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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
are the ruins or some well made benches in the shape of couches, which have been much injured by time, and were there before the corning of the Spaniards. Lat. 13° 16' 30" s. Long. 74° 32' 30" w.
ACOCHALA, a very lofty mountain of the province and corregimienento of Lipes, in the arch- bishopric of Charcas, where there are some very fine silver mines, which are, however, little worked for want of hands.
ACOLA , a settlement of the province and cor- regimiento of Lucanas in Peru, annexed to the curacy of its capital.
ACOLMAN, San Agustin de , a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tez- coco, in Nueva Espana, situate in a pleasant valley of a benign temperature. There are some wards united to its district, and the number of its inhabitants, including these wards, amounts to 240 Indian families, besides a convent of monks of the order of St. Augustin.
ACOMA , a settlement of Nuevo Mexico, situ- ate on the shore of a river which enters the Grande of the N. between the settlements of San J uan and La Laguna. [It is on a high mountain, with a strong castle, and is the capital of the province. [Lat, 35° 24' «. Long. 106° 10'
ACOMACK , a county of the province and colony of Virginia, which preserves its Indian name. It is the largest county of the province, containing 200,925 acres of ground ; but not so well peopled as the others, and has only one parish, which is of the same name. Different rivers take their rise here ; among the most noted is the Clif>- sonossea,
ACOMAIO, a settlement of the province, and corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Santa Maria del Valle, situate on the confines of the infidel Panataguas Indians.
another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru.
ACOMARCA, a settlement of the province and corregimityito of Vilcas Huaman in Peru, arinexed to the curacy of Vilcas.
ACOMES, a fall of the river Amariscoggin, in the prov'ince of Continent, one of the four w hich compose the colony of New England.
ACOMULCO, a settlement of the head settle- ment and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in Nueva Espana. It contains 12 Indian families, and is two leasrues to the w. of its capital.
ACONCAGUA, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Chile ; bounded n. by a part of the province of Quillota, e, by the Cordillera, s. by the valley of Colina, of the jurisdiction of Santiago, w. by the province of Quillota. Its territory is level and well watered. It is divided into two parts by a large river of the same name, having a bridge built of stone and mortar, w ith two arches. It produces abundance of wheat and much wild marjoram, which is carried to Peru, and forms the principal branch of its commerce. In this province is the royal road, lying through the Cordillera in the way to Mendoza, which is very rough and dangerous, on account of the many slopes and steep declivities towards the river ; the path is very narrow, and in various places it is necessary to open a pass by means of a pick-axe ; so that, if at any time the mules should crowd together, they would push each other into the river, w hich has not unfrequently been the case. The royal treasures are carried by this road from the month of Novem- ber to April and part of May. A few years since, some small houses of brick and mortar have been built on one or other side of the Cordillera, which they call casuchas (miserable huts) ; in these they put, in the winter time, some coal, biscuit, and hung beef, so that the couriers, providing them- selves with the keys of the doors at Mendoza, or, on the other side, at the Guardia of Aconcagua, may have something to live upon, incase they should be stopt by a fall of snow on their journey ; and with this precaution, a courier goes every month to Santiago, carrying with him the mails brought by the ships from Europe. In the winter it is customary to walk on foot over the snow, from Paramillo, which is three leagues from the top of the Cordillera, and four from its descent to tlie place which is called Los Ojos de Agua, through the valley of Putaendo ; but towards the ??. there is another way, which they call De Los Patos, which is the road generally taken in going to the city of San Juan ; but the Cordillera being more lofty here, it is only passable in the months of February and March. The inhabitants of this province amount, on an average, to 8000 souls. The capital' is San Felipe el Real. [Lat. 32° II' s. Long. 70° 12' 30" w. j
ACONCAGUA, a large river which runs through the above province, rising in the mountains of the Cordillera, and running through it by the side of the road which leads to Buenos Ayres : hrarcliing
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from s. to e. between 'the rivers Mechicor and St.John, and entering the sea at the mouth of thebay of Fundy.
AGREDA, or NUEVA MA'LAGA, a city of theprovince and government of Popayan, in the king-dom of Quito, founded by Geronimo Aguado in1541. It is small, and of a hot temperature, butabounds in gold mines. Forty-five leagues s. w.of its capital, 42 from Quito, and 37 to the e. ofthe S, sea.
Agua, a small island, situate near the k. coastof the island of Vaca, in the channel formed by theisland of St. Domingo, in front of the bay ofMesle.
==Agua de Culebra, SAN FRANCISCO XA-VIER DE LA==, 'a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela, a reduccionof Indians ofthe Capuchin fathers ; but the place is also inha-bited by some Spanish families. It belongs to the
district and jurisdiction of the city of San Felipe ;and in its vicinity dwell a great number of peoplein the estates belonging to it, and which produceabundance of cacao, plantains, yucas, and othervegetable productions.
AGUACAGUA, a settlement of the provinceof Guayana, and government of Cumana, one ofthose belonging to the missions of the CatalanianCapuchin fathers. It is on the shore of the riverCaroni, near the mouth, through which this en-ters the Orinoco. Lat. 8° 22' n. Long. 62^42' w.
AGUACATLAN, the head settlement of thedistrict of the alcaldia mayor of Xala in N uevaEspana. In 1745 it contained 80 families of In-dians, who employed themselves in the culture ofmaize and French beans. It has a convent of thereligious order of St. Francis, and lies two leaguess. e. of its capital.
AGUADA, a settlement of the island of Porto-rico ; situate in the bay of its name (Aguda), between thecapes Boriquen and St. Francis. It serves as aninlet for ships going to Tierra Firme and NuevaEspana to take in water. [Lat. 18° 23' «. Long.67° 6' a;.]
Aguada (Small river), a small river of the province and
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AGUADILLA, a river of the province andkingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the moun-tains on the s. and enters the large river Chagrevery near its mouth, and the castle of this name.Here ships take in water, on account of the conve-nience of a bay, for the defence of which there is,upon the shore, a battery belonging to the samecastle, which was built under the directions ofDon Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743.
AGUADORES, River of the, in the islandof Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast ofthis island, having at its mouth a watch-tower andguard to give notice of vessels which may enter theport of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it isseven leagues distant.
AGUAIO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico,and kingdom of Nueva España, founded in theyear 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Quere-taro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of SierraGorda.
AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of thejurisdiction of [Izatlan]] in Nueva Galicia. It hasa convent of the religious order of St. Francis, andin 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families ofIndians, including the wards of its district; 17leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20° 44' n.Long. 103° 33' w.
AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdictionof Santiago de las Atalayas, and government ofSan Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It isof a hot temperature, and produces the same fruitsas the other settlements of this province.
AGUANATO, Santa Maria de, a settlementof the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro,^.nAalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the provinceand bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold tem-perature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo,and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain theirlivelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteenleagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid.
AGUANOS, San Antonio de, a settlementof the province and government of Mainas in thekingdom of Quito ; one of those which belongedto the missions held there by the Jesuits, andthus called from the nation of Indians of whom it iscomposed. It was founded in 1670 by the fatherLorenzo Lucero.
AGUAPAI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay. It rises between the Pa-rana and the Uruguay, near the settleiment of SanCarlos, runs j. forming a curve, and returning c.enters the last of the above rivers not far from thesettlement of La Cruz.
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anti government of Darien, near the n. coast, andthus "called from an eagle Avitli two heads, whichwas caught here in 1608, and which Avas sent tothe queen, Doha Maria-Ana of Austria, motherof Philip III. At its skirt is a bay, or swampyground, which is round, and has a very narroAVinlet. Forty-five leagues from Cartagena.
Aguila (point), a point or cape of the larger island ofthe Malvinas or Falkland isles ; thus named fromhaving been discovered by the French frigate, theAguila, or Eagle. It is one of those whith formtlie great bay or port.
AGUILUSCO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Arantzan, and alcaldiamayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishop-ric of Mechoacan. It contains 32 families of In-dians, who employ themselves in sowing seed,cutting Avood, manufacturing vessels of fineearth en-Avare, and saddle-trees for riding.
AGUJA, Point of the, on the coast of TierraFirme, and of the province and government ofSanta Marta, between this city and Cape Chichi-bacoa. It is the part of land which projects far-thest into the sea.
Aguja, Point of the. See article Eguille.
AGUSTIN, San, a capital city of the pro-vince and government of E. Florida, situate on thee. coast, in a peninsula, or narrow strip of land.It has a good port, which was discovered by Ad-miral Pedro Menendes de Aviles, on St. Augus-.tin’s day in the year 1565, which was his reasonfor giving the place this title, which has, however,been tAvice changed. He also built here a goodcastle for its defence. The city has a very goodparish church, and a convent of the Franciscanorder; and, as far as relates to its spiritual con-cerns, it is subject to the bishop of Cuba, who hasat various times proposed the erection of anabbey, but has not obtained his wish, although ithad been approved by the council of the Indies.
It has two hospitals, one for the garrison troops,and another for the community ; it has also anhermitage, Avith the dedicatory title of Santa Bar-bara. It was burnt by Francis Drake in 1586;by Captain Davis, Avith the Bucaniers, in 1665 ;but it was immediately afterwards rebuilt. In1702 it Avas besieged by the English, under thecommand of Colonel Moore, who, failing in hisattempts to take the castle, which Avas defended bythe governor, Don Joseph de Zuniga, exhibitedhis revenge by burning and destroying the town.In 1744 the English returned to the siege, underthe command of General Oglethorp, who wasequally unsuccessful, in as much as it w^as mostvaliantly defended by the governor, Don Manuelde Montiano, who defied the bombardment of theenemy. This fort has a curtain of 60 toises long ;the parapet is nine feet ; and the terrace, or horizon-tal surface of the rampart, is 20 feet high, withgood bomb-proof casemates, and mounted Avith 50pieces of cannon, having also, on the exterior, anexcellent covered way. The city, although it isencompassed by a wall, is not strong, and its de-fence consists in 10 projecting angles. It was ced-ed, Avith the whole of the province, to the English,by the King ofSpain, in the peace of Versailles, in1762 ; and it remained in their possession till 1783,when it was restored by the treaty of Paris. Thebreakers at the entrance of the harbour haveformed two channels, whose bars have eight feet ofwater each. Long. 81° 40'. Lat. 29° 58'.
Agustin, San, a settlement and real of mines,of the province of Tarauraara, in the kingdotli ofNueva Vizcaya, which was formerly a populationof some consequence, and wealthy withal, fromthe richness of its mines, Avhich -have lately falleainto decay, and thereby entailed poverty upon theinhabitants. It is 26 leagues s. of the town of S,Felipe de Chiguagua.
Agustin, San, another settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Nopaluca, and alcaldiamayor of Tepcaca, in Nueva España. It contains20 families of Indians, and is distant a little morethan a league from its head settlement.
Agustin, San, another, in the head settlementof the district of Pinoteca, and alcaldia mayor ofXicayan. It contains 70 families of Indians, whotrade in grain, seeds, and tobacco. Four leaguen. of its head settlement.
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AIAPANGO, the head settlement of the districtof the akaldia mayor of Chaleo in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 100 families of Indians, and isannexed to the curacy of Amecaraeca, at twoleagues to the s. of its capital.
AIAPATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, and veryopulent, on account of its silver mines. The sandson the banks of the rivers here have been known sorichly impregnated with this metal, that lumps ofit have been at different times picked up. It is themost considerable population in the province, andthe temperature is so salutary, that it is very com-mon to meet with persons of 90 years of age, andmany also of 100.
AIAPEL, a town of the province and govern-ment of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Gra-nada, situate on the bank of a large lake or swampof the same name, and which is formed from thewaters of the rivers Cauca, San Jorge, and others.In its district are the lavaderos, or washing placesfor gold, of La Cruz, San Mateo, Thuansi, Can,Ure, Man, San Pedro, and La Soledad.
AIATASTO, a large river of the province andgovernment of Tucuman, in the district and juris-diction of the city of Salta, on the banks of whichare some pasture grounds of the same name, uponwhich are fed 40,000 head of neat cattle, and 6000of horses for breeding.
AIAUIRI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lamoa in Peru. In its vicinity aresome forts, which were built by the Indians in thetime of their gentilism, and now in a state of greatdilapidation. There is a lake of warm water here,the bottom of which has never yet been found.The water always keeps at one height, so that it ispresumed that it finds its way out through somesubterraneous channel. There is also another warm
water spring at two leagues distance, which is verynoxious, and, as it runs, has the property of petri-fying, in like manner as the spring of water inGuancavelica.
AIAUTLA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teutila inNueva España, of a warm temperature, and inha-bited by 100 Indian families, who support them-selves by cultivating and selling the vaynilla plant.Nine leagues s. of its capital.
AICAROPA, a small river Of the province andgovernment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. Itrises in the country of the Armocotos Indians, runsfrom e. to w. with a slight inclination to the s. andenters the Caura.
