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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]





from s. to e. between 'the rivers Mechicor and St.John, and entering the sea at the mouth of thebay of Fundy.

AGRATUMATI, a river of the province andgovernment of Darien, in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises in the mountains of the ». andefiters the sea by the Little Beech, opposite Cali-donia.

AGREDA, or NUEVA MA'LAGA, a city of theprovince and government of Popayan, in the king-dom of Quito, founded by Geronimo Aguado in1541. It is small, and of a hot temperature, butabounds in gold mines. Forty-five leagues s. w.of its capital, 42 from Quito, and 37 to the e. ofthe S, sea.

AGRESINAS, a settlement founded by thePortuguese fathers of the Carmelite. order, in thecountry of the Amazonas, situate on the shores ofthe river Amazonas.

AGRIAS, a nation of Indians of the provinceand government of Santa Marta, to the w. of theCienega Grande. It was formerly very numerous,but at present considerably reduced.

AGUA, Port of, on the n. coast of the islandof St. Domingo, between Point Rabeland the Bayof Marques-

Agua, a small island, situate near the k. coastof the island of Vaca, in the channel formed by theisland of St. Domingo, in front of the bay ofMesle.

Agua, also Ojos de Agua, two springs orfountains of the province and corregimi'ento ofCuyo, in the kingdom of Chile, near the lake ofInca, from whence the river Quillota takes itssource.

Agua Blanca, a settlement of the provinceand government of Venezuela, situate between therivers Sarare and Acarigua, to the e. of the town ofAraure.

Agua Buena y Dulce, or Fresh Water,a bay of the strait of Magellan, near the bayof La Gente.

Agua-Caliente, a settlement of the kingdomof Guatemala.

Agua-Clara, a river of the province andgovernment of Paraguay. It runs e. and entersthe Parana on the w. side.

Agua Colorada, a river of the same provinceand government as the former(Paraguay), which runs e. andenters also the large river of Parana.

==Agua de Culebra, SAN FRANCISCO XA-VIER DE LA==, 'a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela, a reduccionof Indians ofthe Capuchin fathers ; but the place is also inha-bited by some Spanish families. It belongs to the

district and jurisdiction of the city of San Felipe ;and in its vicinity dwell a great number of peoplein the estates belonging to it, and which produceabundance of cacao, plantains, yucas, and othervegetable productions.

Agua-Dulce, Caleta de, or Creek of, onthe s. coast of the strait of Magellan, on the sideof the bay of San Martin.

Agua Escondida, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana,situate at the foot of a mountain, and to the n. ofSanta Clara.

Agua-Verde, an island of the gulph ofCalifornia, or Red sea of Cortes, situate near thecoast, between the islands of Carmen and Mon-serrat.

AGUACAGUA, a settlement of the provinceof Guayana, and government of Cumana, one ofthose belonging to the missions of the CatalanianCapuchin fathers. It is on the shore of the riverCaroni, near the mouth, through which this en-ters the Orinoco. Lat. 8° 22' n. Long. 62^42' w.

AGUACATAL, a settlement of the provinceand government of Antioquia, situate in the val-ley of Peneo, on the shore of the river Cauca.Lat. 8° n. Long. 75° 28' w.

AGUACATENANGO, a settlement of the pro-vince and alceddia mayor of Chiapa in the king-dom of Guatemala. [Lat. 16° 18' n. Long.91° 57' a).]

AGUACATLAN, the head settlement of thedistrict of the alcaldia mayor of Xala in N uevaEspana. In 1745 it contained 80 families of In-dians, who employed themselves in the culture ofmaize and French beans. It has a convent of thereligious order of St. Francis, and lies two leaguess. e. of its capital.

AGUACHAPA, a settlement of the provinceand government of Nicaragua in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

AGUADA, a settlement of the island of Porto-rico ; situate in the bay of its name (Aguda), between thecapes Boriquen and St. Francis. It serves as aninlet for ships going to Tierra Firme and NuevaEspana to take in water. [Lat. 18° 23' «. Long.67° 6' a;.]

Aguada (Bay), the aforesaid bay (Aguda) in the above island (Porto rico).

Aguada (point), the point on the coast and at the headof the above island, 27 leagues distant from thecape of San Rafael, of the island of St. Domingo.

Aguada (river), a river near the cape (San Rafael) or former point (Aguada),and in the same island (St. Domingo), being a place where shipsare accustomed to take in water.

Aguada (Small river), a small river of the province and

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Aguarico, another settlement of the same pro-yince, and belonging to the same missions, andbearing the dedicatory title of San Estanislao.

Aguarico, a river of the same province andf overnment, being one of those which enter theNapo by the n. side. At its mouth, or entrance,begins the large province of the Encabellados ;and here it was that the Portuguese attempted toestablish themselves in 1732, invading it with acertain number of Piraguas, (small vessels), whichcame from Para. They were, however, throughthe well-timed precautions of the president of Qui-to, forced to retire without attaining their object.This river contains much gold in its sands, andits body is much increased by other streams, suchas those of the Azuela, Cofanes, Sardinas, and Du-ino. It descends from the grand Cordillera of theAndes, near the town of San Miguel de Ibarra,washes the territory of the Sucurabios Indians, andenters the Napo in lat. 1° 23' s.

AGUARINGUA, an ancient and large settle-ment of the nation of the Taironas Indians, in theprovince and government of Santa Marta.

AGUARO, a river of the province and go-vernment of Honduras. It enters the S. sea to thee. of Aguan.

Aguaro, Cano de, a river of the province andgovernment of Venezuela. It enters the Guarico,and is famous for abounding in fish, particularlya kind called pabon, which has a circular spot ofsky-blue and gold upon its tail, resembling an eye,and which is much esteemed for its excellent fla-vour.

AGUAS, a small river of the province andgovernment of Paraguay. It runs n. n. w. andenters the Uruguay close to the J uipa.

Aguas-blancas. See Yaguapiui.

Aguas-bellas, a small river of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay. It runs c.and enters the Parana.

Aguas-calientes, an alcaldia mayor of thethe kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric ofGuadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdictionincludes four head settlements of the district, andtwo large estates called the Pavellon, as also theestate Del Fuerte, in which quantities of grain andseed are cultivated. The principal settlement isthe town of the same name, of a moderate tempera-ture, its inhabitants consisting of 500 Spanish fa-milies, as also of some of Mustees and Mulattoes;and although some Mexican Indians arc to befound here, they merely come to traffic with theproductions of the other jurisdictions. It con-tains three convents ; one of the bare- footed Fran-ciscans, a sumptuous and well-built fabric ; one ofthe Mercenarios; and a third of San Juan de Dios,with a well-endowed hospital ; not to mentionseveral other chapels and altars in the vicinity.It is 140 leagues n. n. w. of Mexico, and 35 ofGuadaiaxara. Long. 101° 51' 30" w. Lat. 22° 2' n.

Aguas-calientes, another settlement in theprovince and government of Venezuela, of thekingdom of Tierra Firme, situate upon the coast.

AGUASTELAS, San Miguel de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of the district of SanAndres of Acatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa,in Nueva España. It is but lately established,and is one league s. of its head settlement.

AGUATEPEC, Santa Maria de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of the district andalcaldia mayor of Tecali in Nueva España. Itcontains 48 families of Indians.

AGUATLAN, the head settlement of the dis-trict of the alcadia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Es-pana. It was formerly a separate jurisdiction;but on account of its smallness, and the ill-fa-voured and craggy state of its soil, it was incorpo-rated with another close to it. It contains 46 Indianfamilies, and is 12 leagues e. of its capital.

AGUATUBI, a settlement of the province ofMoqui in Nuevo Mexico.

AGUATULCO, a river of the province andalcaldia mayor of Tegoantepec in Nueva España.It runs e. and enters the S. sea near the Capolita.

AGUEDA, Mono de Santa, a mountain ofthe w. coast of the straits of Magellan, in the SierraNevada (snowy sierra).

Agueda, a point or cape near the above moun-tain.

[AGUGA Cape, on the coast of Peru, S. Ame-rica, lies s. of Puira, in the 61° of s. lat. and in the81° of w, long.]

AGUIJO, San Miguel de, a settlement ofthe new kingdom of Leon.

AGUILA, Villa Gutierrez de la, a townof the alcaldia mayor of Xerez in Nueva España.It was formerly very considerable, and had a nu-merous population of Spaniards, when it wasmade a fortress against the Tepehuanes and Tarau-maras Indians. It is an alcaldia mayor ^ but itsjurisdiction is consolidated with another, on ac-count of its being a place of little consideration,and its population being very scanty, and livingin some small wards and estates in its district. Itlies at the c. entrance of the province of Nayarith,and is the boundary of the kingdom of NuevaGalicia, being nine leagues e. of Xerez.

Aguila, a very lofty mountain of the province

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3. George of Spira, a German knight, nomi-nated by the Weltzers in 1533 : he died in 1540,leaving the title of provisional governor to,

4. Captain Juan de Villegas, a title which wasenjoyed but a few days, inasmuch as the audienceof St. Domingo, immediately upon their hearing oftlie death of Spira, appointed,

5. Don Rodrigo do Bastidas, bishop of that -holy church ; he governed till the year 1541, andbeing promoted to the bishopric of Puertorico,the government in the mean time devolved upon,

6. Diego Boica, a Portuguese gentleman, aknight of the order of Christ ; he was confirmedin the government by the audience of St. Domingo ;but in a very few days after he was superseded by,

7. Enrique Rembolt, a German ; who also go-verned a very short time, inasmuch as the excessesthat he committed, and the clamours of the inha-bitants of Toro, obliged the above tribunal tosend out,

8. The Licentiate Frias, fiscal of that royalaudience ; he entered upon his functions in 1642,until the royal nomination of,

9. The Licentiate Juan Perez de Tolosa, nativeof Segovia ; a very learned and prudent man : hewas chosen by the Emperor to settle the distur-bances which had arisen from the administration ofthe Weltzers; for which reason he deprived themof it ; he entered Coro in 1546 ; and although hehad not fulfilled the three years of his appointment,he was, on account of his tried abilities, confirmedin his office for another three years, and diedin 1548.

