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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
THE GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES.
ABACACTIS, a settlement of Indians, of this name, in the province of the Amazonas, and in the part or territory possessed by the Portuguese. It is a reduccion of the religious order of the Carmelites of this nation, situate on the shores of a lake of the same name. It lies between this lake and a river, which is also so called, and which is a large arm of the Madeira, which, passing through this territory, afterwards returns to that from whence it flowed, forming the island of Topinambes.
[ABACO, one of the largest and most northern of the Bahama islands, situate upon the SE end of the Little Bahama bank. The Hole in the Rock, or (as it is most commonly called) the Hole in the Wall, is the most southern point of the island, and bears about 18 leagues north from the island of New Providence, about 9 or 10 leagues in a NW direction from Egg Island, and about 10 or 12 in a NW direction from the Berry Islands. About 10 leagues to the N of the Hole in the Wall, on the E side of the island, is Little Harbour, the entrance to which is between the main land of Abaco and Ledyard's Key, and within which there is good anchorage. There is also an anchorage to the W of the Hole in the Wall. The island of Abaco is at present uninhabited. In 1788 it contained about 50 settlers and 200 Negroes. The lands granted by the crown, previous to May 1803, amounted to 14,058 acres, for the purpose of cultivation; but the settlers who occupied it have since removed. It contains great quantities of the various kinds of woods which are common to almost all the Bahama islands.] To the northward of Abaco, is a long chain of small islands or keys, (including Elbow Key, Man of War Key, Great Guana Key, the Galapagos, &c. &c.) reaching, in a NW direction, almost to the Matanilla reefs on the Florida stream; from whence the Little Bahama bank extends, in a southerly direction, to the west point of the island of the Grand Bahama. [Lat. 26° 22' N Long. 77° 14' W See Bahamas.]
are the ruins or some well made benches in the shape of couches, which have been much injured by time, and were there before the corning of the Spaniards. Lat. 13° 16' 30" s. Long. 74° 32' 30" w.
ACOCHALA, a very lofty mountain of the province and corregimienento of Lipes, in the arch- bishopric of Charcas, where there are some very fine silver mines, which are, however, little worked for want of hands.
ACOLA , a settlement of the province and cor- regimiento of Lucanas in Peru, annexed to the curacy of its capital.
ACOLMAN, San Agustin de , a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tez- coco, in Nueva Espana, situate in a pleasant valley of a benign temperature. There are some wards united to its district, and the number of its inhabitants, including these wards, amounts to 240 Indian families, besides a convent of monks of the order of St. Augustin.
ACOMA , a settlement of Nuevo Mexico, situ- ate on the shore of a river which enters the Grande of the N. between the settlements of San J uan and La Laguna. [It is on a high mountain, with a strong castle, and is the capital of the province. [Lat, 35° 24' «. Long. 106° 10'
ACOMACK , a county of the province and colony of Virginia, which preserves its Indian name. It is the largest county of the province, containing 200,925 acres of ground ; but not so well peopled as the others, and has only one parish, which is of the same name. Different rivers take their rise here ; among the most noted is the Clif>- sonossea,
ACOMAIO, a settlement of the province, and corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Santa Maria del Valle, situate on the confines of the infidel Panataguas Indians.
another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru.
ACOMARCA, a settlement of the province and corregimityito of Vilcas Huaman in Peru, arinexed to the curacy of Vilcas.
ACOMES, a fall of the river Amariscoggin, in the prov'ince of Continent, one of the four w hich compose the colony of New England.
ACOMULCO, a settlement of the head settle- ment and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in Nueva Espana. It contains 12 Indian families, and is two leasrues to the w. of its capital.
ACONCAGUA, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Chile ; bounded n. by a part of the province of Quillota, e, by the Cordillera, s. by the valley of Colina, of the jurisdiction of Santiago, w. by the province of Quillota. Its territory is level and well watered. It is divided into two parts by a large river of the same name, having a bridge built of stone and mortar, w ith two arches. It produces abundance of wheat and much wild marjoram, which is carried to Peru, and forms the principal branch of its commerce. In this province is the royal road, lying through the Cordillera in the way to Mendoza, which is very rough and dangerous, on account of the many slopes and steep declivities towards the river ; the path is very narrow, and in various places it is necessary to open a pass by means of a pick-axe ; so that, if at any time the mules should crowd together, they would push each other into the river, w hich has not unfrequently been the case. The royal treasures are carried by this road from the month of Novem- ber to April and part of May. A few years since, some small houses of brick and mortar have been built on one or other side of the Cordillera, which they call casuchas (miserable huts) ; in these they put, in the winter time, some coal, biscuit, and hung beef, so that the couriers, providing them- selves with the keys of the doors at Mendoza, or, on the other side, at the Guardia of Aconcagua, may have something to live upon, incase they should be stopt by a fall of snow on their journey ; and with this precaution, a courier goes every month to Santiago, carrying with him the mails brought by the ships from Europe. In the winter it is customary to walk on foot over the snow, from Paramillo, which is three leagues from the top of the Cordillera, and four from its descent to tlie place which is called Los Ojos de Agua, through the valley of Putaendo ; but towards the ??. there is another way, which they call De Los Patos, which is the road generally taken in going to the city of San Juan ; but the Cordillera being more lofty here, it is only passable in the months of February and March. The inhabitants of this province amount, on an average, to 8000 souls. The capital' is San Felipe el Real. [Lat. 32° II' s. Long. 70° 12' 30" w. j
ACONCAGUA, a large river which runs through the above province, rising in the mountains of the Cordillera, and running through it by the side of the road which leads to Buenos Ayres : hrarcliing
out various ways, and watering, from the place in which it rises, the extensive vallies of Curimon, Aconcagua, Quillota, and Concon; in which are cultivated large crops of wheat, flax and hemp; and it, moreover, enters the sea in as large a stream as if it had never undergone the like ramifications: its mouth is in 33° lat.
ACONQUIJA, the most lofty mountain of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district of the city of Catamarca, and very near it. It is perpetually covered with snow, and abounds with minerals of gold. Its jurisdiction is disputed by the province of Atacama.
ACOTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Autlan. It contains 15 Indian families, who employ themselves in breeding the larger sort of cattle, in making sugar and honey, in dressing seeds, and extracting oil of cacao, which abounds greatly, from the number of trees yielding this fruit. It is annexed to the curacy of Tecolotlan, from whence it is two leagues to the S W.
ACTOPAN, the district and alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, commonly called Octupan. Its productions and commerce are as follows: They consist in seeds, rigging, saltpetre, and the feeding of goats and sheep, chiefly prized on account of their skins and their fat. It is of a mild temperature; but the ground is infested with prickly plants, thorns, and teasels. There are some estates here of about eight or ten labouring families each. In this district, and in its environs, are many singing birds, which, in the Mexican language, are called zenzontla; and among otlicrs is the nightingale. The capital bears the same name, and in it there are no less than 2750 families of Othomies Indians, divided into two parties, and separated by the church, which is a convent of the order of St. Augustin, and a very ancient piece of architecture. It also contains 50 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees. 23 leagues N N E of Mexico. Long. 98° 49' W. Lat. 20° 19'30" N.
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Villas. It contains 34 families of Indians, whocultivate and trade in grain, pulse, coal, and thebark of trees. A little more than two leagues tothe w. with a slight inclination to the s. of its headsettlement.
Agustin, San, a point or cape of the coast ofBrazil, in the province and captainship of Per-nambuco, between the port Antonio Vaz and theriver Tapado. One hundred leagues from thebay of Los Miiertos ; [300 miles n. e. from the bayof All Souls. Lat. 8° 38' s. Long. 35° 11' tc.]
Agustin, San, a river of the province andgovernment of Antioquia, in the new kingdom ofGranada. It runs from s. to n. and afterwards,with a slight inclination to the w. enters the riverS. Juan, of the province of Choco.
AHOME, a nation of Indians, who inhabit theshores of the river Zuaque, in the province ofCinaloa, and who are distant four leagues fromthe sea of California : they were converted to theCatholic faith by father Andres de Rivas, a Jesuit.Their country consists of some extensive and fer-tile plains, and they are by nature superior to theother Indians of Nueva España. Moreover, theirHeathenish customs do not partake so much of thespirit of barbarism. They abhorred polygamy,and held virginity in the highest estimation : andthus, by way of distinction, unmarried girls wore
a small shell suspended to their neck, until the dayof their nuptials, when it was taken off by the bride-groom. Their clothes were decent, composed ofwove cotton, and'they had a custom of bewailingtheir dead for a whole year, night and morning,with an apparently excessive grief. They aregentle and faithful towards the Spaniards, withwhom they have continued in peace and unityfrom the time of their first subjection. The prin-cipal settlement is of the same name, and lies atthe mouth of the river Fuerte, on the coast of thegulph of California,* having a good, convenient,and well sheltered port.
AHUACATLAN, Santa Maria de, a set-tlement of the head settlement of the district ofSan Francisco del Talle, and alcaldia mayor ofZultepec, in Nueva España. It is of a cold tem-perature, inhabited by 51 families of Indians, anddistant three leagues s. of its head settlement.
Ahuacatlan (Zochicoatlan), another settlement of’the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan inNueva España. It is of a cold temperature, si-tuate on a small level plain, surrounded by hillsand mountains. It contains 13 families of In-dians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its capital.
Ahuacatlan, with the dedicatory title of SanJuan, the head settlement of the district of thealcaldia mayor of Zacatlan in Nueva España.Its inhabitants are composed of 450 families ofIndians, and 60 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mu-lattoes, including the settlements of the district.Five leagues from its capital, and separated by amountainous and rugged road, as also by a verybroad river, whose waters, in the winter time, in-crease to such a degree as to render all communi-cation between the above places impracticable.
Ahuacatlan, another, of the head settlementof the district of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor ofTlapa, in the above kingdom. It contains 160families of Indians, who trade in chia^ (a whitemedicinal earth), and grain, with which its territoryabounds. It lies n, w. of its head settlement.
