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme, andgovernment of Panama ; situate on the shore ofthe river Mamoni ; is of a kind temperature, fer-tile and agreeable, though little cultivated. Theair is however so pure that it is resorted to byinvalids, and seldom fails of affording a speedyrelief. It has a fort, which is an esfacada, or sur-rounded with palisades, having a ditch furnishedwith six small cannon, and being manned by adetachment from the garrison of Panama, for thepurpose of suppressing the encroachments of theinfidel Indians of Darien. This territory was dis-covered by Tello Guzman in 1515, who gave itthe name of Chepo, through its Cazique Chepauri,in 1679. It was invaded by the pirates Bartholo-mew Charps, John Guarlem, and Edward Bol-men, when the settlement Avas robbed and destroy-ed, and unheard-of prosecutions and tormentswere suffered by the inhabitants. Fourteen leaguesnearly due e. of Panama, [and six leaguesfrom the sea ; in lat. 9° 8' «.]

CHEQUELTI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chilcas and Tarija in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of its capital.

(CHEQUETAN, or Seguataneio, on thecoast of Mexico or New Spain, lies seven leaguesw. of of the rocks of Seguataneio. Between thisand Acapulco, to the e. is a beach of sand, of 18leagues extent, against which the sea breaks soviolently, that it is impossible for boats to land onany part of it ; but there is a good anchorage forshipping at a mile or two from the shore duringthe fair season. The harbour of Chequetan is veryhard to be traced, and of great importance tosuch vessels as cruise in these seas, being the mostsecure harbour to be met with in a vast extent ofcoast, yielding plenty of wood and water; andthe ground near it is able to be defended by a fewmen. When Lord Anson touched here, theplace was uninhabited.)

CHEQUIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Maúle in the kingdom of Chile,and in the valley or plain of Tango, near the riverColorado. In its vicinity, toAvards the s. is anestate called El Portrero del Key, at the source ofthe river Maipo.

CHERA, a river near Colan, in the province ofQuito in Peru, running to Amotage ; from AvhencePaita has its fresh Avatcr.

CHERAKEE. See Cherokee.

CHERAKIKAU, a river of the province andcolony of South Carolina. It runs e. and entersthe river Cliuvakansty. On its shore is a smallsettlement of Indians of the same name.

CHERAKILICHI, or Apalachicola, a fortof the English , in the province and colony of Georgia,on the shore of the river Apalachicola, and at the con-flux, or where this river is entered by the Caillore.

CHERAN EL Grande, S. Francisco de, asettlement of the head settlement of Siguinan, andalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in Nueva Espana,contains 100 families of Curtidores Indians, and isa little more than half a league from its head set-tlement.

CHERAPA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiernto of Piura in Peru, on the confines ofthe province of Jaen de Bracamoros, upon the riverTambarapa, is of a hot and moist temperature,and consequently unhealthy ; and is situate in theroyal road which leads from Lpxa through Aya-baca and Guancabamba to Tomependa, a port ofthe river Maranon.

(CHERAWS, a district in the upper country ofSouth Carolina, having North Carolina on then. and n. e. Georgetown district on the s. e. andLynche’s creek on the s. w. which separates itfrom Camden district. Its length is about 83miles, and its breadth 63 ; and is subdivided intothe counties of Darlington, Chesterfield, and Marl-borough. By the census of 1791, there were10,706 inhabitants, of Avhich 7618 were white in-habitants, the rest slaves. It sends to the statelegislature six representatives and two senators ;and in conjunction Avith Georgetown district, onemember to congress. This district is watered byGreat Peter river and a number of smaller streams,on the banks of vdiich the land is thickly settledand Aveli cultivated. The chief towns are Green-ville and Chatham. The court-house in this dis-trict is 52 miles from Camden, as far from Lum-berton, and 90 from Georgetown. The mail stopsat this place.]

CHERIBICHE, a port of the province andgovernment of Venezuela, to the w. of the settle-ment of Guaira.

CHERIGUANES. See Chiriguanos.

CHERILLA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of its capital.

CHERINOS, a river of the province and go-

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CHETU, Santissima Trinidad de, a settle-ment of the province and corregimiento of Caxa-marca in Peru.