10. Juan de Villegas, nominated as intermediategovernor by his antecedent, until the arrival of theproprietor,

11. The Licentiate Villacinda, nominated bythe Princess Doña Juana, who, in the absence ofher father, the Emperor, held the reins of govern-ment in Castilla ; this governor took the reins in1554, and died in 1557, leaving the governmentin charge of the alcaldes.

12. Gutierrez de la Peña, nominated provision-ally bythe audience of St. Domingo ; he enteredupon his functions in 1557, until the year 1559,when arrived,

13. The Licentiate Pablo Collado, who governeduntil the year 1562, when, on account of the ap-peals made against him to the audience of St. Do-mingo, this court sent out an inquisitorial judge,who might call him to account, and order himback to Spain : this was the Licentiate Bernaldes,whom they called “ Ojo de Plata,” (Eye of Silver),he having the defect of one of his eyes supplied by

this artificial means. He having, therefore, dis-placed the former governor, took the managementof affairs upon himself, until the arrival of theproper person, who was nominated by the king in1563.

14. Don Alonzo de Manzanedo, who governed avery short time since ; being of a very advancedage, he soon fell sick, and died in 1564.

15. The Licentiate Bernaldes; who havinggained a certain reputation for the strictness, affa-bility, and justice, with which he conducted him-self in his provisional government, was nominaleda second time by the audience of St. Domingo,with the general acclamation of the province ;he governed until the year following, 1565, whenarrived,

16. Don Pedro Ponce de Leon, a branch of theillustrious house of the Dukes of Arcos ; he hadbeen alcalde of Conil, came to the government inthe aforesaid year, and died in 1569.

17. Don Juan de Chaves, a native of Truxilloin Estremadura ; who was living as a citizen atSt. Domingo at tiie time that he was appointedas provisional governor by the audience, as soon asthe death of the former was known to them : heentered upon the government the same year, andheld it until the year 1572.

18. Diego Mazariego ; who entered Coro in theabove year, and governed until 1576, when hissuccessor arrived, who was,

19. Don Juan Pimentel, a branch of the houseof the Counts of Benavente, knight of the order ofSantiago ; also the first governor who establishedhis residence in the city of Santiago. He wascalled from thence to take the charge of the go-vernment, which he exercised until the year 1582,when his successor arrived.

20. Don Luis de Roxas, native of Madrid ; heentered Caracas in 1583, reigned until 1587, whenhe was succeeded by,

21. Don Domingo de Osorio, commander of thegalleys, and chief officer of the customs of the islandof St. Domingo ; at which place he was residingwhen he received advices relative to his succeed-ing the former governor : he filled his office withmuch diligence, and obtained considerable renown,and in the year 1597 was promoted to the presi-dency of St. Domingo.

22. Gonzalo de Piña Lidueña, who governeduntil 1600, when he died of an apoplectic fit ; andin the interval the audience of St. Domingo ap-pointed,

23. Alonzo Arias Baca, citizen of Coro, and sonof the renowned Dr. Bernaldes, who liad governed

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he was at length persuaded to accept it by the ac-clamations and remonstrances of all parties, andespecially of the vicar-general of his order; hebegan to preside without being consecrated ; butbeing yet full of scruples, he renounced the office,and without permission returned to Spain ; h^ thenwent to Koine, but being desired by his holiness toreturn to his diocese, he was said to have been somuch affected as not to have been able to prevailupon himself to enter the city : he returned, there-fore, immediately to the coast, and embarked forFlorida, with a view of converting some of theinfidels ; and with this object he again set off forSpain, in order to obtain his renunciation ; whenbeing at length tired with his wanderings, andAvorn out Avith age, he died in his convent of To-ledo in 1562.

5. Don Juan de Simancas, native of Cordova,collegian of San Clemente de Bolonia ; he enteredin 1560, went to be consecrated at Santa Fe, andupon his return, had the mortification to find thatthe suburbs of Xiximani had been sacked by someFrench pirates ; which disaster was again repeatedin the following year, 1561. This bishop, afterhaving governed his church for the space of 10years, and suffering much from the influence of ahot climate, left the see without a licence, andreturned to his country, where he died in1570.

6. Don Ft. Luis Zapata de Cardenas, of theorder of St. Francis, native of Llerena in Estre-madura, third commissary-general of the Indies ;elected bishop in 1570, promoted to the archbi-shopric of Santa Fe before he left Spain, and in hisplace was chosen,

7. Don Fr. Juan de Vivero, a monk of the or-der of St. Augustin, native of Valladolid ; hepassed over into America, was prior of the conventof Lima, founder of the convent of Cuzco, electedbishop, which he renounced ; nor would he ac-cept the archbishopric of Chacas, to which he waspromoted : he died in Toledo.

8. Don Fr. Dionisio de los Santos, of the orderof Santiago, prior of the convent of Granada, andprovincial of the province of Andalucia ; electedin 1573 : he died in 1578.

9. Don Fr. Juan de Montalvo, of the same orderof St. Domingo, native of Arevalo ; elected bishop,he entered Cartagena in 1579, passed over to SantaFe to the synod celebrated there by the archbishop ;and in 1583 had the mortification of seeing hiscity sacked, plundered, and destroyed by SirFrancis Drake; Avhich calamity had such a greateffect upon him, and well knowing noAV that hehad no means of relieving the necessities of the

poor, who were dependent upon him, he fell sickand died the same year.

10. Don Fr. Diego Osorio, of the same orderof St. Domingo ; he went over as a monk to Car-tagena, from thence to Lima and Nueva Espana,received the presentation to this bishopric in 1587,which he would not accept, and died in 1579, inMexico.

11. Don Fr. Antonio de Hervias, also a Domi-nican monk, collegian of San Gregorio de Valla-dolid, his native place, where he had studiedarts ; he passed over to Peru, and was the firstmorning-lecturer in the university of Lima, ma-nager of the studies, qualificator of the inquisition,vicar-general of the province of Quito, and after-wards presented to the bishopric of Arequipa,then to that of Verapaz, and lastly to that of Car-tagena, where he died in 1590.

12. Don Fr. Pedro de Arevalo, monk of the or-der of St. Gerome ; he was consecrated in Spain,and renounced the bishopric before he came totake possession of it.

13. Don Fr. Juan de Ladrada, a Dominicanmonk, native of Granada ; he A^'as curate and re-ligious instructor in the Indies, in the settlements ofSuesca and Bogota, vicar-general of his religionin the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, lecturer on thesacred scriptures and on theology in Santa Fe,'was consecrated bishop of Cartagena in 1596 : herebuilt the cathedral, established a choir of boysand chaplains, and made a present of a canopy tobe carried by the priests over the blessed sacra-ment when in procession ; he assisted at the foun-dation of the college of the regulars of the societyof Jesuits, and of that of the fathers called thebarefooted Augustins, on the mountain of LaPopa ; he had the satisfaction of having for hisprovisor the celebrated Don Bernardino de Al-mansa, a wise and virtuous man, who was after-Avards archbishop of Santa Fe ; he frequentlyvisited his bishopric, and after having governed17 years, died in 1613.

14. Don Fr. Pedro de Vega, a monk of thesame order of St. Domingo, native of Bubiercain the kingdom of Aragon, professor of theologyand of the sacred AA'ritings in the universities ofLerida and Zaragoza ; he entered Cartagena asbishop in 1614, and his short duration disappintedthe hopes he had so universally excited, for hedied in 1616.

15. Don Diego Ramirez de Zepeda, friar of theorder of Santiago, native of Lima, a renownedpreacher, and consummate theologist ; being atMadrid, he was elected, and died before he couldreach the bishopric.

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16. Don FV. Diego de Tores Atamairano, amonk of the order of St. Francis, native of Trux-illo in Estremadura, commissary-general of theprovinces of Peru ; he received his consecration atEiraa, entered Cartagena in 1620, and died in thefollowing year, 1621.

17. Don Fr. Francisco de Sotomayor, of theorder of St. Francis, native of San Tome, in thebishopric of Tuy, guardian of the convents inMontforte and Salamanca, difimdor general in thechapter which was celebrated at Rome ; elected tothe bishopric of Cartagena in 1622, and promotedto that of Quito before he left Madrid, in 1623.

18. Don Fr. Luis Ronquillo de Cordova, of theorder of the Santissirna Trinidad, native of Gra-nada, where he read arts and theology, was mi-nister in the convent of Malaga, and twice in that ofSeville, provincial and vicar-general of Andalucia ;he was elected bishop in 1630 : he governed eightyears, and returned to Spain without a licence ;he received notice of his promotion to the bishop-ric of Truxillo in Peru, which honour he declined,and retired to his convent in Granada, where hedied in 1642.

19. Don Fr. Christoval Perez de Lazarraga, ofthe order of San Bernardo, native of Madrid,qualificator of the inquisition ; he took to an eccle-siastical life when quite a child, was collegian ofthe college of Meira, afterwards of those of Sala-manca and Alcala, professor of philosophy, moraland theological, abbot of the college of Nuestra Se-hora ' de Salamanca, a most learned theologist ;elected and consecrated bishop of Chiapa, and be-fore he left the court promoted to the bishopric ofCartagena, of which he took possession in 1640 :he thrice visited his bishopric, and after a grievousillness of 90 days duration, died in 1648.

20. Don Francisco Rodriguez de Zepeda Val-carcel, native of Zamora ; he studied grammar inthe town of Garcia, jurisprudence in Salamanca,was professor of laws in Valladolid, abbot of Ci-fuentes, and canonical doctor of the church ofSiguenza ; elected bishop of Cartagena, of whichhe took possession in 1650 ; and having governedonly 11 months, he died in the following.

21. Don Diego del Castillo y Arteaga, native ofTudela ; he studied in the university of Alcala,was collegian of Malaga, professor of arts, hav-ing substituted this title for that of theology, cano-nical master of the church of Avila; presentedto the bishopric of Cartagena in 1632, which hedeclined.

