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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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(country of the Iroquees Indians. It is handsomeand well built, on the margin of the river of thesame name, about 12 or 15 miles s. w. from Mont-real, and n. of St. John’s fort. It was taken bythe Americans, Oct. 20, 1775, and retaken by theBritish, Jan. 18, 1776. Lat. 45° 26' w.)

CHAMBO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom ofQuito.

Chambo, a very large river, which rises nearthe former settlement, and runs with such rapiditythat it cannot be forded ; is consequently passedover by means of various bridges made of osiers.

CHAME, a settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Natá in the province and kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near a river, and two leagues fromthe coast of the S. sea. It produces maize, plan-tains, and other fruits ; swine, fowl, turkeys, andother birds, with which it supplies, by means ofcanoes, the markets of the city of Panama, fromwhence it is nine leagues distant.

CHAMELUCON, or Chamaleton, a river ofthe province and government of Honduras. Itruns n. and enters the sea in the gulf of this name,between La Caldera and the river Ulua.

CHAMETLA, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Guajuaha in Nueva España. It con-tains ISO families of Indians.

CHAMETLAN, a province and alcaldia mayorof Nueva España, also called Del Rosario ; bound-ed n. by the province of Culiacan, s. by that of Xa-lisco or Sentipac, e. and n. e. by that of Zacate-cas and Nueva Galicia, and w. by the S. sea ; is30 leagues long from e. to w. and 25 wide n. s. ;is of, a very hot temperature, and the greater partof it is a mountainous and rugged country, abound-ing in. noxious animals and insects, and on thisaccount uninhabitable in the summer and in therainy season. It was conquered by Don Juan deIbarra in 1554, has many mines of silver and gold,which were formerly worked, but which at presentare all abandoned, as well from their having filledwith water, as from the scantiness of the means ofthe inhabitants to work them. The royal mines,however, are productive of some emolument, andare in fafct the support of the place. It producessome maize, and much tobacco , and cotton, towhich article the soil is exactly suited, though notso to wheat, which yields here but sparingly. Onthe banks of the lakes formed by the sea, is left athick incrustation of salt in the month of April ;and although the inhabitants spare no pains to col-lect this valuable commodity, yet abundance of itis lost from the Avant of hands to collect it ere theheats come on, when it very quickly disappears.

Some large cattle are bred here. It is very badlypeopled, or, to speak more truly, it is as it weredesert, having only three settlements and someestates. It is irrigated by a river which flowsdown from the sierra Madre, and passes throughthe capital, the waters of which are made usefulfor the working of the mines. The same river entersthe sea two leagues from the settlement of Chamet-lan, and has abundance of fish, which are caughtwith ease, as well upon its shores as in marsheswhich it forms. Tlie capital, which is the resi-dence of the alcalde mayor, is the real del Ro-sario.

Chametlan, a settlement of the former alcaldíamayor ; from thence taking its name. It containsonly five or six Indians, and some Spaniards, Mus-tees, and Mulattoes, who, the greater part of theyear, live in the estates which they have for thebreeding of large cattle, and on the farms for thecultivation of maize and cotton.

CHAMESA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; annexed to the curacy of Nopsa. Itis of a cold temperature, and produces the fruitscorresponding to such a climate, particularlywheat, which is of the best quality. It contains100 Avhite inhabitants, and as many Indians, andis a little more than eight leagues from its ca-pital.

CHAMI, San Juan de, a settlement of theprovince and government of Chocó ; situate in thedistrict of Thatama, near the ruins of the city ofSan Juan de Rodas, to the w. of the city of San-tiago de Arma.

CHAMIANOS, a settlement of the provinceand government of Mainas in the kingdom ofQuito; situate on the shore of the river Gual-laga.

CHAMICUROS, S. Francisco Xavier de,a settlement of the missions which were held by theregulars of the company of Jesuits, in the provinceand government of Mainas, of the kingdom ofQuito ; founded in 1670 by the Father LorenzoLucero. '

CHAMILPA, San Lorenzo de, a settlementof the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuer-navaca in Nueva España.

CHAMPANCHIN, Sierra de, a chain ofmountains in the province and government of Tu-cumán, running s, s.e. on the shore of the riverQuarto.

(CHAMPLAIN,a township, the most n. in Clin-ton county, New York, which takes its name fromthe lake on which it lies. It was granted to someCanadian and Nova Scotia refugees, who were

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either in the service of the United States duringthe war, or fled to them for protection. The in-digence or ill habits of these people occasioned thebreaking up of the settlement, and a better sort ofinhabitants have now taken their place. The landsare fertile, and two rivers run through it, wellstored with fish. It has 575 inhabitants, and threeslaves. By the state census of 1796, 76 of the in-habitants are electors.)

