Search for Mechoacan* "Me<lb break='no'/>choacan" Mechoacán*
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ACACUNA, a mountain of Peru, in the province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru. It is very lofty, and is four leagues distant from the S. sea; is very barren, and situate between the promontory of Ilo and the river Sama. Lat. 70° 29' S [Long. 18° 35' W.]
ACADIA, a province and peninsula of N. America, on the E coast of Canada, between the island or bank of Newfoundland and New England, by which it is bounded on the w. It is more than 100 leagues in length from N W S E and nearly 80 in width, from NE to SW from the gulph of St. Lawrence to the river Santa Cruz. It was discovered in 1497 by Sebastian Cabot, sent thither from England by Henry VII. The French, under the command of Jacob Cartier, of St. Maloes, established themselves here in 1534, in order to carry on a codfishery on the bank of Newfoundland; and in 1604, Peter Guest, a gentleman of the household of Henry IV of France, was sent by that king to establish a colony, which he founded at Port Royal. The English entered it under Gilbert Humphry, in consequence of a grant which had been made to this person by Queen Elizabeth, and gave it the title of Nova Scotia. In 1621 King James I made a donation of it to the Earl of Stirling; and in 1627 the French, commanded by Kirk de la Rochelle, made themselves masters of it, destroying all the establishments of the English, who were obliged to surrender it up, in 1629, by the treaty of St. Germains. The French shortly afterwards lost it; a Governor Philip having taken possession of it; but they, however, regained it in 1691, through the conduct of Mr. De Villebon. In order to settle the pretensions of the rival courts, commissioners were, by mutual consent, appointed in the peace of Riswick, in 1697, to consider which should be the limits of Nova Scotia and New England; and in the peace of Utrecht, it was entirely ceded to the English, who afterwards returned to it. This beautiful country contains many rivers and lakes; the principal of these is the Rosignol, well stocked with fish: there are also many woods, full of excellent timber, and thronged with very singular birds; as, for instance, the Colibri, or hummingbird, and various others. The same woods abound in many kinds of fruits and medicinal herbs. It is very fertile in wheat, maize, pulse of all sorts, and also produces cattle of various kinds, animals of the chase, and abundance of fine fish. Its principal commerce is in skins and salt fish. The winter is longer and colder than in Europe. The capital is Port Royal.— [The name of Acadia was first applied to a tract from the 40th to the 46th degree of N lat. granted to De Mons, Nov. 8, 1603, by Henry IV of France. For the present state of this country, see NOVA SCOTIA.]
ACAGUATO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Tancitaro. It is so reduced as to consist of no more than 15 families of Indians, who maintain themselves by sowing some maize, and other vegetable productions. — Eight leagues S of the capital.
ACAMBARO, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Zelaya, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán. It contains 490 families of Indians, 80 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and a convent of the order of St. Francis. In its district there are other small settlements or wards.— Seven leagues S of its capital.
ACAMISTLAHUAC, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tasco, annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it is distant two leagues to the E N E. It contains 30 Indian families.
ACAMUCHITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Texopilco, and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec. It contains 60 Indian families, whose commerce is in sugar and honey. It produces also maize, and cultivates many vegetable productions. — Five leagues N of its head settlement.
ACANTEPEC, the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlapa. It is of a cold and moist temperature, contains 92 Indian families, among which are included those of another settlement in its vicinity, all of whom maintain themselves by manufacturing cotton stuffs.
ACANTI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains which lie towards the N and empties itself into the sea between Cape Tiburon and the bay of Calidonia.
ACAPALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W [It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.]
ACUIAPAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zultcpec in Nueva Espana, situate between two craggy steeps, and annexed to the curacy of Temascaltepec. It contains 38 Indian families, who carry on a commerce by the dressing of hides of large and small cattle. Six leagues n. of its capital.
ACUILPA, a settlement of the head settlement of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot and moist temperature, abounding in grain, chia, (a white medicinal earth), seeds, and other productions, with which its inhabitants carry on a trade* These consist of 92 Indian families. It is a little more than three leagues from its head settlement.
ACUIO, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Cinaqua in Nueva Espana; of a hot temperature, and inhabited only by nine Indian families, whose commerce consists in collecting salt and wild wax. It belongs to the curacy of Tauricato, and in its district are 11 sugar mills, and seven pastures fit for the larger cattle, and which are so extensive and considerable as to employ in them 50 families of Spaniards, and 235 of Mustees, Mulattoes, and Negroes. 30 leagues towards the s. of its capital.
ACULA, San Pedro de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, situate upon a high hill, and bounded by a large lake of salubrious water, called by the Indians Puetla; which lake empties itself into the sea by the sand bank of Alvarado, and the waters of which, in the winter time, overflow to such a degree as nearly to inundate the country. It contains 305 Indian families, and is four leagues to the e. of its capital.
ACULEO, a lake of the kingdom of Chile, which empties itself into the river Maipo, famous for good fish, highly prized in the city of Santiago. It is three leagues in length, and in some parts one in breadth. It is in the district of the settlement of Maipo, of the province and corregimiento of Rancagua.
ACURAGU, Angoras, or Camosin, a river of the province and captainship of Seara in Brazil, which rises in the province of Pernambuco, runs n. for many leagues, and enters the sea between the points of Tortuga and Palmeras.
ACUTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Tepuxilco, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 45 Indian families, who trade in sugar, honey, and maize, and many other of its natural productions. It is five leagues n. e. of its head settlement, and a quarter of a league from Acamuchitlan.
ACUTZIO, a settlement of the head settlement of Tiripitio, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 136 families of Indians, and 11 of Spaniards and Mustees. There are six large cultivated estates in its district, which produce abundance of wheat, maize, and other seeds; and these estates keep in employ eight families of Spaniards, 60 of Mulattoes, and 102 of Indians, who have also under their care many herds of large and small cattle, which breed here. It is one league and a half s. of its head settlement.
ADAES, Nuestra Senora del Pilar de Los, a town and garrison of the province of Los Texas, or Nuevas Felipinas, and the last of these settlements, being upon the confines of the French colonies. It is of a mild temperature, very fertile,. and abounding in seeds and fruits, which the earth produces without any cultivation ; such as chesnuts, grapes, and walnuts. The garrison consisis of a captain and 57 men, for the defence of the Indian settlements lately converted by the missions belonging to the religious order of St, Francis. It is 215 leagues from its capital, and 576 from Mexico. Long. 93° 35'. Lat, 32° 9'.
ADAES, a lake of the above province, about five leagues broad, and 10 in circumference, forming a gulph, in which large ships can sail with ease. It is more than 180 fathoms deep, as was once proved, when it was found that aline of that length did not reach the bottom. It abounds in a variety offish, which are caught in vast quantities without nets ;
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AGUADILLA, a river of the province andkingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the moun-tains on the s. and enters the large river Chagrevery near its mouth, and the castle of this name.Here ships take in water, on account of the conve-nience of a bay, for the defence of which there is,upon the shore, a battery belonging to the samecastle, which was built under the directions ofDon Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743.
AGUADORES, River of the, in the islandof Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast ofthis island, having at its mouth a watch-tower andguard to give notice of vessels which may enter theport of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it isseven leagues distant.
AGUAIO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico,and kingdom of Nueva España, founded in theyear 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Quere-taro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of SierraGorda.
AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of thejurisdiction of [Izatlan]] in Nueva Galicia. It hasa convent of the religious order of St. Francis, andin 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families ofIndians, including the wards of its district; 17leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20° 44' n.Long. 103° 33' w.
AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdictionof Santiago de las Atalayas, and government ofSan Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It isof a hot temperature, and produces the same fruitsas the other settlements of this province.
AGUANATO, Santa Maria de, a settlementof the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro,^.nAalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the provinceand bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold tem-perature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo,and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain theirlivelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteenleagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid.
AGUANOS, San Antonio de, a settlementof the province and government of Mainas in thekingdom of Quito ; one of those which belongedto the missions held there by the Jesuits, andthus called from the nation of Indians of whom it iscomposed. It was founded in 1670 by the fatherLorenzo Lucero.
AGUAPAI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay. It rises between the Pa-rana and the Uruguay, near the settleiment of SanCarlos, runs j. forming a curve, and returning c.enters the last of the above rivers not far from thesettlement of La Cruz.
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anti government of Darien, near the n. coast, andthus "called from an eagle Avitli two heads, whichwas caught here in 1608, and which Avas sent tothe queen, Doha Maria-Ana of Austria, motherof Philip III. At its skirt is a bay, or swampyground, which is round, and has a very narroAVinlet. Forty-five leagues from Cartagena.
Aguila (point), a point or cape of the larger island ofthe Malvinas or Falkland isles ; thus named fromhaving been discovered by the French frigate, theAguila, or Eagle. It is one of those whith formtlie great bay or port.
AGUILUSCO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Arantzan, and alcaldiamayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishop-ric of Mechoacan. It contains 32 families of In-dians, who employ themselves in sowing seed,cutting Avood, manufacturing vessels of fineearth en-Avare, and saddle-trees for riding.
AGUJA, Point of the, on the coast of TierraFirme, and of the province and government ofSanta Marta, between this city and Cape Chichi-bacoa. It is the part of land which projects far-thest into the sea.
Aguja, Point of the. See article Eguille.
AGUSTIN, San, a capital city of the pro-vince and government of E. Florida, situate on thee. coast, in a peninsula, or narrow strip of land.It has a good port, which was discovered by Ad-miral Pedro Menendes de Aviles, on St. Augus-.tin’s day in the year 1565, which was his reasonfor giving the place this title, which has, however,been tAvice changed. He also built here a goodcastle for its defence. The city has a very goodparish church, and a convent of the Franciscanorder; and, as far as relates to its spiritual con-cerns, it is subject to the bishop of Cuba, who hasat various times proposed the erection of anabbey, but has not obtained his wish, although ithad been approved by the council of the Indies.
It has two hospitals, one for the garrison troops,and another for the community ; it has also anhermitage, Avith the dedicatory title of Santa Bar-bara. It was burnt by Francis Drake in 1586;by Captain Davis, Avith the Bucaniers, in 1665 ;but it was immediately afterwards rebuilt. In1702 it Avas besieged by the English, under thecommand of Colonel Moore, who, failing in hisattempts to take the castle, which Avas defended bythe governor, Don Joseph de Zuniga, exhibitedhis revenge by burning and destroying the town.In 1744 the English returned to the siege, underthe command of General Oglethorp, who wasequally unsuccessful, in as much as it w^as mostvaliantly defended by the governor, Don Manuelde Montiano, who defied the bombardment of theenemy. This fort has a curtain of 60 toises long ;the parapet is nine feet ; and the terrace, or horizon-tal surface of the rampart, is 20 feet high, withgood bomb-proof casemates, and mounted Avith 50pieces of cannon, having also, on the exterior, anexcellent covered way. The city, although it isencompassed by a wall, is not strong, and its de-fence consists in 10 projecting angles. It was ced-ed, Avith the whole of the province, to the English,by the King ofSpain, in the peace of Versailles, in1762 ; and it remained in their possession till 1783,when it was restored by the treaty of Paris. Thebreakers at the entrance of the harbour haveformed two channels, whose bars have eight feet ofwater each. Long. 81° 40'. Lat. 29° 58'.