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which the inhabitants trade. These are composed of34 Indian families. It is a little more than threeleagues from its head settlement,
AIOZINGO, a settlement of the alcaldía mayorof Chaleo in Nueva España, situate on the shoreof the lake of Mexico, with a good port, at whichare embarked the fruits of many provinces for thesupply of that capital, (Chaleo), which is withineight or ten hours sail from hence. It has a goodconvent of S. Augustin, where a most beauti-ful image of the virgin is reverenced, and sup-posed to be wonder-working. Its inhabitants con-sist of 120 Indian families and some Spanish. Itis distant one league s, s. e. from its capital.
AIRICOS, a nation of Indians who inhabit theplains of Cazanare and Meta, of the new kingdomof Granada, to the c. of the mountains of Bogota,on the borders of the river Ele. It is numerous,and feared by all its neighbours, on account of itsvalour and dexterity in the use of arms.
Airicos, with the dedicatory title of SanFrancisco Xavier, a settlement which belongedto the Jesuits, and founded in 1662 by father An-tonio de Monteverde, and composed of some ofthose Indians who were thus reduced to the Catho-lic faith.
AIRIHUANCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru.
AIRS, a small city of the province and colonyof New Jersey, in the county of Burlington.
AIUDA, Nuestra Senora be la, a villageand settlement of the Portuguese, in the provinceand captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situateupon the sea-coast, and on the shore of the riverS. Miguel.
Aiuda, another settlement in the province andcaptainship of Puerto Seguro, situate upon thecoast on the shore of the port.
AIUILA, a river of the province and alcaldiamayor of Soconusco, in the kingdom of Guate-mala: It runs into the S. sea between the settle-ment of Suchitepec and the river Coatlan.
AIUINOS, a nation of Indians of the provinceand government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana,converted to the faith by father Francisco Olinano,of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1624.They live towards the n. of the above province,and in the times of their heathenism they dwelt inthe lofty mountains, in order that they might de-fend themselves from the other nations with whomthey were at war. They are docile, well-inclined,and of good habits.
AIUN, or luMERi, a river of the province and
viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. It runs s. and entersthe Rio Negro.
AIUNCHA, Pago BE, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucuman, in the districtand jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero,from whence it is 22 leagues distant. It is situateon the shore of the river Dulce.
AIUTLA, the head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, containing 187 Indianfamilies, and a convent of the religious order of S.Domingo ; distant 13 leagues to the e. of its capi-tal.
Aiutla, another settlement in the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Autlanof the same kingdom, with 23 Indian families, whohave large stores of pulse and fruit, so rich and fer-tile is their country. It is annexed to the curacy ofTenamaztlani, from whence it lies one league s,
AlUA, a small town of the island of St. Domin-go, situate in the line which divides the Spanishterritory from the French. It was the inhabitantsof this town who chiefly contributed to ensure thevictory which was gained against the Spaniards inthe plain of Puerto Real, by the president DonFrancisco de Segura y Sandoval, in 1691.
AIX, Palmar be, a large beach on the coastof Florida, within the channel of Bahama, nearthe point of Canaveral ; memorable for the ship-wreck of 22 vessels, composing the fleet of NuevaEspana, which took place in 1715, being under thecommand of Don Antonio de Ubila ; memorablealso for the loss of two galleons from Tierra Firme,commanded by Don Antonio de Echevers ; theloss of the one and the other amounting to nearly20 million dollars.
Aix, a river of the same province, which runsinto the sea very near the Palmar.
AJOIANI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Coaza.
[AJOS, a parish situate on the foot of the moun-tains which separate the rivers Paraguay and Pa-rana, about 24 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23°26' 34" s. Long. 56° 30' w.~\
AJOUES, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and government of Louisiana, in which theFrench held a garrison and fort for its defence, onthe shore of a lake near the Missouri.
A joues, another settlement of the same provinceand government, situate on the shore of the riverMissouri.
AKANCEAS, a nation of savage Indians of N.America, who live at the conflux of the riversMississippi, and another abundant stream of its
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state to maintain itself. Thus the colonists lived for some years, and in time the productions in which their commerce consisted, increased to such a degree as to have caused them to excel all the other English colonies,
ALUEMAur.E, another county or part of Vir- ginia, washed by the river Fluvana on the s. which divides itself into several branches, and adds much to the fertility of the country. It is bounded e. by the county of Goochland, w. divided by a chain of mountains of Augusta, and by that of Louisa on the «. [It contains 12,585 inha- bitants, including 5579 slaves. Its extent, about S5 miles square.]
Albemarle, a strait, which is the mouth or entrance into the sea of the river Roanoke.
[ALBION, New, the name given by Sir Francis Drake to California, and part of the n. w. coast of America, when he took possession of it. A large uncertain tract of the n. w, coast is thus called. Its limits, according to Mr. Arrow- smith’s chart, are between 27° 12' and 41° 15' 71. lat. Humboldt asserts, that, agreeably to sure historical data, the denomination of New Albion ought to be limited to that part of the coast which extends from the 43° to the 48°, or from Cape White of Martin de x\guilar, to the entrance of Juan de Fuea. Besides, he adds, from the mis- sions of the Catholic priests to those of the Greek priests, that is to say, from the Spanish village of San Francisco, in New California, to the Russian establishments on Cook river at Prince William’s bay', and to the islands of Kodiac and Unalaska, there are more than a thousand leagues of coast inhabited by' free men, and stocked with otters and Phocre! Consequently, the discussions on the extent of the New Albion of Drake, and the pre- tended rights acquired by certain European na- tions, from planting small crosses, and leaving inscriptions fastened to trunks of trees, or the burying of bottles, may be considered as futile. The part of the coast on which Capt. Cook landed on the 7th of March 1778, and which some desig- nate as Nezo Albion, is in n. lat. 44° 33'. e. long. 235° 10', which he thus describes : “ The land is lull of mountains, the tops of w hich are covered with snow, while the vallies between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, are covered with trees, which form a beautiful prospect, as of one vast forest. At first the natives seemed to prefer iron to every other article of
commerce; at last they preferred brass. They were more tenacious of their property than any of the savage nations that had hitherto been met with ; so that they would not part with wood, water, grass, nor the most trifling article without a compensation, and were sometimes very unrea- sonable in their demands.” See Calii^ornia, New.]
ALBOR, a small island of the N. or Atlantic sea, one of the Bahamas, between those of Neque and 8. Salvador.
ALBUQUERQUE, Santa Rosa de, a settle- ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espana. It is 19 leagues s. w. of the head settlement of the district of Tlaltcnango.
Albuquehque, a townof New Mexico, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande (large river) of the N. [opposite the village of Atrisco, to the w. of tlie Sierra Obseqra. Population 0000 souls.]
Albuquerque, a small island, or low rocks, of the N. sea, near that of 8. Andres.
ALCA, a settlement of the province and corre- gimienlo of Condensuyos of Arequipa in Peru.
ALCALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Gua- temala, in the division and district of that city.
ALCAMANI, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa in Neuva Espana, and two leagues to the n. of the same.
ALCANTARA, S. Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Maranam' in the kingdom of Brazil. It luis been frequently invaded by the infidel Indians, who destroyed its work- shops, so that its inhabitants have been much reduced.
Alcantara, S. Antonio de, another settle- ment in the province and district of Chanco, in the kingdom of Chile, near the shore of the rivec Mataquino.
ALCARAI, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the river La Plata between those of Lay- man and Gomez.
ALCATRACES, Ishmd of the, one of those which lie n. of St. Domingo, between the s. point of the Caico Grande, and the Panuelo Quadrado, (square handkerchief).
ALCIIICHlCd, 8 . Martin de, a ward of the head settlement erf the district and alcaldia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana, belonging to that of Santa Maria de la Asuncion.
ALCHIDOMAS, a settlement of the province of the Apaches in Nuevo Mexico, situate on the
nardo. On the shore at its mouth the French,under Robert la Sale, made their first establish-ment in the year 1683.
CANELOS, a large province of the kingdomof Quito, discovered by Gonzalo Pizarro in theyear 1540, who gave it this name on account ofthe quantity of cinnamon trees found in it, whichgrow very strong, shedding an odour somethinglike camphor, and very pungent. This cinnamon,which is called raspado, is carried to Quito, andsold at six reals a pound, being made use of in-stead of the fine cinnamon. A small viper is fre-quently met with in it of the same colour as thecinnamon, and extremely venomous. This pro-vince is uncultivated, full of impenetrable forestsand rivers, and contains only one settlement of thesame name, on the n. shore of the river Bobonaza,in which is the port of Canoas, and the residenceof a religious Dominican, who is the curate ofthose few miserable Indians. In lat. 1° 32' 20" s.
CANES AND Canches, a province and cor-regiminto of Peru, bounded on the e. by Cara-baya, towards the town of Mauclani, on the s. e.by Lampa in the cordillera of Villacanota, onthe s. by Cailloma, s. e. by a part of the provinceof Condesuios of Arequipa, w. by Chumbivilca,being divided by the river Apurimac, and n. w.by Quispicanchi. It is in length from n. to s.30 leagues, and 15 in width : Its climate is, forthe greater part, extremely cold, on account ofits being nearly covered with mountains of snow ;nevertheless they cultivate here barley, maize,potatoes, cavi, and quinoa; and in the warm parts,which consist of uneven and broken grounds nearthe rivers, some kinds of fruit, though in no abun-dance. Here also are great quantities of animalswhich breed upon the mountains from the luxu-riance of the pastures ; and of these are the vigog-nes, huanacos, and viscachas, which latter are aspecies of hare or rabbit ; deer also, and par-tridges, abound here. In the rivers are foundbagres a foot in length. The principal riverswhich water this province, are the Vilcamayo,which runs from the province of Quispicanchi,into which runs another flowing down from thesnowy sierras on the e. part called Combapata.