AIMARAEZ, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded n. w. and w. by the province ofAndahuailas, of the bishopric of Guamanga, s. byParinacocha of the same, s. e. by Ghumbivilcas,and e. by Cotabamba. It is 40 leagues in lengthfrom «. to s. and 26 in width from e. to ti). includ-ing in its figure on the w. side the last mentionedprovince. It js one of the most uneven soils in thekingdom, being full of lofty sierras and snowymountains. It is on this account that its climate isvery cold, excepting, however, in some vallies,where it is more temperate, and where, on somesmall sloping grounds, the inhabitants sow seed andgrain, and cultivate fruit trees and cane plantations,
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which the inhabitants trade. These are composed of34 Indian families. It is a little more than threeleagues from its head settlement,
AIOZINGO, a settlement of the alcaldía mayorof Chaleo in Nueva España, situate on the shoreof the lake of Mexico, with a good port, at whichare embarked the fruits of many provinces for thesupply of that capital, (Chaleo), which is withineight or ten hours sail from hence. It has a goodconvent of S. Augustin, where a most beauti-ful image of the virgin is reverenced, and sup-posed to be wonder-working. Its inhabitants con-sist of 120 Indian families and some Spanish. Itis distant one league s, s. e. from its capital.
AIRICOS, a nation of Indians who inhabit theplains of Cazanare and Meta, of the new kingdomof Granada, to the c. of the mountains of Bogota,on the borders of the river Ele. It is numerous,and feared by all its neighbours, on account of itsvalour and dexterity in the use of arms.
Airicos, with the dedicatory title of SanFrancisco Xavier, a settlement which belongedto the Jesuits, and founded in 1662 by father An-tonio de Monteverde, and composed of some ofthose Indians who were thus reduced to the Catho-lic faith.
AIRIHUANCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru.
AIRS, a small city of the province and colonyof New Jersey, in the county of Burlington.
AIUDA, Nuestra Senora be la, a villageand settlement of the Portuguese, in the provinceand captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situateupon the sea-coast, and on the shore of the riverS. Miguel.
Aiuda, another settlement in the province andcaptainship of Puerto Seguro, situate upon thecoast on the shore of the port.
AIUILA, a river of the province and alcaldiamayor of Soconusco, in the kingdom of Guate-mala: It runs into the S. sea between the settle-ment of Suchitepec and the river Coatlan.
AIUINOS, a nation of Indians of the provinceand government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana,converted to the faith by father Francisco Olinano,of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1624.They live towards the n. of the above province,and in the times of their heathenism they dwelt inthe lofty mountains, in order that they might de-fend themselves from the other nations with whomthey were at war. They are docile, well-inclined,and of good habits.
AIUN, or luMERi, a river of the province and
viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. It runs s. and entersthe Rio Negro.
AIUNCHA, Pago BE, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucuman, in the districtand jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero,from whence it is 22 leagues distant. It is situateon the shore of the river Dulce.
AIUTLA, the head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, containing 187 Indianfamilies, and a convent of the religious order of S.Domingo ; distant 13 leagues to the e. of its capi-tal.
Aiutla, another settlement in the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Autlanof the same kingdom, with 23 Indian families, whohave large stores of pulse and fruit, so rich and fer-tile is their country. It is annexed to the curacy ofTenamaztlani, from whence it lies one league s,
AlUA, a small town of the island of St. Domin-go, situate in the line which divides the Spanishterritory from the French. It was the inhabitantsof this town who chiefly contributed to ensure thevictory which was gained against the Spaniards inthe plain of Puerto Real, by the president DonFrancisco de Segura y Sandoval, in 1691.
AIX, Palmar be, a large beach on the coastof Florida, within the channel of Bahama, nearthe point of Canaveral ; memorable for the ship-wreck of 22 vessels, composing the fleet of NuevaEspana, which took place in 1715, being under thecommand of Don Antonio de Ubila ; memorablealso for the loss of two galleons from Tierra Firme,commanded by Don Antonio de Echevers ; theloss of the one and the other amounting to nearly20 million dollars.
Aix, a river of the same province, which runsinto the sea very near the Palmar.
AJOIANI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Coaza.
[AJOS, a parish situate on the foot of the moun-tains which separate the rivers Paraguay and Pa-rana, about 24 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23°26' 34" s. Long. 56° 30' w.~\
AJOUES, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and government of Louisiana, in which theFrench held a garrison and fort for its defence, onthe shore of a lake near the Missouri.
A joues, another settlement of the same provinceand government, situate on the shore of the riverMissouri.
AKANCEAS, a nation of savage Indians of N.America, who live at the conflux of the riversMississippi, and another abundant stream of its
ALACLATZALA, a branch of the head set-tlement of the district of S. Luis, of the coast andalcaldia mayor of TIapa in Nueva España. Itcontains 125 Indian families, and is one leaguefrom the settlement of Quanzoquitengo.
ALACRANES, some islands, or rather somehidden rocks, of the N. sea, in the bay of Mexico,opposite the coast of Yucatan. Those who navi-gate these parts are accustomed to pass round be-yond them for fear of venturing amongst them, al-though there are some good cliannels among them,and withgood soundings. They are for the most partbarren, producing nothing beyond a herb calledmoron, -And deficient in fresh water ; neither do theyproduce any animal except the mole, which isfound here in prodigious numbers. There are,however, a quantity of birds, of three distinct sorts,each forming a community of itself, and entirelyseparated from the other two ; and it has beenobserved, that if one party may have fixed uponany place for building their nests, the others neverthink of disturbing them, or driving them from it ;but the noise these birds make is so great, that onecannot pass near them without suffering consider-ably from their united clamours.
[ALADAS, a parish situate about 14; leaguess. e, of Corrientes, in Lat. 28° 15' 20" s. Long. 58°SO' e».]
ALAMILLOS, a settlement of the province ofTaraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; oneof the missions which belonged to the religious ofSt Francis. It is close to the town and real ofthe mines of Santa Eulalia.
ALAMOS, Real de Los, Real de Los, a settlement andreal of the mines of the province of Sinaloa inNueva España. It is situate s. e. of the SierraMadre, and surrounded by rich silver mines,which would produce abundantly but for want oflabourers. There are in its district five estatesthat are fertile in maize, French beans, and sugar-cane. The spiritual concerns of all these parts
are under the direction of a curate, whose jurisdic-tion extends as far as the river Mayo, which flowsdown from the sierra. It is 20 leagues distantfrom the town of Tuerte, and between these liesthe valley of Maquipo. [Population 7900 souls]
Alamos, with the dedicatory title of S. Jorge,a town of the province and captainship of Para inBrazil, founded by Jorge del Alamo, who gaveit his name, in a place called La Vigia. It has amagnificent parish church, with the title of NuestraSenora de Nazareth, with a large and good fort,and well furnished with artillery. Also, at the dis-tance of a league and an half from the settlement,is a house of charity belonging to the religiousorder of the Capuchins of La Piedad.
Alamos, another of the missions belonging tothe abolished society of Jesuits, in the provinceof Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.It is 27 leagues s. w. and a quarter of a league s.of the real of the mines and town of S. Felipe deChiguaga.
Alangasi, a river of the above corregimiento,and rising in the desert mountain of Sincholagua ;over it there is a large bridge, composed of a singlearch, but so strong, that when, in 1660, a partof the mountain fell upon it, and precipitated onehalf of it into the stream, the other half still re-mained firm and immoveable. This bridge isbuilt of mud and stone.
ALANGI, Santiago de, a city and headsettlement of the district of the province of Chi-riqui and government of Santiago de Veragua,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It is small, butabounding in fruits and cattle ; in which a regulartrade is carried on for supplying the city of Pa-nama. This trade consists principally in pigs.
river Hudson. It is small, but has a great tradefrom the contiguity of the Iroquese Indians. Itcontains 350 houses, buiH afterthe Dutch fashion ;and that of the magistracy, which consists ofa mayor, six aldermen, and a recorder, is verybeautiful. The city is defended by a regular fortwith four bastions, the rest of the fortification con-sisting of palisades. Here the treaties and alli-ances have been made with the Indians. It wastaken by Robert Car in 1664, and added to thisprovince by Colonel Dongan. [It is 160 miles «.of the city of New York, to which it is next in rank,and 340 s. of Quebec. This city and suburbs, byenumeration in 1797, contained 1263 buildings, ofwhich 863 were dwelling houses, and 6021 inha-bitants. Many of them are in the Gothic style,with the gable end to the street, which custom thefirst se^ttlers brought from Holland; the newhouses arc built in the modern style. Its inhabit-ants are collected from various parts of tlie world,and speak a great variety of languageJ^, but theEnglish predominates ; and the use of efery otheris gradually lessening. Albany is urfrivalled forsituation, being nearly at the head of sloop navi-gation, on one of the noblest rivers in the world.It enjoys a salubrious air, and is the natural em-porium of the increasing trade of a large extent ofcountry ay. and w. — a country of an excellent soil,abounding in every article for the W. Indiamarket; plentifully watered with navigable lakes,creeks, Snd rivers ; settling with unexampled rapid-ity ; and capable of aftbrdingsubsistenceto millionsof inhabitants. The public buildings are, a lowDutch church, of ancient and very curious con-struction, one for Episcopalians, two for Presby-terians, one for Germans'or Higli Dutch, and onefor Methodists ; an hospital, city hall, and a hand-some brick jail. In the year 1609, Henry II udson,whose name the river bears, ascended it in his boatto Aurnnla, the spot on which Albany now stands.The improvements in this city have, of lateyears, been very great in almost all respects.Wharfs have been built on the river, the streetshave been paved, a bank instituted, a new andhandsome style of building introduced. One milen. of this city, in its suburbs, near the manor-houseof lieutenant-governor Van Renssalaer, are veryingeniously constructed extensive and usefulworks, for the manufacture of Scotch and rappeesnuff, roll and cut tobacco of dilferent kinds,chocolate, mustard, starch, hair-powder, split-pease, and hulled barley. These valuable worksare the property of Mr. James Caldwell, who un-fortunately lost a complete set of similar works byfire, in Jidy 1791, with the stock, valued at
37,500 dollars. It is a circumstance worthy ofremark, and is evincive of the industry and enter-prise of the proprietor, that the whole of the pre«sent buildings and machinery were begun andcompleted in the short space of eleven mouths.These works are decidedly superior to any of thekind in America. All the articles above enume-rated, even to the spinning of tobacco, are manu-factured by the aid of water machinery. For theinvention of this machinery, the proprietor hasobtained a patent. These Avorks give employ-ment and subsistence to 40 poor boys, and a num-ber of workmen.] Long. 73° 42' w. Lat. 42°40' n.
Albarrada, another settlement, with the dedi-catory title of San Miguel, in the head settlementof the district of Mitla, and alcaldia mayor ofTentitlan, in Nueva España. It contains 22Indian families, and is seven leagues n. of its headsettlement.
ALBARREGAS, a large and abundant riverof the new kingdom of Granada, which descendsfrom the mountains of Bogota, irrigates the coun-try and the city of Merida, running n. of thiscity until it enters the lake Maracaibo.
ALBEMARLE, a county of the province andcolony of N. Carolina, and that part of it whichis most agreeable, fertile, and salutary. It pro-duces various sorts of fruits and pulse, and thewinter is very temperate. This colony was esta-blished in 1670 by the lords and proprietors of it,who equipped, at their own expence, three ships,and a coiisiderable number of persons, with provi-sions for 18 months, and an abundance of merchan-dize, tools, and arms fit for the new establishment ;to which they sent resources yearly, in the pro-portion . required, until it appeared tube in a fit
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state to maintain itself. Thus the colonists lived for some years, and in time the productions in which their commerce consisted, increased to such a degree as to have caused them to excel all the other English colonies,
ALUEMAur.E, another county or part of Vir- ginia, washed by the river Fluvana on the s. which divides itself into several branches, and adds much to the fertility of the country. It is bounded e. by the county of Goochland, w. divided by a chain of mountains of Augusta, and by that of Louisa on the «. [It contains 12,585 inha- bitants, including 5579 slaves. Its extent, about S5 miles square.]
Albemarle, a strait, which is the mouth or entrance into the sea of the river Roanoke.