Agustin, San, a settlement and real of mines,of the province of Tarauraara, in the kingdotli ofNueva Vizcaya, which was formerly a populationof some consequence, and wealthy withal, fromthe richness of its mines, Avhich -have lately falleainto decay, and thereby entailed poverty upon theinhabitants. It is 26 leagues s. of the town of S,Felipe de Chiguagua.
Agustin, San, another settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Nopaluca, and alcaldiamayor of Tepcaca, in Nueva España. It contains20 families of Indians, and is distant a little morethan a league from its head settlement.
Agustin, San, another, in the head settlementof the district of Pinoteca, and alcaldia mayor ofXicayan. It contains 70 families of Indians, whotrade in grain, seeds, and tobacco. Four leaguen. of its head settlement.
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from which they are enabled to make sugar. It isintersected by three rivers, which are of no usewhatever to it, being too low in their beds ; but theyunite and form the Pachachaca, which enters theprovince of Abancay, and has more than 40 bridgesof wood and cord thrown over it in different parts.There are innumerable veins of gold and silver orein this province, which are not worked, from thewant of energy, and from the poverty existingamong the inhabitants ; and thus only some tri-fling emoluraeul is now and then derived from oneor the other. It was otherwise in former times,but these mines are now almost all filled with water.Some mines of quicksilver have been discovered,but the working of them has been forbid. Hereis little of the cattle kind, and no cloth manufac-tures peculiar to the country arc made here, withthe exception of a sort of thick quilt, which theycall Chuces ; and a kind of grain is gathered here,known by the name of Maino. This province wasunited to the empire of Peru by Capac Yupan-qui V. Emperor of the Incas. The language of thenatives is the same as that which is most universalthroughout the kingdom. The capital formerlyconsisted of a large and w ell ordered settlement,which was called Tintay, but which is at presentbut thinly inhabited, on account of the scarcity ofwater, and from a plague, in which almost all itsinhabitants perished. The number of souls in thewhole of the province may amount to 15,000. Iteontains 50 settlements within its jurisdiction. Theyearly tribute received by the corregidor used toamount to 800,100 dollars, and the duties paidupon the alcavahif (a centage on goods sold), to688 dollars.
The settlements of its jurisdiction are ;
AINACOLCA, a gold mine of the province andcorregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. It is famousfor the excellent quality of this metal, but it is verydifficult to be worked, on account of the hardnessof its stone.
AIOCUESCO, Santa Maria de, the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofAntequera, in the province and bishopric of Me-choacan in Nueva España. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains a convent of the religious orderof Santo Domingo, and 400 Indian families, whocarry on some commerce in the cochineal, (theplant producing which they cultivate), and a veryconsiderable one in the manufacture of Pulgues^on account of the abundance of Magueyes whichare found here. Seven leagues s. of its capital.
AIOTITLAN, the head settlement of the dis-trict of the alcaldia mayor of Amola in NuevaEspana, immediately upon the coast of the S. sea,and situate between two deep ravines. Its tem-perature is very hot and troublesome to live in, onaccount of the various venomous animals and in-sects that abound in its territory. It contains 76Indian families, whose trade consists in makingtroughs and trays very finely painted. This set-tlement, in which there is a convent of the orderof St. Francis, is beautifully surrounded withplantations. Fifteen leagues distant from its capital.
It is distant 30 leagues to the n. of Tunja, andeight from the town of Suata.
CAPIUARI, a small river of the province andcaptainship of San Vincente in Brazil. It risesin the mountains near the coast, runs almost di-rectly from e. to w. and enters the Harihambu orTiete, between the Piraciacaba and Jundiaya.
Capiuari, another river of the province and go-vernment of the Chiquitos Indians, and in the king-dom of Peru ; it rises to the s. e. of the settlementof San Rafael, runs to the n. and enters the Yteneswith a slight inclination to the n. w.
CAPLITOILGUA, an island of the N. sea, inthe straits De Magellan, one of those which form thes. coast, at the mouth of the canal of St. Isidro.
Caplitoilgua, a bay in the former island.
Capot, a bay on the coast of the same island,on its n. w. side, between the town of Carbet andthe bay of Giraumont.
CAPUCINS, Morne des, or Morro de los
Capuchinos, a mountain of the island of Mar-tinique, at the back of the city of fort Royal.
CAPUE, with the addition of Baxo (low), to dis-tinguish it ; another settlement of the same islandand dominion as the former.
CAPUIO, a small settlement of the head settle-ment of Etuquaro, and alcaldía mayor of Vallado-lid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán ;in which district there are some cultivated lands,and in these, as well as in the settlement, residesome Spanish families, and some of the Musteesand Indians, who gain their livelihood in tilling theground, in making lime, and cutting wood. Fourleagues w. of its capital.
CAPULA, a village of a small settlement of thehead settlement and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec inNueva España ; situate in the cleft or hollow partof a mountain covered with trees ; its inhabitants,who consist of 63 Indian families, make charcoaland timber, these being the articles of their com-merce.
CAPULALPA, San Simon de, a small settle-ment of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor ofTezcoco in Nueva España, situate on the top of ahill; it has a very good convent of Franciscans,and contains 75 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes,and Mustees, and 196 of Indians : its territory isvery fertile, and the most luxuriant of any in thesame jurisdiction ; notwithstanding there is a lackof moisture, there being no running streams. Theyare used to gather most abundant crops of wheat,maize, barley, vetches, beans, and French beans ;they have large breeds of hogs, both in the villageand in the farms and neighbouring fattening stalls,which they carry for sale to Mexico, to La Puebla,and other parts. One league n. of its capital.
CAPULUAC, San Bartolome de, a headsettlement of the alcaldia mayor of Metepec inNueva España; it contains 524 Indian families,including those who inhabit the wards of its dis-trict, and it is two leagues to the s. e. of its capital.
ico, of the religious order of St. Dominic ; electedbishop in 1610, and was from thence translated tothe bishopric of Oaxaca.
10. Don Fr. Gonzalo de Angulo, of the orderof St. Francis, native of Valladolid ; he was su-perior of the convent of Segovia, difinidor of theprovince of Castilla, qualificator of the inquisi-tion ; elected bishop in 1617, visited his bishopric,where he spent more than three years, confirmed3000 persons, and founded many grammar-schools ;he died in 1633.
11. Don Juan Lopez Agurto de la Mata, na-tive of the Mandof Tenerife, canon of the churchof the Puebla de los Angeles, prebendary of thatof Mexico, rector of the college of Los Santos,and lecturer in its university ; he was elected bishopof Puertorico in 1630, and promoted to this in1634 ; in which time the cathedral was removedfor the sake of security: in 1637 he died.
19. Don Fr. Mauro de Tobar, of the order ofSt. Benedict, native of Villacastin, prior and ab-bot of the monastery of Valladolid, and afterwardsof Monforte, preacher to Philip IV. ; elected tothis bishopric in 1639: immediately upon his tak-ing possession of it a great earthquake happened,and destroyed the cathedral, which he was rebuild-ing, when he was translated to the bishopric ofChiapa in 1655.
13. Don Fr. Alonso Briceño, of the order of LaMerced, of the province and kingdom of Chile;he entered Caracas in the year 1659, and diedin 1667.
14. Don Fr. Antonio Gonzales de Acuña, of theorder of St. Dominic, postulador in the court ofRome ; he was elected bishop in 1676, and diedin 1682.
15. The Doctor Don Diego de Baños and Soto-mayor, native of Santa Fe of Bogotá, head colle-giate of the college of the Rosario in this city,honorary chaplain to Charles II. and canon ofCuenca ; he was promoted to the mitre of SantaMarta in 1684 ; he founded the Tridentine col-lege, having endowed the same with professorshipsand revenues ; and being removed to the arch-bishopric of Santa Fe, he died in the year 1706.
16. Don Fr. Francisco del Rincon, of the reli-gious order of the Minims of St. Francis de Paula,native of Valladolid ; he was promoted to thearchbishopric of Domingo in 1711, and fromthence to that of Santa Fe in 1717.
17. Don Juan Joseph de Escalona y Calatayud,was born at Rioja, became doctor of theology atSalamanca, canon of Calahorra, and first chap-lain in the court of Madrid ; he was elected bishop
of Caracas, for his charity to the poor, in the year1719, and thence translated to the bishopric of Me-choacau in 1728.
18. Don Joseph Feliz Valverde, native of Gra-nada ; he passed his youth at Mexico, where hewas collegiate of the college of San lldefonso, doc-tor of theology, and of both laws, magistrate anddean of the church of Oaxaca ; elected bishop in1731, and promoted to the church of Mechoácan ;which last appointment he declined : he diedin 1741.
19. Don Juan Garcia Padiano ; who took pos-session in 1742, and died in 1746.
20. Don Manuel Breton, doctoral canon of thechurch of Badajos ; he died in going over to beconsecrated at Cordova in 1749.
21. Don Manuel Machado y Luna, honorarychaplain to his Majesty, and administrator of thecollege of Santa Isabel, native of Estremadura :he studied at Salamanca, obtained the title of pri-mate of canons ; reputed for one of the wisest inecclesiastical discipline ; was made bishop of Ca-racas in 1750, and died in 1752.
22. Don Francisco Julian Antolino, native ofZamora, an eminent theologist, penitentiary ca-non of Badajoz, and bishop of Caracas in 1753 :he died in 1755.
23. Don Miguel Argüelles, principal theologist,and curate in the archbishopric of Toledo ; electedbishop in 1756, and immediately after auxiliarybishop of Madrid.
24. Don Diego Antonio Diaz Madroñero, nativeof Talarrubias in Estremadura, vicar of the cityof Alcalá ; he entered upon his functions in 1757,and died in 1769.
25. Don Mariano Marti, of the principality ofCataluña, ecclesiastical judge and vicar-generalof the archbishopric of Tarragona, doctor in theuniversity of Cervera ; he was promoted to thebishopric of Puertorico in 1770.
Governors and Captains-General of the provinceof Caracas, or Venezuela.