This river has a stone bridge, and descends fromthe heights of Cailloma. This province has manylakes, which are filled with water-fowl, such asducks, widgeons, and others ; these birds arefound more particularly in lake Lanchug, which isthree leagues long and one and a half broad, andin it there is also found the load-stone. Linencloth is fabricated here. In the district of SanPedro de Cacha, in a place called Rache, there isan ancient and grand edifice with nine gates, halfof the walls of which, as high as the first stories,are made of carved stone ; the rest of the edificebeing of earth upon five galleries of stone, formingas it were so many other walls. This building issaid to have served as a temple in Viracocha in thetime of the gentilism of the Indians. At a smalldistance there is an artificial lake with aqueductswhich keep it always at a proper height ; thislake is situate upon a black mountain, which maybe about two leagues in circumference ; also inthe same vicinity are vestiges of a considerablepopulation, and here is found a mineral earthfrom which they fabricate jars, large pitchers, and other vessels, which are carried to be sold in theneighbouring provinces. In this province aremany mines of silver, but they are not worked, onaccount of their being some of them filled withwater, and some of them broken in, with the ex-ception, however, of those of Condoroma, which,although they have experienced the former ca-lamity, do not fail to render yearly many marksof gold, a pretty good testimony of their riches.Great indeed have been the labour and expence inthe attempts to empty them of the water, but inthis they have not as yet succeeded. Here are alsofour good sugar-mills ; and in the jurisdiction ofthe town of Yauri, are two mines of copper, whichare worked : Some gold mines also are not wanting,although they be of little note. In the establish-ment of Condoroma it is not unusual to expe-rience, in the tempests of thunder and lightning,a sort of prickly sensation on the hands and feetand other parts of the body, which they call mos-cas, or flies, without, however, being able todiscover any of these insects ; and it should seemthat the effect is to be attributed to the state of theatmosphere, since the heads' of canes, buckles,and silver or gold galloons, though during suchtimes highly affected by the electric matter, ceaseto be so on the cessation of the tempest. The in-habitants of this province amount to 18,000 souls, dwelling in 24 settlements, which are,
San Pablo, Yanacoa,
sels can go 25 miles above Wilmington, and largeboats 90 miles, to Fayetteville. The n. e. branchjoins the n. w. branch a little above Wilmington,and is navigable by sea vessels 20 miles above thattown, and by large boats to S. Washington, 40miles further, and by rafts to Sarecto, which isnearly 70 miles. The whole length of Cape Fearriver is about 200 miles.)
(Cape May is the s. westernmost point of thestate of New Jersey, and of the county to which itgives name. Lat. 38° 59' n. Long. 74° 55' w.It lies 20 miles n. e. from cape Henlopen, whichforms the s. w. point of the mouth of Delaware bay,as cape May does the n. e.)
(Cape May County spreads n. around the capeof its name, is a healthy sandy tract of country, ofsufficient fertility to give support to 2571 industri-ous and peaceable inhabitants. The county isdivided into Upper, Middle, and Lower pre-cincts.)
CAPETI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme.It rises in the mountains in the interior of this pro-vince, runs from e. to w. and enters the large riverof Tuira.
Capi, a small river of the country of the Ama-zonas, in the territory of the Portuguese. It runsfrom e. to w. and enters the Marañon opposite thecity of Pará. Don Juan de la Cruz, in his map ofS. America, calls it Cupiu.
Santiago del Estero, on the bank of the river Cho-romoros.
Capillucas, a lake of the same province andgovernment; formed from an overflow or channelof the river Napo, and at no great distance fromthe banks of this river.
CAPINOTA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cochambaba in Peru, and of thearchbishopric of Charcas ; in which there is, inde-pendent of the parish-church, a convent of theorder of San Agustin.
CAPITANEJO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tunja in the new kingdom ofGranada; situate on the bank of the river Soga-moso, in the territory called Cabuya de Chica-mocha, which is the direct road from Tunja toSanta Fe. It is of a very hot temperature, abound-ing in sugar-cane, and other productions of a warmclimate. The natives are very subject to an epi-demic disorder of lumps or swellings under thechin. Its population consists of 100 housekeepers.
[1803 amounted to 5,500,000, and the exports con-sisted of produce to the value of 4,000,000 dollars.He also states the population in 1808 at 900,000souls. The receipts of Caracas, Guatemala, andChile, are consumed within the country. Thepopulation of some of the chief cities is thus stated ;Caracas 40,000, La Guaira 6000, Puerto Cabello7600, Coro 10,000. The harbour, or La Vela deCoro, as it is commonly called, and its environs, aresupposed to contain not less than 2000. In 1797three state prisoners were sent from Spain to Ca-racas, on account of their revolutionary propensi-ties. Being treated with great indulgence by theofficers and soldiers to whose care they were com-mitted, they formed the project of a conspiracyagainst the government. They engaged a numberof persons, some of them of consequence, in theirparty. After gaining their first converts, the spiritdid not spread. The coldness and apathy of thepeople did not admit of the effervescene they de-sired. After the plot had been kept a secret formany months it was disclosed to the government.Some of the ringleaders escaped, and others weretaken. It was found that seventy-two had enteredinto the conspiracy; six were executed. Therest either escaped, or were sent to the galleys orbanished from the country. For an account of therecent revolution in Caracas, see Venezuela.]
Caracas, some islands of the N. sea near thecoast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the pro-vince and government of Cumana. They are sixin number, all small and desert, serving as placesof shelter to the Dutch traders, who carry on anillicit commerce on that coast.
CARACHIS, San Carlos de a settlement ofthe province and country of the Amazonas ; a re-duccion of the missions which belonged to the abo-lished order of the Jesuits. It is at the mouth ofthe river Huerari, where this enters the Maranon.
CARAIMILLA, a settlement on the coast ofthe province and corregimiento aforementioned,between point Caraima Alta, and the isle of Obispo.
CARAMANTA, a city of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the new kingdom ofGratiada ; founded by Sebastian de Benalcazar in1543, near the river Cauca. Its temperature ishot and unhealthy, but it is fertile in maize, vege-tables, grain, and abounds with herds of swine : nearit are many small rivers which enter the Cauca,and some salt pits of the whitest salt. On themountains within its jurisdiction, are some settle-ments of barbarian Indians very little known. Thiscity is indifferently peopled, and is 65 leagues dis-tant to the n. e. of Popayan, and 50 from Antio-quia. Long. 75° 33' w. Lat. 5° 58' «.
Of Guadalupe, between the Three Rive*‘s and theAgujero del Ferro.
CARCAI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Soras. It has a hot spring of water ofvery medicinal properties, and its heat is so greatthat an egg may be boiled in it in an instant.
CARCARANAL, a river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It rises in the pro-vince of Tucuman, in the mountains of the cityof Cordoba, runs nearly from e. torw. with thename of Tercero, and changing it into Carcara-iial, after it becomes united Avith the Saladillo, joinsthe Plata, and enters the Salado and the Tres Hec-manas.
CARCAZI, a settlement of the government andJurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, situate betAveen two mountains, whichcause its temperature to be very moderate. It pro-duces much Avheatand maize ; in its cold parts suchfruits as are peculiar to that climate, and in themilder parts sugar-cane. Its neighbourhoodabounds Avith flocks of goats ; and the number ofinhabitants may amount to about 200 Spaniardsand 30 Indians. It is situate on the confines Avhichdivide the jurisdictions of Tunja and Pamplona.
(CARDIGAN, about 20 miles e. of Dartmouthcollege, New Hampshire. The township ofOrange once bore this name, which see.)
CARDINALES, Sombreros de. See articlePitangoas.
CARDOSO, Real de, a settlement and realof gold mines in the province and captainship ofTodos Santos in Brazil; situate on the shore ofthe large river of San Francisco, to the n. of thevillage of Tapuyas.
CAREN, a valley or meadow-land of the king-dom of Chile, renowned for its pleasantness, beauty,and extent, being five leagues in length; also fora fountain of very delicate and salutary water,which, penetrating to the soil in these parts, ren-ders them so exceedingly porous, that a person tread-ing somewhat heavily seems to shake the groundunder him. There is an herb found here that keepsgreen all the year round: it is small, resemblingtrefoil, and the natives call it caren: it is of a veryagreeable taste, and gives its name to the valley.
CARENERO, a bay of the coast of the king-dom of Tierra Firme in the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It is extremely convenientfor careening and repairing ships, and from thiscircumstance it takes its name. It lies behind capeCodera towards the e.
CARET, Anse be, a bay of the island of St.Christopher, one of the Antilles, on the n. e. coast,and in the part possessed by the French beforethey ceded the island to the Englissh. It is be-tween the bays of Fontaine and Morne, or Fuenteand Morro.
CARGUAIRASO, a lofty mountain and vol-cano of the province and corregimiento of Rio-bamba in the kingdom of Quito. It is in the dis-trict of the asiento of Ambato, covered with snowthe whole year round. Its skirts are covered withfine crops of excellent barley. In 1698 this pro-vince was visited by a terrible earthquake, whichopened the mountain and let in a river of mud,formed by the snows which were melted by thefire of the volcano, and by the ashes it threw up.So dreadful were the effects of this revolution thatthe whole of the crops were completely spoiled ;and it was in vain that the cattle endeavoured to-
ment of Paraguay ; situate on a small river aboutl5 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23° 30' 27"Long. 56° 52' w.)
(Carlisle, the chief town of Cumberlandcounty, Pennsylvania, on the post-road from Phi-ladelphia to Pittsburg ; is 125 miles w. by n. fromthe former, and 178 e. from the latter, and 18 s. w.from Harrisburgh. Its situation is pleasant andhealthy, on a plain near the s. bank of Conedog-winet creek, a water of the Susquehannah. Thetown contains about 400 houses, chiefly of stoneand brick, and about 1500 inhabitants. The streetsintersect each other at right angles, and the publicbuildings are a college, court-house, and gaol, andfour edifices for public worship. Of these thePresbyterians, Germans, Episcopalians, and RomanCatholics, have each one. Dickinson college,named after the celebrated John Dickinson, esq.author of several valuable tracts, has a principal,three professors, a philosophical apparatus, and alibrary containing near SOOO volumes. Its re-venue arises from 4000/. in funded certificates, and10,000 acres of land. In 1787 there were 80 stu-dents, and its reputation is daily increasing.About 50 years ago this spot was inhabited by In-dians and wild beasts.)