[ALBION, New, the name given by Sir Francis Drake to California, and part of the n. w. coast of America, when he took possession of it. A large uncertain tract of the n. w, coast is thus called. Its limits, according to Mr. Arrow- smith’s chart, are between 27° 12' and 41° 15' 71. lat. Humboldt asserts, that, agreeably to sure historical data, the denomination of New Albion ought to be limited to that part of the coast which extends from the 43° to the 48°, or from Cape White of Martin de x\guilar, to the entrance of Juan de Fuea. Besides, he adds, from the mis- sions of the Catholic priests to those of the Greek priests, that is to say, from the Spanish village of San Francisco, in New California, to the Russian establishments on Cook river at Prince William’s bay', and to the islands of Kodiac and Unalaska, there are more than a thousand leagues of coast inhabited by' free men, and stocked with otters and Phocre! Consequently, the discussions on the extent of the New Albion of Drake, and the pre- tended rights acquired by certain European na- tions, from planting small crosses, and leaving inscriptions fastened to trunks of trees, or the burying of bottles, may be considered as futile. The part of the coast on which Capt. Cook landed on the 7th of March 1778, and which some desig- nate as Nezo Albion, is in n. lat. 44° 33'. e. long. 235° 10', which he thus describes : “ The land is lull of mountains, the tops of w hich are covered with snow, while the vallies between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, are covered with trees, which form a beautiful prospect, as of one vast forest. At first the natives seemed to prefer iron to every other article of
commerce; at last they preferred brass. They were more tenacious of their property than any of the savage nations that had hitherto been met with ; so that they would not part with wood, water, grass, nor the most trifling article without a compensation, and were sometimes very unrea- sonable in their demands.” See Calii^ornia, New.]
ALBOR, a small island of the N. or Atlantic sea, one of the Bahamas, between those of Neque and 8. Salvador.
ALBUQUERQUE, Santa Rosa de, a settle- ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espana. It is 19 leagues s. w. of the head settlement of the district of Tlaltcnango.
Albuquehque, a townof New Mexico, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande (large river) of the N. [opposite the village of Atrisco, to the w. of tlie Sierra Obseqra. Population 0000 souls.]
Albuquerque, a small island, or low rocks, of the N. sea, near that of 8. Andres.
ALCA, a settlement of the province and corre- gimienlo of Condensuyos of Arequipa in Peru.
ALCALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Gua- temala, in the division and district of that city.
ALCAMANI, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa in Neuva Espana, and two leagues to the n. of the same.
ALCANTARA, S. Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Maranam' in the kingdom of Brazil. It luis been frequently invaded by the infidel Indians, who destroyed its work- shops, so that its inhabitants have been much reduced.
Alcantara, S. Antonio de, another settle- ment in the province and district of Chanco, in the kingdom of Chile, near the shore of the rivec Mataquino.
ALCARAI, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the river La Plata between those of Lay- man and Gomez.
ALCATRACES, Ishmd of the, one of those which lie n. of St. Domingo, between the s. point of the Caico Grande, and the Panuelo Quadrado, (square handkerchief).
ALCIIICHlCd, 8 . Martin de, a ward of the head settlement erf the district and alcaldia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana, belonging to that of Santa Maria de la Asuncion.
ALCHIDOMAS, a settlement of the province of the Apaches in Nuevo Mexico, situate on the
A L G
shore of the Rio Grande Colorado, (large colouredriver), or of the North.
ALCOHOLADES, a nation of Indians of theprovince of Venezuela. They are of a docile andaffable disposition, and live upon the borders ofthe lake Maracaibo. Their numbers are muchdiminished, from the treatment they received fromthe German Weltzers, who, through a covetous-ness to possess the gold of these people, killed thegreater part of them.
ALCOZAUCA, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains104 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees;not a single Indian dwells in it. It is of a mildtemperature, and in its district were the once cele-brated mines of Cayro, which were crushed in anddestroyed, having been almost unparalleled for thequantity of silver that they produced. Eight lea-gues from its capital.
ALEXANDRIA, a city of Virginia, [formerlycalled Belhaven, and situated on the southernbank of the Patowmac river, in Fairfax county,about five miles s. w. from the Federal city, 60L from Baltimore, 60 n, from Fredericks-burgh, 168 n. of Williamsburgh, and 290 fromthe. sea; 38° 54' n. lat. and 77° 10' w. long.Its situation is elevated and pleasant. The soilis clayey. The original settlers, anticipating itsfuture growth and importance, laid out the streets
on the plan of Philadelphia. It contains about400 houses, many of which are handsomely built,and 2748 inhabitants. This city, upon openingthe navigation of Patowmac river, and in conse-quence of its vicinity to the future seat of thefederal government, bids fair to be one of the mostthriving commercial places on the continent. Ninemiles from hence is Mount Vernon, the celebratedseat of the late General Washington.]
[Alexandria, a township in Grafton county.New Hampshire, containing 298 inhabitants, in-corporoted in 1782.]
[Alexandria, a township in Hunterdon coun-ty. New Jersey, containing 1503 inhabitants, inclu-sive of 40 slaves.]
[Alexandria, a small town in Huntingdoncounty, Pennsylvania, on the Frankstown branchof Janiatta river, 192 miles n. w. of Philadel-phia.]
ALEXO, S. an island of the N. sea, near thecoast of Brazil, in the province and captainshipof Pernambuco, between the river Formoso andCape S. Agustin.
ALFARO, S. Miguel de, a settlement of theprovince and government of the Chiquitos Indians;situate on the shore of the river Ubay. It has agood port, from whence it is also known by thename of Port of the Chiquitos. It is, however,at present destroyed, and the ruins alone remain.
ALFAXAIUCA, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Kilotepec in Nueva Espana. It con-tains 171 Indian families, and is seven leaguese. n. e. of its capital.
ALFEREZ, Valley of the, in the provinceand correscimienlo of Bogota in the new kingdomof Granada.
Alfeuez, a river of the province and captain-ship Rey in Brazil; it runs w. and enters thelake of Mini.
[ALFORD, a township in Berkshire county,Massachusetts, containing 577 inhabitants ; 145miles w. from Boston.]
[ALFORDSTOWN, a small town in Moorcounty, North Carolina.]
ALfjrARROBO, a settlement of the provinceand government of Antioquia in the new kingdomof Granada ; situate on the bank of an arm of theriver Perico, in an island which it forms in th«serranias of Guamoca.
ALGODON, Island of the, one of thosewhich are in the N. sea, between the s. point ofthe Cayco Grande and the Panuelo Quadrado.
Algodon, a settlement of the same name. SeeBiezmet.
ALGODONALES, a .settlement of the province
Massachusetts, incorporated in 1797, it beingformerly the n. part of Stoughton.)
CANZE, a river of the colony and govern-ment of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessedby the Dutch. It rises between the Berbice andthe Corentin, and after a very round-about course,enters the former, close to its mouth, or where itruns into the sea.
CAO, Santa Maria Magdalena de, asettlement of the province and corregimiento ofTruxillo in Peru, situate in the valley of Chicama.It was the capital in the time of the Indians, andthe number of these 200 years ago was 3000 ; butnow it is reduced to a wretched state, and occu-pies a small spot on the other side of the river,being nine leagues distant from its capital.
Cao, with the dedicatory title of Santiago, todistinguish it from another settlement of the sameprovince and corregimiento, although they areboth equally poor and reduced. Its inhabitantsmaintain themselves by the cultivation of maize,wheat, rice, and vegetables, which they carryfor sale to the other provinces, so that they arefor the most part a race of carriers, and indeedpossess no inconsiderable droves of mules. It issix leagues from its capital, just by the sea.
CAOBAS, River of the, in the island of St.Domingo, in that part possessed by the French.It rises in the valley of San Juan, runs to the w.and afterwards changing its course to the n. w. en-ters the Artibonito.
Cassipa, into which it enters ; and afterwardsrunning out at the n. side of this lake, it findsits way through a subterraneous passage, until itempties itself into the Orinoco, on its s. shore.The borders of this river are inhabited by anation of barbarous Indians, who wander con-tinually through the forests without any fixedabode. They are cannibals as well as the otherIndian tribes around them, and with whom theykeep up a continual warfare.
Capachica, a narrow strip of land formed bythe great lake Titicaca. Of these strips there arethree, and this appears, for the distance of a league,to be completely divided from any main land.
CAPACHO, a village under the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Christoval, in the new kingdom ofGranada ; of a warm temperature ; abounding insugar-cane, from which much sugar is manufac-tured, and in cacao ; but it is much infested bythe barbarian Indians, called the Motilones (short-haired), who destroy the plantations. It contains200 house- keepers, and is 24; leagues n. e. ofPamplona, in the road which leads to Mérida andLa Grita, and eight leagues from the city of SanChristoval.
Capaia, a river of the same province and go-vernment, which rises in the serranía, and aftermaking many turnings runs into the sea, near thecape Codera towards the e.
CAPANA, a river of the province and countryof the Amazonas, in the part belonging to the Por-tuguese. It rises in the territory of the YaveisIndians, between the rivers Cuchivara and theMadera ; runs to the s. and turning to the s. s. e.enters into one of the lakes which forms the latterriver.
CAPANATOIAQUE, a small settlement of thehead settlement of Acantepec, and alcaldía mayorof Tlapa, in Nueva España. Its temperature iswarm, and it contains 90 families of Mexican In-dians, who employ themselves in the cultivatingand dressing of cotton.
Capanema, a river of the same province,which rises near the coast, runs e. and enters thesea in the bay.
CAPARRAPI, a small settlement of the ju-risdiction of the city of Palma, and corregimientoof Tunja, in the new kingdom of Granada. Itstemperature is warm ; the number of its inhabi-tants is much reduced ; they may, however, stillamount to 40 housekeepers : its only productionsare some maize, cotton, yucas, and plantains.
Capatarida, the river which rises near thecoast, runs n. and enters the sea.
(CAPATI. Within a very few years has beendiscovered in the gold mine of this place, on themountains of Copiapo, a new immalleable sort ofmetal, of a kind unknown to the miners ; but Mo-lina imagined it to be no other than platina.)
(Cape Blow-me-down, which is the s. side ofthe entrance from the bay of Fundy into the basinof Minas, is the easternmost termination of a rangeof mountains, extending about 80 or 90 miles tothe gut of Annapolis; bounded n. by the shores ofthe bay of Fundy, and s. by the shores of Anna-polis river.)
(Cape Cod, anciently called Mallebarre bythe French, is the s. e. point of the bay of Mas-sachusetts, opposite cape Ann. Lat. 42° 4' n.Long. 70° 14' w. from Greenwich. See Barn-staple County and Province Town.)
(Cape Elizabeth, a head-land and townshipin Cumberland county, district of Maine. Thecape lies in n. lat. 43° 33' e. by s. from the centreof the town nine miles, about 20 s. w. of Cape Smallpoint, and 12 n e. from the mouth of Saco river.The town has Portland on the n. e. and Scarboroughs. w. and contains 1355 inhabitants. It was incor-porated in 1765, and lies 126 miles n. e. ofBoston.)
(Cape Fear is the s. point of Smith’s island,which forms the mouth of Cape Fear river into twochannels, on the coast of N. Carolina, s. w. of capeLook-out, and remarkable for a dangerous shoalcalled the Frying-pan, from its form. Near thiscape is Johnson’s fort, in Brunswick county, anddistrict of Wilmington. Lat. 33° 57' n. Long.77° 56' w.)
(Cape Fear River, more properly Clarendon,affords the best navigation in N. Carolina. Itopens to the Atlantic ocean by two channels.'I'he s. w. and largest channel, between the s. w.end of Smith’s island, at Bald head, where thelight-house stands, and the e. end of Oakes islands. w. from fort Johnston. The new inlet is be-tween the sea-coast and the n. e. end of Smith’sisland. It will admit vessels drawing 10 or 11feet, and is about three miles wide at its entrance,having 18 feet water at full tides over the bar.It continues its breadth to the flats, and is navi-gable for large vessels 21 miles from its mouth, and14 from Wilmington ; to which town vessels drawl-ing 10 or 12 feet can reach without any risk. Asyou ascend this river you leave Brunswick on theleft and Wilmilgton on the right. A little aboveWilmington the river divides into n. e. and n. w.branches. The former is broader than the latter,but is neither so deep nor so long. The n. w.branch rises within a few miles of the Virginialine, and is formed by the junction of Haw andDeep rivers. Its general course is s. e. Sea ves-
sels can go 25 miles above Wilmington, and largeboats 90 miles, to Fayetteville. The n. e. branchjoins the n. w. branch a little above Wilmington,and is navigable by sea vessels 20 miles above thattown, and by large boats to S. Washington, 40miles further, and by rafts to Sarecto, which isnearly 70 miles. The whole length of Cape Fearriver is about 200 miles.)
(Cape May is the s. westernmost point of thestate of New Jersey, and of the county to which itgives name. Lat. 38° 59' n. Long. 74° 55' w.It lies 20 miles n. e. from cape Henlopen, whichforms the s. w. point of the mouth of Delaware bay,as cape May does the n. e.)
(Cape May County spreads n. around the capeof its name, is a healthy sandy tract of country, ofsufficient fertility to give support to 2571 industri-ous and peaceable inhabitants. The county isdivided into Upper, Middle, and Lower pre-cincts.)
CAPETI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme.It rises in the mountains in the interior of this pro-vince, runs from e. to w. and enters the large riverof Tuira.
Capi, a small river of the country of the Ama-zonas, in the territory of the Portuguese. It runsfrom e. to w. and enters the Marañon opposite thecity of Pará. Don Juan de la Cruz, in his map ofS. America, calls it Cupiu.