22. Don Garcia Martinez Cabezas, native of thetown of Don Benito in Estremadura ; he was pub-

lic professor of the institutes, primate of canonsin the university of Maese Rodrigo de Sevilla,w hen he was adopted as provisor by the archbishopof Lima, Don Gonzalo de Ocampo, as he passedthrough that city ; he was doctoral canon of thechurch of Charcas, afterwards school-master, trea-surer, and archdeacon, from whence he went toLima as inquisitor, and was elected bishop of Car-tagena, but died before he took possession of hisoffice, in 1653.

23. Don Antonio Sanz Lozano, native of Cava-nillas, chief collegian iti Alcala, public professorof theology, a man of learning and of acute ge-nius ; being rector of his college, he was presentedby the king to the bishopric ot Cartagena, of whichhe took possession in 1661, governed with greatskill for 20 years, and was promoted to the arch-bishopric of Santa Fe in 1681.

24. Don Antonio dc Benavides and Piedrola,native of the city of Andujar, canon of Badajoz ;elected bishop of Cartagena in 1681 : his govern-ment being very troublesome, and disturbed by acessation of religious rites, occasioned by the cir-cumstance of the nuns of Santa Clara, who wereunder the care of the religious order of St. Fran-cis, having been put under the ordinary jurisdic-tion, he was called to the court, and arrived therein 1691 ; and not being willing to accept of anyother bishopric in Spain, he died in Cadiz.

25. Don Fr. Antonio Maria Casiani, monk ofBasilio, of the university of Alcala; elected in1713.

26. Don Francisco Gomez Calleja, doctoral Ca-non of the church of Zamora; elected in 1718.

27. Don Manuel Antoniode Silva, dean of Lima,named through promotion of the former, who nothaving accepted of the same, there became a dis-pute as to which was rightly entitled to the bishop-ric of Cartagena, when it was declared by thecourt in favour of the former, who governed from1725 till 1736.

28. Don Gregorio de Molleda y Clerque, nativeof Lima, consecrated at Rome with the title ofbishop of Isauria, domestic prelate to his holiness,and made bishop of Cartagena in 1736, afterwardspromoted to the see of Truxillo in 1740.

29. Don Diego Martinez Garrido, of the orderof Santiago, opponent to the professors in the uni-versity of Salamanca; elected in 1740: he diedin 1746.

30. Don Bernardo de Arbiza y Ugarte, nativeof Cuzco, in the university of which he studiedand graduated as doctor of both laws ; he waschief auditor of the royal audience of Panama,

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when he was promoted to the bishopric of Carta-gena in 1746, of which he took possession in thefollowing year, and governed until 1752, whenhe was promoted to the church of Truxillo.

51. Doii Bartolome Narvaez y Berrio, canon ofthis holy church of Cartagena, and native of thiscountry ; presented to this bishopric in^ 1752, andgoverned here until he died in 1754.

52. The Doctor Jacinto Aguado y Chacon, ca-non penitenciario of the holy church of Cadiz ;elected in 1754, and promoted to the bishopric ofArequipa before he embarked for this of Car-tagena.

33. Don Diego Antonio Valenzuela Faxardo,native of the city of Santa Fe of Bogota; electedin 1754 : he died in 1755.

34. The Doctor Don Manuel de Sosa Betancur,archdeacon of the holy church of Caracas ; electedin 1755 : he died in 1765.

35. Don Diego Peredo, native of the town ofLeon of Mechoacan ; elected in 1765, promotedto the bishopric of Yucatan in 1722.

36. Don Augustin de Alvarado y Castillo ; pro-moted to the bishopric of Santa Fe in 1774.

37. The Doctor t)on Bias Sobrino y Minayo ;elected in 1774, and promoted to the archbishopricof Quito in 1776.

38. Don Fr. Joseph Diaz de la Madrid, a monkof the Order of St. Francis, native of the city ofQuito ; elected in 1 777.

Governors of Cartagena.

1. Don Pedro de Heredia, founder of the city ;and its adelantado or governor, a native of Madrid,and a valorous conqueror, in 1532.

2. The Licentiate Badillo, nominated J uez deResidencia,; he exercised the government duringthe commission in 1536.

3. The, Licentiate Santa Cruz, judge of anothersecond residence, who became adelantado in 1537.

4. The Licentiate Miguel Diez de Armendariz;he entered in 1545, had for judge of his resi-dence the Licentiate Juan de Montano, oidor ofSanta F<5, whom he sent to Spain.

5. Don Pedro de Heredia, who for the secondtime was provisional governor until the year 1556,when he died, being drowned in the fleet whichwas wrecked in the Gordas sands.

6. The Doctor J uan de Maldonado, Jiscal of theaudience of Santa Fe in 1556.

7. Jorge de Quintanilla, provisionally nomi-nated by the audience of Santa Fe.

8. The Brigadier Don Go'izalo Ximinez deQuesada ; nominated by the audience as residen-tiary to the three former, in the same year, 1556.

9. Antonio de Castro ; provisionally nominated.

10. Juan de Bustos Villegas, nominated by theking ; he entered in 1 557, and was promoted tothe presidency of Panama in 1563.

11. Anton Davalos de Luna, a field-officer ; heentered in 1563, and governed till 1567, whenhe died.

12. Don Lope de Orozco, as provisional gover-nor in the same year.

13. Francisco Bahamonde y Lugo ; he enteredin 1572, and died in 1573.

14. Hernan Suarez de Villalobos, nominatedprovisonally by the audience of Santa Fe in 1574.

15. Pedro Fernandez del Busto, who entered inthe above year, and was promoted to the govern-ment of Popayan in 1577.

16. Don Pedro de Lodena, in 1593.

17. Don Pedro de Acuna, knight of the orderof San Juan, field-officer, in 1601 ; he had the titleof president of the Philippines, and died the sameyear.

18. Don Geronimo Suazo Casasola, of the habitof Santiago ; he died in 1605.

19. Don Francisco Sarmientode Sotomayor, no-minated in the interim, in 1606.

20. Don Diego Fernandez de Valazco, in 1608.

21. Don Diego de Acuna, in 1614.

22. Don Garcia Giron de Loaysa, who governeduntil 1620.

23. Don Diego de Escobar, knight of the orderof Santiago, who died whilst exercising the govern-ment.

24. Don Francisco de Berrio, nominated in thein the interim, in 1628.

25. Don Francisco de Murga, knight of the or-der of Santiago, a field-officer, and celebratedengineer ; appointed to fortify the Plaza, beingat the time governor of Marmora in Africa : h«died in 1634.

26. Don Nicolas de Larraspuru, nominated inthe interim, in 1636.

27. Don Gonzalo de Herrera, Marquis of Vil-lalta, nominated in the interim, in 1637, on accountof the former not having accepted the office.

28. Don Vincente de los Reyes Villalobos, pro-visional governor in the same year, 1637, being thegovernor of Moxos.

29. Don Melchor de Aguilera, a field-officer;he entered in 1638, was suspended and called toaccount by Don Bernardino de Prado, oidor ofSanta Fe.

30. Don Ortuno de Aldape ; being governor ofMuzo, he was nominated in the interim, in 1641.

31. Don Luis Fernandez de Cordova, of the or-

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lar way by a river of its name. It abounds inlarge alligators and mosquitoes, which render itsnavigation very troublesome. Its shores are co-vered with beautiful trees, which are inhabited bya variety of birds and apes of several species, whichmake an incredible chattering and noise. It wasby this river that the pirate John Morgan camewhen he took and sacked Panama in 1670. Itwas discovered by Hernando de la Serma in 1527,when he called it the river of Lagartos, but itsmouth was before discovered by Lope de Olanoin 1510. Here are found, at certain seasons, avery small fish of the size of a pin, called titles,and these are so abundant, that putting into thewater a large basket, it is certain to be drawn outfull ; they are fried, and make very savouryfritters.

CHAGRE, with the dedicatory title of San Lo-renzo, a settlement of the same province and king-dom ; situate upon the top of a mountain at theentrance or mouth of the former river. It has forits defence a strong castle, which was built by theorder of Philip 11. by the famous engineer J uanBautista Antoneli. This was taken by the pirateJohn Morgan, after having made a glorious de-fence, in 1668, when the settlement was burnt andsacked ; and in 1740 it was taken by the English,commanded by Admiral Vernon, who entirelydestroyed it ; its loss in that war being supplied bytwo strong batteries, which hindered the Englishfrom making a breach, for the third time, whenthey came with three frigates of war : but theywere driven back by Captain Don Juan de Her-mida, who was formerly captain of the regimentof Granada. In 1752 this castle was rebuilt, in themost perfect manner, by the lieutenant-generaland engineer Don Ignatio de Sala, governor ofCartagena, who came hither for this purpose byorder of the king. In this fortress several per-sonages of distinction' have been held prisoners,ami amongst others the Marquis of La Mina,])resiilent, governor, and captain-general of thekingiUmi in 1694. Is 13 leagues from Porto-belo.

CHAGUANES, an island of the river Orinoco,formed at its entrance into the sea by variouscanals or arms, is large and inhabited by Indiansof the Mariussa nation.

CHAGUARAMA, a settlement of the provinceand government of Venezuela, situate on the con-fines of the province of Cumana, near the riverManapire.

CHAGUARAMA, a bay on the coast of the pro-vince of Cumaná, on the n. e. side ; being formedby the island of Trinidad, and by the mouths of

the channels of the Orinoco as far as the gulfTriste.

CHAGUAREM, a small river of the provinceand government of Venezuela, which runs s. andenters that of Los Aceytes.

CHAHUALTEPEQUE, Santiago de, a set-tlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Mex-ilcaltzingo in Nueva España. It contains 138families of Indians, and is three leagues from itscapital.

CHAHUANTLA, a small settlement or wardof the alcaldía mayor of Guauchinango in NuevaEspaña ; annexed to the curacy of Naupan.

CHAIALA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chayanta or Charcas in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Pocoata.

CHAILLON, Cabo de, a cape on the e. coastof lake Superior, in New France.

CHAINAR, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán ; situate on the shore ofthe river San Miguel.

CHAIPI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Parinacochas in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of the corregimiento of Pullo ; in whichwas venerated, ever since the time of the conquest,a beautiful image of the Virgen del Rosario, which,with the temple, was burnt a few years since, andthe parishioners being much afflicted at their loss,the Marquis of Selva Alegre, president of Quito,sent them another equal to the first : at the cele-bration of the festival people assemble from all theneighbouring districts.