Carlos, San, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the shore of a small river nearthe river Pargua, about five leagues s. w. of Can-delaria. Lat. 27° 44' 36" s. Long. 55° 57' 12" w.
Carlos, San, a city of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of theriver Aguirre, to the n. of the city of Nirua. [Itowes its existence to the first missionaries of Vene-zuela, and its increase and beauty to the activityof its inhabitants. The greatest part of its popu-lation is composed of Spaniards from the Canaryislands ; and as these leave their native country
but to meliorate their condition, they arrive with awillingness to work, and a courage to undertakeany thing that they think the most proper to an-swer their views. Their example even inspires asort oT emulation among the Creoles, productiveof public prosperity. Cattle forms the great massof the wealth of the inhabitants. Oxen, horses,and mules, are very numerous. Agriculture, al-though not much followed, is yet not neglected.Indigo and coffee are almost the only things theygrow. The quality of the soil gives the fruits anexquisite flavour, but particularly the oranges,which are famed throughout the province. Thecity is large, handsome, and well divided ; theycompute the inhabitants at 9300. The parishchurch, by its construction and neatness, answersto the industry and piety of the people. The heatat San Carlos is extreme ; it would be excessive ifthe n. wind did not moderate the effects of the sun.It lies in 9° 20' lat. 60 leagues s. w. of Caracas,24 s. s.e. of St. Valencia, and 20 from St. Philip’s.
(San Carlos de Monterey|Carlos, San, de Monterey]]==, the capital ofNew California, founded in 1770, at the foot of thecordillera of Santa Lucia, which is covered withoiiks, pines, (foliis lernis J, and rose bushes. Thevillage is two leagues distant from the presidio ofthe same name. It appears that the bay of Mon-terey had already been discovered by Cabrillo onthe 13th November 1542, and that he gave it thename of Bahia rle los Pinos, on account of thebeautiful pines with which the neighbouring moun-tains are covered. It received its present nameabout 60 years afterwards from Viscaino, in ho-nour of the viceroy of Mexico, Gaspar deZunega,Count de Monterey, an active man, to whom weare indebted for considerable maritime expedi-tions, and who engaged Juan de Onate in the con-quest of New Mexico. The coasts in the vicinityof San Carlos produce the famous aurum merum(ormier) of Monterey, in request by the inhabi-tants of Nootka, and which is employed in thetrade of otter-skins. The population of San Carlosis 700.)
Rio Negro, on a great island formed by this riverand that of Pasimoni.
Carlos, San, a settlement (with the surnameof Real) of the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the shore of the river La Plata,near the colony of Sacramento, which belonged tothe Portuguese. In its vicinty, on the n. n. e. part,there is a lake of very good sweet water.
Carlos, San, a valley in the province and go-vernment of Tucumán, which is very fertile invines, wheat, maize, carob-trees, tar, and in birdsand animals of the chase. Its natives are thosewho most of all infested the Spaniards when theyconquered this province.
Carlos, San, another, of the province andcountry of Las Amazonas ; a reduccion of the mis-sions which were held there by the regulars of thesociety of Jesuits. It lies between the rivers Arau-caso and Shiquita, in the territory of the Cahu-maris Indians.
Carlos, San, some sierras or mountains, calledDe Don Carlos, in the province and captainship ofRey in Brazil. They run parallel to the sierra ofLos Difuntos, in the extremity of the coast formedby the mouth of the river La Plata.
CARLOSAMA, a large settlement of Indians ofthe province and corregimiento of Pastes in thekingdom of Quito, on the 5. shore of the river ofits name. Its territory is most fertile, but the cli-mate is very cold, and the streets almost always
Impassable. It is to the zo. n. zo. of the settlementof Ipialos, and e. n. e. of that of Cumbal.
CARMEN, a river of the province and colony ofSurinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by theDutch. It rises in the sierra of Rinocote, runsfrom w. to e. and gathering the waters of manyothers, enters in a large body into the Mazar-roni.
Carmen, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cartagena ; situate in the district ofthe mountains of Marca, between those of San Ja-cinto and San Francisco de Asis. It is one ofthose new settlements that were founded by the Go-vemor Don Juan Pimienta in 1776.
Carmen, another, in the same kingdom ; situatenear a stream and on the shore of the river Tocan-tines, on the e. side, and not far from the Arrayalof San Feliz.
Olifo, and between the rivers of Great and LittleMance.]
CASTRO, a capital city of the province andgovernment of Chiloé in the kingdom of Chile;peopled by the order of Don Lope Garcia de Cas-tro, governor of Peru, who gave it his name in1560 : it lies, between two small livers, and has agood port; is inhabited by some good and opu-lent families, and enjoys a pleasant ,and healthytemperature. It is also called Chjloe, and is of aregular and beautiful form ; has, besides the pa-rish church, a convent of monks of St. Francis,and a bishop auxiliary to that of Santiago. It was.sacked by the Dutch in 1643 ; is 42 leagues s. ofthe city of Osorno, in lat. 42° 40' s.
Castro-Vireyna, a province and corregimientoof Peru, bounded n. w. by the province ofCanete,«. by that of Yauyos, n. e. by that of Angaraes,and partly by the jurisdiction of Huamanga andHuanta, m. by that of Vilcas Huaman, s. w. bythat of Lucanas, and s. s. w. and w. by that of\^ca. It is uneven and barren, and its inhabi-tants, on this account, amount scarcely to 6900,although it is 22 leagues in length from e. to as,and 25 in width n. to s. No mines have been dis-covered here, nor are there any other roads to itthan merely such as are opened through passes inthe snow, or where no obstruction is ofered bythe copious streams which every where precipi-tate themselves down from the mountains, andwhich are particularly large in the rainy season,which is from October to Slarch. Its productionsare wheat, maize, and potatoes; and in someglens, where the cold is not so great, fruits andcattle are extremely plentiful. Here are also lla~mas, vicunas, and huanacos, the wool of whichthey turn to some profit. This province is wa-tered by rivers, some of which descend from theprovinces of the coast of the S. sea, and othersfrom the further side of the cordillera, runningtowards the e. and entering the Maranon ; it isalso watered by the Canete, which rises from theChicha, and collects other streams in this province ;by the Pisco, which rises from a lake called.firacocha ; by the Yea, from the lake Choclo-
cocha ; and by the Calcamayo, which enters theprovince of Vilcas Huaman. In all the waters ofthis province, notwithstanding they are very abun-dant, there is a great scarcity of fish, and withoutdoubt this arises from the cold which prevailshere. This province is but thinly peopled, and itsinhabitants are poor : they do not, we have heard,amount to more than 7000 souls. It consists of sixcuracies, to which there are 29 other settlementsannexed. Its yearly reparlimiento amounted to86,400 dollars, and it paid an alcavala equal to691 dollars. The capital is of the same name ; thisis a small and poor town, situate on a lofty spot,where the cold is most intense : close to it runs ariver, which is made use of for working the millsof the silver mines ; which, although they pro-duce this metal of a good quality, they are by nomeans well stocked with it. The town has a con-vent of monks of St. Francis, and two large estatescalled Huallanto and Huallanga, in which theraare churches annexed to this curacy ; is 14 leaguesfrom Huancablica, 26 from Pisco, and 60 from
la. Long. 74° 44'. Lat. 13° 49' s. The
ements of the province
CATA, a settlement of the province and govern-
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(==CATORCE, or La Purissima ConcepcionDe Alamos de Catorce==, one of the richest minesof New Spain, and in the intendancy of San LuisPotosi. The real de Catorce, however, has onlybeen in existence since 1773, when Don SebastianCoronado and Don Bernarbe Antonio de Zepedadiscovered these celebrated seams, which yield an-nually the value of more than from 18 to ^20 mil-lions of francs, or from 730,460/. to 833,500/.sterling.)
CAUAILLON, a settlement and parish of theFrench, in their possessions in St. Domingo ; situ-ate on the coast and at the w. head, near the bayof its name, between the settlements of Torbec andLos Cayos.
CAUAIU, a small river of the same provinceand government as the former. It runs w. andenters the Parana, between the rivers Verde andYocare-mini.
Cauaiu, a bay of the same island, opposite theIsla Vaca or Cow island.
CAUASAN, San Francisco Xavier de, atown of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate in the midst of the sierraof Topia, on the coast of the S. sea, on the shoreof the river Plastin. It has a small port for lesservessels, which has oftentimes been invaded byenemies. It is a curacy administered by the cler-gy, and to which two small settlements of MexicaaIndians are annexed.
CAUCA, a large and copious river of the pro-vince and government of Popayán, which risesin the mountains of the government of Mariquita,and running 160 leagues from s. to?i. in whichcourse it collects the ’waters of many other rivers,it passes near the cities of Popaj'iin, Buga, Cali,and Anserma ; from whence it is navigable until itenters the large river of the Magdalena. It is verynarrow where it passes through the cities of Po-payan and Antioquia, and forms the letter S, tak-ing its course through rocks, which render its na-vigation very dangerous. The Indians, however,are so dexterous in guarding their canoes fromrunning against the rocks by paddles, that it isvery seldom indeed that any accident occurs tothem. They call this strait Las Mamas de Cara-manta, from a city which was here of this name.Many make this navigation for the purpose ofavoiding a round-about journey of many days, andin a bad road through the mountains ; and it issaid that some have had the good fortune to dis-cover a route by water free from all difficulties,and that this was actually made by the pontificateof the bishop of Popayan, Don Diego de Mon-toy.
C H A
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Brocal de la Mina de, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru ;finnexed to the curacy of Santa Barbara.
CHACMA, or Chamaca, a valley of the pro-vince of Cuzco and kingdom of Peru, near thecoast of the S. sea. It was well peopled in formertimes, and abounds now in sugar-cane, from whichsugar is made. It was conquered and united tothe empire by Huaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor.