CHAMPLAIN, a lake of the same province, ofmore than 20 leagues in length, and from 10 to12 in width, abounding in excellent fish. It wasdiscovered in 1609 by a French gentleman of tliename of Champlain, who gave it his name, whichit still retains. It communicates with a smallerlake called Sacrament, and the canal passing fromone side to the other of these is extremely rapidanddangerous, from the inequality of its bottom. Atthe distance of 25 leagues to the s, are some verylofty mountains, which are covered with snow, andin which are found castors and a variety 'of ani-mals of the chase; and between these mountainsand the aforesaid lake are some beautiful levelmeadows or llanuras^ which, when first discover-ed, were well peopled with Iroquees Indians ; butthese have greatly diminished in numbers, throughthe continual wars Avith the French and English.[This lake is next in size to lake Ontario, and liese. n. €. from it, forming a part of the dividing linebetween the states of New York and Vermont. Ittook its name from a French governor, who wasdrowned in it; it was before called Corlaer’s lake.Reckoning its length from Fairhaven to St.John’s,a course nearly n. it is about 200 miles ; its breadthis from one to 18 miles, being very different in diffe-rent places ; the mean width is about five miles, andit occupies about 500,000 acres ; its depth is suf-ficient for the largest vessels. There are in it abovesixty islands of different sizes : the most consider-able are North and South Hero and Motte island.North Hero, or Grand isle, is 24 miles long, andfrom two to four wide. It receives at Ticonderogathe waters of lake George from the s. s. w. whichis said to be 100 feet higher than the waters of thislake. Half the rivers and streams which rise inVermont fall into it. There are several which cometo it from New York state, and some from Cana-da ; to which last it sends its own waters a n.course, through Sorell or Chamblee river, into theSt. Lawrence. This lake is well stored with fish,particularly salmon, salmon trout, sturgeon, andpickerel, and the land on its borders, and on thebanks of its rivers, is good. The rocks in severalplaces appear to be marked and stained with theformer surface of the lake, many feet higher than

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it has been since its discovery in 160S. The wa-ters generally rise from about the 20th of April tothe 20th of June, from four to six feet ; the great-est variation is not more than eight feet. It is sel-dom entirely shut up Avith ice until the middle ofJanuary, Between the 6th and 15th of April theice generally goes off, and it is not uncomtiAon formany square miles of it to disappear in one day.]

CHAMPLE, a large unpeopled tract of theprovince of Taraumara, and kingdom of NuevaVizcaya, in which there is a mountain aboundinggreatly in silver mines. Here is also a missionAvhicli Avas established by the regulars of the com-pany for the reduction of the natives : is 12leagues n. e. of the town of Santa Eulalia.

CHAMPOTON, a river of the province andgovernment of Jucatan. It runs into the sea nearthe lake of Tenninas.

CHAMUINA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Costarica in the kingdom of Guate-mala. It empties itself into the S. sea near the li-mits of this jurisdiction, and of that of Chiriqui inthe kingdom of Tierra Firme.

CHAMULA, a settlement of the province andalcaldía mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Gua-temala.

CHANAR-PUGIO, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tucumán, in the district andjurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, andeight leagues from the same.

CHANCAILLO, a small port of the S. sea, inthe province and corregimiento of Chancay, tothe n. of Lima ; little frequented, from lying ex-posed, and being insecure. In lat. 12° 3' 5.

CHANCAY, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Peru ; bounded n. by that of San-ta ; n. e. and n. by that of Caxatambo ; e. by thatof Cauta; and s. by the corregimiento of Cercado.It is 27 leagues in length from n. to s. and thesame in width e. w. and has on its coast some portsand creeks not remarkable for their security. Itcomprehends in its district two territories, one ofa cold temperature toAvards the cordillera, calledDe los Checras; and another of a warm tempera-ture, lying in the valleys towards the sea, calledDe Chancay. It is irrigated by two rivers, oneon the s. side, called Pasamayo, and the otherHuama, on the n. The latter has an arched bridge,which was built in the time of the viceroy, theMarquis de Montes Claros, the buttresses of whichare two rocks, through which the river passes.On the e. and in the cold part of this province,are found the productions peculiar to the cli-mate, such as papas, ocas, and some wheat andmaize. Here are also cattle, ot the fleeces of which

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wreck, and amongst these many valuables of goldand silver, which had grown quite discoloured, tothe amount of 40,000 dollars. Lat. 2°2l' s.

CHANEL, some islands near the coast of thecountry of Labrador, in the gulf of St. Lawrence.They are numerous and very small, one of thembeing very long and narrow ; forming a channelwith the coast, and giving its name to the rest.

CHANESES, a barbarous nation of Indians, ofthe province and government of Paraguay ; dwell-ing to the n. of the Rio de la Plata, and boundedby the Xarayes and Xacoces. They have theirhouses near the lakes, and maintain themselves byfishing.

CHANGAME, some small islands of the S. sea,and of the bay of Panamá, in the province and go-vernment of Tierra Firme. They are two in num-ber, being situate near the coast, and having be-tween them a shallow or quicksand, by which theyare communicated. They abound in a species ofbirds, from which they take their name.

CHANGO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Chacayan.

CHANQUI, or Achanqui, a promontory orcape of the province and corregimiento of Valdiviain the kingdom of Chile ; being eight leagues tothe s. of San Marcelo. It forms and covers themouth or entrance of the gulf of Los Coronados,with the other cape, which is to thes. called De laBallena.

CHANTACO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito,to the w. of Chuquri-bamba, and to the s. of SanPedro, consists entirely of Indians, and lies uponthe bank of a small river, being of an excellentclimate.

CHANTALI, a settlement of the province andgovernment of aen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the river ofits name.

CHANUSSI, a river of the country of Las Ama-zonas, which runs from c. to w. through the woodslying towards the w. and enters the Guallaga onits ^ sido

CHANXEWATER, an English settlement inthe province and colony of New York ; situatenear the e. arm of the river Delaware.

CHAO, Farallones de, two small islands ofthe S. sea, near the coast of the province and cor-regimiento of Truxillo in Peru.

Chao, Morro de, a mountain of the coast ofthe same corregimiento.