CHAIUIN, a river of the province and govern-ment of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile, whichruns s. e. and enters Valdivia near its entrance intothe sea.

CHALA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Cumaná in Peru.

Chala, with the distinction of Alta, anothersettlement of the province and corregimiento ofSaña in the same kingdom , situate on the shore ofthe river Chicama.

CHALA, another, with the addition of Baxa,in the same kingdom and province; situate nearthe former.

CHALA, a large and beautiful valley on the seashore, in the province and corregimiento of Cu-maná.

CHALA, a small port, frequented only by fisher-men, in the same province and corregimiento.

CHALACOS, a settlement and asiento of thesilver mines of the province and corregimiento ofPiura in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huan-cabamba.

==CHALALA, a large river of the Nuevo Reyno

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the natives make friezes. The low part, lookingupon the coast, enjoys a temperature equal inmildness to that of Lima. It is very fertile, andin the many estates which are in it maize grows ingreat quantities, and it, besides serving as food forthe labourers, and independent of that which is de-voured by the wild pigeons with which those fieldsare filled, serves to fatten numbers of pigs, which arecarried to supply the markets of Lima ; those ani-mals, one year with another, amounting to 22,000head, and producing an emolument of 300,000dollars to the proprietors of the estates. Here arealso some estates of sugar-cane, and others ofFrench beans and wheat, of which the crops wereformerly very great, and used, together with thevines, to be reckoned amongst the chief produc-tions of this country, though they have now maderoom for a more general cultivation of maize.What conduces much to render the soil fertile, iswhat the Indians call huano^ and which, in theirlanguage, signifies dung, this being brought fromsome small islands at a little distance from thecoast towards the n. It is thought to be the excre-ment of some birds called huanaes^ who have beenaccustomed to deposit it in the above places fromtime immemorial. Some of it has also been foundin various other islands of the coast of Canete,Arica, and others. Of this it is certain, that ahandful being put at the root of a plant of maize,it becomes so invigorated as to produce upwardsof 200 for one, and that not less than 90,000bushels of this valuable manure is used yearly.In the centre of the province, and upon the coast,are some fine salines^ which supply some of theneighbouring districts ; and amongst the rest, thoseof Canta, Tarma, Caxatambo, Huamalies, Hua-nuco, Conchuco, and Huailas, are the most noted.The salt is not only used in the workingof the me-tals, but for preserving the cattle from a venomousinsect called alicuya^ which preys upon their entrailsuntil it destroys them. The population consists of37 settlements ; the capital of which is the town ofArnedo or Chancay. Its repartimiento amountedto 122,000 dollars, and its alcavala to 976 dol-lars per annum.

Arnedo or Chancay,

S. Juan de Huaral,









Cauchaz or Maráz,























Santa Cruz,




Chancay, the capital of the above province,founded in a beautiful and very healthy valley, ata league and a half’s distance from the river Pasa-mayo, by order of the viceroy Count of Nieva, in1563 ; who destined it for the honour of being anuniversity, at which however it never attained. Ithas a tolerable port, frequented by trading vessels,a convent of monks of the order of St. Francis, anda good hospital. It is well peopled, and its inha-bitants consist of several noble and rich families.One league from the sea, and 15 from Lima. Lat.11° 30' 5.

(CHANCEFORD, a township in York county,Pennsylvania.)

CHANCHAMAIU, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tarma in Peru, with a fort uponthe river Tapo, in the part washed by this river,called El Balseadero de Chanchamaiu. TheChunchos Indians of this province took possessionof it in 1742, and abandoned it in 1743.

Chanchamaiu, a river of the province of Caxa-marquilla. It rises in the province of Tarraa, tothe n. of the capital, runs n. and enters the largeriver Perene, in the country of the Campas In-dians.

CHANCO, CAPILLA DE, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Itata in tbe king-dom of Chile ; situate near the coast.

CHANDUI, a settlement of the district of SantaElena in the province and government of Guaya-quil ; situate on the sea-shore, with a port whichis frequented by vessels only in stress ; it havingsome extensive shoals which lie just at its entrance.Here it was that the admiral’s ship of the Armadadel Sur foundered and was wrecked in 1654, as itwas dropping down to Panama, for the purpose ofdispatching the galleons under the charge of theMarquis de Villarubia ; although, through the op-portune assistance of the viceroy of Peru, Countde Salvatierra, and of tlm president of Quito, DonPedro Vazquez de Veljixco, the greater part of theproperty on board was saved. Likewise, in 1721.another ship was lost here, carrying the salaries tothe Plaza of Panama, without a single thing onboard being saved ; until, in 1728, a furious windfrom the s. w. blew ashore several fragments of the

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at that critical moment received fresh succours,that were sent from Cuzco by his brother the Mar-quis Don Francisco Pizarro, he would have fallena sacrifice, with the whole of the Spanish army, tothat undertaking : but being invigorated by thisassistance, he succeeded in routing the Indians,and in obliging them to surrender to the Spanishgovernment. In 1539 the Marquis Don Fran-cisco Pizarro, seeing the importance of making anestablishment here, resolved upon building of atown, giving a commission to Captain Pedro Au-zures to execute the same. This person actuallyput into effect the plan suggested, founding thetown in exactly the same spot in which formerlystood the settlement of Chuquisaca. Here manyof its conquerors settled and became citizens, andthey gave it the name of La Plata, or Silver, fromsome mines of this metal which are found in themountain of Porco, which lies at a small distancefrom this city, and from which the Inca Emperorswere accustomed to extract immense emolument.Notwithstanding this name it has never lost itsoriginal title, Chuquisaca, although indeed it isbadly pronounced by the Spaniards ; since the In-dians, and with great propriety, will have it Cho-quezaca, Choquechaca, or Choquisacha; all ofwhich, however pronounced, signify, the first,moun-tains of gold ; the second, cunchos of gold, orfields of brambles with yellow twigs ; and the third,bridges of gold. Although this province is exten-sive, it is composed of various others, which weshall notice under their proper heads. This keepsits present name, from being the one of all theothers the most abounding in minerals, seeds, andcattle ; as well as being the one best peopled withIndians. It is watered by many large rivers ; andthe whole of it composes an archbishopric, towhich arc suffragan the bishoprics of La Paz,Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Tucuman, Paraguay,and Buenos Ayres. It belongs to the viceroyaltyof this latter place since the time that this waserected, and that the government was entrusted tothe royal audience established in 1559. The afore-said district comprehends in its jurisdiction allthe following provinces and corregimientos :Tomino, Cochabamba,

Porco, Chayanta,

Tarija, Paria,

Lipes, Carangas,

Amparaez, Cicasica,

Oruro, Atacama ;


In which are contained 188 settlements and cura-cies, in which there were in 1651 about 100,000Indians. The capital of the whole jurisdiction is

the aforesaid city of Chuquisaca or La Plata. —[Charcas joined the new government of BuenosAyres in 1810. See La Plata,]

Those who have been Presidents in the RoyalAudience of Charcas.

1. The Licentiate Pedro Ramirez de Quinones,first president, in 1559.

2. The Licentiate Juan de Matienzo, a cele-brated jurisconsult, in 1580.

3. The Licentiate Zepeda, in 1588.

4. The Licentiate Alonso Maldonado de Torres,in 1606.

5. Don Juan de Lizarazu, knight of the orderof Santiago ; he passed over to the presidency ofQuito in 1612.

6. Don Diego de Portugal, in 1614.

7. Don Alonzo Perez de Salazar, who was pre-sident of Quito, and was promoted to this, wherehe governed until the year 1620.

8. Don Juan de Caravajal y Sande, promotedin 1633.

9. Don Dionisio Perez Manrique, knight ofthe order of Santiago, collegiate in the collegeof Los Manriques de Alcala, rector of the uni-versity there, oidor of Lima, and president ofQuito, from whence he was removed to be pre-sident of this audience of Charcas in 1646 ; whence,having exercised it till 1654, he was removed tothat of Santa Fe.

10. Don Pedro Vazquez de Velasco, who pre-sided until the year 1661.

11. Don Bartolome Gonzalez de Poveda, pro-moted in 1678 ; he was made archbishop of theholy church of Charcas, remaining in the presi-dency until 1688.

12. Don Diego Mesia, native of Lima, oidor ofits royal audience, and formerly of that of Quito ;he was promoted to the presidency of Charcas in1688.

13. Don Jorge Manrique de Lara, who wasoidor of Panama, afterwards of Charcas, as alsopresident.

14. Don Gabriel Antonio Matienzo, president in1723.

15. Don Francisco de Herboso, who was ap-pointed in 1725, and presided until 1732.

16. Don Agustin de Jauregui, knight of theorder of Santiago, and native of Lima.

17. Don Juan Francisco Pestana, adjutant-major of the regiment of Spanish guards ; he wasnominated in 1752, and presided until 1769.

18. Don Ambrosio de Benavides, who enteredin the above year, and presided until 1777.

19. Don Agustin de Pinedo, who succeededthe former, and governed until 1782.

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11. Don Juan Zapata y Sandoval, nativeof Mexico, of the order of St. Augustin ; he cameto Spain, was regent of the college of San Gabrielde Valladolid, and elected bishop of Chiapa in1612 ; then promoted to the archbishopric of Gua-temala in' 1622.

12. Don Bernardino de Salazar y Frias, nativeof Burgos, canon of Jaen, .collegiate in the collegeof San Antonio de Portaceli de Siguenza ; pre-sented to the bishopric in 1622 : he died in 1623.

13. Don Alonzo Munoz, dean of the holy churchof Mexico, professor of theology ; he died beforehe was consecrated.

14. Don Agustin Ugarte de Saravia, elected in1628 ; he was promoted in 1630 to the arch-bishopric of Guatemala.

15. Don Fray Marcos Ramirez de Prado, of theorder of St. Francis, native of Madrid ; he studiedin Salamanca arts and theology with great credit,was guardian of the convent of Lucena, vice-com-missary general of the Indies, and guardian of theconvent of Granada, when he was elected bishopof Chiapa in 1632 ; he entered its church in 1635,and was promoted to that of Mechoacan in 1639.