CHACO, a province of the kingdom of Peru,called the Gran Chaco, is an extensive country ;having as its boundary to the e. the river Para-guay, and being bounded on the [n.e. by the pro-vince of the Chiquitos Indians ; on the n. by thatof Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; on the zo. it touchesupon the provinces of Mizque, Tomina, Porna-bamba, Pilaya, Paspaya, Tarija, and Tucuman.On the s. it extends as far as the jurisdiction of thegovernment of Buenos Ayres, which is its farthestlimits. Towards the n. it is 150 leagues widefrom e. to w. and 250 leagues long from n. to s. ;but to make these distances, it requires manymonths, owing to the unevenness and roughness ofthe territory. It is called Chaco, or, with morepropriety, Chacu, which, in the Quechuan lan-guage, signifies junta, or company, from the cir-cumstance of its having been formed of Indians ofseveral countries, who had fled from the conquer-ing arms of the Incas, and afterwards from thoseof the Spaniards. Towards the w. it has someserraniasj which are branches of the cordilhrn ;where, on account of their immense height, thecold is very great ; but in the low grounds, whichare for the most part plains, the temperature is hot.It is full of thick woods, and in many parts isswampy and wet ; particularly in the part lyingtowards the e. on the road to Paraguay. In thewet season, which lasts from the month of Novem-ber to April, the rivers leave their beds and formvarious lakes, some of which dry up, and someremain. This province has some rivers of note ;such are the Salado and the Bermejo ; is one of themost fertile provinces in America, and would, ifit were cultivated, afford, in the greatest abun-dance, those productions wnich are now thrownaway upon the infinite number of barbarous na-
tions who inhabit it. It produces a great varietyof fine woods and fruit-trees; such as walnuts andnuts, although different from those of Europe, butwhich arc extremely well tasted ; beautiful cedars ;quebrachos^ thus called on account of their hard-ness ; guqyacanes, carob-trees, balsams, marias,palms, some of which are more than 30 yards inheight; almonds, cacaos, ceihas, whicli are verylarge trees, bearing in the pods a remarkable softwool, used for quilts, since it cannot be spun ; cot-ton-trees, mistoles, of the heart of which the In-dians make darts and cimeters ; myrrh, sarzafraz-trees, bark, and others, which have the interiorbark so delicate and white as occasionally to serveinstead of writing paper; others there are, whicli,at one or two yards up their stems, form a kind ofbarrel or pipe, and being of a very tough bark,are accustomed to be ripped open by the Indians,and thus serve as vessels, in which these keep theirliquor called chieha ; it is from this that theywhimsically call this plant palo borracho, ordrunken tree. In this province are found alsocanes for walking sticks, as fine as those of Asia ;and in the trunks of trees, in holes of the rocksand below the ground, are quantities of honey andwax wrought by bees, of which there are reckonedto be more than 12 sorts : some of the wax, besidesbeing transparent, is extremely fragrant and deli-cious to the taste, whilst some is so sour as to re-semble the juice of boiled lemons. One sort ofthese bees fabricate, with great skill, excellenthives of mud upon the branches of trees, and ofthe shape of a decanter, which are so hard thatthey will not break in falling down upon theground ; they, morever, are filled Avith exquisitewax and Avell-flavoured honey. The fruit-treeswhich this province produces, are oranges, cedars,lemons, apples, pears, melocotones^ (or peaches en-grafted on quinces), figs, nuts, prunes, and olives,also passion-floAvers ; all of which have beenbrought hither from the city of Santiago de Gua-dalcazar. Here are palms Avhich have cups con-taining 25 kernels each, differing only slightlyfrom the palms of Europe by having a flavour ofthe cocoa, and being somewhat larger. Here isalso a plant called chahuar, having prickles likethe savine, of which are made threads similar tohemp, for the manufacture of nets, bags, and somesorts of coarse garments : its root serves as food forthe Indians, as do also yucas, potatoes, and others.It has an innumerable quantity of birds, namely,Avild pigeons, ducks, herons, mountain-peacocks’pheasants, crows, condors, partridges, falcons,SAvans, periguanas, ostriches, parrots, and onekind of bird which exactly imitates an organ, and
C H A
C H A
(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)
CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement ofMongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced)annexed to the curacy of the same. Its tempera-ture is mild, and abounds in pure good water, andin the productions of a hot climate.
CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ;situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, fromwhence its temperature is so cold that it is seldomany crops can be gathered from the seeds that aresown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 inthe wards of its district, and a convent of the reli-gious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settle-ment.
CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district ofPuerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in thekingdom of Quito, at a small distance from thesea-coast and bay of its name ; this title beingalso applied to the point which forms the samebay.
CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina,which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. Thewhole of it abounds in cataracts, and its watersthrow up immense quantities of coal, which wasthe cause of its being thus named.
CHARCA, a settlement of the province and
corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Sacaca.
CHARCAS, an extensive province of the king-dom of Peru, composed of various others. Its ju-risdiction comprehends the district of this royalaudience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the cor-regimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, andextends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It isbounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian servingas a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregi-miento of Atacama, which is of its district, andforms the most n. part of this province in that di-rection, and being closed in on its other sides bythe kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, in-cluding the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . :is in many parts very thinly peopled, and coveredwith large desert tracts, and rugged and impene-trable mountains, and again by the elevated cordil-leras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras orpampas, which serve to mark its size and the relativedistances of its territories. Its temperature through-out is extremely cold, although there are not want-ing parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At thetime that this province was in the possession of theIndians, and previous to the entrance of the Spa-niards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointlyunder the name of Charcas ; and the conquest ofthese was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui,fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the ter-ritory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Hereit was that his conquests terminated : nor did thesubjection of these parts extend farther than Col-laysuyo until after his death, when he was suc-ceeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor,who carried on still farther the victories which hadbeen already gained, conquering all the nations asfar on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwardsfounded the city of this name, called also La Plata.After that the Spaniards had reduced that part ofPeru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and thatthe civil wars and dissensions which existed be-tween these were at an end, they endeavoured tofollow up their enterprise by making a conquest ofthe most distant nations. To this end, in 1538,Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force,and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues,found in them such a spirited opposition, that afterseveral battles he was brought to think this objectwas nearly impracticable : this idea was strength-ened by the reception he had met with from theChuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given himconvincing proofs of their valour and warlikespirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just
C II A R C A S.
at that critical moment received fresh succours,that were sent from Cuzco by his brother the Mar-quis Don Francisco Pizarro, he would have fallena sacrifice, with the whole of the Spanish army, tothat undertaking : but being invigorated by thisassistance, he succeeded in routing the Indians,and in obliging them to surrender to the Spanishgovernment. In 1539 the Marquis Don Fran-cisco Pizarro, seeing the importance of making anestablishment here, resolved upon building of atown, giving a commission to Captain Pedro Au-zures to execute the same. This person actuallyput into effect the plan suggested, founding thetown in exactly the same spot in which formerlystood the settlement of Chuquisaca. Here manyof its conquerors settled and became citizens, andthey gave it the name of La Plata, or Silver, fromsome mines of this metal which are found in themountain of Porco, which lies at a small distancefrom this city, and from which the Inca Emperorswere accustomed to extract immense emolument.Notwithstanding this name it has never lost itsoriginal title, Chuquisaca, although indeed it isbadly pronounced by the Spaniards ; since the In-dians, and with great propriety, will have it Cho-quezaca, Choquechaca, or Choquisacha; all ofwhich, however pronounced, signify, the first,moun-tains of gold ; the second, cunchos of gold, orfields of brambles with yellow twigs ; and the third,bridges of gold. Although this province is exten-sive, it is composed of various others, which weshall notice under their proper heads. This keepsits present name, from being the one of all theothers the most abounding in minerals, seeds, andcattle ; as well as being the one best peopled withIndians. It is watered by many large rivers ; andthe whole of it composes an archbishopric, towhich arc suffragan the bishoprics of La Paz,Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Tucuman, Paraguay,and Buenos Ayres. It belongs to the viceroyaltyof this latter place since the time that this waserected, and that the government was entrusted tothe royal audience established in 1559. The afore-said district comprehends in its jurisdiction allthe following provinces and corregimientos :Tomino, Cochabamba,
Oruro, Atacama ;
In which are contained 188 settlements and cura-cies, in which there were in 1651 about 100,000Indians. The capital of the whole jurisdiction is
the aforesaid city of Chuquisaca or La Plata. —[Charcas joined the new government of BuenosAyres in 1810. See La Plata,]
Those who have been Presidents in the RoyalAudience of Charcas.
1. The Licentiate Pedro Ramirez de Quinones,first president, in 1559.
2. The Licentiate Juan de Matienzo, a cele-brated jurisconsult, in 1580.
3. The Licentiate Zepeda, in 1588.
4. The Licentiate Alonso Maldonado de Torres,in 1606.
5. Don Juan de Lizarazu, knight of the orderof Santiago ; he passed over to the presidency ofQuito in 1612.
6. Don Diego de Portugal, in 1614.
7. Don Alonzo Perez de Salazar, who was pre-sident of Quito, and was promoted to this, wherehe governed until the year 1620.
8. Don Juan de Caravajal y Sande, promotedin 1633.
9. Don Dionisio Perez Manrique, knight ofthe order of Santiago, collegiate in the collegeof Los Manriques de Alcala, rector of the uni-versity there, oidor of Lima, and president ofQuito, from whence he was removed to be pre-sident of this audience of Charcas in 1646 ; whence,having exercised it till 1654, he was removed tothat of Santa Fe.
10. Don Pedro Vazquez de Velasco, who pre-sided until the year 1661.
11. Don Bartolome Gonzalez de Poveda, pro-moted in 1678 ; he was made archbishop of theholy church of Charcas, remaining in the presi-dency until 1688.
12. Don Diego Mesia, native of Lima, oidor ofits royal audience, and formerly of that of Quito ;he was promoted to the presidency of Charcas in1688.