CHAPA, Puerto de, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucumán, in the juris-

diction of the city of Cordoba ; situate near therivers Segundo and Tercero, at the foot of theMontana Nevada, or Snowy mountain.

CHAPACOTO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom ofQuito ; situate at the skirt of the Gran Cuesta, ormountain of San Antonio. Through it passes asmall river, which runs down from this mountain,and empties itself in the river of Chimbo ; is of avery cold temperature, and lies in the middle of awood. Lat. l°40's.

CHAPADA, Sierra, mountains of the king-dom of Brazil, in the province and captainshipof Todos Santos. They run from e. to w. untilthey reach nearly as far as the coast.

CHAPALA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlan inNueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the greatlake or sea of this name ; has a good convent ofthe monks of St. Francis, and in its valley, whichis very fertile, there is an abundance of all kinds ofseed, as wheat, maize, French beans, and many de-licious fruits.

Chapala, another settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Zaiula in the same kingdom ; situate ina plain of a mild temperature. It contains 42 fa-milies of Indians, who trade in seeds and otherfruits, since its district abounds in garden grounds.It has a convent of the religious of St. Francis ;lies 22 leagues between the e. and n. of its capital.

Chapala, a great lake of the kingdom ofNueva Galicia, called Mar de Chapala, on ac-count of its size, is navigated by many vessels,and is extremely well stocked with fish ; fromwhich the inhabitants of the immediate settlementsderive their source of commerce.

CHAPAMARCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Loxa, in the kingdom ofQuito; situate to the s. of the capital.

CHAPANCHICA. See Madrigal.

CHAPARE, or Parati, a river of the provinceand government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Itrises in the serrania of the Altos or Lofts of Inti-nuyo, from two small rivers which unite ; runs inan inclined course to the e. and enters the Mar-more Grande, forming a good port.

CHAPARIPARI, a river of the province andgovernment of Cumaná, runs e. and enters thesea in the gulf of Triste.

CHAPARRA, Valle de, a valley of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Cumaná in Peru ; inthe vicinity of which is a mine abounding in ametal called chumillo.

CHAPARRAL, a small settlement of the cor-regimiento of Coyaima in the Nuevo Reyno de

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Granada ; situate in a beautiful and delightfulcountry. Its temperature is hot, it abounds incacao, maize, yucas, and plantains, and has someneat cattle and gold mines. The inhabitantsamount to 100 families, and it is annexed to thecuracy of its capital.

(CHAPEL Hill, a post-town in Orangecounty, N. Carolina ; situated on a branch of New-hope creek, which empties into the n.w. branch ofCape Fear river. This is the spot chosen for theseat of the university of N. Carolina. Few housesare as yet erected ; but a part of the public build-ings were in such forwardness, that students Avereadmitted, and education commenced, in January1796. The beautiful and elevated site of thistown commands a pleasing and extensive view ofthe surrounding country : 12 miles s. by e. ofHillsborough, and 472 s.w. of Philadelphia.Lat. 35° 56' n. Long. 79° 2' w.)

CHAPEU, Morro del, or Del Sombero, amountain of the kingdom of Brazil, between therivers Preto and Tocantines, close to the goldmines of La Navidad.

CHAPIGANA, a fort of the province and go-vernment of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme,built upon a long strip of land, or point, formedby the great river of Tuira. There is also a smallfort of the same name in a little gulf, and nearlyclosed at the entrance, behind the fort of San Mi-guel, in the S. sea.

CHAPIMARCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Ancobamba.

CHAPUARE, a river of the province and go-vernment of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito, risesin the mountains of Cacao, which are upon theshore of the river Madera ; runs w. forming acurve, and enters the latter river, just where theYtenes and Marmore also become united.

CHAPULTENANGO, a settlement of theprovince and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques inthe kingdom of Guatemala.

CHAPULTEPEC, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Corjoacan in Nueva España ; situate onthe skirt of a mountainous eminence, on which arethe castle and palace Avhich were the residence ofthe viceroys until they made their public entriesinto Mexico. Here are beautiful saloons andcharming gardens, bedecked with all sorts of deli-cate flowers ; also a wood of branching savins,which was filled Avith stags and rabbits, and anabundant supply of water to render the soil fertile ;although, independently of a large and deep pool,it is also intersected by several streams, which,through canals, are carried to supply the s. part of

the city of Mexico. Its inhabitants amount to 40families of Indians, in the district of the parish ofa convent of St. Francis, with certain families ofSpaniards and Mustecs, embodied with the parishof Vera Cruz of Mexico ; from Avheuce this is dis-tant one league to the w. s.w.

Chapultepec, with the dedicatory title of SanJuan, another settlement of the district and headsettlement of Tlacoluca, and alcaldia mayor ofXalapa, in the same kingdom ; founded betweenfour mountains, the skirts of Avhich form a circleround it. It contains 100 families of Indians, in-cluding those of the settlement of Paztepec, closeto it. Although its population was formerlythought to amount to 500 families, no cause canbe assigned for the present diminution ; notAvith-standing the elder people affirm, that this is a judg-ment of God for their having caused so many sor-rows and anxieties to the poor curate, who hadlaboured so hard and with such zeal to convertthem from their idolatry : certain it is, they arenow extremely humble and docile. It is tAvo leaguesn. e. of its capital.