16. Don Fray Christoval de Lazarraga, a monkof the order of St. Bernard, native of Madrid, wasmaster and professor in Salamanca, abbot of themonastery of that city, and qualificator of the in-quisition ; he was presented to the bishopric ofChiapa in 1639, and promoted to that of Carta-gena of the Indies in 1641.

17. Don Fray Domingo de Villaescusa, a monkof the order of St. Jerome, collegian in the col-lege of San Lorenzo el Real, prior of the monas-tery of Espeja, and of those of Parral de Segovia,of San Geronimo de Guisando of Madrid, visitorof the two Castillas, and general of his order ; waspresented to the bishopric of Chiapa in 1641, go-verned until 165 1 , when he was promoted to thechurch of Y ucatan.

18. Don JFrqy Francisco Nunez de la Vega, amonk of the order of St. Dominic.

19. Don Christoval Bernardo de Quiros, nativeof Tordelaguna, canon of the churches of Are-quipa, Quito, and of Lima, pro visor and vicar-general of the archbishopric, and judge of the in-quisition ; he was elected in 1660, and was pro-moted to the archbishopric of Popayan in 1670.

20. Don Manuel Fernandez de Santa Cruz ySahagun, a native of Palencia in Castilla deCuenca, in the university of Salamanca, first canonof Segovia, was elected in 1672, and before he ar-rived was promoted to Guadalaxara.

21. Don

22. Don

23. Don J uan Bautista Alvarez de Toledo, na-

tive of the town of San Salvador, in the provinceof G uatemala, of the religious order of St. Francis,professor in his religion, and prelate of many con-vents ; he was elected in 1708, and promoted to thearchbishopric of Guatemala in 1714. ,

24. Don

25. Don Fray Joseph Cubero Ramirez de Arel-lano, a monk of the order of Nuestra Senora de laMerced ; elected in 1734, governed 19 years, until1753, when he died.

26. Don Fray Joseph Vidal de Montezuma, ofthe order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced, a nativeof Mexico ; elected in 1753, governed till 1767,when he died.

27. Don Miguel de Cilieza y Velasco ;• electedin the above year, governed until 1768, when hedied.

28. Don Fray Lucas Ramirez, of the order ofSt. Francis ; he was promoted to the archbishopricof Santa Fe in 1769.

29. Don Fray Juan Manuel de Vargas y Ri-vera, a native of Lima, monk of the order of Nues-tra Senora de la Merced ; elected in the afore-said year of 1769, governed until 1774, when hedied.

30. Don Antonio Caballero y Gongora, untilthe following year of 1775, when he was promotedto the church of Yucatan.

31. Don Francisco Polanco, until 1785, whenhe died ; and,

32. Don Joseph Martinez Palomino Lopez deLerena, elected in 1786.

Chiapa, with the appellation of Mota, a settle-ment of the alcaldia mayor of Xilotepec in NucvaEspana. It contains 960 families of Otomies In-dians, and is seven leagues to the n. w. of its ca-pital.

CHIAPANTONGO, a settlement and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofXilotepec in Nueva Espana ; annexed to thecuracy of its capital, from whence it lies twoleaffues to the n. It contains 102 familes of In-dians.

CHIAPAS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cinaloa.

CHIAPILLA, a settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Guate-mala, in the district of its capital.

CHIARA, a settlement of the province and bi-shopric of Huamanga in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of the parish of Santa Maria Magdalena inthat city, from whence it is three leagues distant.

CHIAUTLA, S. Andres De, a settlement andhead settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco

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CHI 383

in Nueva Espana, is of a mild temperature ; si-tuate in a pleasant and fertile plain, and one whichabounds in maize, wheat, and other seeds. It con-tains S68 families of Indians, 13 of Spaniards, anda convent of the religious order of St. Francis;is one league n. of its capital,

Chiautla, with the addition of La Sal, an-other settlement, the capital of its jurisdiction, inthe same kingdom, thus called from the salt minesfound in it formerly, and from which the inhabi-tants used to derive a great commerce. At pre-sent it is in a thorough state of decay, not only asits trade has fallen off in the other provinces ; butas the Indians have applied themselves rather tothe cultivation of the soil and the planting of fruitsand pulse, from the traffic of which they derivetheir maintenance. It is inhabited by 650 familiesof Mexican Indians, and 40 of Spaniards, J\/us~iees, and Mulattoes. It contains a convent of thereligious order of St. Augustin. The jurisdictionis so much reduced that it is not more than fiveleagues in length and three in width, void of com-merce, and has but a small revenue. Its inhabi-tants, although they are somewhat given to thebreeding of small cattle, yet this must hardly beconsidered with them a branch of commerce,since they have scarcely enough of these where-with to support theiiiselves. It contains only twoother settlements, and these are,

Xicotlan, Huehetlan.

Forty-five leagues s. e. to the s. w. of Mexico.
CHIBACOA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore ofa river to the w. of the town of Nirua.

CHIBATA, a settlement of the . province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, and the head settlement of the corregi-miento of Indies, is of a very cold and fresh tem-perature, abounding in productions, and particu-larly in cattle, from the fleeces and hides of whichare made quantities of blankets, linen cloths, andother articles for garments. It may contain about200 Indians, and it is eight leagues to the n. e.of Tunja, lying between this latter place and thesettlement of Siachoque.

CHIBAI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Collahuas in Peru.

CHICA, an island of the N. sea, one of theLucayas ; situate between the islands Siguate andSt. Andrew. The English gave it the name ofLittle.

CHICACHAE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Louisiana or S. Carolina, in whichthe English have a fort and establishment to carry

on commerce with the Indians, is situated on theshore of the river Sonlahove.

CHICACHAS, a settlement of Indians of thisnation, in the territory thus called, where the Eng-lish have an establishment or factory for com-merce.

CHICAGOU, a port of Canada, on the w. sideof the lake Michigan.

Chicagou, a river of the same province andgovernment, which runs s. then ?i. e. and entersthe former port.

CHICAHOMINI, a river of the province andcolony of Virginia, runs s.e. and turning itscourse to the s. enters the Thames.

CHICAHUASCO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Huipuxtla, and alcaldia mayor of Tepe-tango, in Nueva Espana, contains 72 families ofIndians.

CHICAHUASTEPEC, San Miguel de, asettlement of the head settlement of Zoyaltepec, andalcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan. It contains 48 fa-milies of Indians, and is 10 leagues from its headsettlement.

CHICAHUAZTLA, San Andres de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor ofTepozcolula, in the province and bishopric ofOaxaca, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, is ofa cold temperature, inhabited by 332 families ofIndians, including those of the settlements or wardsof its district, and they maintain themselves bybartering cotton garments for salt on the coast ofXicayan ; 12 leagues s. w. of its capital.

Chicahuaztla, another, a small settlement orward of the alcaldia mayor of Guachinango in thesame kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of that ofTlaola.

CHICAMA, a large, fertile, and beautiful valleyof the province and corregimiento of Truxillo inPeru. It was one of the most populous in thetimes of the gentilisra of the Indians, owing to itsagreeable and benign temperature : is watered bya river of its name, which divides it from that ofChimu. In 1540, the friar Domingo de SantoTomas founded here a convent of his order, forthe instruction of the Indians, which immediatelywas turned into a priory and a house for noviciates.It is at present, however, fallen into decay, throughthe ravages of time. This valley is six leaguesfrom the capital, to the n. in the road which leadsto the provinces of Quito, Sana, and Piura.

Chicama, a river of this province and corregi-miento. It rises in the province of Guamachuco,from two very lofty mountains, called Y ulcaguancaand Yanaguanca, to the n. e . ; and waters and fer-

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rdistinguished for being very sure-footed and active.The horned cattle have, through the favourabletemperature of the climate, acquired a larger size,while their flesh has become better and more nu-tritive ; the sheep imported from Spain retain awool as beautiful as that of the best Spanish sheep,each sheep yielding annually from 10 to 15 lbs. ofwool ; they breed twice a-year, and have gene-rally two at a birth. The common price of cattlethroughout the country is from three to fourfilippi (fifteen or twenty francs), but in the sea-ports the price is fixed by an ancient regulation,at 10 crowns ; of which the commandant of theport receives four, and the owner six.

The different kinds of trees known in Chileamount to 97, and of these only 13 shed theirleaves : amongst the plants, there are 3000 notmentioned in botanical works. _The melons hereare, according to Molina, three feet long, and theonly fruits unknown are medlars, service apples,three-grained medlar, and the jujubre. Of theindigenous worms, insects, &c. are 36 species,andthetunicated cuttle-fish found here is of 150 lbs.weight. There are 13 species of crabs and craw-fish found on the sea-coast, and four species in thefresh waters. There are 135 species ofland-birds,and of quadrupeds 36, without those imported.The various kinds of esculent fish found upon thecoast are computed by the fishermen at 76, the mostof them differing from those of the n. hemisphere,and appearing to be peculiar to that sea.

Amongst the earths of this country is a claythought to be very analogous to kaolin of theChinese ; another kind called roro, producing anexcellent black dye, and represented by Feuilleand Frazier as superior to the best Europeanblacks. The membraneous mica^ otherwise Mus-covy grass, is also found here in the greatest per-fection, both as respects its transparency and thesize of its laminae ; of this substance the countrypeople manufacture artificial flowers, and like theRussians, make use of it for glazing their houses.The thin plates which are used for windows are bymany preferred to glass, from their being pliableand less fragile, and possessing what appears to bea peculiar property, of freely admitting the lightand a view of external objects to those within,while persons without are prevented from seeingany thing in the house.

22. Present revolution. — In Chile, the autho-rity of the mother country has been supersededby the aristocracy of the colony. The govern-ment has fallen, peaceably and without resistance,into the hands of the great Creole families, whoseem hitherto to have used their power with tem-per and moderation. See La PijAta.]

Same name, a river of the former kingdom (Chile), in thedistrict of Tolten Baxo. It runs w. and entersthe sea between the rivers Tolten and Budi.

Same name, a point of the coast of the province andcorregimienio of Arequipa,

Same name, a small island of the S. sea, in the sameprovince and corregimiento.