Santiago del Estero, on the bank of the river Cho-romoros.
Capillucas, a lake of the same province andgovernment; formed from an overflow or channelof the river Napo, and at no great distance fromthe banks of this river.
CAPINOTA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cochambaba in Peru, and of thearchbishopric of Charcas ; in which there is, inde-pendent of the parish-church, a convent of theorder of San Agustin.
CAPITANEJO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tunja in the new kingdom ofGranada; situate on the bank of the river Soga-moso, in the territory called Cabuya de Chica-mocha, which is the direct road from Tunja toSanta Fe. It is of a very hot temperature, abound-ing in sugar-cane, and other productions of a warmclimate. The natives are very subject to an epi-demic disorder of lumps or swellings under thechin. Its population consists of 100 housekeepers.
It is distant 30 leagues to the n. of Tunja, andeight from the town of Suata.
CAPIUARI, a small river of the province andcaptainship of San Vincente in Brazil. It risesin the mountains near the coast, runs almost di-rectly from e. to w. and enters the Harihambu orTiete, between the Piraciacaba and Jundiaya.
Capiuari, another river of the province and go-vernment of the Chiquitos Indians, and in the king-dom of Peru ; it rises to the s. e. of the settlementof San Rafael, runs to the n. and enters the Yteneswith a slight inclination to the n. w.
CAPLITOILGUA, an island of the N. sea, inthe straits De Magellan, one of those which form thes. coast, at the mouth of the canal of St. Isidro.
Caplitoilgua, a bay in the former island.
Capot, a bay on the coast of the same island,on its n. w. side, between the town of Carbet andthe bay of Giraumont.
CAPUCINS, Morne des, or Morro de los
Capuchinos, a mountain of the island of Mar-tinique, at the back of the city of fort Royal.
CAPUE, with the addition of Baxo (low), to dis-tinguish it ; another settlement of the same islandand dominion as the former.
CAPUIO, a small settlement of the head settle-ment of Etuquaro, and alcaldía mayor of Vallado-lid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán ;in which district there are some cultivated lands,and in these, as well as in the settlement, residesome Spanish families, and some of the Musteesand Indians, who gain their livelihood in tilling theground, in making lime, and cutting wood. Fourleagues w. of its capital.
CAPULA, a village of a small settlement of thehead settlement and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec inNueva España ; situate in the cleft or hollow partof a mountain covered with trees ; its inhabitants,who consist of 63 Indian families, make charcoaland timber, these being the articles of their com-merce.
CAPULALPA, San Simon de, a small settle-ment of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor ofTezcoco in Nueva España, situate on the top of ahill; it has a very good convent of Franciscans,and contains 75 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes,and Mustees, and 196 of Indians : its territory isvery fertile, and the most luxuriant of any in thesame jurisdiction ; notwithstanding there is a lackof moisture, there being no running streams. Theyare used to gather most abundant crops of wheat,maize, barley, vetches, beans, and French beans ;they have large breeds of hogs, both in the villageand in the farms and neighbouring fattening stalls,which they carry for sale to Mexico, to La Puebla,and other parts. One league n. of its capital.
CAPULUAC, San Bartolome de, a headsettlement of the alcaldia mayor of Metepec inNueva España; it contains 524 Indian families,including those who inhabit the wards of its dis-trict, and it is two leagues to the s. e. of its capital.
and it is, indeed, pretty generally believed thatthis cross was left here by the above apostle.
CARACARES, a large lake of the province andgovernment of Paraguay. It is 26 leagues inlength, and has many fertile islands, inhabited bybarbarian Indians, and empties itself through acanal into the river Paraná on the e. side. It isin 30° 41' s. lat.
CARACAS, Santiago de Leon de, a capitalcity of the province of Venezuela, founded byDiego Losada in the year 1566, in a beautiful andextensive valley of more than four leagues inlength. It is of a very mild temperature, beingneither troubled with excessive heat or cold. It iswatered by four rivers, which fertilize its territory,and make it abound as well in delicate waters asin exquisite fruits and flowers: the streets are wideand straight, the buildings elegant and convenient,and it is ornamented by four marts. It is the seatof the bishopric, erected in the city of Coro in1532, and translated to this spot in 1636. It hasa beautiful cathedral church, besides some parishchapels, which are Nuestra Señora de Alta Gra-cia ; San Pablo, which is also an hospital, andNuestra Señora de la Candelaria, out of the wallsof the city. There is also an hospital De la Ca-ridad (of charity) for women ; a convent of the re-ligious order of Santo Domingo, in which is heldin high respect the wonderful image of the Virginof the Rosary, presented by Philip II. There isanother convent of San Francisco, in which ispreserved a piece of the wood of the cross left bythe Governor Don Martin de Robles Villafañate ;another of our Lady of La Merced ; a monasteryof religious women of La Concepcion ; another ofthe Carmelites Descalzas (barefooted) ; a college andseminary for the education of youth, with five ca-thedrals ; four hermitages dedicated to San Mau-ricio, Santa Rosalia de Palermo, La Divina Pas-tora, and La Santisima Trinidad. Charles II.granted to this city the privilege of allowing itsalcaldes to govern the province in the vacancy ofa governor ; and Philip V. permitted a commer-cial company of Biscayans to be established, whoreaped considerable affluence, especially in the ar-tiles of cacoa and sugar, the chief source of its re-venues ; but this company was abolished in thereign of Charles III. in the year 1778 ; which cir-cumstance was considered by the city and the pro-
vince as a most considerable privilege. The num-ber of inhabitants amounts to about 1000, besidesan infinity of people of colour by whom it is in-habited. The natives have shown themselves tobe of an ingenuous disposition, clever, affable, andcourteous. Its arms are a grey lion rampant in afield of silver, having between his arms a scollop-shell of gold, with the cross of Santiago ; and thecrest is a crown with five points of gold. It wassacked in 1566 by Sir Francis Drake, who camethither in an English cruiser ; also by the Frenchin 1679. It is three leagues distant from the portof Guaira. Long. 67° w. Lat. 10° 30' n.
The bishops who have presided in this city.
1. Don Rodrigo Bastidas, dean of the holychurch of St. Domingo, the chief of the visitationof the bishopric of Puertorico; elected on the 27thOctober 1535, and who died in 1542.
2. Don Miguel Gerónimo Ballesteros, dean ofthe church of Cartagena of the Indies ; electedin 1543.
3. Don Fr. Pedro de Agreda, of the order ofSt. Domingo, collegiate of San Gregorio of Val-ladolid ; presented to this bishopric in 1558, andtaking possession of it 1560. In his time the citywas sacked by the English : he died in 1580.
4. Don Fr. Juan de Manzanillo, of the order ofSt. Domingo ; presented in the year 1582 ; he re-built the church, and died in 1593.
5. Don Fr. Diego Salinas, of the order of St.Domingo, native of Medina del Campo, colle-giate of San Gregorio de Valladolid, prior in dif-ferent convents, procurator-general in the court,and elected bishop in the year 1600 : in the fol-lowing year he died.
6. Don Fr. Pedro Martin Palomino, of the orderof St. Domingo ; elected in 1601 : he died the sameyear.
7. Don Fr. Pedro de Oña, native of Burgos, ofthe order of our Lady of La Merced ; he was even-ing lecturer in the university of Santiago, electedbishop in 1601, canonized in the convent of Val-ladolid, and before he came to his church, waspromoted to the bishopric of Gaeta, in the king-dom of Naples, in 1604.
8. Don Fr. Antonio de Alcega, of the order ofSt. Francis ; he Avas formerly married, and heldthe office of accountant to the royal estates in Yu-catán, when he became a widower, and giving allhe possessed as alms to the poor, he took to a re-ligious life, and Philip III. being charmed withhis virtues presented him to this bishopric in1664 ; he celebrated the synod in Caracas theyear following, and died in 1609.
9. Don Fr. Juan de Bohorques, native of Mex-
ico, of the religious order of St. Dominic ; electedbishop in 1610, and was from thence translated tothe bishopric of Oaxaca.
10. Don Fr. Gonzalo de Angulo, of the orderof St. Francis, native of Valladolid ; he was su-perior of the convent of Segovia, difinidor of theprovince of Castilla, qualificator of the inquisi-tion ; elected bishop in 1617, visited his bishopric,where he spent more than three years, confirmed3000 persons, and founded many grammar-schools ;he died in 1633.
11. Don Juan Lopez Agurto de la Mata, na-tive of the Mandof Tenerife, canon of the churchof the Puebla de los Angeles, prebendary of thatof Mexico, rector of the college of Los Santos,and lecturer in its university ; he was elected bishopof Puertorico in 1630, and promoted to this in1634 ; in which time the cathedral was removedfor the sake of security: in 1637 he died.
19. Don Fr. Mauro de Tobar, of the order ofSt. Benedict, native of Villacastin, prior and ab-bot of the monastery of Valladolid, and afterwardsof Monforte, preacher to Philip IV. ; elected tothis bishopric in 1639: immediately upon his tak-ing possession of it a great earthquake happened,and destroyed the cathedral, which he was rebuild-ing, when he was translated to the bishopric ofChiapa in 1655.
13. Don Fr. Alonso Briceño, of the order of LaMerced, of the province and kingdom of Chile;he entered Caracas in the year 1659, and diedin 1667.
14. Don Fr. Antonio Gonzales de Acuña, of theorder of St. Dominic, postulador in the court ofRome ; he was elected bishop in 1676, and diedin 1682.
15. The Doctor Don Diego de Baños and Soto-mayor, native of Santa Fe of Bogotá, head colle-giate of the college of the Rosario in this city,honorary chaplain to Charles II. and canon ofCuenca ; he was promoted to the mitre of SantaMarta in 1684 ; he founded the Tridentine col-lege, having endowed the same with professorshipsand revenues ; and being removed to the arch-bishopric of Santa Fe, he died in the year 1706.
16. Don Fr. Francisco del Rincon, of the reli-gious order of the Minims of St. Francis de Paula,native of Valladolid ; he was promoted to thearchbishopric of Domingo in 1711, and fromthence to that of Santa Fe in 1717.
17. Don Juan Joseph de Escalona y Calatayud,was born at Rioja, became doctor of theology atSalamanca, canon of Calahorra, and first chap-lain in the court of Madrid ; he was elected bishop
of Caracas, for his charity to the poor, in the year1719, and thence translated to the bishopric of Me-choacau in 1728.
18. Don Joseph Feliz Valverde, native of Gra-nada ; he passed his youth at Mexico, where hewas collegiate of the college of San lldefonso, doc-tor of theology, and of both laws, magistrate anddean of the church of Oaxaca ; elected bishop in1731, and promoted to the church of Mechoácan ;which last appointment he declined : he diedin 1741.
19. Don Juan Garcia Padiano ; who took pos-session in 1742, and died in 1746.
20. Don Manuel Breton, doctoral canon of thechurch of Badajos ; he died in going over to beconsecrated at Cordova in 1749.
21. Don Manuel Machado y Luna, honorarychaplain to his Majesty, and administrator of thecollege of Santa Isabel, native of Estremadura :he studied at Salamanca, obtained the title of pri-mate of canons ; reputed for one of the wisest inecclesiastical discipline ; was made bishop of Ca-racas in 1750, and died in 1752.
22. Don Francisco Julian Antolino, native ofZamora, an eminent theologist, penitentiary ca-non of Badajoz, and bishop of Caracas in 1753 :he died in 1755.
23. Don Miguel Argüelles, principal theologist,and curate in the archbishopric of Toledo ; electedbishop in 1756, and immediately after auxiliarybishop of Madrid.
24. Don Diego Antonio Diaz Madroñero, nativeof Talarrubias in Estremadura, vicar of the cityof Alcalá ; he entered upon his functions in 1757,and died in 1769.
25. Don Mariano Marti, of the principality ofCataluña, ecclesiastical judge and vicar-generalof the archbishopric of Tarragona, doctor in theuniversity of Cervera ; he was promoted to thebishopric of Puertorico in 1770.
Governors and Captains-General of the provinceof Caracas, or Venezuela.
1. Ambrosio de Alfinge ; nominated first gover-nor, and elected by the Weltzers: he drew up thearticles of stipulation with the Emperor in the con-quest of Venezuela ; was founder of the city ofCoro ; took possession of the government in 1528,and retained it till 1531, when he was killed by theIndians in satisfaction of the cruelties he had com-mitted.
2. Juan Aleman, related to the Welzers ; he, byway of precaution, assumed the title of governorwhile the place was vacant, and held it until thearrival of the proper person.