1. Ambrosio de Alfinge ; nominated first gover-nor, and elected by the Weltzers: he drew up thearticles of stipulation with the Emperor in the con-quest of Venezuela ; was founder of the city ofCoro ; took possession of the government in 1528,and retained it till 1531, when he was killed by theIndians in satisfaction of the cruelties he had com-mitted.
2. Juan Aleman, related to the Welzers ; he, byway of precaution, assumed the title of governorwhile the place was vacant, and held it until thearrival of the proper person.
The antidote, however, is oil taken in abundanceinternally, and applied outwardly. Neither wheatnor barley are known here, but the place aboundsin maize and rice, of which they make cakes, andwhich are the common bread of the natives, andmore particularly so that called cazave^ being asort of cake made of the root yiica^ name, or mo-niato. There are also a great number of cottontrees. The arms of this city are a green crossupon a gold ground, with a lion rampant oneach side. It was sacked in 1593 by RobertBaal, a pirate ; in 1583, by Sir Francis Drake, 23years from the time of its being fortified, and notfrom its foundation, as according to Mr. La Ma-tiniere ; again iti 1695, by Mr. Ducase, assisted bythe adventurers or fiibustiers, who completely pil-laged it : but a great sensation having been causedamongst the inhabitants at the loss of a superb se-pulchre made of silver, in which it rvas usual ona good Friday to deposit the eucharist, they hadthe good fortune to obtain its restitution throughthe interest and favour of Louis XI F. TheEnglish, under the command of Admiral Vernonand Sir Charles Ogle, besieged this city in 1740,when, although its castles were destroyed, andit was completely besieged, it would not surren-der, being gloriously defended by the viceroyDon Sebastian de Esiava, and Don Bias de Lezo,who caused the English to abandon the enterprisewith precipitancy and with great loss. [For thisconduct on the part of the English, several reasonswere assigned besides the strength of the place ;namely, the mortality among the troops, wantof skill in the commanders, and certain ditferencesbetween the admiral and the general. The forti-fications which they demolished have since beenrepaired.] It is the only part of all America wherethere is etfective coin of a fourth part of a real insilver. Its inhabitants amount to 9160 souls incommunion. It has been the native place of manycelebrated persons, such are,
Don Augustin Samiento de Sotomayor, of the or-der of Santiago, viscount of Portillo.
Don Andres de la Vega, professor at Salamanca,a famous lawyer.
Fray Carlos de Melgarejo, a religious Domini-can, an excellent preacher, and a man of unble-mished life.
Don Caspar de Cuba and Arce, head collegiateof San Marcos de Lima, oidor of Chile.
Don Gonzalo de Herrera, Marquis of Villalta,governor of Antioquia.
Don Gregorio Castellar y Mantilla, governor ofCumana, and general of the armada of the guardof the coasts of Cartagena.
Don Joseph de Paredes, captain of infantry,knight of the order of Santiago.
Fray Joseph Pacheco, of the order of St. Au-gustin, master, visitor, and vicar-general i:i his pro-vince of the Nuevo Reyno.
The Father Joseph de Urbina, of the extin-guished company, rector of the college of SantaFe.
Don.Iuan Fernandez Rosillo, dean of the churchof his country, bishop of V^erapez and of Mecho-acan .
Fray Juan Pereyra, a religious Dominican.
Don Lope Duke Estrada, kiiight of the order ofSantiago.
It is in long. 75° 24' and lat. 10° 25' n. [Foraccount of the present revolutions, see Vene-zuela.]
Bishops who have presided in Cartagena.
1. Don Fray Tomas del Toro, a monk of theorder of St. Domingo, elected the . first bishop in1532; but being at Talavera, his country, at thetime, he unfortunately died before he was conse-crated.
2. Don Fray Geronimo de Loaisa, a Dominicanmonk, renowned for his virtue and talent, and forhis experience in Indian affairs ; he was elected inthe room of the former, was consecrated at Valla-dolid, and there he erected the church into a ca-thedral in 1538, the same year in which he enteredCartagena ; from hence he was promoted to thearchbishopric of Lima in 1542.
3. Don Fray Francisco de Santa Maria y Bena-vides, of the order of St. Gerome, of the illustriousfamily of the Marquises of Fromesta ; serving atthat time the Emperor in Flanders, he took to areligious life, and was elected bishop of Cartagenain 1543. The city, in his time, was plundered bytwo pirates, lieaded by the Spanisli pilot AlonsoVexines, who cominitted thisactout of revenge fora flogging he had received ; they also ill-treatedthe venerable prelate, who had the additional griev-ance, in the year L551, of witnessing the city inflames. In 1554 he was promoted to the churchof Modonedo in Galicia, and was succeeded inCartagena by,
4. Don Fray Gregorio de Beteta, a Dominicanmonk, brought up in the convent of Salamanca, andone of the twenty who went to the Nuevo Reynode Gratiada, from whence he passed over to Mex-ico to convert the Indians, and afterwards withthe same object to the provinces of Santa Marta,Uraba, ami Cartagena ; and being teacher amicurate in one of his settlements, he received theorder of presentation to this bishopric in 1555 ;although he endeavoured to decline the dignify,
when he was promoted to the bishopric of Carta-gena in 1746, of which he took possession in thefollowing year, and governed until 1752, whenhe was promoted to the church of Truxillo.
51. Doii Bartolome Narvaez y Berrio, canon ofthis holy church of Cartagena, and native of thiscountry ; presented to this bishopric in^ 1752, andgoverned here until he died in 1754.
52. The Doctor Jacinto Aguado y Chacon, ca-non penitenciario of the holy church of Cadiz ;elected in 1754, and promoted to the bishopric ofArequipa before he embarked for this of Car-tagena.
33. Don Diego Antonio Valenzuela Faxardo,native of the city of Santa Fe of Bogota; electedin 1754 : he died in 1755.
34. The Doctor Don Manuel de Sosa Betancur,archdeacon of the holy church of Caracas ; electedin 1755 : he died in 1765.
35. Don Diego Peredo, native of the town ofLeon of Mechoacan ; elected in 1765, promotedto the bishopric of Yucatan in 1722.
36. Don Augustin de Alvarado y Castillo ; pro-moted to the bishopric of Santa Fe in 1774.
37. The Doctor t)on Bias Sobrino y Minayo ;elected in 1774, and promoted to the archbishopricof Quito in 1776.
38. Don Fr. Joseph Diaz de la Madrid, a monkof the Order of St. Francis, native of the city ofQuito ; elected in 1 777.
Governors of Cartagena.
1. Don Pedro de Heredia, founder of the city ;and its adelantado or governor, a native of Madrid,and a valorous conqueror, in 1532.
2. The Licentiate Badillo, nominated J uez deResidencia,; he exercised the government duringthe commission in 1536.
3. The, Licentiate Santa Cruz, judge of anothersecond residence, who became adelantado in 1537.
4. The Licentiate Miguel Diez de Armendariz;he entered in 1545, had for judge of his resi-dence the Licentiate Juan de Montano, oidor ofSanta F<5, whom he sent to Spain.
5. Don Pedro de Heredia, who for the secondtime was provisional governor until the year 1556,when he died, being drowned in the fleet whichwas wrecked in the Gordas sands.
6. The Doctor J uan de Maldonado, Jiscal of theaudience of Santa Fe in 1556.
7. Jorge de Quintanilla, provisionally nomi-nated by the audience of Santa Fe.
8. The Brigadier Don Go'izalo Ximinez deQuesada ; nominated by the audience as residen-tiary to the three former, in the same year, 1556.
9. Antonio de Castro ; provisionally nominated.
10. Juan de Bustos Villegas, nominated by theking ; he entered in 1 557, and was promoted tothe presidency of Panama in 1563.
11. Anton Davalos de Luna, a field-officer ; heentered in 1563, and governed till 1567, whenhe died.
12. Don Lope de Orozco, as provisional gover-nor in the same year.
13. Francisco Bahamonde y Lugo ; he enteredin 1572, and died in 1573.
14. Hernan Suarez de Villalobos, nominatedprovisonally by the audience of Santa Fe in 1574.
15. Pedro Fernandez del Busto, who entered inthe above year, and was promoted to the govern-ment of Popayan in 1577.
16. Don Pedro de Lodena, in 1593.
17. Don Pedro de Acuna, knight of the orderof San Juan, field-officer, in 1601 ; he had the titleof president of the Philippines, and died the sameyear.
18. Don Geronimo Suazo Casasola, of the habitof Santiago ; he died in 1605.
19. Don Francisco Sarmientode Sotomayor, no-minated in the interim, in 1606.
20. Don Diego Fernandez de Valazco, in 1608.
21. Don Diego de Acuna, in 1614.
22. Don Garcia Giron de Loaysa, who governeduntil 1620.
23. Don Diego de Escobar, knight of the orderof Santiago, who died whilst exercising the govern-ment.
24. Don Francisco de Berrio, nominated in thein the interim, in 1628.
25. Don Francisco de Murga, knight of the or-der of Santiago, a field-officer, and celebratedengineer ; appointed to fortify the Plaza, beingat the time governor of Marmora in Africa : h«died in 1634.
26. Don Nicolas de Larraspuru, nominated inthe interim, in 1636.
27. Don Gonzalo de Herrera, Marquis of Vil-lalta, nominated in the interim, in 1637, on accountof the former not having accepted the office.
28. Don Vincente de los Reyes Villalobos, pro-visional governor in the same year, 1637, being thegovernor of Moxos.
29. Don Melchor de Aguilera, a field-officer;he entered in 1638, was suspended and called toaccount by Don Bernardino de Prado, oidor ofSanta Fe.
30. Don Ortuno de Aldape ; being governor ofMuzo, he was nominated in the interim, in 1641.
31. Don Luis Fernandez de Cordova, of the or-
merit of Venezuela ; situate upon the coast nearcape Blanco.
(CATABAW River. See Wateree.)
(Catabaw Indians, a small tribe who have onetown called Catabaw, situate on the river of thatname, hit. 44° S9' n, on the boundary line betweenN. and S. Carolina, and contains about 450 inha-bitants, of which about 150 are fighting men.They are the only tribe w hich resides in the state ;144,000 acres of land . were granted them by theproprietary government. These are the remains ofa forrnidalile nation, the bravest and most generousenemy thp Six Nations had, butthey have degenera-ted sincp they have been surrounded by the whites.)
CATACACHI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiehto of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Santa Cruz, in which there is astream of water Avhich distils from some crevices,and deposits in its bed a sort of white stone orcrystalline substance, which they call catachi^ andwhich being dissolved in water, is accounted a spe-cific in the flux.