Chapultepec, another, with the same dedica-tory title of San Juan, in the head settlement of thetown of Marquesado, and alcaldia mayor of QuatroVillas. It contains 25 families of Indians, Avhooccupy themselves in the cultivation of cochineal,wheat, maize, fruits, woods, coal, lime-stone, andtimber. It is a little more than a mile to the s. u\of its capital.

Chapultepec, another, with the dedicatorytitle of San Miguel, in the head settlement andalcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca,

Chapultepec another, with the same dedica-tory title as the former, in the head settlement andalcaldia mayor of Metepéc. It contains 168 fami-lies of Indians.

CHAPULUACAN, a settlement of the jurisdic-tion and alcaldia mayor of Valles in Nueva Es-pana ; situate on the skirt of a very lofty sierra ;is of a mild temperature, and produces maize, cot-ton, bees-Avax, and honey, and large cattle. It isannexed to the curacy of Tamzunchale, contains58 families of Indians, and lies 38 leagues from itscapital.

Chapuluacan, another settlement of the headsettlement of Colotlán, and alcaldia mayor of Mex-titlan, in Nueva Espana, contains 140 families ofIndians, and is two leagues from its head settlement.

CHAQUI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacyof its capital.

Chaqui, another settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Porco in the same kingdom.

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CHAQUIMINAS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Asangaro in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Sandia in the province of Ca-rabaya.

CHARABAYE, a settlement of the provinceand government of Venezuela ; situate on the shoreof a river in the district of the city of Caracas, andto the e. of the town of Victoria.

CHARACATO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. In itschurch is a miraculous image of Nuestra Senorade la Purificacion or Candelaria, to which singulardevotion is paid.

CHARAI, a settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Cinaloa ; situate on the shore ofa river of the fort which lies between the settle-ments of Ziribijoa and Mochicauchi.

(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)

CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement ofMongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced)annexed to the curacy of the same. Its tempera-ture is mild, and abounds in pure good water, andin the productions of a hot climate.

CHARANDO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Guimeo, and alcaldia mayor of Cirandaro,in Nueva Espafia ; annexed to the curacy of Turi-cato.

CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ;situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, fromwhence its temperature is so cold that it is seldomany crops can be gathered from the seeds that aresown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 inthe wards of its district, and a convent of the reli-gious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settle-ment.

CHARAPE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito.

CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district ofPuerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in thekingdom of Quito, at a small distance from thesea-coast and bay of its name ; this title beingalso applied to the point which forms the samebay.

CHARAZANI, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina,which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. Thewhole of it abounds in cataracts, and its watersthrow up immense quantities of coal, which wasthe cause of its being thus named.

CHARCA, a settlement of the province and

corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Sacaca.

CHARCANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru.

CHARCAS, an extensive province of the king-dom of Peru, composed of various others. Its ju-risdiction comprehends the district of this royalaudience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the cor-regimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, andextends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It isbounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian servingas a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregi-miento of Atacama, which is of its district, andforms the most n. part of this province in that di-rection, and being closed in on its other sides bythe kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, in-cluding the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . :is in many parts very thinly peopled, and coveredwith large desert tracts, and rugged and impene-trable mountains, and again by the elevated cordil-leras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras orpampas, which serve to mark its size and the relativedistances of its territories. Its temperature through-out is extremely cold, although there are not want-ing parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At thetime that this province was in the possession of theIndians, and previous to the entrance of the Spa-niards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointlyunder the name of Charcas ; and the conquest ofthese was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui,fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the ter-ritory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Hereit was that his conquests terminated : nor did thesubjection of these parts extend farther than Col-laysuyo until after his death, when he was suc-ceeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor,who carried on still farther the victories which hadbeen already gained, conquering all the nations asfar on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwardsfounded the city of this name, called also La Plata.After that the Spaniards had reduced that part ofPeru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and thatthe civil wars and dissensions which existed be-tween these were at an end, they endeavoured tofollow up their enterprise by making a conquest ofthe most distant nations. To this end, in 1538,Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force,and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues,found in them such a spirited opposition, that afterseveral battles he was brought to think this objectwas nearly impracticable : this idea was strength-ened by the reception he had met with from theChuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given himconvincing proofs of their valour and warlikespirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just

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at that critical moment received fresh succours,that were sent from Cuzco by his brother the Mar-quis Don Francisco Pizarro, he would have fallena sacrifice, with the whole of the Spanish army, tothat undertaking : but being invigorated by thisassistance, he succeeded in routing the Indians,and in obliging them to surrender to the Spanishgovernment. In 1539 the Marquis Don Fran-cisco Pizarro, seeing the importance of making anestablishment here, resolved upon building of atown, giving a commission to Captain Pedro Au-zures to execute the same. This person actuallyput into effect the plan suggested, founding thetown in exactly the same spot in which formerlystood the settlement of Chuquisaca. Here manyof its conquerors settled and became citizens, andthey gave it the name of La Plata, or Silver, fromsome mines of this metal which are found in themountain of Porco, which lies at a small distancefrom this city, and from which the Inca Emperorswere accustomed to extract immense emolument.Notwithstanding this name it has never lost itsoriginal title, Chuquisaca, although indeed it isbadly pronounced by the Spaniards ; since the In-dians, and with great propriety, will have it Cho-quezaca, Choquechaca, or Choquisacha; all ofwhich, however pronounced, signify, the first,moun-tains of gold ; the second, cunchos of gold, orfields of brambles with yellow twigs ; and the third,bridges of gold. Although this province is exten-sive, it is composed of various others, which weshall notice under their proper heads. This keepsits present name, from being the one of all theothers the most abounding in minerals, seeds, andcattle ; as well as being the one best peopled withIndians. It is watered by many large rivers ; andthe whole of it composes an archbishopric, towhich arc suffragan the bishoprics of La Paz,Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Tucuman, Paraguay,and Buenos Ayres. It belongs to the viceroyaltyof this latter place since the time that this waserected, and that the government was entrusted tothe royal audience established in 1559. The afore-said district comprehends in its jurisdiction allthe following provinces and corregimientos :Tomino, Cochabamba,