3. George of Spira, a German knight, nomi-nated by the Weltzers in 1533 : he died in 1540,leaving the title of provisional governor to,
4. Captain Juan de Villegas, a title which wasenjoyed but a few days, inasmuch as the audienceof St. Domingo, immediately upon their hearing oftlie death of Spira, appointed,
5. Don Rodrigo do Bastidas, bishop of that -holy church ; he governed till the year 1541, andbeing promoted to the bishopric of Puertorico,the government in the mean time devolved upon,
6. Diego Boica, a Portuguese gentleman, aknight of the order of Christ ; he was confirmedin the government by the audience of St. Domingo ;but in a very few days after he was superseded by,
7. Enrique Rembolt, a German ; who also go-verned a very short time, inasmuch as the excessesthat he committed, and the clamours of the inha-bitants of Toro, obliged the above tribunal tosend out,
8. The Licentiate Frias, fiscal of that royalaudience ; he entered upon his functions in 1642,until the royal nomination of,
9. The Licentiate Juan Perez de Tolosa, nativeof Segovia ; a very learned and prudent man : hewas chosen by the Emperor to settle the distur-bances which had arisen from the administration ofthe Weltzers; for which reason he deprived themof it ; he entered Coro in 1546 ; and although hehad not fulfilled the three years of his appointment,he was, on account of his tried abilities, confirmedin his office for another three years, and diedin 1548.
10. Juan de Villegas, nominated as intermediategovernor by his antecedent, until the arrival of theproprietor,
11. The Licentiate Villacinda, nominated bythe Princess Doña Juana, who, in the absence ofher father, the Emperor, held the reins of govern-ment in Castilla ; this governor took the reins in1554, and died in 1557, leaving the governmentin charge of the alcaldes.
12. Gutierrez de la Peña, nominated provision-ally bythe audience of St. Domingo ; he enteredupon his functions in 1557, until the year 1559,when arrived,
13. The Licentiate Pablo Collado, who governeduntil the year 1562, when, on account of the ap-peals made against him to the audience of St. Do-mingo, this court sent out an inquisitorial judge,who might call him to account, and order himback to Spain : this was the Licentiate Bernaldes,whom they called “ Ojo de Plata,” (Eye of Silver),he having the defect of one of his eyes supplied by
this artificial means. He having, therefore, dis-placed the former governor, took the managementof affairs upon himself, until the arrival of theproper person, who was nominated by the king in1563.
14. Don Alonzo de Manzanedo, who governed avery short time since ; being of a very advancedage, he soon fell sick, and died in 1564.
15. The Licentiate Bernaldes; who havinggained a certain reputation for the strictness, affa-bility, and justice, with which he conducted him-self in his provisional government, was nominaleda second time by the audience of St. Domingo,with the general acclamation of the province ;he governed until the year following, 1565, whenarrived,
16. Don Pedro Ponce de Leon, a branch of theillustrious house of the Dukes of Arcos ; he hadbeen alcalde of Conil, came to the government inthe aforesaid year, and died in 1569.
17. Don Juan de Chaves, a native of Truxilloin Estremadura ; who was living as a citizen atSt. Domingo at tiie time that he was appointedas provisional governor by the audience, as soon asthe death of the former was known to them : heentered upon the government the same year, andheld it until the year 1572.
18. Diego Mazariego ; who entered Coro in theabove year, and governed until 1576, when hissuccessor arrived, who was,
19. Don Juan Pimentel, a branch of the houseof the Counts of Benavente, knight of the order ofSantiago ; also the first governor who establishedhis residence in the city of Santiago. He wascalled from thence to take the charge of the go-vernment, which he exercised until the year 1582,when his successor arrived.
20. Don Luis de Roxas, native of Madrid ; heentered Caracas in 1583, reigned until 1587, whenhe was succeeded by,
21. Don Domingo de Osorio, commander of thegalleys, and chief officer of the customs of the islandof St. Domingo ; at which place he was residingwhen he received advices relative to his succeed-ing the former governor : he filled his office withmuch diligence, and obtained considerable renown,and in the year 1597 was promoted to the presi-dency of St. Domingo.
22. Gonzalo de Piña Lidueña, who governeduntil 1600, when he died of an apoplectic fit ; andin the interval the audience of St. Domingo ap-pointed,
23. Alonzo Arias Baca, citizen of Coro, and sonof the renowned Dr. Bernaldes, who liad governed
twice with so much credit ; he entered upon thegovernment in the same year.
24. Sancho de Alquiza, a captain of infantry ;who began to govern in the year 1601, and con-tinued until the year 1610, when he was succeededby,
25. Don Martin de Robles Villafañate, who go- ,verned the province with great credit and prudenceuntil his death.
26. Don Francisco de la Hoz Berrio, native ofSanta Fe. He entered upon the government in1616, and governed until the year 1622. He wasdrowned returning to Spain in the fleet which waslost in the falls of Metacumbe, close to the Ha-vannah.
27. Don Francisco Nuñez Melian, who suc-ceeded the former, and governed until the year 1632.
28. Don Rui Fernandez de Fuenmayor, fromthe last-mentioned year to 1638,
29. Don Marcos Gelder de Calatayud, a knightof the order of Calatrava ; he was promoted herefrom the government of Santa Marta in 1639, andgoverned until the year 1644, when he died.
32. Don Pedro de Porras y Toledo, who beganto govern in 1660, and remained in office untilthe year 1665.
37. Don Joseph Francisco de Cañas, colonel ofinfantry, and knight of the order of St. Jago ; hecame over to Caracas under a particular commis-sion in 1716, and became provisional successor onaccount of the death of the proper governor.
38. Don Francisco de Portales.
39. Don Lope Carrillo.
40. Don Sebastian Garcia de la Torre, colonelof infantry ; from the year 1730 to 1733
41. Don Martin de Lardizábal, alcalde del cri-men of the royal audience of Aragon; who wassent out with a commission to consider the griev-ances of the province preferred against the com-pany of Guipuzcoana.
42. The Brigadier-general Don Gabriel de Zu-loaga. Count of Torre-alta, captain of the grena-diers of the regiment of the royal Spanish guards ;he governed from 1737 to 1742.
43. The Brigadier-general Don Luis de Castel-lanos, also captain of the regiment of guards ; to1749.
44. Don Fray Julian de Arriaga y Rigera Bai
lio, of the order of St. Juan ; vice-admiral of theroyal armada : he governed to 1752, when he waspromoted to the office of president of trade.
45. Don Felipe Ricardos, lieutenant-general ofthe royal armies.
46. Don Felipe Ramirez de Esteñoz, a briga-dier-general.
47. Don Joseph Solano y Bote, captain in theroyal armada ; to the year 1771, when he was pro-moted to the presidency of St. Domingo.
48. The Brigadier-general the Marquis of LaTorre, knight of the order of Santiago ; he enteredCaracas in the aforesaid year, and governed untilthe year 1772, when he was promoted to be go-vernor of the Havannah.
49. Don Joseph Carlos de Aquiero, knight ofthe order of St. Jago ; who had served in the warof Italy as captain of the provincial grenadiers,and afterwards in the regiment of Spanish guards :he then held the government of Nueva Vizcaya,and afterwards, on account of his singular disinte-restedness, nominated to this in 1777 ; but he re-turned to Spain.
50. Don Luis de Unzaga y Amezaga, colonelof infantry : in the aforesaid year he left the go-vernment of Louisiana for this, and exercised ittill the year 1784, when lie was promoted to theHavannah, being succeeded by,
51. Don Manuel Gonzales, knight of the orderof St. Jago, brigadier of the royal armies ; he wasnominated as provisional successor.
52. The Colonel Don Juan Guillelmi, who hadserved in the corps of artillery ; he was promotedto the government in 1785.
[INDEX TO ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CON-CERNING THE City of Caracas.
1. Foundation. --- 2. Privileges. --- 3. Temperalure.--- 4. Meteorology. --- 5. Cyanometrical observa-tion. --- 6. Oxigen and nitrogen gas. --- 7. Va-riation of the needle. --- 8. Inclination of the dip-ping needle. --- 9. Situation. --- 10. Its waters. ---11. Streets. --- 12. Public squares. --- 13. Houses.--- 14. Public buildings. --- 15. Archbishopric. ---16. Cathedral. --- 17. Religious customs. --- 18.Religious costumes of the women. --- 19. Festi-vals. --- 20. The stage, & c. --- 21. Inhabitants. ---22. Freed persons or tradesmen. --- 23. The uni-versity. --- 24. Police. --- 25. Communications withthe interior. --- 26. With Spain. --- 27. Geogra-phical and statistical notices of the captainship-general of Caracas, and present history.
1. Foundation. --- This city, situate in 10° 31'n. lat. and 69° 3' w. long, from the meridian ofParis, was founded by Diego Losada in 1567, 47]
years after Cumana, 39 after Coro, 33 afterBarcelona, and 15 after Barquisimeto.
2. Ils privileges.— It is the capital, not only ofthe province of Venezuela, but likewise of thatimmense extent of country occupied by the go-vernments of Maracaibo, Barinas, Guayana, Cu-mana, and the island of Margareta ; since it is theseat as well of the captain-generalship, the political 'and military authority of which extends over allthese provinces, as of the royal audience, of theintendancy, and of the consulate, the jurisdictionof which extends as far as the captain-general-ship.
3. Temperature.— Its temperature does not atall correspond with its latitude ; for, instead ofinsupportable heat, which, it would appear,ought to reign so near the equator, it, on thecontrary, enjoys an almost perpetual spring. Itowes this advantage to its elevation, which is 460fathoms above the level of the sea. Thus, al-though the sun has the power usual in such a lati-tude, the elevated situation of Caracas counter-balances its influence. The transitions from heatto cold are great and sudden, from whence nume-rous diseases arise; the most common of which arecolds, called by the Spaniards catarros.
4. Meteorology.— Height of Fahrenheit’s ther-
mometer at Caracas.
In the winter.
Generally at 6 A. M 58°
2 P. M. ' ... 73
10 P. M 68
The maximum .... 76The minimum . . . .52
In the summer.
Generally at 6 A. M 72°
2 P. M 79
10 P. M 75
Maximum . . . . .85
Minimum ..... 69Humidity, according to the hydrometer of Duluc.
The mercury, which rises in the most s. partsof Europe, and in the variations of the atmo-sphere to 1 l-12ths of the Paris inch, ascends only2-12ths in the e. parts of Tierra Firme. They ob-serve at Caracas, in all the seasons, four small at-mospherical variations every 24 hours, two in theday, and two in the night.
5. Blue of the skies by the cyanometer of Seaus-sure.
Generally .... 18
6. Oxigen and nitrogen gas. — Of 100 parts, 28of oxj'^gen and 72 of nitrogen.
The maximum of the first is 29The minimum . . . 27f
7. Variation of the needle.
Sept. 27th, 1799 . . 4° 38' 45"
8. Inclination of the dipping needle. Generally^^4-so- Oscillation of the pendulum : in 15 minutes,1270 oscillations.
9. Situation. — The city of Caracas is built in avalley of four leagues in length, in a direction frome. to w. and between that great chain of mountainsAvhich runs in a line with the sea from Coro to Cu-mana. It is, as it were, in a basin or hollow form-ed by this chain ; for it has mountains of equalheight to the n. and to the s. The city occupies aspace of 2000 square paces ; the ground on whichit stands remains as nature formed it, art havingdone nothing towards levelling it, or diminishingits irregularities. The declivity is every wheredecidedly from the s. : the whole of it is 75 fa-thoms perpendicular from the gate De la Pastorato the n. unto the river Guaire, which bounds thecity to the s.
10. Its waters. — It derives its waters from foursmall rivers. The first, which is called Guaire,bounds it entirely on the s. part without pene-trating into the city. Although this be scarcelyconsiderable enough to deserve the name of a river,it is too large to pass by the name of a rivulet. Thesecond, which bears the name of Anauco, watersthe e. side of the town ; and the part where it ap-proaches nearest is called Candelaria, where thereis built a handsome bridge, facilitating the com-munication with the valley of Chacao. The thirdis the Caroata : its course is from n. to s. throughall the w. part of the city, and separates it fromthe quarter called St. John, which parts are unitedby a stone bridge of a sufficiently solid construc-tion, but the regularity of which does not equalthat of the Candelaria. The fourth is named Ca-tucho, to which the city owes the waters of an in-finite number of public and private fountains ; yetthe inhabitants of Caracas, insensible to its bene-fits, suffer it to run in the same channel that timehas made for it, and amidst all the deformitieswhich the rains have occasioned ; for the fourbridges of communication which are thrown acrossit are rather to be considered the offsprings of ne-cessity than as objects of ornament. These fourrivers, after having served all the domestic uses ofthe city, run in one single channel across the valleyof Chacao, which is covered Avith fruits, provi-sions, and merchandize ; and, mixing their wa-]
[ters with those of the Tuy, fall under this nameinto the ocean, at 12 leagues to the e. of cape Co-dera.
11. Its streets. — The streets of Caracas, likethose of many modern cities, arc in parallel lines,about 20 feet broad, paved, and running n. s. e.and w. The houses are well built, about SOO feetfrom each other.