CHILENO, Paso del, a ford of the riverJazegua, in the province and government of BuenosAyres, close to the river Cordobes.

CHILERIOS, a river of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Aires. It runs North Carolinan and cnler§the river Negro.

CHILES, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Pasto in the kingdom of Quito.

[CHILHOWEE, mountain, in the s. e. partof the state of Tennessee, and between it and theCherokee country.]

CHILIA, a settlement of the province and|corregimiento of Caxaraarquilla and Collay inPeru.

CHILINTOMO, a mountain of the provinceand government of Guayaquil in the kingdom ofQuito ; inhabited by some Indians, who, althoughreduced to the Catholic faith, are nevertheless ofsuch vile habits as constantly to manifest howdeeply idolatry is rooted in them.

CHILIPUIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru.

[CHILISQUAQUE, a township on Susque-hannah river, in Pennsylvania.]

CHILLAHUA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Carangas in Peru, and of thearchbishopric of Charcas.

[CHILLAKOTHE, an Indian town]on theGreat Miami, which was destroyed in 1782 by abody of militia from Kentucky. General Harmarsupposes this to be the “ English Tawixtwi,” inH utchins’s map. Here are the ruins of an old fort,and on both sides of the river are extensive mea-dows. This name is applied to many differentplaces, in honour of an influential chief who for-merly headed the Shawanoes. See Tawixtwi.]

[Chillakothe, Old, is an Indian town des-troyed by the forces of the United States in 1780.It lies about three miles s. of Little Mimia river jthe country in its vicinity is of a rich soil, and isbeautifully chequered with meadows.]

CHILLAN, a city, the capital of the districtand corregimiento of this name (Chillan) in the kingdom ofChile. It is very small and poor, although itcontains some families of distinction. It consists.


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Spaniards, and the rest having fled, and thuspenetrating n. have confounded themselves withother nations. It abounds in maize, plantains,and cacao of an excellent quality ; its gold minesrender it rich and well peopled ; it also carries on,through this branch of revenue, a great commercewith the province of Popayan, the nativ'es of thatplace coming here to purchase gold, and leavingin exchange whatever is necessary for the comfortand convenience of life. There is no inconsider-able number of Negro slaves employed in work-ing the mines, and in 1750 they amounted to20,000, without mentioning the men of colour,such as the Mustees and Mulattoes, and even Whiteswho are engaged in this lucrative concern. Theclimate is warm, but moist from the continualrains, and consequently unhealthy. This countryabounds in tigers, wild boars, alligators, parrots,monkeys of various sorts, and a multitude of rep-tiles and insects, especially in vipers and ve-nomous snakes ; such as corales, exis, and rattle-snakes. Here are also an infinite variety of beau-tiful sorts of wood, curious balsams, herbs, fruits,and flowers. It was subject to the government ofPopayan, until it became divided in the time ofDon Fernando Guerrero. All the gold which istaken out of the mines here, and which is the cur-rent money, was formerly carried to be coined atthe mint of Santa Fe, until that the house ofValencia established another, at its own cost, in thecity of Popayan ; this privilege having been firstgranted that house by the mayoralty, though itwas afterwards taken away and added by the kingto the crown, upon the payment of a compensationof 100,000 reals per annum to the original pro-prietors. This province extends 48 leagues froms. to n. and is 39 in width from e. to w. Thecapital is the city of Nevita.

[Choco, Canal of. In the interior of the pro-vince of Choco, the small ravine (quebrada) Dela Raspadura unites the neighbouring sources ofthe Rio de Noanama, called also Rio San Juan,and the small river Quito : the latter, the RioAndageda, and the Rio Zitasa, form the Riod’Atrata, which discharges itself into the Atlanticocean, while the Rio San Juan flows into the S.sea. A monk of great activity, cure of the villageof Novita, employed his parishioners to dig asmall canal in the ravine De la Raspadura, bymeans of which, when the rains are abundant,canoes loaded with cacao pass from sea to sea.Th is interior communication has existed since1788, unknown in Europe. The small canal ofRaspadura unites, on the coasts of the two oceans,


two points 75 leagues distant from one ano-ther.]

CHOCO, San Juan Chrisostomo de , anothersettlement of the province and corregimiento ofCondesuyos de Arequipa in Peru.

[CHOCOLATE Creek, a head-water of Tiogariver in New York, whose mouth lies 10 miless. w. of the Painted post.]

[CHOCOLOCO-CA, which the Spaniards callCastro Vireyna, a town of Peru, 60 leagues s. e.of Lima, is very famous for its silver mines,which are at the top of a great mountain alwayscovered with snow, and but two leagues from thetown. The stones of the mine are, of a dark bluecolour ; these being calcined and powdered, thensteeped in water and quicksilver, the filth is sepa-rated, and the silver melted and formed into bars.These veins are not very rich, but the metal is veryfine. They make plenty of wine here, where itattains a greater degree of perfection, owing to thepureness of the air, than it is observed to have else-where.]

CHOCONA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paria in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of Toledo.

CHOCONTA, a settlement of the corregimientoof Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of a cold but healthy temperature, beingsituate upon a llanura. It produces abundanceof wheat, maize, papas, barley, and garlic, of thewhole of which an abundant crop is gathered ;these indeed form the principal branches of itscommerce, as they supply all the neighbouringprovinces. It was , in the time of the Indians alarge, rich, and populous city, and the barrierof the province of Tunja; also the place wherethe zipas held a garrison of their best troops.This city was entered by Gonzalo Ximinez deQuesada in 1537, when he gave it the name ofEspiritu Santo, from this festival having beencelebrated here. After the conquest of the Spa-niards it became a became a curacy of the relio-ionof St. Domingo, and was one of those which wasconsidered the first step to the advantages to bederived from these missions. It was close to thissettlement that the sanguinary conflict took placewhich was fought between Michua, king of Tunja,and Saguanmachica, zipa or king of Bogota, inwhich both princes fell dead upon the field ; atpresent it is a small village of Indians, who amountto the number of 200, besides 400 other inhabi-tants, who consist of whites. Ten leagues n. ofSanta Fe, and as many from Tunja, just midwaybetweeen these two jurisdictions.

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villa, president of the courts of chancery of Gra-nada and Valladolid, elected bishop ; he died inLima before he took possession.

7. Don Alonso Ramirez Granero, and not Pedro,as Gil Gonzalez will have it ; a native of V illaes-cusa in the bishopric of Cuenca, a collegiate ofthis city, dean of the church of Guadix, and Jiscalof the inquisition of Mexico ; elected archbishopin 1574 ; he governed until 1578.

8. Don Frai/ Juan de Vivero, native of Valla-dolid, of the order of St. Augustin ; he passedover to Peru, was prior of his convent of Lima,presented to the archbishopric .of Cartagena of theIndies, and to this archbishopric ; but these digni-ties he would not accept ; he returned to Spain, anddied in his convent of Toledo.

9. Don Alonso Ramirez de Vergara, native ofSegura de Leon, collegiate in Malaga, Alcala, andSalamanca, professor of arts, and canon of Malaga ;he was presented to the archbishopric of Charcasin 1594, and died in 1 603.

10. Don Fra^ Luis Lopez de Solis, native ofSalamanca, of the order of St. Augustin ; he passedover into Peru, where he was master of his reli-gious order, professor of theology, prior provin-cial, and qualificator of the inquisition; he waspromoted to the church of Quito, and to this me-tropolitan see.

11. Don Fra?y Ignacio de Loyola, a monk ofthe barefooted order of St. Francis ; he was commis-sary in the province of Pilipinas, and on his returnto Spain elected archbishop of Charcas.

12. Don Alonso de Peralta, native of Arequipa,archdeacon and inquisitor of Mexico, and arch-bishop of Charcas, where he died.

13. Don Frn^ Geronimo de Tiedra, native ofSalamanca, of the order of St. Domingo ; he wasprior of his convent, and preacher to the king, andarchbishop of Charcas in 1616.

14. Don Fernando Arias de Ugarte, native ofSanta Fe of Bogota, of whom we have treated inthe catalogue of the bishops of Quito ; he passedover from the archbishopric of Santa Fe to this in1630.

15. Don Francisco de Sotomayor.

16. Don FVr/y Francisco de Borja, of the orderof San Benito, master in the university of Sala-manca, and professor of theology ; elected bishopof Charcas in 1634.

17. Don Fru7/ Pedro de Oviedo, of the order ofSan Benito, native of Madrid ; he studied arts andtheoloijy in Alcala, was abbot of the monastery ofS. Cloclio, and difinidor of his order ; he was pro-moted from the bishopric of Quito to this arch-bishopric in 1645 : he died in 1649.

18. Don Juan Alonso de Ocon, native of LaRoja, collegiate-major of San Ildefonso in Alcala,doctor and professor of theology, curate of Ele-chosa in the archbishopric of Toledo, and of theparish of Santa Cruz of Madrid ; he was promotedfrom the church of Cuzco to this of La Plata.

19. Don Fray Gaspar de Villaroel, of the orderof St. Augustin, native of Riobamba ; he studiedin the royal university of Lima, and with the re-putation of being very learned, of which, indeed,his works bear testimony ; he was promoted fromthe church of Arequipa to this in 1658.

20. Don Bernardo de Izaguirre, native of To-ledo ; he was fiscal of the inquisition of Carta-gena and of Lima, and was promoted from thechurch of Cuzco to this metropolitan see.

21. Don Fray Alonso de la Cerda, of the orderof preachers, native of Lima, provincial of hisorder, bishop of Honduras ; from whence he waspromoted to this church.

22. Don Melchor de Lilian and Cisneros, nativeof Tordelaguna, of Avhom we speak in the cata-logue of the bishops of Santa Marta ; he was re-moved from the bishopric of Popayan in 1672,governed until 1678, when he was promoted tothe metropolitan see of Lima.

23. Don Bartolome Gonzalez de Poveda, whobecame archbishop, and governed until 1692.

24. Don Fray Diego Morcillo Rubio de Aunon,of the bishopric of La Paz in 1711, where he re-mained until 1724, when he was promoted to thearchbishopric of Lima.