CHEUELUS, or CHAVELOS, a barbarous nationof Indians of the country of Marañon, who inhabitthe woods bordeiing upon the river Aguarico, tothe e. and in the vicinity of the lakes. Theyarc warlike, of a cruel and treacherous nature, andin eternal enmity with their neighbours. M. de laMartiniere will have it, that the name Chavelos isderived from the French wovd chevezLV, the menand the women both allowing and encouraging thegrowth of their hair till it reaches down to thewaist ; supposing, forsooth, that these Indiansmust either have known French when they werediscovered, or that their discoverers, at all events,must have been French.

CHEURA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.It runs w. ?z. e. and e. washing the country of theancient Esmeraldas Indians: it afterwards enterstheriver of its name on the e. side, in lat. 1° 23' n.

CHEWOCHEE, a settlement of North Caro-lina ; situate on the skirt of the mountains of Tcl-liquo.

CHIA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zi-paquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; cele-brated in the time of the Indians for having beenthe title of the kings ox npas of Bogota; the in-vestiture of which dignity was always transferredwith the greatest possible solemnity. It is of a verycold temperature, although salutary ; and issituate on a beautiful plain, on the shore of theriver Bogota, four leagues to the n. of Santa F6.

CHIAMILA, a head settlement of the alcaldíamayor of Motines in Nueva España, contains SOfamilies of Indians.

CHIAMOTO. See Seyota.

CHIANTLA, a settlement of the province andnlcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Gua-temala.

CHIAPA, a province and alcaldia mayor of thekingdom of Guatemala ; bounded on the«. by theprovince of Tabasco, c. by that of Vera Paz, w.by that of Oaxaca of Nueva Espaha, and s. e. bythat of Soconusco. It extends 85 leagues from e.to w. and is nearly 30 across at its widest part.It was conquered by Captain Diego Marariegosin 1531 : is divided into districts or alcaldiasmayores^ which are those of Zoques, Chontales,Los Llanos, and Xiquipila ; is of a warm andmoist temperature, although it has some parts inwhich the cold predominates. Its woods aboundwith large trees of pine, cypress, cedar, and wal-nut; and of others of a resinous kind, from which

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are extracted aromatic gums, balsams, and liquidamber, tacamaca, copal, &c. It produces also, inabundance, maize, swine, honey, cotton, cochi-neal, which is only made use of for the purposeof dyeing the cotton ; also cacao, and much pepperand achoie, or the heart-leaved bixa'; also vfiriouskinds of domestic and wild birds, especially par-rots, which are very beautiful and highly esteemed ;a small bird, called tolo, less than a young pigeon,with green wings ; this is caught by the Indians,who pluck from its tail some feathers, Avhich theyprize highly, and then restoring it to liberty; itbeing a capital offence, according to their laws, todestroy it. The sheep, goats, and pigs, whichhave been brought from Europe, have multipledin this province in a most extraordinary manner ;so also have horses, which are of such an esteemedbreed, that the colts are taken from hence to Mex-ico, a distance of 500 miles. In the woods breedmany lions, leopards, tigers, and wild boars,a great number of snakes, some being 20 feet inlength, and others of a beautiful crimson colour,streaked with black and white. Tlie territory is,for the most part, rugged and mountainous, andwatered by different rivers : none of these, how-ever, are of any particular consideration, althoughthat which bears the name of this province is themedium by which the aforesaid productions arecarried to the other provinces ; and although thisprovince may be accounted comparatively poor,from being without mines of gold or silver, it isnevertheless of the greatest importance, as beingthe outwork or barrier to New Spain, from the fa-cility with which this kingdom might be enteredby the river Tabasco. The capital is the royalcity of Chiapa, situate on a delightful plain. Itis the head of a bishopric, erected in 1538; andhas for arms a shield, upon which arc two sierras,with a river passing between them : above theone is a golden castle, with a lion rampant upon it ;and above the other a green palm, bearing fruit,and another lion, the whole being upon a red field.These arms were granted by the Emperor CharlesV. in 1535. The cathedral is very beautiful. Itcontains three convents of the order of St. Francis,La Merced, and St. Domingo ; a monastery ofnuns, and five hermitages. Its population isscanty and poor, and the principal commerce con-sists in cocoa-nuts, cotton, wool, sugar, cochineal,and other articles. Its nobility, although poor, arevery proud, as having descended from some an-cient families of the first nobility of Spain ; suchas those of Mendoza, Velasco, Cortes, &c. Thewomen suffer great debility at the stomach on ac-count of the excessive heat, ami they can never

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rapid current, between high banks on eacli side,and pours the whole body of its water over a per-pendicular rock of about 40 (some say more) feetin height, which extends quite across the riverlike a mill-dam. The banks of the river, imme-diately below the falls, are about 100 feet high.