12. Public squares. — There are but three public
squares deserving of the name, and these are notfree from deformities. The great square, calledPlaza Mayor., which ought to be the most regular,is deformed by booths built to the e. and w. whichare let to shopkeepers for the profit of the city;and for the trifling emolument thus derived, issacrificed a most delightful prospect. This squareoccupies the same space as one of the gardens ofthe city, called Quadras, the size of which is aboutSOO square feet. The square is well paved, and init is held a market, in which you might procure inabundance vegetables, fruits, fresh and salted meat,fish, poultry, game, bread, paroquets, and monkeys.The cathedral, which is situate on the e. side of thesquare, has no symmetrical connection with it. Thissquare has on each side two entrances. The secondsquare is that of the Candelaria, surrounded veryregularly by an open palisade of iron upon stonework of an unequal height. This square, althouglinot paved, has a soil of clay mixed with sand, whichis as good as the best pavement, and altogetherit does not fail to afford an agreeable coup d’oeil.It owes nothing to the buildings that compose it,Bor is there, indeed, one fit to engage the attention,save tlie church of Candelaria, which, althoughnot of perfect geometrical proportion, has a frontwhich diverts the eye, and is by no means a dis-advantage to the square. Tlie third square is thatof St. Paul ; its only ornament is a fountain in itscentre. The church of St. Paul is, indeed, at thes. c. angle, but has no other symmetrical relationwith the square than that it forms a part of it.This square is neither paved nor even. The othersquares are, 1st, That of Trinidad, Avhich hasnot even the form of a square, and the ground ofwhich is extremely uneven and neglected : 2rf,That of St. Hyacinth, containing the conventof the Dominicans, and bordered on the e.by the pavement of a street, and crossed by an-other, so as to induce a supposition that it was ne-ver intended for a square : 3d, That of St. La-
zarus, which is a sort of inclosure before the churchof that name, situate to tlie s. e. of the city ; it hasthe merit of neatness, but so detached from the town,that it does not appear to form a part of it : 4//i,The square of Pastora, which is surrounded by
ruins : 5th, The square of St. John, which isspacious, but irregular, unpaved, and borderedonly on the w. side by a row of houses of meanconstruction. It is in this square that (he mountedmilitia are exercised.
13. Houses . — The houses of individuals arehandsome and well built. There are a great num-ber in the interior of the city, which consist of se-parate stories, and are of a very handsome ap-pearance. Some are of brick, but the greaterpart are of masonry, made nearly after the mannerof the Homans, and on the plan now adopted whenbuilding in marshes or in the sea, &c. accordingto the method published by Mr. Tarditf in 1757.They make a sort of frame without a bottom,with planks of five feet long and three high, whichbecomes the model of the front of the Avail aboutto be erected. The ground on which they buildserves as a foundation to this frame or support, andthe frame is removed as each tier or part is addedto complete the walls. They cover the Avails withmortar, called in the country tapia. There aretAvo sorts of this mortar : the first, to Avhich theygive the pompous name of royal tapia, is made ofthe sand of the river mixed with chalk, to Avhichare frequently added flints, stones, and pebbles %the second is composed of common sand Avith avery small quantity of chalk. A person easilydistinguishes, by the mixture of these materials,that Avhich is the most durable ; yet both acquire,by means of the pestle, a consistency which bravesfor a long time the inclemencies of the seasons andthe effects of time. The outside of the houses,Avhen made rough and whitened, appears equal tofree stone.. 'I'he timber of the roof is formed, as itAvere, into a double slope. The wood Avork is Avelljoined, very elegant, and of an excellent descrip-tion of wood, which the country furnishes in abun-dance. The houses of the principal people of thecity, in general, are neatly and even richly fur-nished : they have handsome glasses, elegant cur-tains of crimson damask at the windows and at theinner doors ; chairs and sofas of Avood, Avith thesdats covered with leather or damask stuffed withhair, Avorked in a Gothic style, but overloadedAvith gilding ; beds, Avith the head-boards raisedvery high, exposing to the sight nothing but gold,covered Avitli handsome damask counterpanes, andseveral pillows of feathers covered with muslincases ornamented with lace ; but there is seldommore than one bed of this magnificence in eachhouse, and this is generally the nuptial bed, thoughbeing, in fact, merely kept for show. The feet ofthe fables and the commodes are richly gilt : ele-gant lustres are suspended in the principal apart-
[ments ; the very cornices appear to have beendipped in gold, whilst superb carpets are spreadover the part of llie floor whereon the seats of ho-nour are placed ; the furniture is arranged in thehall in such a manner that the sofa, which formsan essential part of it, stands at one end withchairs on the right and left, and opposite the prin-cipal bed in the house, which stands at the otherextremitj, in a chamber, the door of which is keptopen, or is equally exposed to view in an alcove.These apartments, always very elegant and high-ly ornamented, are in a manner prohibited to thosewho inhabit the house : they are only opened, witha few exceptions, in honour of guests of superiorrank.
14. Public buildings. — The city of Caracaspossesses no other public buildings than such asare dedicated to religion. The captain-general,the members of the royal audience, the intendant,and all the officers of the tribunal, occupy hiredhouses ; even the hospital for the troops is a pri-vate house. The contaduria, or treasury, is theonly building belonging to the king, and its con-struction is far from bespeaking the majesty of itsowner. It is not so with the barracks ; they arenew, elegantly built, and situate in a spot where thesight breaks upon the city, and are two storieshigh, in which they can conveniently lodge 2000men. They are occupied only by the troops ofthe line ; the militia having barracks of their own,consisting of a house, at the opposite part of thecity.
15. Archbishopric. — Caracas is the seat of thearchbishopric of Venezuela, the diocese of whichis very extensive, it being bounded on the n. bythe sea, from the river Unare to the jurisdiction ofCoro ; on the e. by the province of Cumana, onthe s. by the Orinoco, and on the w. by thebishopric of Merida. Caracas was erected intoan archbishopric in 1803. The annual revenueof the archbishopric depends on the abundance ofthe harvests and the price of commodities, onAvhich they take the titlies : these tithes are equallydivided between the archbishopric, tlie chapter,the king, and the ministers of religion. Thefourth part, belonging to the prelate, amounted onan average, before the war terminated by the treatyof Amiens, to 60,000 dollars per annum. Thedecrease of cultivation will for a long time pre-vent the episcopal revenues amounting to theabove sum. Indeed the archbishop does noteven enjoy the whole of this fourth part of thetithes, the king having reserved to himself theapplication of the third of this quarter, and charg-ing upon it certain pensions. The seat of this
archbishopric was established at Coro in 1532,and translated to Caracas in 1636.
16. Cathedral. — The cathedral church does notmerit a description but from the rank it holds inthe hierarchy ; not but that the interior is deco-rated with hangings and gilding, and that thesacerdotal robes and sacred vases are sufficientlysplendid, but that its construction, its architec-ture, its dimensions, and its arrangements, arevoid of majesty and regularity. It is about 250feet long and 75 broad ; it is low and supported inthe interior by 24 pillars in four rows, which runthe whole length of the cathedral. The two centrerows form the nave of the church, which is 25feet broad ; the other two rows divide the aisles atequal distances of 12| feet, so that the nave aloneis of the width of the two aisles, which are on itsright and left. The chief altar, instead of being,like the Roman altars, in the centre, is placedagainst the wall. The choir occupies one halfof tlie nave, and the arrangement of the churchis such, that not more than 400 persons can seethe officiating priest at whatever altar he may beperforming tlie service. The exterior does notevince any taste or skill in the architect ; thesteeple alone, without having received any em-bellishment from art, has at least the merit of aboldness to which the cathedral has no pretensions.The only clock in Caracas is in this steeple ; itstrikes the quarters, and keeps time pretty well.The humble architecture of the first church inCaracas springs from a source highly honourableto the inhabitants, and which we are thereforebound to relate : The episcopal chair having beentranslated from Coro to Caracas, (as we have be-fore observed), in 1636, there was no necessityuntil this period for a cathedral in this city ; andwhen they had begun to carry into execution aproject of erecting a magnificent church, therehappened, on 11th June 1641, a violent earth-quake, which did great damage in the city. Thiswas regarded as an admonition of heaven to makethe fabric more capable of resisting this sort ofcatastrophe, than of attracting the admiration ofthe curious. From this time, therefore, they nolonger thought of, or rather they renounced, all ideasof magnificence, to give the building nothing butsolidity. But as they have never since expe-rienced any shock of an earthquake, they haveresumed the project of building a handsome ca-thedral.
17. Religious customs, — The people of Caracas,like all the Spaniards, are proud of being Chris-tians, and are very attentive to the duties of re-ligion, that is to the mass, days of obligation, to]
[sermons and processions ; but it is worthy of re-mark, that they do not admit vespers in the num-ber of religious exercises, ag'reeably to the cus-tom of Old Spain and other Catholic countries.It is necessary that the men going to churchshould wear a cloak or great coat, or that theybe dressed in a long coat ; one of these habits isindispensable, neither rank nor colour affordingan exemption.
18. Religious costumes of the women . — Thedress of the women, whether rich or poor, espe-cially of the whites, ought to be altogether black.This dress consists of a petticoat and veil bothblack ; the slaves alone are obliged to have a Avhiteveil. The object of this attire was, that by im-posing on the sex a veil, every kind of gallantry andcoquetry might be banished from the place ofworship, and that by establishing uniformity indress and colour, the pious might be reminded ofthe equality of all in the eyes of God. But thisdress, which was intended to be the same for everywoman, and of a very common stuff, has becomemost rare and costly, and the gauze veils whichthe ladies wear, expose all their features and com-plexion as far as the eyes. This dress, worn onlyin sacred duties, is now made of silk or velvet,enriched with handsome lace, which often costsfrom 400 to 800 dollars. Such as have no meansof procuring the customary church dress, areobliged to go to the masses that are said beforeday-break, and which are called missasde madru-gada, and are performed at these hours only forthe convenience of those who are destitute ofclothes sufficiently decent to appear at churchduring the day.
19. Festivals . — The Spaniards have no otherfestivals blit those contained in the Roman calen-dar. They are so multiplied at Caracas that thereare very few days in the year on which they donot celebrate the festival of some saint or virginin one of the churches of the city. What greatlymultiplies the number is, that each festival is pre-ceded bj' nine days of devotion consecrated en-tirely to prayers, and followed by eight days, inwhich the faithful of the neighbourhood, and evenof the whole city, join to prayers, public amuse-ments, such as fire-works, music, balls, &c. ; butthe pleasures of tliese festivals never extend to thetable. Public feasts, so common among all otherpeople, are unknown on such occasions amongthe Spaniards. These people are sober even inthe delirium of pleasure. The most striking partof their festivals is the procession of the saint theycelebrate; they perform this always in the after-noon ; the saint, represented by an effigy of human
stature, is richly dressed ; it is borne on a tablehandsomely decorated, and followed or precededby some other saint of the same church, dressedless sumptuously ; a great number of banners andcrosses open the cavalcade ; the men walk in twolines ; each of the principal persons holds a waxtaper, then follow' the music, the clergj', thecivil officers, and at last the women and a file ofbayonets. The followers are always very numer-ous. All the windows in the streets tliroughAvhich the procession passes, are ornamented withfloating streamers, which give the whole neigh-bourhood an air of festivity and rejoicing. Thewindows of the French, in particular, are filledwith ladies, who repair from all parts of the cityto view the agreeable spectacle. But the princi-pal and almost exclusive devotion of the Spaniardsis to the holy Virgin ; they have Irer in everychurch under different denominations, and inevery case she has established herself in a man-ner more or less miraculous.
20. The Stage . — The sum of the public amuse-ments at Caracas is the play-house, at which theyperform only on festivals, the price of admissionbeing a real, nearly sixpence English, a sumsufficiently indicating the talents of the actors,and the beauty and convenience of the theatre.All the plays, bad enough in themselves, are yetmore miserably performed. The performers ofCaracas may be compared to strolling players wholive by moving pity rather than by affordingamusement; every body must suppose from thisdescription, that an exliibition of this sort is alto-gether deserted, but the reader may be assuredthat the rich and poor, the young and the old, thenobleman and plebeian, the governor and the go-verned, all assiduously frequent the theatre. In-dependently of three tennis-courts, a few billiard-tables in a bad condition, scattered through thecity, and which are but rarely frequented, com-plete the catalogue of amusements at Caracas,indeed ttie Sjuviiiards appear averse to all placesof amusement ; they live in their houses as if theyAvere prisons, they never quit them but to go tochurch, or to lultil the offices imposed on themby their stations in society.
21. Inhabitants . — The city of Caracas contain-ed, according to the clerical census of 1802, 31,234souls, and in 1806 they exceeded 40,000. Thispopulation is classed into whites, slaves, freedpeople, and a very fcAV Indians. The first formalmost a fourth part of the amount, the slaves athird part, the Indians a twentieth part, and thefreed men the remainder. In the Avliite popula-tion there are six Castillian titles, three marquisses,]
[their Ures in the exercises of devotion, and they arctondof forming themselves into religious societies;indeed there are few churclies that have not one ortwo of these fraternities, composed entirely of en-franchised slaves. Every one has its uniform,differing from the other only in colour.