25. Don Francisco Luis Romero, promoted fromthe archbishopric of Quito ; he governed until1725.

26. Don Alonso del Pozo and Silva, of thebishopric of Santiago of Chile.

27. Don Agustin Delgado, in 1743 ; governeduntil 1746.

28. Don Salvador Bermudez, from the aforesaidyear ; governed until 1747.

29. Don Gregorio de Molleda y Clerque, of thebishopric of Truxillo, in 1748 ; he governed until1758, when he died.

30. Don Cayetano Marcellano y Agramont, ofthe bishopric of Buenos Ayres, in 1758 ; he go-verned until 1761, when he died.

31. Don Pedro de Argandoua, promoted in theabove year ; he governed until 1776, when hedied.

32. Don Francisco Ramon de Herboso, whogoverned from 1776 to 1784.

33. Don Arqy Joseph Antonio de San Alberto,who governed in 178.5.

CHUQUISONGO, San Pedro de, a settlement

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C I u


CINCOS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Xauxa in Peru.

CINCO-SEÑORES, a settlement of the pro-vince of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Viz-caya ; one of the missions of the BabosariganesIndians, held there by the regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits. Within eight leagues to the s.of its district is a great unpeopled tract, called Delas Manos, (Of the Hands), from the infidel Indianshaving nailed up against some temples in thoseparts many hands of some unfortunate Spaniards•whom they had killed, when the latter had en-tered the country under the idea of making pro-selytes.

CINGACUCHUSCAS, a barbarous nation ofIndians, who inhabit the woods to the s. of theriver Marañon. In 1652 they were united to thePandabeques, and established themselves in thesettlement of Xibaros of the missions of Maynas,with the exception of some few, who still remainin their idolatry, and lead a wandering life throughthe woods.

CINIO, a settlement of the province and co-lony of Maryland, in the county of Kent ; situateon the shore, and at the extremity of the bay ofChesapeak.

CIÑOQUIPA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of La Sonora in Nueva Espana.

CINTENELA, Isla de, one of the islandswhich lie between the s. point of the Caico Grandeand the Paiiuelo Quadrado.

CINTO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of its capital.

CINTORI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru.

CINTU, a spacious llanura or plain, of theancient province of Chimu, now Truxillo, on thecoast of the S. sea. It was taken possession of byHuaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor of the Incas.It is very fertile, and of a good and healthy cli-mate ; but it is but little inhabited.

CINTY, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pilaya or Paspaya in Peru.

Same name, a river of the province and governmentof Tucuman. It runs s. and enters the river SanJuan.

CIPOYAY, a country and territory of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay, called also theprovince of Vera, towards the e. and where thenation of the Guaranis Indians dwell. It is of ahot climate, but very fertile, abounding in woods,and well watered by many rivers ; some of whichrun from e. to w. and enter the Uruguay, andothers from s. to n. and enter the Plata.

CIPRE, a river of the province and govern-ment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.It takes its course from e. to w. and opposite tlieriver Sola, empties itself into that of Esmeraldas,on the w. side, in lat. 28' n.

CIRANDIRO, a settlement and the capital ofthe alcaldia mayor of Guimeo in the province andbishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a hot tempera-ture, and inliabited by 90 families of Tarascos In-dians. In its vicinity is the estate of Quichandio,in which eight families of Spaniards, and 15 ofMustees and Mulattoes, are employed in makingsugar. Also in the estate of Santa Maria are fivefamilies of the former. It is 75 leagues to the w.and one-fourth to the s. w. of Mexico.

[CIRENCESTER. See Marcus Hook.]

CIRICHE, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate on the shore of a small riverwhich enters that of Cauca.

CIRIGH. Sergipe.

CIRII, a small river of the province and cap-tainship of Sergipe in Brazil. It rises near thecoast, runs s. s. e. and enters the river Sirugipa,a little before this river enters the sea.

CIRIONES, a barbarous nation of Indians,of the province and government of Moxos in Peru.It is a wandering nation, savage, and but littleknown.

CISNE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom otQuito.

CITRONIERS, mountains in the island of Guadalupe.They are in the large tract of land, and on the s.coast, lying between the settlements of Santa Anaand San Francisco.

CITY Point, in Virginia. See BermudaHundred.

CIUAPA, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile,towards the «. It is notorious from a species offish caught in it, called tache, of an extrem.ely deli-cate flavour. It runs into the S. or Pacific sea,terming a small port of little depth.

CIUDAD REAL, a city of the province andgovernment of Paraguay ; founded in 1557. byRui Diaz Melgarejo, on the shore of the river Pi-quiri, three leagues from Parana. It Was des-troyed by the Mamalukos Indians of San Pablo ofBrazil, in 1630, and in its place was substituted therich town of Espiritu Santo, the territory of whichabounds in fruits, vines, and mines of copper.In the vicinity of the present town is a great wa-terfall, formed by the above river, upwards »f3p 2

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management of the horse, and in this they are notunrivalled by the women. The common sort arealso extremely skilful in the management of the^azo, which they throw over the animal in itsflight, never missing their aim. This citjr hassuffered extreme misfortunes ever since the time ofits foundatiqn ; for shortly after this took place,its inhabitants found themselves under the neces-sity of retiring frona it to Santiago, through theinvasion of the Araucanos and Tucapeles Indians,who made themselves masters of it, and sackedand burnt it in 1554, under the command of theCazique Lautaro : again, though the Spaniardsendeavoured to repeople it, they were a secondtime driven back, as also a third time, in 1603,when the Governor Don Garcia Hurtardo de Men-doza, Marquis of Canete, had come to suppressthe general insurrection of the Indians. It wasafter this rebuilt, and in 1730 again destroyed by adreadful earthquake, being entirely inundated bythe sea. It suffered also much from a similarshock in 1751. In the chief square, or market-place, is a beautiful fountain, made by the com-mand of Don Diego Gonzalo Montero. The tri-bunal of royal audience was fixed in this city fromthe time that it was founded, in 1567, and re-mained here until the year 1574, when it wastranslated to the capital of the kingdom, Santiago.It has been the head of a bishopric ever since 1620,when this honour was transferred to the city ofImperial. It is the residence of a governor, de-pendent on the captain-general and president itbeing his duty to reside six months of the year inSantiago, and the other six in this city. [Besidesthe commerce of hides, tallow, and dried beef, theinhabitants of Concepcion carry on a trade inwheat, which Frazier asserts yields 100 for one.Also near this city, as well as in various otherparts of Chile, pit-coal is found in great abund-ance; and, according to the above author, minesof it have been discovered at the depth of one ortwo feet from the surface. See Chile.] Sixtyleagues to the s. of Santiago, in lat. 36° 48' 15"$. and long. 73° 8'.

Bishops who have presided in Concepcion ofChile.

1. Don Frat/ Antonio de San Miguel, a monkof the order of St. Francis, native of Salamanca;elected to be first bishop in 1564, and promotedto Quito in 1587.

2. Don Agustin de Cisneros, dean of the churchof Santiago of Chile ; elected bishop of this, and©f Concepcion, in 1587 ; he died in 1534.

3. Don Fray Pedro de Azuaga, and not Diego de

Zuaga, as Gil Gonzalez Davila will have it, amonk of the order of St. Francis; elected in1595 ; he died before he was consecrated.

4. Don Fra^ Reginaldo de Lizarraga, native ofLima; elected in 1796 ; he died in 1613.

5. Don Carlos Marcelo Corni, native of Trux-illo in Peru, magistral canon of Lima ; promotedto the bishopric of his country in 1620.

6. Don Fra^ Luis Geronimo de Ore, of theorder of St. Francis, native of Guamanga, a ce-lebrated writer in the different Indian languages,for which he had a peculiar talent ; elected in1622 ; he died in 1628.

7. Don Fray Alonso de Castro, of 4he order ofSt. Augustin ; he did not accept the bishopric. .

8. Don Diego de Zambranaand Villalbos ; pro-moted to Santiago of Chile.

9. Don Fray Dionisio Cimbron, of the orderof St. Bernard, native of Cintruenigo in Navarra ;he was prior in the monasteries of Espina, Jun-quera, and Ossera, secretary of the difinidor gene-ral, and presented to the bishopric of Concepcionin 1651.

10. Don Fray Diego Medellin, of the order ofSt. Francis, native of Lima.

11. Don Fray Antonio de Morales, native ofLima, of the order of preachers, provincial inhis religion.

12. Don Fray Francisco de Vergara Loyola deIza, of the order of St. Augustin, provincial ofhis religion, and native of Lima.

13. Don Fray Andres de Betancur, of the orderof St. Francis, provincial in the province of SantaFe ; elected in 1664.

14. Don Fray Luis de Lemos y Usategui, ofthe order of St. Augustin, preacher to KingCharles II. native of Lima.

15. Don Diego Montero del Aguila; promotedto the bishopric of Truxillo in 1716.

16. Don Francisco Antonio de Escandon; pro-moted to the bishopric of Quito in 1730.

17. Don Salvador Bermudez, school-master inthe church of Quito; he did not accept the ap-pointment, and in his place was nominated by theking,

18. Don Andres de Paredes Polanco y Ar-mendariz, who was afterwards promoted to Quitoin 1734.

19. Don Pedro Azua Iturgoyen, native of Lima ;promoted, in 1744, to be archbishop ofSanta Fe.

20. Don Joseph de Toro Zambrano, native ofpSantiago of Chile, doctoral canon of its church;elected, in 1744, bishop of Concepcion ; he go-verned until his death in 1760.

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It is of a mild temperulurcj but rather inclined tocold than heat. It contains 264 families of In-dians, and a convent of the religious order of St.Domingo, and in its district are various estates, inwhich, and in the 10 settlements of which its dis-trict consists, are collected scarlet dje, seeds, fruits,coal, woods, and timber. It is two leagues s. e. ofthe capital.

CUILOTO, a river of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, It rises in the mountains of Bogota,runs e. through the llanos or plains of Casanare andMeta, and afterwards enters the river Meta. Somebarbarian Indians, the liraras and Chinalos, liveabout its borders, dispersed amongst the woods.

CUIQUE, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of thelake Tacarigua, towards the s.

CUIQUILA, Santa Maria de, a settlementand head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold tem-perature, contains 76 families of Indians, whoseonly employment is that of making stone flags ;and these in sufficient quantity to supply the wholeprovince. Is nine leagues s.w. of its capital.