A bridge 1100 feet long, and 24 feet wide, restingon 13 piers, was erected, at the expence of 12,000dollars, in 1794, a mile below the falls, from whicha spectator may have a grand view of them; butthey appear most romantically from Lansinburghhill, five miles e. of them. 1

(COHONGORONTO is the name of Potow-raack river before it breaks through the Blueridge, in lat, 39° 45' n. Its whole length to theBlue ridge may be about 160 miles ; from thenceit assumes the name of Potowmack, which see.)

(COHUIXCAS, a country in New Spain, inwhich there is a considerable mountain of load-stone, between Tcoiltylan and Chilapan.)

COIABAMBA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chilques and Masques inPeru; annexed to the curacy of Calpi. Anearthquake was experienced in this province in1707, Avhich desolated many settlements ; whenalso happened that extraordinary phenomenonwhich is accredited and related by Don CosineBueno, geographer of Lima, as having takenplace ; which was, that a small estate was by thisearthquake removed from one side of the river tothe other, together with the house, garden, andinhabitants, without their perceiving any thinghad happened ; and as the event took place atmidnight, Avhen they were all asleep, that theywere not a little surprised to find themselves esta-blished in the curacy of Colcha. This extraordi-nary occurrence, however, has its precedent ina similar circumstance which happened in thekingdom of Quito.

COIACHI, a settlement of the missions whichwere held at the expence of the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara,and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, 18 leagues andan half between the s. w. and s. e. of the town andreal of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua.

COIAIMA, a settlement and head settlementof the corregimiento of this name in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature,produces cacao, sugar-cane, maize, ^uca&lt;!, plan-tains, and an infinite quantity of cattle and swine ;but it is much infested with reptiles and insects,vipers, snakes, spiders, and mosquitoes. It alsoabounds in gold, and the Indians to the number of450, who go to Santa Fe to pay their tribute, pro-ceed in companies, and are accustomed to collect

in four or five daj's, on Die shores of the river Sal-dana, as much gold as is necessary for the tributethey are obliged to pay in the city.

COIAME, a river of the province and countryof Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions.It runs n. in a serpentine course, and enters theMaranon between the rivers Tefe and Catoa.

COIBA==, a small island of the S. sea, close to thecoast of the province and government of Veragua,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, and five leaguesdistant from the point Blanca.

COIN, a river of the island of Guadalupe. Itruns to the n. w. in the isthmus Avhich almost di-vides the island into two parts, and enters the seaat the bottom of the bay of Cul de Sac Petit.

COIOACAN, a district and alcaldia mayor ofNueva España. It is one of the most pleasant,and fertile in wheat, maize, barley, and other seeds.Nearly the whole of its population live in coun-try houses, in gardens and orchards which pro-duce quantities of fruit, such as pears of severalkinds, peaches, apples, prunes, plums, damsons,pomegranates, quinces, oranges, and lemons, withwhich a great commerce is carried on rviththe cityof Mexico. In some parts of this province clothsand baizes are fabricated. It belongs to thejurisdiction of the marquisate Del Valle de Oax-aca ; to which the tributes are paid, the king re-taining the sum of four tomines, (a Spanishcoin weighing the third part of a drachm.) Thesettlements of this district are,

San Angel, Chapultepec,

San Augustin de las Nuestra Senora de los

Culvas, Remedies.

Tacubaya,

The capital, which bears the same name, is alarge, pleasant, fertile, and well peopled town. Ithas shady arbours, country houses, and orchardsand gardens, which serve as a recreation to thepeople of Mexico, from whence it is distant twoleagues to the s. s. e. Its population amounts to1885 Indian families. It has a good convent ofthe religious order of St. Dominic, and manywork-shops, in which are fabricated cloths, baizes,and serges. Long. 99° 4'. Lat. 19° 20'.

COIOMEAPA, Santa Maria de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Theacan in Nueva Espana. It contains 300families of Indians, and 20 of Mustees and Mu-lattoes. Twelve leagues s. e. of its capital.

COIOTEPEC, San Mateo De, a settlement ofthe alcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 22 families of Indians, whosubsist by the trade in cochineal. Six leagues s. c.of its capital.