Porco, Chayanta,

Tarija, Paria,

Lipes, Carangas,

Amparaez, Cicasica,

Oruro, Atacama ;

Pilaya,

In which are contained 188 settlements and cura-cies, in which there were in 1651 about 100,000Indians. The capital of the whole jurisdiction is

the aforesaid city of Chuquisaca or La Plata. —[Charcas joined the new government of BuenosAyres in 1810. See La Plata,]

Those who have been Presidents in the RoyalAudience of Charcas.

1. The Licentiate Pedro Ramirez de Quinones,first president, in 1559.

2. The Licentiate Juan de Matienzo, a cele-brated jurisconsult, in 1580.

3. The Licentiate Zepeda, in 1588.

4. The Licentiate Alonso Maldonado de Torres,in 1606.

5. Don Juan de Lizarazu, knight of the orderof Santiago ; he passed over to the presidency ofQuito in 1612.

6. Don Diego de Portugal, in 1614.

7. Don Alonzo Perez de Salazar, who was pre-sident of Quito, and was promoted to this, wherehe governed until the year 1620.

8. Don Juan de Caravajal y Sande, promotedin 1633.

9. Don Dionisio Perez Manrique, knight ofthe order of Santiago, collegiate in the collegeof Los Manriques de Alcala, rector of the uni-versity there, oidor of Lima, and president ofQuito, from whence he was removed to be pre-sident of this audience of Charcas in 1646 ; whence,having exercised it till 1654, he was removed tothat of Santa Fe.

10. Don Pedro Vazquez de Velasco, who pre-sided until the year 1661.

11. Don Bartolome Gonzalez de Poveda, pro-moted in 1678 ; he was made archbishop of theholy church of Charcas, remaining in the presi-dency until 1688.

12. Don Diego Mesia, native of Lima, oidor ofits royal audience, and formerly of that of Quito ;he was promoted to the presidency of Charcas in1688.

13. Don Jorge Manrique de Lara, who wasoidor of Panama, afterwards of Charcas, as alsopresident.

14. Don Gabriel Antonio Matienzo, president in1723.

15. Don Francisco de Herboso, who was ap-pointed in 1725, and presided until 1732.

16. Don Agustin de Jauregui, knight of theorder of Santiago, and native of Lima.

17. Don Juan Francisco Pestana, adjutant-major of the regiment of Spanish guards ; he wasnominated in 1752, and presided until 1769.

18. Don Ambrosio de Benavides, who enteredin the above year, and presided until 1777.

19. Don Agustin de Pinedo, who succeededthe former, and governed until 1782.

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and pleasantly situated. Before the deslrnction oftil is town by the British in 1775, several brandiesof mannfadures were carried on to great advan-tage, some of which have been since revived : par-ticularly tlic manufacture of pot and pearl ashes,ship-building, rum, leather in all its branches,silver, tin, brass, and pewter. Three rope-walkshave lately been erected in this town, and tlie in-crease of its houses, population, trade, and naviga-tion, have been very great within a few' years past.This town is a port of entry in conjunction withBoston. At the head of the neck there is a bridgeover Mystic river, which connects Charlestown withMalden.)

CHARLESTOWN, another city of the island ofNevis, one of the Caribes, in the Antilles ; in w Inchthere are beautiful houses and shops well providedwith every thing ; is defended by a fort calledCharles. It has a market every Saturday, begin-ning at sun-rise and finishing at mid-day, whitherthe Negroes bring 'maize, names, garden-herbs,fruits, &c. In the parish of San Juan is a pieceof sulphureous land, in the upper extremity of anopening of the land, called Solfatara, or Sulphurgut, which is so hot as to be telt through the solesof the shoes when being trodden upon. At thefoot of the declivity of this same part of the city,is a small hot stream, called the Bath, which beingsupposed to rise from the aforesaid spot, loses itselfshortly in the sand. Towards the side lying nextthe sea are two fountains, one of hot water, theother of cold, and of these two are formed the lakeof Blackrock, the waters of which are of a moderatewarmth, and which lies to the n. of the city, beingnearly a quarter of a mile’s distance from the placewhere are caught eels and silver-fish, resemblingthe cod and slimgut in flavour, the latter of whichlias a head disproportioned to its body. [A prodi-gious piece ol Nevis mountain falling down in anearthquake several years ago, left a large vacuity,which is still to be seen. The altitude of thismountain, taken by a quadrant from Charlestownbay, is said to be a mile and a half perpendicular ;and from the said bay to the top, four miles. Thedeclivity from this mountain to the town is verysteep half-way, but afterwards easy of ascent.] InLat. 17° 8' u. and long. 62° 40' w.

Charlestown, another city of the island ofBarbadoes ; the situation of which is two leaguesfrom that of San Miguel. It has a good port de-fended by two castles ; the one beyoml the other,and both commanding the city and the road: inthe middle of them is a platform. Tlse inhabitantscarry on a great trade with the other islands.