CUISILLO, San Francisco de, a settlementand head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of thetown of Leon, in the province and bishopric ofMechoacan, contains S3 families of Indians, whoemploy themselves in the cultivation of maize andmany fruits. It is very close to its capital.

CUITES, a settlement of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province and govetument of Cinaloaof Nueva Espaila.

CUITI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien, of the kingdom of Tierra Firme.It rises in the mountains towards the n. and entersthe sea between the islands Palmas and Pinos.

CUITINA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate in the llanura of Sogamoso, be-tween the settlement of this name and that of Tota.It is of a cold temperature, produces wheat, maize,papas, and the other fruits of a cold climate. Itcontains 60 housekeepers, and as many Indians ;lies eight leagues to the n. of Tunja.

CUIXTLAHUACA, San Juan de,, a settle-ment of the alcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan in NuevaEspaila. It contains 604 families of Indians, withthose of the wards of its district. It is of a hottemperature, and lies 16 leagues s. w. of its capi-tal. It produces some scarlet dye and seeds,

CUIXTLAHUACA, San Juan de, another settle-ment, of the alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in the samekingdom. It contains 15 families of Indian’s,

VOE. 1.

CUJENA, Cano de, an arm of the river Negro,in the country of Las Amazonas. It runs nearlydue s. and joins the Parime.

CUJILLOS, a settlement of province and go-vernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito ; situate on the shore of the river Ma-railon.

[CUJO. See Cuva.]

CUL DE Sac, a settlement and parish of theFrench, in the part possessed by them in theisland of St. Domingo. It is in the head of the w.and upon the w. coast, on the shore of a river be-tween port Principe and the river of Naranjos orOranges.

Cul de Sac, another settlement and parish inthe island of Guadalupe. It lies on the shore ofthe bay of its name, between the rivers Vondi-piques and Testu. There is also another settle-ment in the same bay, between the rivers Lezardand Sarcelles.

CUL DE SAC, a large bay and convenient portof the same island (Guadalupe), which is the principal of thewhole island, and in which are many smallerislands. There is also another close to it, dis-tinguished by the title of Cul de Sac Petit ; andthese are divided by an isthmus of land, which al-lows a communication to the same lakes by a nar-row channel.

CULATAS, a small settlement of the districtand jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, in the cor-regimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada ; annexed to the curacy of Oiba, It lies be-tween the settlements of Socorro and Charala,

CULAUI, a river of the island of La Laxa, inthe kingdom of Chile. It runs w. forming a bendbetween those of Huaque and Duqueco, and entersthe Biobio.

CULCHE, a settlement of Indians, of the dis-trict of Guadalabquen, and kingdom of Chile;situate at the source of the river Valdivia.

CULEBRAS, Rio de, a river on (he coast ofthe province and government of Costarica, of tliekingdom of Guatemala. It runs into tlie N. sea,between the river Bocaes and the bay of Almi-rante.

CuLEBRAs, Rio de, another river in the pro-vince and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises inthe mountains of the n. coast, and point of SanBias, and runs into the sea to the w.

CULEBRAS, Rio de, another, of the island ofSanto Domingo, in the e. head ; runs into thesea in the great bay of Samana, between the riversMagua and Yaina.

CULEBRAS, Rio de, a lake of the province andgovernment of Venezuela, between the river of Sa-4 B

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llio Naipi to Cartagena. The same way offersthe advantage of a very quick communication be-tween Cadiz and Lima. Instead of dispatchingcouriers by Cartagena, Santa Fe, and Quito, orby Buenos Ayres and Mendoza, good quick-sail-ing packet-boats might be sent from Cupica toPeru. If this plan were carried into execution,the viceroy of Lima would have no longer to waitfive or six months for the orders of his court. Be-sides, the environs of the bay of Cupica aboundswith excellent timber fit to be carried to Lima.We might almost say that the ground betweenCupica and the mouth of the Atrato is the onlypart of all America in which the chain of theAndes is entirely broken.]

CUPIN, a small river of the province and cap-tainship of Para in Brazil. It runs n. n. zo andenters the Guama, before it runs into the Amazo-nas or Maranon.

CUPIRA, a river of the province of Barcelona,and government of Cumana, in the kingdom ofTierra Firme. It rises in the serrania, and runsf. until it enters the sea, close to the settlement ofTucuyo.

CUPITA, Cano de, an arm of the riverOrinoco, which runs out by the w. side, and takesits course n. opposite the mouth of the Caura.

CUPLICOS, a river of the province and alcal-dia maijor of Tabasco in Nueva Espana, whichfalls into the sea in the bay of Mexico, between theDos Bocas and the Tabasco.

CUPO, a small river of the province and coun-try of Las Amazonas, in the part possessed by thePortuguese. It rises in the territory of the Nou-rises Indians, runs s. and enters the Trqpibetas.

CUQUE, a large river of the province andgovernment of Darien, and kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises near the N. sea, to the e. of theprovince, and following an e. course, enters thecanal of Tarena.

CUQUIARACHI, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, in the province and government of LaSonora.

CUQUIO, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdictionof Nueva Espana, in the kingdom of Nueva Ga-licia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara ; is one of themost civilized and fertile, abounding in fruits andseeds, and being of a mild temperature. It iswatered by three rivers, which are the Verde onthe e. the Mesquital on the w. and the Rio Grandeon the s. in which last the two former becomeunited.

The capital is the settlement of its name, in-habited by a large population of Indians, some

Mmtets and Mulattoes, and a few Spaniards ;is 13 leagues to the n. e. of Guadalaxara, in long.268° ; and lat. 21° 40'. The other settlements are,Cantla== , ==Tenalucan,

Manalisco== , ==Quaquala,

Huisculco== , ==Ocotic,

Yagualica== , ==Tepunahuasco,

Acatico== , ==Yotahuacan,

Mestitlan== , ==Tacotan,

Nochistlan== , ==San Christoval,

Toyagua== , ==Iscatlan.


[CURA, with the surname of St. Louis de, issituate in a valley formed by mountains of a verygrotesque appearance ; those on the s. w. side arecapped with rocks. The valley is, however, fer-tile, and covered with produce, but the greaterpart of the property consists in animals. Thetemperature is warm and dry ; the soil is a reddishclay, which is extremely muddy in the rainy sea-sons ; the water is not limpid, although it is whole-some. The inhabitants are 4000, governed bya cabildo. In the church is an image of our Ladyof Valencianosy the claim to which was long asubject of dispute between the curate of Cura andthat of Sebastian de los Reynos ; and after a SO yearscontest, it was ordered by the bishop Don Fran-cisco de Ibarro to be returned to this place, whenit was received in a most triumphant manner. Thiscity is in lat. 10° 2' ; twenty-two leagues s. xo. ofCaracas, and eight leagues s. e, of the lake ofValencia.]

CURABICO, a river of the province and cap-tainship of Maranan in Brazil.

CURACOA, or Curazao, an island of theN. sea, one of the Smaller Antilles ; situate nearthe coast of the province and government of Vene-zuela. It is 30 miles long, and 10 broad, and is theonly island of any consideration possessed by theDutch in America. It was settled in 1527, by theEmperor Charles V. as a property upon theliouse ofJuan de Ampues ; is fertile, and abounds in sugarand tobacco, large and small cattle, also in very goodsaline grounds, by which the other islands are pro-vided : but its principal commerce is in a contra-band trade carried on with the coasts of TierraFirme ; on which account its storehouses are filledwith articles of every description imaginable.Formerly its ports were seldom without vessels ofCartagena and Portobelo, which were employedn the Negro trade, bringing home annually froiu1000 to 15,000 Negroes, with various other ar-ticles of merchandise, although this branch ofcom-merce has, from the time that it was taken up bythe English, greatly declined. On the s. part of

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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 4]

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PABLILLO, a settlement of the Nuevo Reyno de Leon in N. America ; situate w. of the garri- son of Santa Engracia.

PABLO, S. or Sao Paulo. See Paulo.

Pablo, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lipes in Peru, of the arch- bishopric of Charcas. It was also called Santa Isabel de Esmoruco, and was the residence of the curate.

Pablo, another, of the province and corregi- miento of Otavalo in the kingdom of Quito, at the foot of a small mountain, from which issues a stream of^ water abounding in very small fish, called prenadillas, so delicate and salutary even for the sick, that they are potted and carried to all parts of the kingdom.

Pablo, another, of the head settlement of the district of S. Juan del Rio, and alcaldia mai/or of Queretaro, in Nueva Espana; containing 46 families of Indians.

Pablo, another, of the province and corregi- miento of Tinta in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Cacha.

Pablo, another settlement or ward, of the head settlement of the district of Zumpahuacan, and alcaldia mayor of Marinalco in Nueva Es- pana.

Pablo, another, of the head settlement of the district, and alcaldia mayor of Toluca in the same kingdom, containing 161 families of Indians ; at a small distance n. of its capital.

Pablo, another, a small settlement or ward


P A B of the alcaldia mayor of Guanchinango, in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Pahuatlan.

Pablo, another, and head settlement of the district, of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta, in the same kingdom ; of a cold temperature, and con- taining 51 Indian families.

Pablo, another, of the missions which were held by the Jesuits, in the province of Topia and kingdom of Nueva Tizcaya; situate in the middle of the S 2 >rra of Topia, on the shore of the river Piastla.

Pablo, another, of the province of Barcelona, and government of Cumana ; situate on the skirt of a mountain of the serrania, and on the shore of the river Sacaguar, s. of the settlement of Piritu.

Pablo, another, a small settlement of the head settlement of the district of Texmelucan, and alcaldia mayor of Guajozinco in N ueva Es- pana.

Pablo, another, of the district of Chiriqui, in the province and government of Veragua, and kingdom of TierraFirme; a league and an half from its head settlement, in the high road.

Pablo, another, of the missions held by the Portuguese Carmelites, in the country of Las Amazonas, and on the shore of this river.

Pablo, another, of the missions which were held by the French Jesuits, in the province and government of French Guayana; founded in 1735, on the shore of the river Oyapoco, and

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