13. Don Jorge Manrique de Lara, who wasoidor of Panama, afterwards of Charcas, as alsopresident.
14. Don Gabriel Antonio Matienzo, president in1723.
15. Don Francisco de Herboso, who was ap-pointed in 1725, and presided until 1732.
16. Don Agustin de Jauregui, knight of theorder of Santiago, and native of Lima.
17. Don Juan Francisco Pestana, adjutant-major of the regiment of Spanish guards ; he wasnominated in 1752, and presided until 1769.
18. Don Ambrosio de Benavides, who enteredin the above year, and presided until 1777.
19. Don Agustin de Pinedo, who succeededthe former, and governed until 1782.
tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues tothe w. n. w. of Mexico.
Chilchota, another settlement of the headsettlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui-catlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountainwhich is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading incochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.It is eight leagues from its head settlement.
Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory titleof San Pedro. It is of the head settlement ofQuimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de losLlanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami-lies of Indians.
CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlementand real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix-miquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215families of Indians, and in the real are 27 ofSpaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. Itis of an extremely cold and moist temperature,and its commerce depends upon the working ofthe lead mines. Some silver mines were formerlyworked here, but these yielded so base a metal,and in such small quantities, that they were en-tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yieldedby far the greatest emolument. Five leagues tothe e. of its capital.
CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame-rica, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by thestraits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on thee. by the provinces of Tucuman and BuenosAyres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, andon the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal-lanicas from the straits and the plains or desertsof Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. TheInca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carriedhis conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, inlat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the firstSpaniard who discovered this country, in the year1335, and began its conquest, which was after-wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe-dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, andafterwards met with a disgraceful death at thehands of the Indians, having been made prisonerby them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are themost valorous and warlike of all in America ) theyhave maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde-pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they areseparated by the river Biobio. This is the limitof the country possessed by them ; and thoughthe Spaniards have penetrated through differententrances into their territories, and there built va-rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these beenpulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-
fenders of their liberty and their country. Theyare most dexterous in the management of the lance,sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macanawood ; and although they are equally so in thepractice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” Theyare very agile and dexterous horsemen, and theirhorses are excellent, since those which run wild,and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have notdegenerated, or become at all inferior to the bestwhich that country produces. The part whichthe Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends itswhole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapoto the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond theisle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, asit were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera ofthe Andes ; from these descend infinite streams andrivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,and forming a country altogether charming andluxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for theconvenience and enjoyment of life, producing, inregular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame-rica and Europe. The summer here begins inSeptember, the estio (or hot summer) in December,the autumn in March, and the winter in June.The climate is similar to that of Spain, and thetemperature varies according to the elevation ofthe land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,and which are very low, are of a warm tempera-ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture thanwhat they derive from some small rivers descend-ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the spaceof 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the otherprovinces it rains more frequently, in proportionas they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,from April to September ; for which reason theyare more fertile. These provinces are watered bymore than 40 rivers, which also descend from thecordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snowmelted in the summer, swelling them to a greatheight. They generally abound in fish of themost delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and manyothers. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main-taining a vast population by the shell-fish foundupon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the mostdelicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasya species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,and tunnies, which come at their seasons onthe coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra-bas of Andaluda. For some years past they saltdown cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a
left the government, in the year 1655, to the suc-cessor,
25. Don Martin de Muxica, knight of the orderof Santiago, a renowned officer, and one who hadgained much renown in the armies of Ital}^ andFlanders.
26. Don Pedro Porter de Casanate, A. D.1659.
27. Don Francisco Meneses Bravo de Sarabia,who led from Spain a body of troops, in order tosubdue the Indians; this he accomplished; andin the year 1664 rebuilt the cities which had beendestroyed in 1599 : his government lasted untilthe year 1668, when he was deposed by the vice-roy of Peru.
28. Don Angel Peredo, knight of the order ofSantiago ; he was appointed as an intermediategovernor upon the deposition of his antecessor,and governed during the following year, 1669.
» 29. Don Juan Enriquez, native of Lima, knightof the order of Santiago, governed until the year1677.
33. Don Juan Andres de Ustariz, native of Se-villa, until the year 1715, when was elected,
34. Don Gabriel Cano dc Aponte, brigadier-general of the royal armies, in whose time theAraucanos again declared war, when he obligedthem to renew the peace ; died A.D. 1728.
35. Don Juan de Salamanca, colonel of the mi-litia of that kingdom ; he was an intermediate go-vernor, and at his death,
36. Don Joseph de Santiago Concha, Marquisde Casa Concha, kinght of the order of Calatrava,chief auditor of the royal audience of Lima, nomi-nated by the viceroy.
37. Don Alonso de Obando, Marquis de Obatido,vice-admiral of the royal armada ; appointed bythe viceroy, the Marquis de Villa Garcia, as inter-mediate successor, until the year 1736.
38. Don Joseph Manso de Velasco, Count otSnperunda, knight of the order of Santiago ; hewas at that time captain of the grenadiers of theregiment of Spanish guards, and ranked as briga-dier; well recommended by his valour and ex-ploits, when he was appointed to this presidencyin the aforesaid year ; he governed until the year1746, when he was promoted to the viceroyalty ofPeru.
39. Don Domingo Ortiz de Rozas, knight ofthe order of Santiago, was at that time governor ofBuenos Ayres, and Avas elected to this presidencyin the aforesaid year ; he founded several toAvns,
on which account the king gave him the title ofConde de Poblaciones ; governed until the year1754, when returning to Spain, he died.
40 Don Manuel Arnat y J unient, knight of theorder of San Juan, colonel of the regiment of dra-goons of Sagunto, of the rank of brigadier, ap-pointed to this presidency ; which he filled untilthe year 1761, when he was promoted to the vice-royahy of Peru.
41. Don Mateo de Toro de Zambrano y Urueta,appointed as intermediate successor by the former,upon his departure from Lima, until the arrival ofthe right successor,
42. Don Antonio Guill, formerly colonel of theregiment of infantry of Guadalaxara, and thenranked as brigadier, being governor and captain-general of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; promotedto this presidency in the aforesaid year, 1761, andexercised it until his death, in 1768.
43. Don Mateo de Toro Zambrano y Urueta, thesecond time of his being nominated as intermediatesuccessor by the audience in the vacancy, untilwas nominated by the viceroy of Peru,
44. Don Francisco Xavier de Morales, knightof the order of Santiago, brigadier of the royalarmies, who being captain of the grenadiers of theregiment of the royal Spanish guards, was madegeneral of the militia in Peru, and Avas nominatedas intermediate successor by the viceroy to thispresidency, Avhich he enjoyed till his death in theyear 1772.
45. The aforesaid Don Mateo de Toro Zam-brano y Urueta, then Count of La Conquista, knightof the order of Santiago, and lieutenant-colonel ofthe royal armies, nominated for the third time bythe royal audience during the vacancy, until ar-rived the right successor,
46. Don Agustin de Jauregui, knight of theorder of Santiago, brigadier of the royal armies,Avho had been colonel of the regiment of dragoonsof Sagunto ; Avas appointed to this presidencyA.D. 1773, and enjoyed it until 1782, Avhen heAvas promoted to the viceroyalty of Peru.
47. Don Ambrosio de Benavides, brigadier ofthe royal armies, was nominated in the same year,1782.
[INDEX TO THE ADDITIONAL HISTORY ANDINFORMATION RESPECTING CHILE.
Chap. 1. Origin and language of the Chilians.— Conquest o f the Peruvians^ and state of Chilebefore the arrival of the Spaniards.— What werethen its political establishments^ government, andarts.
1. Language.— 2. Original state.— 3. Divided intofree and subjugated.— Agricidture.—b. Civi-
[in case of a siege. Modern geographers speak ofit as a city not only existing in the present time,but as very stongly fortified, and the seat of abishopric, when it has been buried in ruins formore than 200 years.
4. Villarua founded. — About the same time hedispatched Alderete, one of liis officers, with 60men, to form a settlement on the shore of the greatlake J^auquaiy to which he gave the name of Vil-larica, from the great quantity of gold that hefound in its environs. In the mean time, havingreceived fresh reinforcements, he commenced hisinarch towards the s. still kept in view byliincoyan, whom timid caution constantly pre-vented from offering himself to his enemy.
5. The Clinches. — In this manner the Spanishcommander traversed, with little loss, the Avholeof Araucania from n. to s. ; but at his arrivalat the Calacalla, which separates the Arau-canians from the Cunches, he found the latter inarms determined to oppose his passage. Whilehe was deliberaling what measures to pursue, awiiman of the country, called Recloma, had theaddress to jiersuade the Cunchese general to fa-vour the strangers ; and without foreseeing theconsequences, he permitted them to pass unmo-lested. The Cunches form one of the most valiantnations of Chile : they inhabit that tract of countrywhich lies upon the sea, between the river Cala-ealla, at present called Valdivia, and the Archi-pelago of Chiloe. They are the allies of theAraiicanians, and mortal enemies to the Spaniards,and are divided into several tribes, which, likethose in the other parts of Chile, are governed bytheir respective uhnenes.
6. Valdivia founded. — The Spanish com-mander having passed the river with his troops,founded upon the southern shore the sixthcity, called Valdivia, being the first of theAmerican conquerors who sought in this man-ner to perpetuate his family name. This set-tlement, of which at present only the fortress re-mains, in a few years attained a considerable de-gree of celebrity, not only from the superior fine-ness of the golcl dug in its mines, which obtainedit the privilege of a mint, but from the excellenceof its harbour, one of the most secure and plea-sant in the S. sea. The river is very^ broad,and so deep, that ships of the line may anchorwithin a few feet of the shore ; it also forms seve-ral other harbours in the vicinity.
7. For tresses of Puren, Tucapel, and Araucobuilt. — Valdivia, satisfied with the conquests, orrather incursions, that he had made, turned back,and in repassing the provinces of I\iren, Tucapel,
and Arauco, built in each of them, in 1553, a for-tress, to secure the possession of tire others ; as hewell knew that from these provinces alone he hadto apprehend any attempt that might prove fatalto his settlements. Ercilla says, that in this expe-dition the Spaniards had to sustain many battleswith the natives ; which is highly probable, as thecontinuance of Lincoyan in command can on noother principle be accounted for. Without re-flecting upon the imprudence of occupying solarge an extent of country with so small a force,Vahlivia had the farther rashness, on his return toSantiago, to dispatch P'rancis de Aguirre, with200 men, to conquer the provinces of Cujo andTucuman, situated to the e. of the Andes.