(CHARLESTOWN, a township in Montgomery

county. New York, on the s. side of Mohawk river,about 32 miles w. of Schenectady. By the statecensus of 1796, 456 of the inhabitants are elec-tors.)

(Charlestown, a township in Mason county,Kentucky ; situate on the Ohio, at the mouth ofLauren’s creek. It contains but few houses, andis six miles n. of Washington, and 60 n. e. of Lex-ington. Lat. 38° 28' n.)

(Charlestown, a township in Chester county,Pennsylvania.)

(Charlestown, a post town in Cheshire county,New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecticutriver, 30 miles s. of Dartmouth college, upwards of70 n. of Northampton, 116 n. of w. of Boston, 120w. by 71. of Portsmouth, and 431 n. n. e. of Phila-delphia. It was incorporated in 1753, and con-tains 90 or 100 houses, a Congregational church,a court-house, and an academy. The road fromBoston to Quebec passes through this town. Lat.43° 16' n. Long. 72° 23' w. A small internaltrade is carried on here.)

(Charlestown, a post town in Cecil county,Maryland, near the head of Chesapeak bay ; sixmites e. n. e. from the mouth of Susquehannahriver, 10 zo. s. w. from Elktown, and 50 s. w. by zb.from Philadelphia. Here are about 20 houses,chiefly inhabited by fishermen employed in theherring fishery. Lat. 39° 36' w.)

(Charlestown, a district in the lower countryof S. Carolina, subdivided into 14 parishes. Thislarge district, of which the city of Charleston is thechief town, lies between Santee and Combaheerivers. It pays 21,473/. 14s. 6d. sterling, taxes. Itsends to the state legislature 48 representatives and13 senators, and one member to congress. It con-tains 66,986 inhabitants, of whom only 16,352 arefree.)

(Charlestown, a village in Berkley county,Virginia ; situate on the great road leading fromPhiladelphia to Winchester ; eight miles fromShepherdstown, and 20 from Winchester.)

(Charlestown, a township in Washingtoncounty, Rhode Island state, having the Atlanticocean on the s. and separated from Richmond on the71. by Charles river, a water of Fawcatiick. Some ofits ponds empty into Fawcatiick river, otliers intothe sea. It is 19 miles /L ti:;. of Newport, andcontains 2022 inhabitants, including 12 slaves. Afew years ago there w'ere about 500 Indians in thestate ; the greater part of them resided in tin's town-ship. They are peaceable and well disposed togovernment, and s|5cak the English language.)

CHARLETON, an island situate near the e.coast of the country of Labrador, in the part of N.

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America called New South Wales. Its territoryconsists of a white dry sand, and it is covered withsmall trees and shrubs. This island has a beauti-ful appearance in the spring to those Avho discoverit after a voyage of three or four months, and afterhaving seen nothing but a multitude of mountainscovered with frost, which lie in the bay, and in thestrait of Hudson, and which are rocks petrifiedwith eternal ice. This island appears at that sea-son as though it were one heap of verdure. Theair at the bottom of the bay, although in 51“ of hit.and nearer to the sun than London, is excessivelycold for nine months, and extremely hot the remain-ing three, save when the n. w. wind prevails. Thesoil on the e. <^s well as on the w. side produces allkinds of grain and fruits of fine qualities, whichare cultivated on the shore of the river Rupert.Lat. 52“ 12' n. Long. 80“ w.

CHARNACOCHA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya inPeru,

CHARO, Matlazingo, the alcaldía mayorof the province and bishopric of Mechoacán inNueva España, of a mild and dry temperature,being the extremity of the sierra of Otzumatlan ;the heights of which are intersected with manyveins of metals, which manifest themselves veryplainly, although they have never yet been dugout ; and in the wet seasons the clay or mud pitsrender the roads impassable. It is watered by theriver which rises in the pool or lake of Valladolid,and by which the crops of wheat, maize, lentils, andthe fruits peculiar to the place, are rendered fertileand productive. This reduced jurisdiction belongsto the Marquises of Valle, and is subject to theDukes of Terranova. Its population is reduced tosome ranchos, or meetings for the purpose of labour,and to the capital, which has the same name, andwhich contains a convent of the religious order ofSt. Augustin, this being one of the first templesbuilt by the Spaniards in this kingdom, the presentdilapidated state of it bearing ample testimony toits great antiquity. It contains 430 families ofPirindas Indians, employed in labour and in thecultivation of the land, and in making bread, whichis carried for the supply' of Valladolid, the neigh-bouring ranchos and estates. It should also have45 or 50 families of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulat-toes. Is .50 leagues to the w. of Mexico, and twoto the e. of Valladolid. Long. 100° 44'. Lat.19“34'.

CHARON, a small river of Canada, which runse. and enters the lake Superior in the bay of Beau-harnois.

CHARPENTIER, Fond du, a bay of the n. e.

coast of the island of Martinique, between the townand parish of Marigot and the Pan de Azucar.

CHARPENTIER, a small river of the same islandwhich runs n. e. and enters the sea in the formerbay.

CHARQUEDA, a lake of the province andcaptainship of Rey in Brazil, near the coast whichlies between this lake and that of Los Patos.

CHARRUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofParaguay, who inhabit the parts lying between therivers Parana and Uruguay. These Indians arethe most idle of any in America, and it has beenattempted in vain to reduce them to any thing likea civilized state.

Charruas, a settlement of this province andgovernment.