23. University. — The education of the youth ofCaracas and ot the whole archbishopric is entirelyin a college and an university united together.The foundation of the college preceded that of theuniversity by more than 60 years. This institu-tion originated in the piety and care of bishop A.Gonzales de Acuna, who died in 16S2. At firstnothing was taught here but Latin, with the ad-dition of scholastic philosophy and theology. Ithas now a reading and a writing school ; three Latinschools, in one of which they profess rhetoric ;two professors of philosophy, one of which is a layor secular priest, and the other a Dominican ; fourprofessors of theology, two for school divinity, onefor ethics, and another for positive divinity, thelast of which ought always to be a Dominican ; aprofessor of civil law ; a professor of canon law ; aprofessor of medicine. The university and col-lege of Caracas have only a capital of 47,748 dol-lars and 6\ reals, put out at interest, and produc-ing annually 2.387 dollars, 3| reals: this sumpays the 12 professors. All the ranks of bachelor,licentiate, and doctor, are granted at the univer-sity. The first is given by the rector, the twoothers by the chancellor, who is also endowed withthe quality of schoolmaster. The oath of eachrank is to maintain the immaculate conception, notto teach nor practise regicide or tyrannicide, andto defend the doctrine of St. Thomas. In this col-lege and university there were, in 1802, 64 boarders,and 402 students not boarders, viz.
In the lower classes, comprising rhetoric, 202
Philosophy - - . 140
Theology - - - 36
Canon and civil law - - 55
Physic - - - 11
la the school of sacred music - 22
24. Police . — The Spaniards of Caracas, of allpeople in the world, stand least in need of a policeto preserve public tranquillity. Their natural so-briety, and more especially their phlegmatic dis-position, render quarrels and tumults very rareamong them. Here there is never any noise in thestreets ; every body in them is silent, dull, andgrave ; 300 or 400 people coming out of a
church make no more noise than a tortoise movingalong the sand. But if the magistrate has nothing
to fear from open crimes, he has so much the moreto apprehend from assassinations, thefts, frauds,and treachery. The Spaniard is far from exemptfrom that vindictive spirit, which is the moredangerous as it seeks its revenge only in thedark ; and from that rancour which veils itselfwith the mask of friendship to procure an oppor-tunity of gratifying its vengeance. A person whofrom his station and condition has no chance ofrevenging himself, save by his own hands, exhi-bits very little or no passion when he receives theoffence ; but from that instant he watches the op-portunity, which he seldom suffers to escape him,of plunging a poniard in the heart of his enemy.The Spaniards from the province of Andalucia areparticularly branded with this criminal habit. Weare assured that these unfortunate events were un-known here before the year 1778, at which timethe liberty of trading with the province ofYene-zuela, which was belbre exclusively granted to thecompany of Guipuscoa, was extended to all theports of Spain, and drew a number of Spaniards toCaracas Irom every province, and particularlyfrom that of Andalucia. It is true that almost allassassinations that happen at Caracas are perpe-trate by the Europeans : those that can be laid tothe charge of the Creoles are most rare. But allthe thefts are committed by the whites or pre-tended whites of the country, and the enfranchisedpersons. False measures, false weights, changingof commodities and provisions, are likewise fre-quent practices ; because they are looked uponless as acts of dishonesty than as proofs of an ad-dress of which they are proud. HoAvever greatmay be the occupation of the police, it is certainmany things call loudly upon their attention. Itwill hardly be believed that the city of Caracas,the capital of the province, and able to supplyhorned cattle to all the foreign possessions inAmerica, is many days in the year itself in wantof butcher’s meat. The residence of a captain-general, the seat of an archbishop, of a royal audi-ence, and of the principal tribunals of appeal, witha population of more than 40,000 souls, and, inshort, with a garrison of 1000 men, experiencefamine in the midst of abundance. If filth doesnot accumulate in the streets, it is owing t6 thefrequency of the rains, and not to the care of thepolice ; for they are never washed but in honourof some procession. Such streets as procession*do not pass through are covered with an herblike the weed on ponds, the pnnicum dactylum ofLinnaeus. Mendicity, which is in almost everyother country the province of the police, appearsto be unnoticed by it in Caracas. The streets arc]
[crowded with poor of both sexes, who Iiave noother subsistence than what tliey derive from alms,and who prefer these means of living to that oflabour. It is feared that the indiscriminate cha-rity exhibited liere is productive of the worst ef-fects ; that it affords to vice the means of remain-ing vicious. The police are indeed acquaintedwith these abuses, but cannot repress them withoutthe imputation of impiety. To form a correct ideaof the number of mendicants that wander in the.streets, it is but necessary to know that the arch-bishop distributes generally alms every Saturday ;that each mendicant receives a half-escalin, orl-16th of a dollar ; and that at each of these piousdistributions there is given a sum of from 75 or 76dollars, wliich should make the number of beggarsat least 1200 ; and in this list are not included thosewho are ashamed to beg publicly, and to whomthe worthy prelate D. Francis d’lbarra, a Creoleof Caracas, distributes certain revenues in secret.The cabildo^ composed of 22 members, and se-conded by the alcaldes de barrio, who are magis-trates distributed throughout the wards of the city,would be more than sufficient to manage the af-fairs of the police ; but the presence of the higherauthorities, who wish to share the prerogatives ofcommand, has made a division of all matters ofpolice between the governor, the lieutenant-go-yernor, and a member of the audience, who, underthe title of judge of the province, exercises its func-tions in conjunction with the authorities just men-tioned.
25. Communications with the interior. — Caracas,the centre of all the political, judicial, fiscal, mili-tary, commercial, and religious concerns of its de-pendencies, is also naturally that of all the com-munication in the interior. The roads are almostevery where just traced, and nothing more. Themud and overflowing of the rivers, over whichthere are neither bridges nor passage-boats, renderthem impracticable in the rainy season ; and in nopart of the year are they convenient. They countthe distance by a day’s journey, and not by leagues :but a fair computation of a day’s journey is 10leagues, of 2000 geometrical paces each. Theorders transmitted by the governor to the severaltowns of the interior arrive there by expre.ss, andcommunications of whatever nature are returnedby the same means. There are no regular courierssetting out from the capital, excepting for Mara-caibo, Puerto Cabello, Sante Fe, Cumana, andGuayana. All the towns situate on the roads tothese four chief places enjoy the advantages of apost. The courier for Maracaibo sets out fromCaracas every Thursday evening at six o’clock ;
it carries the letters of Victoria, Tulmeco, Mara-cay, Valencia, St. Philip, Puerto Cabello, andCoro ; it is 10 days going from Caracas to Mara-caibo, and arrives from Maracaibo at Caracas ol’ vevery 15th day, but from Puerto Cabello everyTuesday. On the 6th and 22d of each month,a courier sets out from Caracas for Santa Fe ; itcarries the letters of San Carlos, Guanare, Araux,Tocayo, Barquisimeto, Barinas, Merida, Carta-gena, Santa Marta, and Peru ; and arrives, or oughtto arrive, the 4th and 20th of each month ; it isgenerally 42 days in going from Caracas to SantaFe. The courier of Cumana and Guayana arrivesat Caracas once a month ; it proceeds, or stops,according to the state of the roads and rivers.Five days after its arrival at Caracas it sets outagain. The letters for Guayana go directly fromBarcelona by a courier ; and those for Cumana andMargareta by another. This arrives at its placeof destination in 12 days, and that of Guayanain SO days.
26. With Spain . — The official letters from Spainarrive at Caracas every month. A king’s packetsails on one of the first three days of each monthfrom Coruna, touches at the Canaries to leavetheir letters, then sails for the Havanah, andleaves in its way to Puertorico the letters addresser!as well for that island as for tim government ofCaracas. The latter are immediately forwardedby one of the little vessels kept for this service.During war the mail from Spain, instead of touch-ing at Puertorico, leaves the letters for Caracasand its dependencies at Cumana, and those for thekingdom of Santa Fe at Cartagena, and finally al-ways proceeds to the Havanah, from whence itsdeparture for Spain is regular and periodical.The answers from Caracas, even those that are of-ficial, are sent to Spain by the merchant vesselswhich sail from Guaira to Cadiz.
27. Geographical and statistical notices of thecapt amship'general of Caracas, and present his-torij. — Depons’ Voyage to the e. part of TierraFirme, or the Spanish main, in S. America, com-prises an ample description of this region ; and isthe principal authority for the anterior and subse-quent notices. This territory is situate betweenthe 12th degree of«. latitude and the equinoctial.It comprehends
Isle of Margareta,
[1803 amounted to 5,500,000, and the exports con-sisted of produce to the value of 4,000,000 dollars.He also states the population in 1808 at 900,000souls. The receipts of Caracas, Guatemala, andChile, are consumed within the country. Thepopulation of some of the chief cities is thus stated ;Caracas 40,000, La Guaira 6000, Puerto Cabello7600, Coro 10,000. The harbour, or La Vela deCoro, as it is commonly called, and its environs, aresupposed to contain not less than 2000. In 1797three state prisoners were sent from Spain to Ca-racas, on account of their revolutionary propensi-ties. Being treated with great indulgence by theofficers and soldiers to whose care they were com-mitted, they formed the project of a conspiracyagainst the government. They engaged a numberof persons, some of them of consequence, in theirparty. After gaining their first converts, the spiritdid not spread. The coldness and apathy of thepeople did not admit of the effervescene they de-sired. After the plot had been kept a secret formany months it was disclosed to the government.Some of the ringleaders escaped, and others weretaken. It was found that seventy-two had enteredinto the conspiracy; six were executed. Therest either escaped, or were sent to the galleys orbanished from the country. For an account of therecent revolution in Caracas, see Venezuela.]
Caracas, some islands of the N. sea near thecoast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the pro-vince and government of Cumana. They are sixin number, all small and desert, serving as placesof shelter to the Dutch traders, who carry on anillicit commerce on that coast.
CARACHIS, San Carlos de a settlement ofthe province and country of the Amazonas ; a re-duccion of the missions which belonged to the abo-lished order of the Jesuits. It is at the mouth ofthe river Huerari, where this enters the Maranon.
CARAIMILLA, a settlement on the coast ofthe province and corregimiento aforementioned,between point Caraima Alta, and the isle of Obispo.
CARAMANTA, a city of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the new kingdom ofGratiada ; founded by Sebastian de Benalcazar in1543, near the river Cauca. Its temperature ishot and unhealthy, but it is fertile in maize, vege-tables, grain, and abounds with herds of swine : nearit are many small rivers which enter the Cauca,and some salt pits of the whitest salt. On themountains within its jurisdiction, are some settle-ments of barbarian Indians very little known. Thiscity is indifferently peopled, and is 65 leagues dis-tant to the n. e. of Popayan, and 50 from Antio-quia. Long. 75° 33' w. Lat. 5° 58' «.
rection to be drowned in the lake Yaguarcocha,which from thence takes its name, and signifies thelake of blood, with which it was quite polluted ;tlie Indians stating, .according to their traditions,that no less than 20,000 people were thus sacri-ficed. Part of this province is at present compre-hended in that of Ibarra, and part in that ofOtavalo.
CARAQUES, Bay of, on the S. sea-coast, andin the province and government of Guayaquil. Itis close to cape Pasao, and near the equinoctialline. There was a settlement here, bearing the samename, the ruins of which are still visible.
CARARE, a large river of the new kingdom ofGranada. It rises in the valley of Alferez, to then. of the city of Tunja, runs from s. ton. and join-ing the Zarbe, enters the large river of Magdalena.On the e. side, near the narrow pass which formsits shores, the French have constructed a fort toguard against invasion from the infidel Indians.
CARARI, a strait of the large river Magdalena,formed by great rocks. There was formerly herea fort, which has been moved to a place at somelittle distance. The course of the waters in theabove strait is so rapid as to render it sometimesimpossible for vessels and canoes to pass through it.
Carauele, a small island of the N. sea, situatenear the n. e. coast of the island of Martinique,on the n. side of Carauele point.
CARAUELLES, a river of the province andcaptainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil. It risesat the foot of the « Fria, and describing a smallcircle, runs s. e. and according to Cruz, e. andenters the sea opposite the island of Pajaros.
Carbet, two very high mountains of the aboveisland. They are full of sharp points similar tothose on Montserrat in Cateluila. They are nearthe coast, lying towards the n. w. part ; and theFrench call them Pitons de Carbet.
Carbet, a point on the e. coast of the island
Of Guadalupe, between the Three Rive*‘s and theAgujero del Ferro.
CARCAI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Soras. It has a hot spring of water ofvery medicinal properties, and its heat is so greatthat an egg may be boiled in it in an instant.
CARCARANAL, a river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It rises in the pro-vince of Tucuman, in the mountains of the cityof Cordoba, runs nearly from e. torw. with thename of Tercero, and changing it into Carcara-iial, after it becomes united Avith the Saladillo, joinsthe Plata, and enters the Salado and the Tres Hec-manas.