CATACUMBO, a river of the province andgovernment of Maracaibo, which rises to the e. ofthe city of Las Palmas, and runs e. increasing itsstream by many others which flow into it, until itunites itself with the Sulia, to enter the lake ofMaracaibo; where, at its mouth, it extends itselfand forms a large pool of water called La Lagu-neta.
CATALINA, Santa, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in Nue-va Espana ; annexed to the settlement of NuestraSenora de la Purificacion. It contains 132 fami-lies of Indians.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the head set-tlement of Tantoyuca, and alcaldia mayor ofTampico, in the same kingdom : it is of a hot tem-perature, and contains 80 families of Indians, whoapply themselves to the culture of the soil ; is 10leagues to the e. of its head settlement.
CATALINA, Santa, another,' of the head set-tlement of Mistepeque, and alcaldia mayor of Ne-japa, in Nueva España: it is of a cold temperature,situate at the foot of a mountain, with 60 familiesof Indians, and is 4 leagues from its head settle-ment.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement of themissions which were held by the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits, in the province of Tepeguanaand kingdom of Nueva Viscaya, on the shore ofthe river Las Nasas ; is 30 leagues to the n. w. ofits capital.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement, withthe addition of Sera, of the province and govern-ment of Maracaibo, in the district of the city ofPedraza ; situate on the shore of the river Pariva ;is one of the missions which are held in Barinas bjthe religion of St. Domingo.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the same pro-
vince and government, on the shore of the riverMasparro, between the cities of New and Old Ba-rinas.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and government of La Sonora in NuevaEspana ; situate in the country of the SobaipurisIndians, on the shore of a river which enters theGila, between the settlements of San Cosme andSan Angelo.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in thekingdom of Guatemala.
Catalina, Santa, an island of the N. sea,near the coast of Tierra Firme, opposite the Escu-do de Veraguas. It is of a good temperature, fer-tile, and abounding in cattle and fruits. It had init a settlement defended by two castles, called San-tiago and Santa Teresa; which, together with thetown, were destroyed by an English pirate, JohnMorgan, who took the island in 1665 ; and al-though it was recovered in the same year by thepresident of Panama and Colonel Don J uan Perezde Guzman, it remained abandoned and desert.
Catalina, Santa, a valley, in which there isalso a small settlement, in the Nuevo Reyno deLeon ; annexed to the curacy of its capital, fromwhence it lies three leagues to the w. It contains20 families in its neighbourhood, and producesonly some sorts of pulse and some goats.
CATAMAIU, a large and rapid river of theprovince and government of Loxa in the kingdomof Quito, also called Chira, at the part where itenters the sea. It rises in the paramo or desertmountain of Sabanilla ; and collecting the watersof several smaller rivers, runs from s. to n.until it unites itself with tlie Gonzanama, whichenters it on the s. side, in lat. S° 47' s. ; it thenturns its course to the xo. and afterwards to the5 . w. and receives the tributary streams of therivers Quiros, Macara, and Pelingara ; all ofwhich enter it on the s. side. Being swelled withthese, it takes the name of Amotape, from the settle-ment of this name, situate on its shore. Near itsmouth this river is called Colan, and it empties it-self into the sea in the corregimiento and provinceofPiura. The countries which it laves are fertileand beautiful, and its banks are covered with or-chards and plantations of sugar-canes of the terri-tory of Loxa. The climate here is very hot, andin the valleys formed by this river the inhabitantsare much afflicted with the tertian fever ; its wa-ters are generally very cold and unwliolesonic.
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DEL PUERTO, a city of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; founded by Gaspar de Kodas, on thespot of the Matanza of Valdivia, in 1676. It haschanged its place several times, on account of thebadness of.its temperature : and, lastly, in the year1588, it was removed by Francisco Redondo tothe spot where it now stands : is one league fromthe river Cauca, on a very steep declivity, whichis also of an unhealthy temperature, althoughabounding greatly in gold mines, which are,however, but little worked. Jt is the nativeplace of,
Fr. Marcos Vetancur, provincial of St. Domingoin Santa Fe:
Fr. Lorenzo de Figueroa, of the province ofSan Francisco :
Don Andres de Vetancur, elected bishop ofLa Concepcion in Chile;
Fr. Diego de Figueroa, provincial of San Augus-tin in Santa Fe : and
Don Luis de Vetancur, precentor of Quito, in-quisitor of Lima, and bishop-elect of Popayan ;all brothers, and men of singular virtue andlearning.
CECILIA, Dona, a settlement of the provinceand government of Santa Marta in the kingdomof Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the largeriver Magdalena, opposite the lake Zapatosa, threeleagues from the town of Mompox.
(CEDAR Point, a port of entry in Charlescounty, Maryland, on the e. side of Potowmacriver, about 12 miles below port Tobacco, and 96s. by w. of Baltimore. Its exports are chiefly to-bacco and Indian corn, and in 1794 amounted invalue to 18,593 dollars.)
Cedar, a river of the province and colony of
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Pennsylvania, which traverses New Jersey, andenters the sea.
CELAYA, a town of the intendancy of Gua-naxuato in the kingdom of Nueva Espana.Sumptuous edifices have been recently constructedhere, as also at Queretaro and Guanaxuato. Thechurch of the Carmelites of Celaya has a fineappearance ; it is adorned with Corinthian andIonic columns. Its height is 1833 metres, or 6018feet.
CENGUYO, San Pedro de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Yrimbo, and alcaldia mayorof Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacan,and kingdom of Nueva Espaiia. It contains 60families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. zo.of its head settlement.
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ters the sea between the river Rosa and the settle-ment and parisli of Cul de Sac.
CERINZA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofTunja in tlie Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of acold temperature, and abounds in cattle and theproductions peculiar to the climate. It contains300 families, and lies in a valley, from which ittakes its name.
CERMEN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the side ofthe town of San Felipe, towards the e. betweenthis town and the settlement of Agua Culebras, onthe shore of the river Iraqui.
CERRALUO, a town and presidency of theNuevo Reyno de Leon, garrisoned by a squadronof 12 soldiers and a captain, who is governor ofthis district, for the'purpose of restraining the bor-dering infidel Indians. Between the e. and n. isthe large river of this name ; and from this begins atract of extensive country, inhabited by barba-rous nations, who impede the communication andcommerce Avith regard to this part and the pro-vinces of Tejas and Nuevas Felipinas. Is 35leagues to the e. of its capital.
Cerraluo, a bay of the coast and gulf of Ca-lifornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, opposite an islandwhich is also thus called ; the one and theother hav-ing been named out of compliment to the Marquis ofCerraluo, viceroy of Nueva Espana. TJie afore-said island is large, and lies between the formerbay and the coast of Nueva Espana.
Cerrito, another, with the surname of SantaAna. See Ctuayaquie.
==Cerro, another, called San Miguel de CerroGordo==, which is a garrison of the province of Te-peguana in the kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Itssituation is similar to the road which leads to it,namely, a plain level surface ; although, indeed,it is divided by a declivity, in ivhich there is apool of water, and by Avhich passengers usuallypass. This garrison is the residence of a captain,a Serjeant , and 28 soldiers, who are appointed tosuppress the sallies of the infidel Indians. In itsvicinity is a cultivated estate, having a beautifulorchard, abounding in fruit-trees and in zepas,which also produce fruit of a delicious flavour.The garrison lies 50 leagues n. w. of the capitalGuadiana.
Cerros, San Felipe de los, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Uruapa, and alcaldia mayorof Valladolid, in the province and bishopric ofMcchoacan. It contains 26 families of Indians,and lies eight leagues to the e. of its head settle-ment, and 10 from the capital.
CESARA, a large and copious river of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, which was called bythe Indians Pompatao, meaning in their idiom,“ the lord of all rivers,” is formed of severalsmall rivers, which flow down from the snowysierras of Santa Marta. It runs s. leaving the ex-tensive llamtras of Upar until it reaches the lakeZapatosa, from whence itj issues, divided into fourarms, which afterwards unite, and so, following acourse of 70 leagues to the w, enters the Magda-lena on the <?. side, and to the s. of the little settle-ment called Banco.
CESARES, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe kingdom of Chile towards the s. Of themare told many fabulous accounts, although theyare, in fact, but little known. Some believe themto be formed of Spaniards and Indians, being thoseAvho Avere lost in the straits of Magellan, and be-longed to the armada which, at the beginning ofthe conquest of America, Avas sent by the bishop ofPlacencia to discover the Malucas. Others pre-tend that the Arucanos, after they had destroyedthe city of Osonio, in 1599, took aAvay with themthe Spanish Avomen ; and that it Avas from the pro-duction of these Avomen and the Indiatis that thisnation of the Cesares arose. Certain it is, that theyare of an agreeable colour, of a pleasing aspect,and of good dispositions. They have some lightof Christianity, live without any fixed abode ; andsome have affirmed that they have heard the soundof bells in their territorj". It Avas attempted in1638, by the governor of Tucuman, Don Geronimo
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It was conquered and united to the empire byInca Roca, the sixth Emperor.
CHALLAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarquilla or Pataz in Peru,in the district of which is an estate called Huasil-las, where there is a house of entertainment be-longing to the religion of St. Francis, in whichreside the missionaries who assist in the conversionof the infidel Indians of the mountains.
CHAMA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Maracaibo. It rises at the foot of thesnowy sierra, runs, making the form of two SS, tothe e. and rt;. and passing by to the s. of the cityof Merida, returns n. and enters the great lake ofMaracaibo at the side opposite its mouth.
CHAMACON, a river of the province and go-vernment of Darien in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; it rises in the mountains of the e. coast,and runs from s. e. to n. w. until it enters the largeriver Atrato near its mouth.
CHAMACUERO, San Francisco de, a set-tlement and head settlement of the district of thealcaldia mayor of Zelaya in the province and bi-shopric of Meohoacan. It contains 690 families ofIndians, and more than 30 of Spaniards, Mustees,and Mulaltoes, with a convent of the order of St.Francis ; is five leagues to the n. of its capital.
CHAMAL, a settlement of Indians of the Chi-chimeca nation, in the head settlement of the dis-trict of Tamazunchale, and alcaldia mayor of Valles,in Nueva Espana ; situate in a valley of the samename. Its inhabitants having been reduced atthe beginning of the 18th century, and having re-quested a priest, one was sent them of the religionof St. Francis ; but no sooner did he arrive amongstthem than they put him to death, eating his body,and at the same time destroying the settlement.They were, however, afterwards reduced to thefaith, rather through the hostilities practised against
them by their neighbours than a desire of embrac-ing it. It is five leagues from Nuestra Senorade la Soledad.
CHAMANGUE, a river of the province andgovernment of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom ofQuito. It runs through the territory of the city ofAvila from n. w. to s. e. and enters the river Coca,on the w. side, in lat. 46° s.