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or New Spain, was built bj the Spaniards, as wellas the stations of St. Michael and St. Philip, to se-cure the road from Mechoacan to the silver minesof Zacatea. They have also given this name toseveral boroughs of America; as to that in His-paniola island, and to a sea-port of California,&C.)

CONCHA, San Martin de la, a town andcapital of the province and corregimiento of Quil-lota in the kingdom of Chile ; founded in 1726by the Licentiate Don Joseph dc Santiago Concha,who gave it his name, being at the time temporalpresident of this kingdom. Its situation is in avalley, the most beautiful and fertile of any in theJcingdom, and it particularly abounds in wheat.It has been celebrated for the abundance of goldthat has been taken out of a mine within its dis-trict, and for the protection of which a fort hadbeen built by Pedro de Valdivia. It has a very^ood parish church, three convents of the religiousorders of St. Francis, St. Augustin, and La Merced,and a collec^e which belona-ed to the regulars ofthe company of Jesuits, and which is at present oc-cupied by {jic monks of St. Domingo, and a houseof retirement for spiritual exercies, founded andendowed by a certain individual. In the districtof this city European chesnuts grow, and not farfrom it is a lime-kiln belonging to the king, andwhich renders a supply for the works going on atthe garrison of Valdivia. Nine leagues from Val-parayso. Lat, 32^48' s. Long. 71° 10' zo.

Concha, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina;situate near the source of the river Sonlahowe.

Concha, a bay on the coast of the province andgovernment of Santa Marta, to the e. of the capeof La Aguja.

Concha, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru ; situate at themoiitli of the river of its name, and where it en-ters the Pasage.

Concha, a river in the jurisdiction of the cityof Salta, runs e. and enters the Pasage betweenthe river Blanco and that of Metau.

CONCHACHITOUU, a settlement of Indiansof S. Carolina, where a fort has been built by theEnglish for the defence of the establishment whichthey hold there.

CONCHALI, a river of the province and cor-regimienlo of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile. Itruns Z 0 . and enters the sea.

CONCHAMARCA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; an-aexed to the curacy of San Miguel de Huacar.

CONCHAO, a settlement of the province and

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corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Andajes.

(CONCHAS, a parish of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a river ofthe same name, about six leagues n. zs. of BuenosAyres. Lat. 34° 24' 56" s. Long. 58° 23' 30" ay.)

Conchas, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs n. e. and en-ters the river La Plata, at a small distance fromthe capital.

Conchas, another river, in the province andcaptainship of the Rio Grande in Brazil. It issmall, rises near the coast, and empties itself at themouth of that of Amargoso.

Conchas, another, of the kingdom of NuevaEspaña, which runs into the sea at the bay ofMexico, being first united to the Bravo.

Conchas, another, a small river of the provinceand government of Buenos Ayres, distinct fromthat of which we have spoken. It runs zso. andenters the Parana, close to the settlement of LaBaxada de Santa Fe.

(CONCHATTAS, Indians of N. America, al-most the same people as the Allibamis. Theyfirst lived on Bayau Chico, in Appelousa district ;but, four years ago, moved to the river Sabine,settled themselves on the e. bank, where they nowlive, in nearly a s. direction from Natchitoch, anddistant about 80 miles. They call their numberof men about 160 ; but say, if they were altogether,they would amount to 200. Several families ofthem live in detached settlements. They are goodhunters. Game is here in plenty. They kill anuncommon number of bears. One man alone,during the summer and fall hunting, sometimeskills 400 deer, and sells his skins at 40 dollars per100. The bears usually yield from eight to 12gallons of oil, each of which never sells for lessthan a dollar a gallon, and the skin a dollar more.No great quantity of the meat is saved. Whatthe hunters do not use when out, they generallygive to their dogs. The Conchattas are friendlywith all other Indians, and speak well of theirneighbours the Carankouas, who, they say, liveabout 80 miles s. of them, on the bay, which isthe nearest point to the sea from Natchitoches.A tew families of Chactaws have lately settled nearthem from Bayau Bceiif. The Conchattas speakCreek, which is their native language, and Chac-taw, and several of them English ; and one or twoof tliem can read it a little.)

CONCHOS, San Francisco DE LOS, a Settle-ment and garrison of the province of the Tepe-guana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate

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running to unite themselves with that of Toachi.It is to the n. of the paramo of Elenisa, and issometimes covered with snow.

CORCA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Huanoquite.