CARCAZI, a settlement of the government andJurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, situate betAveen two mountains, whichcause its temperature to be very moderate. It pro-duces much Avheatand maize ; in its cold parts suchfruits as are peculiar to that climate, and in themilder parts sugar-cane. Its neighbourhoodabounds Avith flocks of goats ; and the number ofinhabitants may amount to about 200 Spaniardsand 30 Indians. It is situate on the confines Avhichdivide the jurisdictions of Tunja and Pamplona.
(CARDIGAN, about 20 miles e. of Dartmouthcollege, New Hampshire. The township ofOrange once bore this name, which see.)
CARDINALES, Sombreros de. See articlePitangoas.
CARDOSO, Real de, a settlement and realof gold mines in the province and captainship ofTodos Santos in Brazil; situate on the shore ofthe large river of San Francisco, to the n. of thevillage of Tapuyas.
CAREN, a valley or meadow-land of the king-dom of Chile, renowned for its pleasantness, beauty,and extent, being five leagues in length; also fora fountain of very delicate and salutary water,which, penetrating to the soil in these parts, ren-ders them so exceedingly porous, that a person tread-ing somewhat heavily seems to shake the groundunder him. There is an herb found here that keepsgreen all the year round: it is small, resemblingtrefoil, and the natives call it caren: it is of a veryagreeable taste, and gives its name to the valley.
CARENERO, a bay of the coast of the king-dom of Tierra Firme in the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It is extremely convenientfor careening and repairing ships, and from thiscircumstance it takes its name. It lies behind capeCodera towards the e.
CARET, Anse be, a bay of the island of St.Christopher, one of the Antilles, on the n. e. coast,and in the part possessed by the French beforethey ceded the island to the Englissh. It is be-tween the bays of Fontaine and Morne, or Fuenteand Morro.
CARGUAIRASO, a lofty mountain and vol-cano of the province and corregimiento of Rio-bamba in the kingdom of Quito. It is in the dis-trict of the asiento of Ambato, covered with snowthe whole year round. Its skirts are covered withfine crops of excellent barley. In 1698 this pro-vince was visited by a terrible earthquake, whichopened the mountain and let in a river of mud,formed by the snows which were melted by thefire of the volcano, and by the ashes it threw up.So dreadful were the effects of this revolution thatthe whole of the crops were completely spoiled ;and it was in vain that the cattle endeavoured to-
escape the destruction which followed them where-ever they fled. Still are the vestiges of this cala-mity to be seen, and there are large quantities ofthis mud or lava, now become hard, scattered onthe s. side of the settlement.
CARHUACAIAN, a settlement of the same pro-vince and corregimiento as the former ; annexedto the curacy of Pomacocha.
CARI, a river of the province and governmentof Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the Mesa (Table-land) de Guanipa, andruns s. being navigable to the centre of the pro-vince, and enters the Orinoco near the narrowpart.
Cari, a settlement of the same province; oneof those under the care of the religious order of S.Francisco, missionaries of Piritu. It is situateon the shore of the former river.
CARIACO, a large gulf of the coast of TierraFirme, in the province and government of Curnana.It is also called, Of Curnana, from this -capital beingbuilt upon its shores. The bajr runs 10 or 12leagues from w. to c. and is one league toroad atits widest part. It is from 80 to 100 fathomsdeep, and the waters are so quiet as to resemblerather the waters of a lake than those of the ocean.It is surrounded by the serramasy or lofty chainsof mountains, which shelter it from all winds ex-cepting that of the n. e. which, blowing on it as itwere through a straitened and narrow passage,it accustomed to cause a swell, especially from 10
m the morning until five in the evening, after whichall becomes calm. Under the above circumstances,the larger vessels ply to windward ; and if thewind be very strong, they come to an anchor outhe one or other coast, and wait till the evening,when the land breezes spring up from the s. e. Inthis gulf there are some good ports and bays, viz.the lake of Obispo, of Juanantar, of Gurintar,and others.
Cariaco, a river of the same province and go-vernment, taking its rise from many streams andrivulets which rise in the serrania, and unite be.fore they flow into the valley of the same Uame.After it has run some distance over the plain, it iscut off' to water some cacao plantations, and thenempties itself into the sea through the former gulf.In the winter great part of the capital, which issituate upon its banks, is inundated, and the riveris tlien navigated by small barks or barges ; but inthe summer it becomes so dry that there is scarce-ly water sufficient to nqvigate a canoe.
Cariaco, a small city of the same province,situate on the shore of the gulf. [This city (ac-cording to Depons) bears, in the official papersand in the courts of justice, the name of San Fe-lipe de Austria. The population is only 6500,but every one makes such a good use of his timeas to banish misery from the place. The produc-tion most natural to the soil is cotton, the beautyof which is superior to that of all Tierra Firme.This place alone furnishes annually more than3000 quintals ; and besides cacao they grow a littlesugar. Lat. 10° SO' n. Long. 63° 39' w.
(CARIACOU is the ehief of the small isles de-pendent on Granada island in the West Indies;situate four leagues from isle Rhonde, which is alike distance from the «. end of Granada. It con-tains 6913 acres of fertile and well cultivated land,producing about 1,000,000 lbs. of cotton, be-sides corn, yams, potatoes, and plaintains for theNegroes. It has two singular plantations, and atown called Hillsborough.)
CARIATAPA, a settlement which belonged tothe missions of the regular order of the Jesuits, inthe province of Topia and kingdom of Nueva Viz-caya ; situate in the middle of the sierra of thisname, and on the shore of the river Piastla.
ment of Paraguay ; situate on a small river aboutl5 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23° 30' 27"Long. 56° 52' w.)
(Carlisle, the chief town of Cumberlandcounty, Pennsylvania, on the post-road from Phi-ladelphia to Pittsburg ; is 125 miles w. by n. fromthe former, and 178 e. from the latter, and 18 s. w.from Harrisburgh. Its situation is pleasant andhealthy, on a plain near the s. bank of Conedog-winet creek, a water of the Susquehannah. Thetown contains about 400 houses, chiefly of stoneand brick, and about 1500 inhabitants. The streetsintersect each other at right angles, and the publicbuildings are a college, court-house, and gaol, andfour edifices for public worship. Of these thePresbyterians, Germans, Episcopalians, and RomanCatholics, have each one. Dickinson college,named after the celebrated John Dickinson, esq.author of several valuable tracts, has a principal,three professors, a philosophical apparatus, and alibrary containing near SOOO volumes. Its re-venue arises from 4000/. in funded certificates, and10,000 acres of land. In 1787 there were 80 stu-dents, and its reputation is daily increasing.About 50 years ago this spot was inhabited by In-dians and wild beasts.)
Carlos, San, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the shore of a small river nearthe river Pargua, about five leagues s. w. of Can-delaria. Lat. 27° 44' 36" s. Long. 55° 57' 12" w.
Carlos, San, a city of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of theriver Aguirre, to the n. of the city of Nirua. [Itowes its existence to the first missionaries of Vene-zuela, and its increase and beauty to the activityof its inhabitants. The greatest part of its popu-lation is composed of Spaniards from the Canaryislands ; and as these leave their native country
but to meliorate their condition, they arrive with awillingness to work, and a courage to undertakeany thing that they think the most proper to an-swer their views. Their example even inspires asort oT emulation among the Creoles, productiveof public prosperity. Cattle forms the great massof the wealth of the inhabitants. Oxen, horses,and mules, are very numerous. Agriculture, al-though not much followed, is yet not neglected.Indigo and coffee are almost the only things theygrow. The quality of the soil gives the fruits anexquisite flavour, but particularly the oranges,which are famed throughout the province. Thecity is large, handsome, and well divided ; theycompute the inhabitants at 9300. The parishchurch, by its construction and neatness, answersto the industry and piety of the people. The heatat San Carlos is extreme ; it would be excessive ifthe n. wind did not moderate the effects of the sun.It lies in 9° 20' lat. 60 leagues s. w. of Caracas,24 s. s.e. of St. Valencia, and 20 from St. Philip’s.
(San Carlos de Monterey|Carlos, San, de Monterey]]==, the capital ofNew California, founded in 1770, at the foot of thecordillera of Santa Lucia, which is covered withoiiks, pines, (foliis lernis J, and rose bushes. Thevillage is two leagues distant from the presidio ofthe same name. It appears that the bay of Mon-terey had already been discovered by Cabrillo onthe 13th November 1542, and that he gave it thename of Bahia rle los Pinos, on account of thebeautiful pines with which the neighbouring moun-tains are covered. It received its present nameabout 60 years afterwards from Viscaino, in ho-nour of the viceroy of Mexico, Gaspar deZunega,Count de Monterey, an active man, to whom weare indebted for considerable maritime expedi-tions, and who engaged Juan de Onate in the con-quest of New Mexico. The coasts in the vicinityof San Carlos produce the famous aurum merum(ormier) of Monterey, in request by the inhabi-tants of Nootka, and which is employed in thetrade of otter-skins. The population of San Carlosis 700.)
close to those of Perlas and Mosquitos ; they arethree in number, small and desert.
Carnero, Punta del, another, on the coastof the kingdom of Chile ; it is very low, extend-ing itself with a gentle slope towards the sea. Thee. winds are prevalent here, rendering it dangerousto be passed.
Carnero, Punta del, another point of landon the coast of the same kingdom.
CAROLINA, a province of N. America, andpart of that extensive country anciently calledFlorida, bounded n. by Virginia, s. by the trueFlorida, w. by Louisiana, and e. by the Atlantic.It is divided into N. and S. Carolina. Its ex-tent is 135 leagues in length, nearly from s. w. ton. e. and 75 in width from e. to w. from 30®to 36° 30' of lat. It was discovered by JuanPonce de Leon in 1512, though it was not settledby the Spaniards then, but abandoned until thereign of Charles IX. king of France, when theFrench established themselves in it, under thecommand of admiral Chatilon, protector of theProtestants. He founded a colony and a fort call-ed Charles fort, and gave the name of Carolina tothe country, in lionour to his monarch. This es-tablishment, however, lasted but a short time, forit was destroyed by the Spaniards, who put tothe sword the new colonists, and went away underthe impression that they had now left the countryin a perfectly abandoned state. But the English,at this time, were maintaining a footing here, un-der the command of Sir Walter Raleigh, thoughthey were not under any formal establishmentuntil the reign of Charles II. in 1663, when thecountry was granted as a property to the followingnobility, viz. the Count of Clarendon, Duke ofAlbemarle, Count of Craven, John Berkley, JohnAshley, afterwards Count of Shaftsbury, GeorgeCarteret, John Colleton, and William Berkley;by these it was divided into as many counties,and by them names were given to the rivers, settle-ments, &c. Their privilege of proprietorship and
jurisdiction extended from lat. 31° to 36° «. andthey had an absolute authority to form establish-ments and governments, according to the laws andstatutes laid down by that famous and renownedphilosopher John Locke ; accordingly the govern-ment partook largely of the despotic, and therulers had the power of acknowledging or renounc-ing laws, of conferring titles, employments, pro-motions, and dignities, according to their owncaprice. They divided the population into threeclasses: The first was composed of those entitledthe Barons, and to these were given 120,000 acresof land; the second were two lordships, with thetitle of Counts, to whom were given 240,000 acres ;and the third, who were called Landgraves, a titlecorresponding to Dukes, had a portion of 480,000acres. This last body formed the high council-chamber, and the lower was composed of the re-presentatives of the counties and cities, both ofthese together forming the parliament, this beingthe real title, and not assembly, as in the othercolonies. The first establishment was the city ofCharlestown, between two navigable rivers calledAshley and Cowper ; the same offered an asylumto the Europeans, who on account of religiousdisturbances fled from Europe, and who havingsuffered great distresses there, had afterwards toencounter a very unfriendly reception from theIndians. Such was the state of affairs until 1728,when this city was taken under the protection ofthe English crown ; a corresponding recompencehaving been paid to the lords, the proprietors, whoyielding it up, thus made a virtue of necessity ;the Count Grenville, however, persisted in keep-ing his eighth share. From that time it was divid-ed into two parts, called North and South. The cli-mate differs but little from that of Virginia, al-though the heat in the summer is rather morepowerful here ; the winter, however, is shorterand milder ; the temperature is serene and theair healthy ; tempests and thunder storms are fre-quent, and this is the only part of this continentwherein have been experienced hurricanes; althoughthey are but rare here, and never so violent as in theislands. The half of March, the whole of April,May, and the greater part of June, the season ismild and agreable ; in July, August, and nearlyall September, the heat is intense ; but the winteris so mild, especially when the w.tw. wind prevails,that the water is seldom frozen. It is extremely fer-tile, and abounds in wheat, barley, rice, and allkinds of pulse, flowers, and fruits of an exquisiteflavour; and the soil, which is uncultivated, iscovered with all kinds of trees. The principal