8. Cilj/ of the Frontiers founded. — The Spanishgeneral, indefatigable in his plans of conquest, re-turned also himself to Araircania; and in theprovince of Encol founded the seventh and lastcity, in a country fertile in vines, and gave it thename of the City of the Frontiers. This name,from events which could not possibly have been inthe calculation of Valdivia, has become strictlyapplicable to its present state, as its ruins are, inreality, situated upon the confines of the Spanishsettlement in that part of Chile. It was a richand commercial city, and its wines were trans-ported to Buenos Ayres by a road over the cor-dilleras.
9. Three principal military offices instituted atConcepcion . — After having made suitable provi-sions for this colony, Valdivia returned to his fa-vourite city of Concepcion, where he institutedthe three principal military offices ; that of quar-ter-master-general, of serjeant-major, and of com-missary ; a regulation which has, till within a fewyears, prevailed in the royal army of Chile. Atpresent only two of these offices exist ; that of thequarter-master-general, who is also called the in-tendant, and resides in the city of Concepcion,and that of the serjeant-major.
10. The Toqui Caupolican. — The next toquiwho distinguished himself in the Araucanianwars, and who succeeded Lincoyan in command,was Caupolican ; he evinced a spirit of much en-terprise and cunning, and succeeded in drivingthe S])aniards from the forts of Arauco and Tuca-pel, which Avereby his orders completely destroyed.In a succeeding battle we find this commander,from the loss of a number of his men, flying inconfusion before the Spanish artillery, and suffer-ing all the horror and disgrace attendant upon anapparent defeat, when, in a momentous crisis, ayoung Araucanian, called Lautaro, whom Valdi-via in one of his incursions had taken prisoner,]
- fS7. Suppression of the tribunal o f audience. — In1575’ the tribunal of audience was* suppressed, asit is asserted, on the sole principle of economy, andRodrigo Quiroga was reinstated in the governmentby order of Philip II. This experienced olhcer,having received a reinforcement of 2000 men fromSpain, gave directions to his father-in-law, RuizGamboa, to found a new colony at the foot of thecordilleras, between the cities of Santiago andConcepcion, which has since received the appella-tion of Chilian, from the river on whose shore itstands, and has become the captial of the fertileprovince of that name. Shortly after the establish-ment of this settlement, in 1589, the governor diedat a very advanced age, having nominated Gamboaas his successor. The three years of Gamboa’sgovernment were occupied on one side in opposingthe attempts of Paynenancu, the then existingtoqui, and on the other in repelling the Pehuen-ches and Chiquillanians, Avho, instigated by theAraucanians, had begun to molest the Spanish set-tlements.
38. Description of the Pehuenches. — The Pe-huenches form a numerous tribe, and inhabit thatpart of the Chilian Andes lying between lat. 34°and 37° s. to the e. of the Spanish ])rovinces ofCalchagua, Maule, Chilian, and Huilquilemu.Their dress is no way difl’erent from that of theAraucanians, except that instead of drawers orbreeches, they Avear around the waist a piece ofcloth like the Japanese, which falls down to theirknees. Their boots or shoes are all ot one piece,and made from the skin of the hind leg of an oxtaken ofi’ at the knee ; this they fit to the foot whilegreen, turning the hair within, and sewing up oneof the ends, the skin of the knee serving for theheel. These shoes, from being Avorn, and oftenrubbed Avith tallow, become as soft and pliable asthe best dressed leather. Although these moun-taineers have occasionally shown themselves to bevaliant and hardy soldiers, they are neverthelessfond of adorning and decorating themselves likewomen. They wear ear-rings and bracelets ofglass beads upon their arms ; they also ornamenttheir hair with the same, and suspend little Ivellsaround their heads. Notwithstanding they havenumerous herds of cattle and sheep, tlieir usualfood is horse-flesh, which, like the Tartars, tlieyprefer to any other ; but, more delicate than thatpeople, they eat it only Avhen boiled or roasted.They dwell in the manner of the Redouin Arabs,in tents made of skins, disposed in a circular form,leaving in the centre a spacious field, where theircattle feed during the continuance of the herbage.When that begins to fail, they transjAort themselves
to another situation, and in this manner, continu-ally changing place, they traverse the valleys of thecordilleras. Each village or encampmeirt is go-verned by an ulmen or hereditary prince. Intheir language and religion they differ not from tlieAraucanians. They are fond of hunting, andoften, in pursuit of game, traverse the immenseplains Avhich lie between the great riv^r of Plataand the straits of Magellan. These excursions theysometimes extend as far as Buenos Ayres, andplunder the country in the vicinity. They fre-quently attack the caravans of merchandize goingfrom thence to Chile ; and so successful have theybeen in their enterprises, that, owing to that cause,the commerce in that quarter Avas once almost en-tirely stopped, though very lately resumed Avitli a to-lerable degree of A'igour. They have, nevertheless,for many years abstained from committing hostilitieswithin the Chilian boundaries in time of peace ;induced either by the advantages which they de-rive from the trade with the inhabitants, or fromthe fear of being roughly handled by them. Theirfavourite Aveapon is the laqve, Avhich they alwayscarry with them fastened to their girdles. It isvery probable that the ten Americans conductedby the valiant Orellana, of Avhose amazing couragemention is made in Lord Anson’s voyage, were ofthis tribe. Notwithstanding their wandering andrestless disposition, these people are the most in-dustrious and commercial of any of the savages.When in their tents they are never idle. The avo-men Aveave cloths of various colours : the menoccupy themselves in making baskets and a varietyof beautiful articles of Avood, feathers, or skins,Avhich are highly prized by their neighbours. Theyassemble every year on the Spanish frontiers, Avherethey hold a kind of fair, which usually conti-nues for 15 or 20 days. Hither they bring fos-sil salt, gypsum, pilch, bed-coverings, ponchos,skins, woo], bridle-reins beautifully wrought ofplaited leather, baskets, wooden vessels, feathers,ostrich eggs, horses, cattle, and a variety of otherarticles ; and receive in exchange wheat, Avine,and the manufactures of Europe. They are veryskilful in traffic, and can with difficulty be over-reached. Eor fear of being plundered by thosewho believe every thing is lawful against infidels,they never all drink at the same time, but separatetiiemsch'es into several companies ; and Avhilesomekeep guard, the others indulge themsehms in thepleasures of Avine. They are generally humane,complacent, lovers of justice, and possess all thosegood qualities that are produced or perfected bycommerce.
39. Description of the Chiquillanians. — The]3 I 2
[had been deserted for more than 40 years, wherethey intended to form an establishment in order toconquer the rest of the kingdom. With this viewthey immediately began building three strong fortsat the entrance of the river, in order to secure itspossession. The Araucanians were invited, withthe most flattering promises, to join them ; this theynot only declined, but strictly adhering to the sti-pulations of the treaty, refused to furnish them withprovisions, of which tliey were greatly in want.The Cunchese, to whom the territory which theyhad occupied belonged, following the counsel oftheir allies, refused also to treat with them or sup-ply them. In consequence of this refusal, theDutch, pressed with hunger, and hearing tliat acombined army of Spaniards and Araucanians wereon their march against them, were compelled toabandon the ])lace in three months aftertheir land-ing. The Marquis de Mancura, son to the vice-roy of Pern, having soon after arrived there insearch of them, with 10 ships of war, fortified theharbour, and particulary the island, which hassince borne the titular name of his family. Onthe termination of the sixth year of his govern-ment, Baydes was recalled by the court, and DonMartin IVluxica appointed in his place.
51. Dreadful earthquake.— lAa succeeded inpreserviiijr the kingdom in that state of tranquil-lity in which he found it, no other commotion oc-curring during his government, but that producedby a violent earthquake, which, on the 8th of May1617, destroyed part of the city of St. Jago.The fortune of his successor, Don vVntonio Acugna,was very dift'erent. During his government thewar was excited anew between the Spaniards andAraucanians ; but contemporary writers have leftus no accounts of the causes that produced it,Clentaru, the hereditaiy toqui of Lauquemapu,being, in 1655, unanimously elected general, sig-nalized his first campaign bj’ the total defeat ofthe Spanish army. He, moreover, continued topersecute the Spaniards with great violence for aperiod of 10 years, under the governments of DonPedro Portel Casanate, and Don Francisco Me-neses. The last, who was a Portuguese l)y birth,had the glory of terminating it, in 1665, by a peacemore permanent than that made by Baydes. Allthe succeeding governors appear to have kept upa good understanding witli the Araucanians untilthe year 1686, when Garro was nearly breaking it,on occasion of removing tlie inhabitants of theisland of Mocho to the ?z. shore of the Biobib,iti order to cut off all communication with foreignenemies.
^ 52. Commerce zeilh the French.~T\\Q com-
mencement of the present aera was marked in Chileby the deposition of the Governor Doi^ FranciscoIbanez, the rebellion of the inhabitants of Chiloe,and the trade with the French. The islandersof Chiloe were soon restored to obedience, throughthe prudent conduct of the quarter-master-generalof the kingdom, Don Pedro Molina, who succeededin reducing them rather by mild measures than byuseless victories. The French, in consequence ofthe war of the succession, possessed themselvesfor a time of all tlie external commerce of Chile.From 1707 to 1717, its ports were filled with theirships, and they carried from thence incrediblesums in gold and silver. It w as at this period thatthe learned F'ather Feuille, whoremained there threeyears, made his botanical researches and meteorolo-gical observations upon the coast. His amiable quali-ties obtained him the esteem of the inhai)itants, whostill cherish his memory with much affection. Itw'as in 1722 that the Araucanians, impatient atthe insolence of those who were designated by thetitle of captains of the friends ; and who having"'been introduced under pretence of guarding themissionaries, arrogated to themselves a species ofauthority over the natives, resolved to create atoqui, and have recourse to arms. A war in con-sequence ensued, but it soon became reduced tolittle skirmishes, which were finally terminated bytlie celebrated peace of Negrete, a place situatedat the confluence of the rivers Biobio and Lara,where the treaty of Quillan was reconfirmed, andthe odious title of captain of friends wholly abo-lished.