CHAMARIAPA, a settlement of the provinceof Barcelona, and government of Curaana, in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; one of those which areunder the care of the religious observers of St.Francis, the missionaries of Piritu. It is to thew. of the mesa (table land) of Guanipa.
CHAMBA, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, towardsthe s. It runs from e. to w. passes near the settle-uient of Vilcabamba, and then enters the river Ma-lacatos.
(CHAMBERSBURG, a post town in Pennsyl-vania, and the chief of Franklin county. Itis situated on the e. branch of Conogocheaguecreek, a water of Potow.mac river, in a rich andhighly cultivated country and healthy situation-.Here are about 200 houses, two Presbyterianchurches, a stone gaol, a handsome court-housebuUt of brick, a paper and merchant mill. It is58 miles e. by s. of Bedford, 11 w. zo. of Shippens-burg, and 157 w. of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 57'n. Long. 77° 40' a-'.)
CHAMBIRA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito ;situale at the source of the river of its name. Itrises to the e. of the settlement of Pinches, betweenthe rivers Tigre and Pastaza, and runs nearly pa-rallel to the former, where it enters, with a muchincreased body, into the Maranon.
(CHAMBLEE River, or Sorell, a water ofthe St. Lawrence, issuing from lake Champlain,300 yards wide when lowest. It is shoal in dryseasons, but of sufficient breadth for rafting lumber,&c. spring and fall. It was called both Sorcll andRichlieu when the French held Canada.)
CHAMBLI, a French fort in the province and
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(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)
CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement ofMongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced)annexed to the curacy of the same. Its tempera-ture is mild, and abounds in pure good water, andin the productions of a hot climate.
CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ;situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, fromwhence its temperature is so cold that it is seldomany crops can be gathered from the seeds that aresown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 inthe wards of its district, and a convent of the reli-gious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settle-ment.
CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district ofPuerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in thekingdom of Quito, at a small distance from thesea-coast and bay of its name ; this title beingalso applied to the point which forms the samebay.
CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina,which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. Thewhole of it abounds in cataracts, and its watersthrow up immense quantities of coal, which wasthe cause of its being thus named.
CHARCA, a settlement of the province and
corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Sacaca.
CHARCAS, an extensive province of the king-dom of Peru, composed of various others. Its ju-risdiction comprehends the district of this royalaudience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the cor-regimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, andextends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It isbounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian servingas a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregi-miento of Atacama, which is of its district, andforms the most n. part of this province in that di-rection, and being closed in on its other sides bythe kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, in-cluding the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . :is in many parts very thinly peopled, and coveredwith large desert tracts, and rugged and impene-trable mountains, and again by the elevated cordil-leras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras orpampas, which serve to mark its size and the relativedistances of its territories. Its temperature through-out is extremely cold, although there are not want-ing parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At thetime that this province was in the possession of theIndians, and previous to the entrance of the Spa-niards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointlyunder the name of Charcas ; and the conquest ofthese was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui,fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the ter-ritory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Hereit was that his conquests terminated : nor did thesubjection of these parts extend farther than Col-laysuyo until after his death, when he was suc-ceeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor,who carried on still farther the victories which hadbeen already gained, conquering all the nations asfar on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwardsfounded the city of this name, called also La Plata.After that the Spaniards had reduced that part ofPeru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and thatthe civil wars and dissensions which existed be-tween these were at an end, they endeavoured tofollow up their enterprise by making a conquest ofthe most distant nations. To this end, in 1538,Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force,and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues,found in them such a spirited opposition, that afterseveral battles he was brought to think this objectwas nearly impracticable : this idea was strength-ened by the reception he had met with from theChuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given himconvincing proofs of their valour and warlikespirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just
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America called New South Wales. Its territoryconsists of a white dry sand, and it is covered withsmall trees and shrubs. This island has a beauti-ful appearance in the spring to those Avho discoverit after a voyage of three or four months, and afterhaving seen nothing but a multitude of mountainscovered with frost, which lie in the bay, and in thestrait of Hudson, and which are rocks petrifiedwith eternal ice. This island appears at that sea-son as though it were one heap of verdure. Theair at the bottom of the bay, although in 51“ of hit.and nearer to the sun than London, is excessivelycold for nine months, and extremely hot the remain-ing three, save when the n. w. wind prevails. Thesoil on the e. <^s well as on the w. side produces allkinds of grain and fruits of fine qualities, whichare cultivated on the shore of the river Rupert.Lat. 52“ 12' n. Long. 80“ w.
CHARO, Matlazingo, the alcaldía mayorof the province and bishopric of Mechoacán inNueva España, of a mild and dry temperature,being the extremity of the sierra of Otzumatlan ;the heights of which are intersected with manyveins of metals, which manifest themselves veryplainly, although they have never yet been dugout ; and in the wet seasons the clay or mud pitsrender the roads impassable. It is watered by theriver which rises in the pool or lake of Valladolid,and by which the crops of wheat, maize, lentils, andthe fruits peculiar to the place, are rendered fertileand productive. This reduced jurisdiction belongsto the Marquises of Valle, and is subject to theDukes of Terranova. Its population is reduced tosome ranchos, or meetings for the purpose of labour,and to the capital, which has the same name, andwhich contains a convent of the religious order ofSt. Augustin, this being one of the first templesbuilt by the Spaniards in this kingdom, the presentdilapidated state of it bearing ample testimony toits great antiquity. It contains 430 families ofPirindas Indians, employed in labour and in thecultivation of the land, and in making bread, whichis carried for the supply' of Valladolid, the neigh-bouring ranchos and estates. It should also have45 or 50 families of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulat-toes. Is .50 leagues to the w. of Mexico, and twoto the e. of Valladolid. Long. 100° 44'. Lat.19“34'.
CHARPENTIER, Fond du, a bay of the n. e.
coast of the island of Martinique, between the townand parish of Marigot and the Pan de Azucar.
CHARRUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofParaguay, who inhabit the parts lying between therivers Parana and Uruguay. These Indians arethe most idle of any in America, and it has beenattempted in vain to reduce them to any thing likea civilized state.
Charruas, a settlement of this province andgovernment.
Charruas, a river of the same province, whichruns s. s. w. and enters the Paraná.
(Chartier’s Creek. See Canonsburg andMorganza.)
(CHARTRES, a fort which was built bythe French, on the e. side of the Mississippi,three miles n. of La Prairie du Rocher, or theRock meadows, and 12 miles n. of St. Genevieve,on the w. side of that river. It was abandoned in1772, being untenable by the constant washings ofthe Mississippi in high floods. The village s. ofthe fort was very inconsiderable in 1778. A mileabove this is a village settled by 170 warriors of thePiorias and Mitchigamias tribes of Illinois Indians,who are idle and debauched.)
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fast for a long time together : they consequentlycat frequently ; the common food on these occa-sions being cJmcolatc, and which is even handedto them whilst at church. This irreverence thebishop very properly proclaimed against ; but itis said that this execution of his duty cost him noless than his life. It is 100 leagues distant fromGuatemala. Lat. 17'^ 4'. Long. 93° 53'.
CHIAPA, another city in the same province,which, to distinguish it from the former, is calledCliiapa de los Indios; these (the Indians) being,for the most part, its inhabitants ; is the largestsettlement in the whole province, and is situate ina valley close upon the river Tabasco, being 12leagues distant from the former city. It has va-rious churches, abounds in wealth, and is the placewherein the Indian families first settled. Theyenjoy many privileges and exemptions, owing tothe zeal of the bishop, J^rtr/y Bartolorae de las Ca-sas, their procurator at court. The river aboundsgreatly in fine fish ; and is full of barks, withwhich the}" occasionally represent sea-fights. Inthe city also there are commonly balls, plays, con-certs, bull-fights, and spectacles of horsemanship ;since the inhabitants are much given to diversions,and in these grudge no expence.
Bishops of Chiapa.
1. Don Fray Juan de Arteaga y Avendano, na-tive of Estepa in Andalucia ; elected in 1541 : hedied in the same year in Mexico, before he arrivedat his church.
2. Don Fray Bartolome de las Casas, a manrenowned lor his zeal in favour of the Indians ; hewas born at Seville, where he studied, and passedover to the island of St. Domingo, where he saidthe first mass ever celebrated in that part of theworld. He returned to Spain, in 1515, to declaimagainst the tyrannies which were practised againstthe Indians. He went back the following year tojNueva Espana, where he took the habit of a monkof St. Dominic ; and returning a second time toSpain, he was presented by the Emperor to thebishopric of Chiapa, which office he did not ac-cept ; blit was afterwards prevailed upon to do soby the united entreaties of the whole of his order ;he therefore entered upon it in 1544. He then leftthe bishopric, and returned, for the third time, toSpain ; and having retired to his convent of Val-ladolid, died in 1550.
3. Don Fray Tomas Casillas, also of the orderof St. Dominic ; he was sub-prior of the conventof Salamanca, and passed over to America withFray Bartolome de las Casas. Being renownedfor the great zeal which he manifested in tlie con-version of the infidel Indians, he was nominated
to be bishop in 1560 ; which office he accepted atthe express command of its general. He made thevisitation of all his bishopric, and died full of vir-tues, in 1567.
4. Don Fray Domingo de Lara, of the order ofSt. Domingo ; he made so strong a refusal of hiselection, his renunciation of the office not havingbeen admitted, that he prayed to God that hemight die before that the bulls should arrive fromRome; and this was actually the case, since hedeparted this life in 1572, before he was conse-crated.
5. Don Fray Alonzo de Noroila, who governedthe church here seven years, and had for suc-cessor,
6. Don Fray Pedro de Feria, native of the townof this name in Estreraadura, a monk of the orderof St. Dominic; he passed over to America, wasprior of the convent of Mexico, and provincial ofthat province ; he returned to Spain, refused thegeneral visitation to which he was appointed, andretiree! to his convent of Salamanca ; was presentedwith the bishopric of Chiapa, which he also re-fused ; but being commanded by his superiors, heafterwards accepted it, and governed 14 years,until 1588, when he died.
7. Don Fray Andres de Ubilla, of the order of St.Dominic, and native of the province of Guipuzcoa ;he took the habit in Mexico, where he studied andread the arls, and was twice prior and provincialof the province ; he came to Spain on affairstouching his religion, and returning to Mexico,found himself presented to this bishopric in 1592,where he governed until 1601, when he died, hav-ing been first promoted to the archbishopric ofMechoacan.
8. Don Lucas Duran, a friar of the order ofSantiago, chaplain of honour to his Majesty ; whoimmediately tiiat he was consecrated bishop ofChiapa, renounced his power, and the see was thenvacant nine years.