Charruas, a river of the same province, whichruns s. s. w. and enters the Paraná.

CHARTIER, Bahia de, a bay on the s. coastof the straits of Magellan, between the bay of SanSimon and the point of Tunquichisgua.

Chartier, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and colony of Virginia ; situate on the shoreof a river of the same name. It runs s. and entersthe sea in the county of Hampshire.

(Chartier, a township in Washington county,Pennsylvania.)

(Chartier’s Creek. See Canonsburg andMorganza.)

(CHARTRES, a fort which was built bythe French, on the e. side of the Mississippi,three miles n. of La Prairie du Rocher, or theRock meadows, and 12 miles n. of St. Genevieve,on the w. side of that river. It was abandoned in1772, being untenable by the constant washings ofthe Mississippi in high floods. The village s. ofthe fort was very inconsiderable in 1778. A mileabove this is a village settled by 170 warriors of thePiorias and Mitchigamias tribes of Illinois Indians,who are idle and debauched.)

CHASPAIA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aricá in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of Tarata.

CHASSES, a small river of N. Carolina, whichruns n. n. e. and enters that of Cutawba.

CHAT, Trou de, a settlement of the parish andisland of Martinique ; situate near the bay of theCul de Sac Royal, and to the n. e. of the capital.

Chat, a river of the island of Guadalupe, whichrises in the mountains of the e. coast, and runninge. enters the sea between the rivers Grand Bananierand Trou au Chien, or Hole of the Dog.

Chat, a cape or point of land on the coast ofthe river St. Lawrence, on the shore opposite tothe port of San Pacracio.

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cattle of all sorts; aiul there arc some gold mines,though they produce at present very sp:n ingly;some of the silver mines, Avhlch were very fruitful,have lately filled with water, and attempts havebeen made in vain to empty them. Indeed theonly mines which have produced any great wealthare those found in the mountains of Aullagas, andfrom them, for some years past, metals of therarest qualities have been extracted. In the woodsof the valleys, which produce very fine and excel-lent timber, are found wolves, tigers, and otherwild beasts inhabiting the mountains ; also aspecies of bees, which form their combs in the hol-lows of trees, and the honey of which they callde charas. There is a river in this province com-posed of several streams, and which unites itselfwith the Cochabamba. The number of its inha-bitants amounts to 36,000, who are divided into27 settlements. Its reparlimienfo used to amountto 92,665 dollars, and its n/cflxvife to 7-11 dollarsper annum. It is one of the richest provinces ofPeru.

The capital is of the same name, and the othersettlements are,

Chayantacas,

Amayapampa,

Laimes,

Calacala,

Amaya,

Amayavilque,

Pocoata,

Chayala,

Casimbiico,

San Pedro

Moromoro,

Maragua,

PancacUij

Sarari,

de Macha,

Charca,

Pitantora,

Ocuri,

Uruyearasi,

San Francisco dc Micani,San Marcos de Mirailo-res,

Surumi,

Santiago de l\Ioscari,

San Pedro de Buenavista,Acasio,

Toracari,

Iluaicoma,

Aullagas.

CHEANE, a river of the province and govern-ment of Paraguay.

CHEARA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Huaiama.

(CHEAT River rises in Randolph county,Virginia, and after pursuing a n. n. w. course, joinsMonongahela river, three or four miles within thePennsylvania line. It is 200 yards wide at itsmoutli, and 100 yards at the Dunkards settlement,50 miles higher, and is navigable for boats, exceptin dry seasons. There is a portage of 37 milesfrom this river to the Potowmack, at the mouth ofSavage river.)

CHEBA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-

nada, of a cold temperature. It lies between somemountains, and abounds in the produclioris of a,cold climate, such as wheat, maize, trullles, andbarley ; it consists of 100 house-keepers, and of40 Indians, all of Avliom are subject to the disorderof the cotos, or swelling of the throat; is 21leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.

CHEBANONKOGUE, a town of the French,in Canada ; situate in the country of the MistasuisIndians, on the n. shore of a lake which gives it itsname.

CHEBEN, a river of Nova Scotia. It risesfrom a small lake near the settlement and fort ofSackville, runs n. and enters the Basin des Mines,or of the Mines, of the bay of Fundy.

(CHEBUCTO, a bay and harbour on the s. s. e.coast of Nova Scotia, distinguished by the loss ofa French fleet in a former war between Franceand Great Britain. Near the head of this bay,on the w. side, stands the city of Halifax, the ca-pital of the province.)

CHECA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Tinta in Peru.

CHECACUPI, a settlement of the same pro-vince and kingdom as the former.

CHECACUPI, another, in the province of Quispi-canchi or Urcos in the same kingdom.

CHECASA, La Nueva, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspayain Peru.

CHECHIRGANTI, a river of the provinceand government of Darien in the kingdom ofTierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the n.side, runs n. and enters the sea in the small beechor playon, opposite the port of Calidonia.

CHECODIN, a small lake of the province andcountry of the Iroquees Indians in Canada, liesbetween the lake Oswego and the river Ohio.

CHECHAS. See Chancay.

(CHEDABUCTO, or Milford Haven, alarge and deep bay on the easternmost part ofNova Scotia, at the mouth of the gut of Canso.Opposite to its mouth stands isle Madame. Sal-mon river falls into this bay from the w. and isremarkable for one of the greatest fisheries in theworld.)

CHEDIAC, a small river of Nova Scotia,which runs e. and enters the sea in the strait formedby the coast and the island of San Juan.