53. How the Pehuenches became inimical tothe Spaniards. Governor Gonzaga was thenext Avho excited the flames of war by endeavour-ing to effect more than his predecessors. He un-dertookto compel the Araucanians to live in cities.This chimerical scheme was ridiculed by thosewho knew the prejudices of tiiis people, and it wasfinally abandoned, not, however, till it had pro-cured another powerful, and for ever after impla-cable enemy to the Spaniards. Tiiis was no otherthan the Peliuenches, avIio being in the above warin alliance with (he Spaniards, and who sufiered aconsiderable defeat whilst fighting against theAraucanians, resolved all at once to'change sides,and have ever since been the firm allies of the lat-ter. They have a practice of attacking the Spa-nish caravans from Buenos Ayres to Chile, andevery year furnishes some melancholy inforinationof that kind. We shall not proceed particularlyto notice several actions, and among others abloody battle wdiich was fougiit in tlie beginning ofthe year 1773 ; mention of which was made in t1iel
[their masters, tliat the greatest punishment inflictedon them would be to sell them to others. Mastersnevertheless exercise the rights of fathers of fami-lies over their slaves, in correcting them for theirfaults.
12. Internal and external commerce, mines,imports, and exports. — The internal commerce ofChile has been hitherto of very little importance,notwithstanding the advantages that the countryoffers for its encouragement. Its principal source,industry, or more properly speaking, necessity, iswanting. An extensive commerce is correlativewith a great population, and in proportion as thelatter increases, the former will also be augmented.Hitherto it may be said, that of the two branchesthat in general give birth to commerce, agricultureand industry, the first is that alone which animatesthe internal: commerce of Chile, and even thatpart of the external which is carried on with Peru.The working of mines also occupies the attentionof many in the provinces of Copiapo, Coquimbo,and Quillota ; but the industry is so trifling thatit does not deserve the name. Notwithstanding theabundance of its fruits and materials of manufacture,as flax, wool, hemp, skins and metals, which mightproduce a flourishing commerce, it is conductedbut languidly. The’inhabitants employ themselvesonly in making ponchos, stockings, socks, carpets,blankets, skin-coats, saddles, hats, and other smallarticles chiefly made use of by the common orpoorer class of people, since those of the middlerank employ those of European manufacture.These, but more particularly the sale of hides andtanned leather, which they have in great plenty,with that of grain and wine, form the whole of theinternal commerce of the kingdom. The external,which is carried on with all the ports of Peru, par-ticularly Callao, arises from the exportation offruits ; this amounts to 700,000 dollars annually,according to the statements given in the periodicalpublications at Lima. The commerce betweenChile and Buenos Ayres is quite otherwise, sincefor the herb of Paraguaj/ dXone, it is obliged to ad-vance 300,000 dollars annually in cash ; theother articles received from thence are probablypaid for by those sent thither. In the trade withSpain, the fruits received from Chile go but a littleway in payment of more than a million of dollars,which are received from thence annually in Euro-pean goods, either directly, or by the way ofBuenos Ayres, and sometimes from Lima. Gold,silver, and copper, are the articles which formnearly the whole of this commerce, since the hidesand vicuna wool are in such small quantities as torender them of little importance.
Notwithstanding theworkingofthe mines in Chilehas in a great measure been relinquished from theex-pence,and from the impediments offered by the war-like spirit of the Araucanians, there are more than athousand now in work between the cities of Co-quimbo and Copiapo, besides those of the provinceof Aconcagua ; and it is a matter of fact that theproduce of its mines has been increasing eversince that the passage into the S. sea by cape Hornwas frequented by the Spanish merchants. Thegold coined in the capital was lately regulated at5200 marks annually ; but the present yearly pro-duce of the mines, as calculated from the amountsof the royal duties, and therefore considerablyunder the truth, amounts to 10,000 Spanish marksof pure gold, and 29,700 do. of pure silver. Thevalue in dollars of both is 1,737,380; the goldbeing estimated at 145i*#^ dollars, and the silverat 9 t'V dollars the Spanish mark. Besides^ this, wemust add for contraband 322,620 dollars ; andthe total produce will then be 2,060,000. Accord-ing to liumboldt, the dollars imported into Chileand Peru in 1803 amounted to 11,500,000, andthe exports consisted of produce to the value of4,000,000 dollars, besides 8,000,000 dollars inspecie. The receipts of Chile, Guatemala, and Ca-racas, are consumed within the country. The re-mittances of gold and silver to Spain are usuallymade from Buenos Ayres ; the first being lessbulky, is carried by the monthly packets insums of 2 or 3000 ounces ; as to the second,it has, till within a very late period, been sent intwo convoy ships in the summer, by which con-veyances gold is also remitted. The copper whichis extracted from the mines is estimated from 8to 10,000 quintals. From these data it will notbe difficult to form a general estimate of all thatChile produces annually. A communication bywater, which greatly facilitates the progress ofcommerce, has been already commenced. In se-veral of the ports, barks are employed in the trans-portation of merchandize, which was before carriedby land upon mules. Several large ships havealso been built in the harbour of Concepcion andthe mouth of the river Maule. The external com-merce is carried on with Peru and Spain. In thefirst, 23 or 24 ships, of 5 or 600 tons each, are em-ployed, which are partly Chilian and partly Peru-vian. These usually make three voyages in ayear; they carry from Chile wheat, wine, pulse,almonds, nuts, cocoa-nuts, conserves, dried meat,tallow, lard, cheese, sole-leather, timber for build-ing, copper, and a variety of other articles, andbring back in return silver, sugar, rice and cotton.The Spanish ships receive in exchange for Euro-1
rdistinguished for being very sure-footed and active.The horned cattle have, through the favourabletemperature of the climate, acquired a larger size,while their flesh has become better and more nu-tritive ; the sheep imported from Spain retain awool as beautiful as that of the best Spanish sheep,each sheep yielding annually from 10 to 15 lbs. ofwool ; they breed twice a-year, and have gene-rally two at a birth. The common price of cattlethroughout the country is from three to fourfilippi (fifteen or twenty francs), but in the sea-ports the price is fixed by an ancient regulation,at 10 crowns ; of which the commandant of theport receives four, and the owner six.
The different kinds of trees known in Chileamount to 97, and of these only 13 shed theirleaves : amongst the plants, there are 3000 notmentioned in botanical works. _The melons hereare, according to Molina, three feet long, and theonly fruits unknown are medlars, service apples,three-grained medlar, and the jujubre. Of theindigenous worms, insects, &c. are 36 species,andthetunicated cuttle-fish found here is of 150 lbs.weight. There are 13 species of crabs and craw-fish found on the sea-coast, and four species in thefresh waters. There are 135 species ofland-birds,and of quadrupeds 36, without those imported.The various kinds of esculent fish found upon thecoast are computed by the fishermen at 76, the mostof them differing from those of the n. hemisphere,and appearing to be peculiar to that sea.
Amongst the earths of this country is a claythought to be very analogous to kaolin of theChinese ; another kind called roro, producing anexcellent black dye, and represented by Feuilleand Frazier as superior to the best Europeanblacks. The membraneous mica^ otherwise Mus-covy grass, is also found here in the greatest per-fection, both as respects its transparency and thesize of its laminae ; of this substance the countrypeople manufacture artificial flowers, and like theRussians, make use of it for glazing their houses.The thin plates which are used for windows are bymany preferred to glass, from their being pliableand less fragile, and possessing what appears to bea peculiar property, of freely admitting the lightand a view of external objects to those within,while persons without are prevented from seeingany thing in the house.
22. Present revolution. — In Chile, the autho-rity of the mother country has been supersededby the aristocracy of the colony. The govern-ment has fallen, peaceably and without resistance,into the hands of the great Creole families, whoseem hitherto to have used their power with tem-per and moderation. See La PijAta.]
[CHILHOWEE, mountain, in the s. e. partof the state of Tennessee, and between it and theCherokee country.]
CHILINTOMO, a mountain of the provinceand government of Guayaquil in the kingdom ofQuito ; inhabited by some Indians, who, althoughreduced to the Catholic faith, are nevertheless ofsuch vile habits as constantly to manifest howdeeply idolatry is rooted in them.
[CHILISQUAQUE, a township on Susque-hannah river, in Pennsylvania.]
[CHILLAKOTHE, an Indian town]on theGreat Miami, which was destroyed in 1782 by abody of militia from Kentucky. General Harmarsupposes this to be the “ English Tawixtwi,” inH utchins’s map. Here are the ruins of an old fort,and on both sides of the river are extensive mea-dows. This name is applied to many differentplaces, in honour of an influential chief who for-merly headed the Shawanoes. See Tawixtwi.]
[Chillakothe, Old, is an Indian town des-troyed by the forces of the United States in 1780.It lies about three miles s. of Little Mimia river jthe country in its vicinity is of a rich soil, and isbeautifully chequered with meadows.]
C H O
C H O
down from the mountains to the jy. of the RachcsIndians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. untilit enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix,opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto,which lies to the s.
CHOPO, a settlement of the government andjurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a very mild climate, andabounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and manysorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branchof its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them forsale to the capital, which lies at a small distancefrom hence, in the road leading to M6rida andGibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost asmany indigent settlers.
[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are threemiles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]
CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians,of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwellingimmediately upon the mountains and forests ofFosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitchtheir huts near the river Bermejo. But little isknown of their customs and of their country.
CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plainsor llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touchingtoAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogo-les, and extending n. as far as the mountains ofthe Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They areat present reduced to the Catholic religion, and aremixed with those of other nations ; but some fewof them still persist in their idolatry, and livedispersed upon the mountains.
[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres, near a small lakeabout 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35°33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]
[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, thoughonly two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth.It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions,in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they foundits temperature to be intensely sultry.]