9. Don Fray Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza, na-tive of Toledo, a monk of the order of St. Augus-tin ; he passed over to America, was made bishopof Lipari, and titular in the archbishopric ofToledo ; and lastly of Chiapa, in 1607 ; fromwhence he was promoted in the following year toPopayan.
10. Don Tomas Blanes, native of Valen-cia, of the order of St. Dominic ; he passed overto Peru, where he resided many years, studyingarts and theology ; he assisted in the visitation ofthe province of St. Domingo, and having come toSpain, he was presented to the bishopric in 1609,holding the government until 1612, when he died.
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11. Don Juan Zapata y Sandoval, nativeof Mexico, of the order of St. Augustin ; he cameto Spain, was regent of the college of San Gabrielde Valladolid, and elected bishop of Chiapa in1612 ; then promoted to the archbishopric of Gua-temala in' 1622.
12. Don Bernardino de Salazar y Frias, nativeof Burgos, canon of Jaen, .collegiate in the collegeof San Antonio de Portaceli de Siguenza ; pre-sented to the bishopric in 1622 : he died in 1623.
13. Don Alonzo Munoz, dean of the holy churchof Mexico, professor of theology ; he died beforehe was consecrated.
14. Don Agustin Ugarte de Saravia, elected in1628 ; he was promoted in 1630 to the arch-bishopric of Guatemala.
15. Don Fray Marcos Ramirez de Prado, of theorder of St. Francis, native of Madrid ; he studiedin Salamanca arts and theology with great credit,was guardian of the convent of Lucena, vice-com-missary general of the Indies, and guardian of theconvent of Granada, when he was elected bishopof Chiapa in 1632 ; he entered its church in 1635,and was promoted to that of Mechoacan in 1639.
16. Don Fray Christoval de Lazarraga, a monkof the order of St. Bernard, native of Madrid, wasmaster and professor in Salamanca, abbot of themonastery of that city, and qualificator of the in-quisition ; he was presented to the bishopric ofChiapa in 1639, and promoted to that of Carta-gena of the Indies in 1641.
17. Don Fray Domingo de Villaescusa, a monkof the order of St. Jerome, collegian in the col-lege of San Lorenzo el Real, prior of the monas-tery of Espeja, and of those of Parral de Segovia,of San Geronimo de Guisando of Madrid, visitorof the two Castillas, and general of his order ; waspresented to the bishopric of Chiapa in 1641, go-verned until 165 1 , when he was promoted to thechurch of Y ucatan.
18. Don JFrqy Francisco Nunez de la Vega, amonk of the order of St. Dominic.
19. Don Christoval Bernardo de Quiros, nativeof Tordelaguna, canon of the churches of Are-quipa, Quito, and of Lima, pro visor and vicar-general of the archbishopric, and judge of the in-quisition ; he was elected in 1660, and was pro-moted to the archbishopric of Popayan in 1670.
20. Don Manuel Fernandez de Santa Cruz ySahagun, a native of Palencia in Castilla deCuenca, in the university of Salamanca, first canonof Segovia, was elected in 1672, and before he ar-rived was promoted to Guadalaxara.
23. Don J uan Bautista Alvarez de Toledo, na-
tive of the town of San Salvador, in the provinceof G uatemala, of the religious order of St. Francis,professor in his religion, and prelate of many con-vents ; he was elected in 1708, and promoted to thearchbishopric of Guatemala in 1714. ,
25. Don Fray Joseph Cubero Ramirez de Arel-lano, a monk of the order of Nuestra Senora de laMerced ; elected in 1734, governed 19 years, until1753, when he died.
26. Don Fray Joseph Vidal de Montezuma, ofthe order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced, a nativeof Mexico ; elected in 1753, governed till 1767,when he died.
27. Don Miguel de Cilieza y Velasco ;• electedin the above year, governed until 1768, when hedied.
28. Don Fray Lucas Ramirez, of the order ofSt. Francis ; he was promoted to the archbishopricof Santa Fe in 1769.
29. Don Fray Juan Manuel de Vargas y Ri-vera, a native of Lima, monk of the order of Nues-tra Senora de la Merced ; elected in the afore-said year of 1769, governed until 1774, when hedied.
30. Don Antonio Caballero y Gongora, untilthe following year of 1775, when he was promotedto the church of Yucatan.
31. Don Francisco Polanco, until 1785, whenhe died ; and,
32. Don Joseph Martinez Palomino Lopez deLerena, elected in 1786.
CHIAPANTONGO, a settlement and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofXilotepec in Nueva Espana ; annexed to thecuracy of its capital, from whence it lies twoleaffues to the n. It contains 102 familes of In-dians.
tilizes the valley which gives it its name ; and runs30 leagues, collecting the waters of many otherstreams, mountain floods, and rivulets, which aug-ment it to such a degree as to render the fording ofit impracticable just where it enters the sea.
CHICAMOCHA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises in the paramo or mounlain-desert of Albarracin, between that city and thecity of Santa Fe, on the 7i. side : when it passesthrough Tunja, being then merely a rivulet, it hasthe name of the river of Gallinazos, which it after-wards changes for that of Sogamoso ; and for thatof Chia, Avhen it passes through this settlement.It is afterwards called Chicamocha, and passesthrough various provinces, until it becomes incor-porated with the Magdalena, into which it entersin one large mouth. A little before this it formsa good port, called De la Tora, where there wasformerly a settlement, but which is at present ina state of utter ruin.
(CHICAPEE, or Chickabee, a smrdl river inMassachusetts, which rises from several ponds inWorcester county, and running s.zo. unites withWare river, and six miles further empties into theConnecticut at Springfield, on the e. bank of thatriver.)
CHICASAWS, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina, comprising the Indians of this nation,who have here many other settlements ; in all ofwhich the English have forts, and an establish-ment for their commerce and defence.
Chicasaws, a river of this province, whichruns w. and enters the Mississippi 788 miles fromits mouth, or entrance into the sea.
(CHICCAMOGGA, a large creek, which runsn.w. into Tennessee river. Its rnoutli is six milesabove the Whirl, and about 27 s. w. from themouth of the Ilivvassee. The Chiccamogga Indiantowns lie on this creek, and on the bank of theTennessee. See Ciiickamages.)
Quiaca serving as the line of division, vo. by thatof Lipes, and n. by that of Porco. The district ofTarija belonging to this corregimiento, which is 40leagues distant from the capital of Chichas, isbounded e. by the territories of the infidel Chiri-guanos, Chanaes, and Mataguayos Indians, to thefirst settlements of which from the last habitationsof Tarija there is a narrow, craggy, and mountain-ous route of 14 leagues in length. It is alsobounded on the n. and w. by the valley of Pilaya,and on the s, by the jurisdiction of Xuxui. Thedistrict of Chichas is 140 leagues in circumference,and that of Tarija 80, being either of them inter-sected by some extensive seiTanias : in the boun-daries of the former there are many farms andestates for breeding cattle, where are also producedpotatoes, maize, wheat, barley and other grain,likewise some wine. Here are mines of gold andsilver, which were formerly very rich ; it havingbeen usual for the principal ones to yield somethousand marks in each caxon ; this being espe-cially the case in the mines of Nueva Chocaya,which still yield to this da}-- 60 or 60 marks. Manyof the metals found in these mines are worked upfor useful purposes. The mines of Chilocoa have,on the Whole, been most celebrated fortlieir riches.The rivers, which are of some note, are that ofSupacha, which flows down from the cordillera ofLipes, and running e. passes through the middle ofthe province until it enters the valley of Cinti, ofthe province of Pilaya and Paspaya ; and another,called Toropalca, which enters the province ofPorco, and passes on to the same part of Cinti.The inhabitants of this district amount to 6200.In the settlement of Tatasi both men and womenare subject to a distressing lunacy, which causesthem to run wildly and heedlessly over the moun-tains, without any regard to the precipices whichlie in their way ; since it has generally been ob-served that they dash themselves headlong down :if, however, it should happen that they are notkilled, the fall, they say, frequently restores themto a sane mind. The observation, that the animalsof this country, namely, \\ie vicunas and the nativesheep, are subject to this malady, is without founda-tion ; but it is thought to arise from the peculiareflluviasof the minerals abounding here, and whichhave a great tendency to cause convulsions. Thewomen of tlie aforesaid settlement, when about tobring forth children, like to be delivered of themin the low parts of the qiiebradas, or deep glens.The settlements of this province are,
Santiago de Cota- San Antonio de Riogaiia, Blanco,
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Ingenio del Oro
And in the district of Tarija,
Tarija de Vieja, La Concepcion,
San Bernardo de Tarija, Berraeo.
The district of Tarija is a territory full of que-hradas and craggy mountains, as far as the punasand lofty plains of Escayache and Tacsora, wherethere are two salt lakes. It is composed of fourfertile valleys lying on the skirts of hills, and inthese are found human bones of a prodigious size,petrified, shin-bones of a yard and a quarter long,and teeth larger than a fist. In the midst of one ofthese valleys is the town of San Bernardo de Tarija,which is the capital of the province. Its reparti-miento used to amount to 82,350 dollars, and itsalcavala to 558 dollars per annum. For the settle-ments of this district, see above.
(Chichester, a small township in Rocking-ham county, New Hampshire, about 35 miles n. w.of Exeter, and 45 from Portsmouth. It lies onSuncook river, was incorporated in 1727, andcontains 491 inhabitants.)
CHICHICAPA, a settlement and capital of thealcaldia mayor of the province and bishopric ofOaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tem-perature, and was anciently the real of the mostesteemed silver mines; but is at present muchfallen of, the working of the mines having been for
the most part abandoned from the want of hands,in as much as the natives have given themselvesup to the trade of cochineal, in which its territoryabounds : it produces also much seed and maize.Its jurisdiction includes some of the finest andrichest provinces. It consists of five head settle-ments of districts, to which are subject as manyother. Its capital contains 430 families of Indians,and some of Spaniards, Muslees, and Mulattoes.Ninety leagues s. e. of Mexico. The other settle-ments are.
Rio Hondo or Thequila,
San Agustin de Losi-
CHICHICATEPEC, a settlement and head set-tlement of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in NuevaEspana, is of a cold temperature, contains 26 fa-milies of Indians, and is seven leagues to the s. e.of its capital.
CHICHIMEQUILLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitaquaro, and alcaldiamayor Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacanand kingdom of Nueva Espana. It contains 84families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league tothe s. of its head settlement.