(CORCAS, or Grand Corcas, an islandalmost in the form of a crescent, n. of St. Do-mingo, in the windward passage, about sevenleagues w. of Turk’s island, and about 20 e. ofLittle Inagua or Heneagua. Lat. 21° 45' n.Long. 71° ob' w.)

CORCHUE, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and government of Valdivia in the kingdomof Chile.

CORCOLA, a settlement of the Portuguese, inthe territory of the Giiayazas Indians, of the king-dom of Brazil; situate at the source and on theshore of the river Tocantines.

CORCOUADO, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits in the province and government of LosLlanos, of the Nuevo Reyno de Gratiada, andwhich is at present under the charge of the reli-gious order of St. Francis.

CORCOUADO, a rock or island of the S. sea, op-posite the port of Santa, of the province and corre-gimiento of this name in Peru.

CORCULLA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru.

CORDES. See Verdf.

CORDILLERA. See Andes.

CORDILLIERS, Montagne des, a mountainof the island of Cayenne, on the skirts of avliichthe French have a fort and establishment for itsdefence.

CORDON, PUNTA DEL, a point of the coast ofthe w. head of the island of St. Domingo, on theshore of the port Pimiento.

CORDOVA, a province and alcaldia mayor ofNueva España; bounded w. by the province ofOrizava ; n. by that of San Juan de los Llanos ;e. by that of the ancient Vera Cruz ; and s. by therugged mountains of Songolica. It has on the5. e. and s.s. e. the great estate of Mataanona, 10leagues from Taliscona, the last boundary of VeraCruz. It is of a hot and moist temperature ; thegreater part of its district is composed of brokenand uneven grounds, and mountains covered withcedars, walnuts, pines, and ocotales. It has alsobeautiful and fertile plains, abounds in birds andanimals of the chase, and no less in fish, many troutand bohos being caught out of the rivers by whichthis province is irrigated. In the spacious plainof Altotonga runs a rapid river, by which it is

fertilized, and rendered abundant in every kind ofvegetable production. Here also breed manyflocks of cattle, which are the chief commerceof the place. The capital bears the same name.

This was founded in 1618, by order of the vice-roy Don Diego Fernandez de Cordova, Marquisof Gnadalcazar, who gave it his name. It is of ahot and moist temperature ; situate to the w. ofsome small mountains, which form an half-circle,and are surrounded by many umbrageous trees.The parish church is magnificent, of exquisitearchitecture, and rich ornaments. Here is a con-vent of the religious Descalzos (barefooted order)of St. Francis, and one of St. Hippolyte dela Ca-ridad, in which there is an hospital for the sickSpaniards, and for the black slaves, endowed bythe masters and proprietors of certain mills, in whichan infinite quantity of sugar is made. It aboundsin this artich', with those of tobacco, Chinaoranges, ajonjoli, large cattle, and swine ; as alsoother fruits and articles of merchandize peculiarto Europe and the kingdom itself. [Hun.boldtassert.s that the environs of Cordova and Orizabaproduce all the tobacco consumed in New Spain.]Its population consists of 260 families of Spaniards,126 of Mustees, 70 of Mulattoes and Negroes,and 273 of Mexican Indians ; of many others alsowho are of various classes, and Avho work in thesugar-mills. Forty-eight leagues to the e. «. c. ofMexico, in lat. 18° 50' ; long. 96° 56'. Theothersettlements of this jurisdiction are,

Santa Ana de Zacan, San Diego,

Chocaman,

Yxhuatlan,

Coscomatepec,

Sta. Maria Magdalena,Calcahualco,

S. Antonio Huatuzco,Amatlan de los Reyes,

San Bartolome,Totutla,

Copan,

Zentla,

San Diego Huatuzco,San J uan de la Punta,San Lorenzo.

Cordova, another city, the capital of the provincoand government of Tucumán in Peru ; founded bythe governor of that province, Geronimo Cabrera,in 1573, and not by Juan Nuilezde Prado, in 1549,according to the erroneous account of the Ex-jesuit Coleti. It was in the territory of the Comi-chingones Indians, and part which they calledKisliisacate, on the shore of the river Piicani ;but removed from thence to the x. part of thesame river ; the parish being dedicated to NuestraSenora de la Pena of France, and being under theobligation of celebrating its festival on the day ofthe conception, when it was also usual to displaythe spectacle of a bull-fight. It is situate in anarrow bay, close to which is a lotty n'ountain.It is much exposed to inundations in the rainy

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COROICO, a settlement of the province andeorregimiento of Cicasica in Peru ; situate on theshore of the river of its name, where there is aport for small vessels. This river rises in the cor-dillera of Ancuma, to the s. of the settlement ofPalca, and to the e. of the city of La Paz. It runsin a very rapid course to the e. and forming acurve turns n. and enters the w. side of the Beni,in lat. 16° 50' s.

COROMA, a settlement of the province andeorregimiento of Porco in Peru.

COROMANDIERES, some small islands ofthe N. sea, near the coast of Acadia inN. America,near the coast of Scatari. They are also calledDel Infierno, or Devil’s isles.

COROMOTO, a settlement of the provinceand government of Venezuela ; situate on theshore of the river Guanarito, to the s. of the townof Guanaro.

CORON, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Huanoquite.

CORONA-REAL, a city of the province ofGuayana, and government of Curaana, foundedon the shores of the river Orinoco in 1759, by theRear-Admiral Don Joseph de Iturriaga, for whichpurpose he assembled together some wanderingpeople of the provinces of Caracas and Barcelona.At present, however, it is as it were desert andabandoned, since its inhabitants have returned totheir former savage state of life, having been con-stantly pursued and harassed by the CharibesIndians, against whom they could no longer main-tain their ground, after that the king’s garrisonhad been withdrawn, and since, owing to the dis-tance at which they were situate from the capital,it was in vain for them to look for any succourfrom that quarter.

Corona-Real, a large bay in the lake of Ma-racaibo, on thew. side.

Corona-Real, a rocky isle, or ridge of rocks,close to the n. coast of the island of Guadalupe,between cape St. Juan and the port or bay of Mole.

CORONADOS, a small island of the gulf ofCalifornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes ; situate verynear the island of Carmen, on its n. e. side, whichlooks to the coast of New Spain.

(CORONDA, a town of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a riverforming the island of Santa Fe, about five leaguess. w. of that town, in Lat. 31° 58' 47". Long. 61°2' a).)

CORONANGO, Santa Maria de, a headsettlement of the alcaldia maj/or of Cholula inNueva Espafia. It contains 94 families of In-

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dians, and to its district belong nine other settle-ments. It lies one league to the n. of its capital.

CORONEL, Puerto del, a port on the coastof the province and corregimiento of Quillota, andkingdom of Chile, between the port of Longotoraaand the river Quilimari.

CORONEL, a river of the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It rises to the ^ . of the city ofNirua, and afterwards unites itself with the Grape,to enter the Tinaco.

CORONEL, a point of the coast of the kingdomof Chile, in the province and corregimiento of Quil-lota, between the mouth of the river Biobio and theheights of Villagran.

CORONGO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Conchucos in Peru.

COROPA, a spacious country of the provinceand government of Guayana, which extends itselfbetween the river Coropatuba to the s. w. the Ma-ranon to the s. the Avari to the e. the mountainsof Oyacop of the Charibes Indians to the n. andthe mountains of Dorado or Manoa to the n.w.The whole of its territory is, as it were, unknown.The Portuguese possess the shores of the Maranonand the sea-coast as far as the bay of Vicente Pin-zon ; the Dutch of the colony of Surinam, by theriver Esequevo or Esquivo, called also Rupununi,have penetrated as far as the Maranon, by the riverParanapitinga. The mountains, which some haverepresented as being full of gold, silver, and pre-cious stones, sparkling in the rays of the sun, aremerely fables, which, at the beginning of the con-quests, deceived many who had gone in search ofthese rich treasures, and fell a sacrifice to thefatigues and labours which they experienced inthese dry and mountainous countries. The Por-tuguese have constructed here two forts, called Paruand Macapa. Mr. De la Martiniere, with hisusual want of accuracy, says that the Portuguesehave a settlement called Coropa, at the mouth ofthe river Coropatuba, where it enters the Maranon ;the Coropatuba joins the Maranon on the n. side,in the country of Coropa, and at the settlement ofthis name ; this settlement being nothing more thana small fort, and lying in the province of Topayos,on the s. shore of the Maranon, and being knownby the name ofCurupa, in the chart published in1744, and in that of the Father Juan Magnin, in1749.

COROPATUBA. See Curupatuba.

COROPUNA, a desert of the province ofCuzco in Peru, between the provinces of Parina-cocha and Canas or Aruni. It extends more than12 leagues s. to n. and is troublesome and dan-gerous to traverse.

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