(CHICKAHOMINY, a small navigable riverin Virginia. At its mouth in James river, 37miles from point Comfort, in Chesapeak bay, is abar, on which is only 12 feet water at commonflood tide. Vessels passing that may go eightmiles up the river; those of 10 feet draught 12miles ; and vessels of six tons burden may go 32miles up the river.)
raent and head settlenient of the district of the al-caldia mayor of Tepozcolula in the same kingdom.It is of a mild temperature, and contains a conventof the religious order of St. Domingo, and 128 fa-milies of Indians, who occupy themselves in thetrade of cochineal, as likewise of certain seedswhich they sow in ihe ranchos. Four leagues tothe n. by s. of its capital.
Chilapa, San Pedro de, another, of the headsettlement of the district of Huitepec, and alcaldiamayor of Ixquintepec, in the same kingdom. Itcontains 30 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto the n. with a slight inclination to the e. of itscapital.
CHILAQUE, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Olintla, and alcaldia mayorof Zacatlan, in Nueva España. It is situate in adelightful glen surrounded by rocks, and is water-ed by various streams, being distant five leaguesfrom its head settlement.
CHILATECA, S. JUAN DE, a settlement ofthe head settlement of the district of Cuilapa, andalcaldia mayor of Quatro Villas, in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 52 families of Indians, whotrade in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, and collectcoal and timber, all of which form branches oftheir commerce. Five leagues to the s.e. of itshead settlement.
CHILCA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Canete in Peru, with a small butsafe and convenient port. It abounds in saltpetre,which its natives carry to Lima for the purpose ofmaking gunpowder, on which account they arefor the most part muleteers or carriers. In itsvicinity are the remains of some magnificent build-ings which belonged to the Incas of Peru. Thename of Chilca is given by the Indians of the samekingdom, as also by those of the kingdom of Quito,to a small tree or shrub which is a native of hotclimates, and which, when burnt to ashes, isoften used as lye for the use of the sugar en-gines.
Chi DC A, a beautiful and extensive valley ofthis province, which, although it be not irrigatedby any river, stream, or fountain, by which itmight be fertilized, produces an abundant harvest ofmaize. The seed of this is accustomed to beburied in the ground with heads of pilchards, anabundance of which fish is found upon the coast;and thus, by the moisture arising from this prac-tice, and by the morning dews, the soil becomessuflaciently moistened to produce a very fair crop.The same method is observed, and the same effectproduced, with regard to other fruits and herbs ;but for drinking and culinary uses, the little
water that is procured is drawn from wells. Lat.12° 3P 5. Long. 76° 35' w.
CHILCHAIOTLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district and alcaldia mayor ofZochicoatlan in Nueva España; situate on theside of a hill. It is of a hot temperature, contains26 families of Indians, and is 11 leagues to the n.of its capital.
CHILCHOIAQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of TIacolula, and alcaldia mayor ofXalapa, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a very ex-tensive glen, surrounded by heights which beginin the neighbourhood of Xilotepec, and run some-what more than a league in length. The popula-tion is very scanty, and the temperature bad ;indeed, out of the many families which formerlyinhabited it, 19 only are remaining ; these employthemselves in the rancherias^ agriculture beingindispensably necessary to their maintenance,owing to the barrenness of the territory of the dis-trict. At the distance of a league to the n. of Xa-lapa, and on the side of the royal road leading to^^exico, is the great mill of Lucas Martin. Herethe lands are fertilized by the large river Cerdeilo ;by the waters of which also other settlements arcsupplied, as likewise some of ihe ranchos^ whereinemployment is found for upwards of SO familiesof Spaniards, some Mustees^ and many Indians.Four leagues to the s. w. of its head settlement.
GHILCHOTA, the alcaldia mayor and juris-diction of the province and bishopric of Mecho-aedn. It is very mean, and reduced to a few smallsettlements, which lie so nigh together, that theirsituations are pointed out to tlie traveller by crossesstuck up in the roads. Its population consists of470 families of Tarascos Indians, and about 300 ofSpaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees\ who are,for the most part, scattered in the agriculturalestates of its district, where, from the fertility of thesoil, wheat, maize, and other seeds, are cultivatedin abundance. The country is agreeable, and wellstocked with every kind of fruit trees. The capi-
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manufactures peculiar to the country, such ascoarse trowsers, baizes, and blankets. Although itis some years since this province has received anymischief from the infidels who inhabit the moun-tains of the Andes, yet it has regular advanced de-tachments or guards stationed for the defence of thefrontiers, prepared against a recurrence of the evilsexperienced in former times. As we have beforesaid, it is the largest province, so also it is the bestpeopled, since it contains upAvards of 50,000 soulsand 33 settlements, the capital of Avhich has thesame name. Its repartimiento, or tribute, used toamount to 226,730 dollars, and it used to pay analcavala of 1814 dollars per annum. The settle-ments are,
[CICERO, a military township in New York,on the s. tv. side of Oneida lake, and between it,the Salt lake, and the Salt springs.]
CICOBASA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom of Quito,and of the district of the latter. It rises in thecordillera of the province of Cuenca, runs s. andenters the river Santiago.
lies close to it, and which gives it its name. It waga reduccton of the monks of St. Domingo.
CIENEGA of Oro, another (settlement), with the surname of Oro, in the province and government of Cartagena, of thesame kingdom, it is of the district of Tolu, andformed by the re- union of other settlements in theyear 1776, effected by the Governor Don JuanPimienta.
==CINAGUA Y GUACANA, the alcaldia mayorand jurisdiction of the province and bishopric ofMechoacán in Nueva Espana. It is 80 leagueslong from e. to w. and 60 wide from n. to s. Itsterritory is for the most part mountainous and un-even, and its temperature bad. Its productionsare large cattle, wax, maize, and fruits. Tire ca-pital is the settlement of the same name, of a hottemperature, and inhabited by 25 families of In-dians, who cultivate maize and melons, uponwhich this scanty population consists, though itwas formerly of some consideration. It has suf-fered, no doubt, from the iinkindness of the tempera-ture, and from the wantof water. The jurisdictionis 80 leagues to the w. with a slight inclination tothe s. of Mexico. The other settlements are,Guacana, Paraquaro,
Santa Ana Turicato. Punguco.
CINALOA, a province and government ofNueva España. It is between the w. and «. ofMexico, from whence it is distant 300 leagues. Itextends in length as far as proselytes have beenmade to the gospel, viz. to 140° ; and it ex-tends to 40° in width. On the e. of it arethe loftiest sierras of Topia, running towardsthe n. and on the w. it is embraced by the arm ofthe sea of California. On the s. it has the town ofCuliacan, and to the n. the innumerable nations ofIndians, the boundaries of which are unknown.This province lies between lat. 27° and 32° n . ; thisbeing the extent to Avhich the inissonaries havepenetrated. The temperature is extremely hot,although the cold is intense during the months ofDecember and January. It rains here very little,especially upon the coast ; and seldom more than3 p
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CINCO-SEÑORES, a settlement of the pro-vince of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Viz-caya ; one of the missions of the BabosariganesIndians, held there by the regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits. Within eight leagues to the s.of its district is a great unpeopled tract, called Delas Manos, (Of the Hands), from the infidel Indianshaving nailed up against some temples in thoseparts many hands of some unfortunate Spaniards•whom they had killed, when the latter had en-tered the country under the idea of making pro-selytes.
CINGACUCHUSCAS, a barbarous nation ofIndians, who inhabit the woods to the s. of theriver Marañon. In 1652 they were united to thePandabeques, and established themselves in thesettlement of Xibaros of the missions of Maynas,with the exception of some few, who still remainin their idolatry, and lead a wandering life throughthe woods.
CINTU, a spacious llanura or plain, of theancient province of Chimu, now Truxillo, on thecoast of the S. sea. It was taken possession of byHuaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor of the Incas.It is very fertile, and of a good and healthy cli-mate ; but it is but little inhabited.
CIPOYAY, a country and territory of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay, called also theprovince of Vera, towards the e. and where thenation of the Guaranis Indians dwell. It is of ahot climate, but very fertile, abounding in woods,and well watered by many rivers ; some of whichrun from e. to w. and enter the Uruguay, andothers from s. to n. and enter the Plata.
CIPRE, a river of the province and govern-ment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.It takes its course from e. to w. and opposite tlieriver Sola, empties itself into that of Esmeraldas,on the w. side, in lat. 28' n.
CIRANDIRO, a settlement and the capital ofthe alcaldia mayor of Guimeo in the province andbishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a hot tempera-ture, and inliabited by 90 families of Tarascos In-dians. In its vicinity is the estate of Quichandio,in which eight families of Spaniards, and 15 ofMustees and Mulattoes, are employed in makingsugar. Also in the estate of Santa Maria are fivefamilies of the former. It is 75 leagues to the w.and one-fourth to the s. w. of Mexico.
[CIRENCESTER. See Marcus Hook.]
CIUAPA, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile,towards the «. It is notorious from a species offish caught in it, called tache, of an extrem.ely deli-cate flavour. It runs into the S. or Pacific sea,terming a small port of little depth.
CIUDAD REAL, a city of the province andgovernment of Paraguay ; founded in 1557. byRui Diaz Melgarejo, on the shore of the river Pi-quiri, three leagues from Parana. It Was des-troyed by the Mamalukos Indians of San Pablo ofBrazil, in 1630, and in its place was substituted therich town of Espiritu Santo, the territory of whichabounds in fruits, vines, and mines of copper.In the vicinity of the present town is a great wa-terfall, formed by the above river, upwards »f3p 2
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teopan, and alcaldia mayor of Zaqualpa. 11 con-tains 204 families of Indians.
Same name, another (settlement), the capital of the alcaldiamayor of the same kingdom ; the jurisdiction ofwhich comprehends three head settlements of thedistrict. It is of a moderate temperature, abound-ing in seeds and grain, which are cultivated inmany estates of its territoiy ; and in these somecattle also are bred. It contains 340 families ofIndians, 15 of Spaniards, and Mulattoes,with a good convent of monks of St. Domingo.Nine leagues to the no. of Mexico.
Same name , another (settlement), of the head settlement ofAmatepec, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in thesame kingdom. It contains 20 families of Indians,who maintain themselves by breeding large cattle,and in sow ing some fruits and maize. Four leaguesto the n. of its head settlement.
COATEPEQUE, S. Paulo de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Zitaquaro, of the alcaldiamayor of Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoa-can. It contains 179 families of Indians, and isone eighth of a league’s distance from its headsettlement towards the s.
COATETELCO, S. Juan de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Mazatepec, and alcaldiaof Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espafia ; situatein a valley of a hot temperature. It contains 94families of Mexican Indians, who pride them-selves on their nobility, and suffer no other peopleto come and dwell among them. Here is a lakeformed by the winter rains, in which are caughtmojarras^ a fish much esteemed in Mexico.
COATINCHAN, a head settlement of the al-caldia mayor of the Puebla de los Angeles inNueva Espana. It has, besides the parish church,a convent of monks of St. Francis, 324 families ofIndians, and 50 of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mu-lattoes, with those of the wards of its vicinity.Two leagues s. e. of its capital.
COATLAN, a settlement of the head settlementof Metlatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Papantla, inNueva Espana. It contains 25 families of In-dians, and is little more than three leagues to thes. w. of its head settlement.
COATLAN, San Pablo, another (settlement), with the dedicatory title of San Pablo, the head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Miahuatlau in the samekingdom, being of a mild temperature. It con-
tains 532 families of Indians, with those of itsimmediate wards, all of them employing thenn-selves in the cultivation of maize and other fruitsofthis region. It lies 12 leagues between the e.and s. of its capital.
Same name, another (settlement), the head settlement of thedistrict of the alcaldia mayor of Nexapa a in thesame kingdom. It has a convent of monks of St.Dcmiingo, and contains 114 families of Indians,employed in the cultivation and sale of grain and
It lies 12 leagues to the n. of
Same name, another (settlement), of the head settlement ofCozcatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Tasco, in thesame kingdom. It contains 130 families of In-dians, and lies three leagues to thee, of its capital.
COATLINCHAN, San Miguel de, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tezcuco in NuevaEspana. It contains 218 families of Indians, in-cluding those of its immediate wards, and is oneleague to the s. of its capital.
COAUCAZINTLA, a settlement of the dis-trict and head settlement of Tlacolula, and al-caldia mayor of Xalapa, in Nueva Espana ;situate between three lofty mountains, and in themidst of others with which its territory is covered.It is of a mild temperature, the soil is tortile, butproduces only maize and French beans, in whichconsists the commerce of the inhabitants. Theseare composed of 44 families of Indians. Oneleague to the n. e. of its head settlement.
COAUTITLAN, the district and alcaldiamayor of Nueva España ; being one of the mostfertile and rich territories, however inconsiderablein size, covered with cultivated grounds andestates, which produce quantities of maize, wheatbarley, and other grain. It is a grand plainjwatered by the river of its name, which traversesit, and runs from s. to n. It has a lake called Zum-pango, close to the settlement of Coyotepecwhich filling itself from the waters of the river*empties itself into the lake Ecatepec. This juris-diction contains the following settlements :
The capital of the same San Miguel de los Xa«
The capital, which is the residence of the alcaldiamayor., lies in the direct road from Mexico to theinterior of the provinces, and upon this account3 Q
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which is above 100 leagues distant, and thatthrough a desert country.]
COBITU, a river of the province and mis-sions of the Gran Paititi. It rises in themountains of the infidel Indians, which serveas a boundary to the province of Larecaja ;runs nearly due n. collecting the waters of manyothers, and enters theMarmore w ith the name of Mato.
[COBLESKILL, a new town in the county ofSchoharie, New York, incorporated March 1797.]
COBOS, a fortress of the province and govern-ment of Tucuman in Peru ; of the district and ju-risdiction of the city of Salta, from whence it isnine leagues distant ; having been founded in 1693at the foot of a declivity, to serve as an outworkor defence against the Indians of Chaco, it is atpresent destroyed and abandoned, and serves as acountry-house on the estate of an individual.
COBRE, Santa Clara de, a settlement ofthe alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, in the provincennd bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 100 fa-milies of Spaniards, bO oi Mustees, 38 of Mulat-toes, and 135 of Indians ; some of whom speculatein working the mines of copper which are closeby, others in the cultivation of maize, and othersgain their livelihood as muleteers. Three leaguess. of the city of Pasquaro.
Same name, a mountain on the coast of the provinceand corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It derives its name from some very abun-dant copper mines. Great quantities of this metalare carried from hence to Spain for founding artil-lery, and for different purposes.
of the large river Napo, and at last becomes in-corporated with the same.
[COCALICO, a township in Lancaster county,Pennsylvania.]
COCAMA, a great lake in the midst of thethick woods which lie in the country of Las Amazonas, to the s. and w. of tlie river Ucayale. It is10 leagues long from n. to s. and six wide from e.to w. On the e. it flows out, through a littlecanal, into the river Ucayale, and on the w. itforms the river Cassavatay, which running n. andthen e. enters also the Ucayale. Its shores areconstantly covered with alligators and tortoises.
COCAMAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe country of Las Amazonas, who inhabit thew'oods to the s. of the river Maraiion, and in thevicinities of Ucayale. It takes its name from theformer lake, called La Gran Cocama. Theyare a barbarous and cruel race, wandering over theforests in quest of birds and wild beasts for meresustenance. Their arms are the macana, and theIndian cimeter, or club of chonia, a very strongebony.
COCATLAN, San Luis de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Coatlan, and alcadia mayorof Nexapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 160 fa-milies of Indians, employed in the trade in cochi-neal and cotton stuffs. It is four leagues to the n.of its head settlement.
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COCO, a river of the province and governmentof Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountains of the n. and enters the seaopposite the island of Las Palmas, and gives itsname to the territory of a Cacique, thus called.
COCOMERACHI, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara, andkingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. It is 40 leagues tothe w. s.zo. of the town 'And real of the mines ofChiguaga.
COCONUCO, See Cucunuco.
COCOS, some small islands of the Pacific orS. sea, lying close together, and divided by somenarrow channels. They abound in cocoa-trees,and from thence take their name. They are alsocalled Santa Cruz, from having been discoveredon the day of the invention of the cross. Theclimate here is pleasant, but the isles are unculti-vated and desert. Lat. 5° n.
COCUI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Tunja in the NueVo Reyno de Gra-nada ; situate at the foot of the sierra Nevada. Itis of a cold temperature, but abounds in all kindsof productions, and particularly in wheat, maize,barley, &c. It contains 700 white inhabitants,and 150 Indians. Thirty-two leagues from Tunja,and eight from the settlement of Chita.
COCUPAC, a city and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofValladolid in Nueva Espana, and of the bishopricof Mechoaean. Its situation is in a nook to the n.of the great lake. On the e. and ze. are two loftymountains, which form so many other entrances,the one to the 5. and the other to the n. Its tem-perature is rather cold than w'arm ; and althoughit does not want for fruits, it is but ill supplied withwater, the only stream it has not running morethan the distance of a stone’s throw before it entersa lake. The inhabitants are thus under the ne-cessity of supplying themselves by wells. Thepopulation of this city consists in 45 families ofSpaniards, 52 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 150of Indians. They occupy themselves in the mak-ing of tiles or flags ; and the inferior order aremuleteers. It has a convent of the religious orderof St. Francis.
COD, a cape of the coast of New England andprovince of Massachusetts. It runs for many leaguestowards the sea, forming a large semicircle, andafterwards returning, forms the bay of Barnstable.[See Cape Cod, Barnstable, &c.]
Cold spring is 4200 feet above the level of the sea ;and few or none of the tropical fruits will flourishin so cold a climate. The general state of thethermometer is from 55° to 63° ; and even some-times so low as 44° : so that a fire there, even atnoon-day, is not only comfortable, but necessary,a great part of the year. Many of the Englishfruits, as the apple, the peach, and the strawberry,flourish there in great perfection, with several othervaluable exotics, as the tea-tree and other orientalproductions.)
(Cold Spring Cove, near Burlington, New Jer-sey, is remarkable for its sand and clay, used inthe manufacture of glass ; from whence the glassworks at Hamilton, 10 miles w. of Albany, are sup-plied with these articles.)
(COLEBROOKE, in the «. part of New Hamp-shire, in Grafton county, lies on the e. bank ofConnecticut river, opposite the Great Monadnock,in Canaan, state of Vermont ; joining Cockburneon the s. and Stuartstown on the n. ; 126 miles n.w. by «. from Portsmouth.)
(COLEBROOKE, a Tougb, hilly township on then. line of Connecticut, in Litchfield county, 30miles n. w. of Hartford city. It was settled in1736. Here are two iron works, and several mills,on Still river, a n. w. water of Farmington river.In digging a cellar in this town, at the close of theyear 1796, belonging to Mr. John Hulburt, theworkmen, at the depth of about 9 or 10 feet, foundthree large tusks and two thigh-bones of an animal,the latter of which measured each about four feetfour inches in length, and 12|; inches in circum-ference. When first discovered they were entire,but as soon as they were exposed to the air theymouldered to dust. This adds another to themanj^ facts which prove that a race of enormousanimals, now extinct, once inhabited the UnitedStates.)
(COLERAIN, a town on the». bank of St. Mary’sriver, Camden county, Georgia, 40 or 50 milesfrom its mouth. On the 29th of June 1796, atreaty of peace and friendship was made and con-cluded at this place, between the president of theUnited States, on the one part, in behalf of theUnited States, and the king’s chiefs and warriorsof the Creek nation of Indians, on the other. By
this treaty, the line between the white people andthe Indians was established to run from theCurrahee mountain to the head or source of themain s. branch of the Oconee river, called by thewhite people Appalatohee, and by the IndiansTulapoeka, and down the middle of the same.”Liberty was also given by the Indians to the pre-sident of the United Stutes to “ establish a tradingor military post on the s. side of Alatamaha,about one mile from Beard’s bluff', or any wherefrom thence down the river, on the lands of theIndians and the Indians agreed to “ annex tosaid post a tract of land of five miles square ;and in return for this and other tokens of friendshipon the part of the Indians, the United States stipu-lated to give them goods to the value of 6000dollars, and to furnish them with two blacksmithswith tools.)
COLIMA, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdictionof the province and bishopric of Mechoacán inNueva Espana. It is bounded e. by the jurisdic-tion of Zapotlan, s. by that of Mortincs, n. by thatof Tuzcacuesco, and w. by that of Autlan, and theport of La Navidad in the kingdom of Nueva Ga-licia. It carries on a great trade in salt, collectedon the coasts of the S. sea, where there are wellsand salt grounds, from which great emolumentis derived, supplying, as they do, the inlandprovinces with this article. Formerly the best
cocoa wine of any in the kingdom was made here,from the abundance of this fruit found in all thepalm estates ; but the art of bringing it to perfec-tion was lost, and this branch of commerce diedaway, from the additional cause, that the making ofthis liquor was prohibited by the viceroy, the Dukeof Albuquerque, as being a drink calculated toproduce great inebriety. The capital is of the samename ; and the settlements of this district are,Almoloioyan, Zinacantepec,
Nagualapa, Cuatlan. ,
The capital is a town sitimteupon the coast ofthe S. sea, near the frontiers ofXalisco, in themost fertile and pleasant valley of Nueva Espaiia.It abounds in cacao and other vegetable produc-tions ; is of a hot temperature, and the air is verypure. Its buildings are regular and handsome,3 R 2