(CHEESADAWD Lake, about 210 miles n. e.by e. of the Canadian house, on the c. end ofSlave lake, in the Hudson bay company’s terri-tory, is about 35 miles in length, and the same inbreadth. Its w. shore is mountainous and rocky.)

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vernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito. It runs from 7i. to s, and enters tlieChinchipe on the n. side, somewhat lower thanwhere this latter is entered by the Naraballe, andnear a small settlement of Indians.

CHERNAL, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Chile, in the district of the province and ccr-regimiet7tn of Copiapó. Lat. 27° 27'.

CHEROKEE, a settlement of North Carolina,where there is a fort built by the English on theshore of the river of its name, and at the mouth ofthe Agiqua.

Cherokee, a large river of the above colonyand province, called also Hogohegee and Calla-maco. It rises in the county of Augusta, and takesits name from a numerous nation of Indians ; runsV). for many leagues, forming a curve, and entersthe Ohio near the fourches of the Mississippi. Nearto this river are some very large and fertile plains ;and according to the account rendered by the In-dians, there are, at the distance of 40 leagues fromthe Chicazas nation, four islands, called Tahogale,Kakick, Cochali, and Tali, inhabited by as manyother different nations of Indians. (Cherokee wasthe ancient name of Tennessee river. The name ofTennessee was formerly confined to the fourteenthbranch, which empties 15 mites above the mouth ofClinch river, and 18 below Knoxville.)

Cherokee, the country of the Indians of thenation of this name in North Carolina. It standsw. as far as the Mississippi, and w. as far as theconfines of the Six Nations. It was ceded to theEnglish by the treaty of Westminster, in 1729.(This celebrated Indian nation is now on the de-cline. They reside in the n. parts of Georgia,and the s. parts of the state of Tennessee ; havingthe Apalachian or Cherokee mountains on the e.which separate them from North and South Caro-lina, and Tennessee river on the n. and w. and theCreek Indians on the s. The present line betweenthem and the state of Tennessee is not yet settled.A line of experiment was drawn, in 1792, fromClinch river across Holston to Chilhove mountain ;but the Cherokee commissioners not appearing, itis called a line of experiment. The complexion ofthe Cherokees is brighter than that of the neigh-bouring Indians. They are robust and well made,and taller than many of their neighbours ; beinggenerally six feet high, a few are more, and someless. Their women are tall, slender, and delicate.The talents and morals of the Cherokees are heldin great esteem. They were formerly a powerfulnation ; but by continual wars, in which it has beentheir destiny lo be engaged with the n. In-dian tribes, and with the whites, they are now re-duced to about 1500 warriors ; and they are be-coming weak and pusillanimous. Some writersestimate their numbers at 2500 warriors. Theyhave 43 towns now inhabited.)

Cherokee, a settlement of Indians of this na-tion, in the same country as that in which the Eng-lish had a fort and establishment, at the source ofthe river Caillon ; which spot is at present aban-doned.

CHERREPE, a port of the coast of Peru, and ofthe S. sea, in the province and corregimienlo ofSaña, is open, unprotected, and shallow ; andconsequently frequented only by vessels driven toit through stress, and for the sake of convenience.It is in lat. 7° 70' s.

CHERRITON, a port of the coast of the pro-vince and colony of Maryland, within the bay ofChesapeak, behind cape Charles.

(CHERRY Valley, a post-town in Otsegocounty, New York, at the head of the creek of thesame name, about 12 miles >/. e. of Coopersfown,and 18 s. of Canajohary, 61 w. of Albany,and 336 from Philadelphia. It contains about 30houses, and a Presbyterian church. There is anacademy here, which contained, in 1796, 50 or 60scholars. It is a spacious buildit)g, 60 feet by 40.The township is very large, and lies along the e.side of Otsego lake, and its outlet to Adiqnatangiecreek. By the state census of 1796, it appearsthat 629 of its inhabitants are electors. This set-tlement sutlered severely from the Indians in thelate war.)

(CHESAPEAK is one of the largest and safestbays in the United States. Its entrance is nearlye. n. e. and s. s. between cape Charles, lat. 37°13' and cape Henry, lat. 37°, in Virginia, 12 mileswide, and it extends 70 miles to the ??. dividingVirginia and Maryland. It is from 7 to IS milesbroad, and generally as much as 9 fathoms deep ;affording many commodious harbours, and a saleand easy navigation. It has many fertile islands,and these are generally along the c. side of the bay,except a few solitary ones near the xo. shore. Anumber of navigable rivers and other streamsempty into if, the chief of which are Susque-hannab, Fatapsco, Patuxent, Pofowmack, Rap-pahannock, and A^ork, which are all large and na-vigable. Chesapeak bay'- afibrds many excellentfisheries of herring and shad. There are also ex-cellent crabs and oysters. It is the resort ofswans, but is more particularly remarkable for aspecies of wild duck, called camashac/c, whoseflesh is entirely free from any fishy taste, and isadmired by epicures for its richness and delicacy.In a coinnierciul point of view, this bay is of im--

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empties into Chesapeak bay, at Love point. It formsan island at its mouth, and by acbannel on the e. sideof Kent island, communicates with. Eastern bay.It is proposed to cut a canal, about 1 1 miles long,from Andover creek, a mile and a half fromBridgetown to Salisbury, on Upper Duck creek,which falls into Delaware at Hook island.)

(Chester, a small town in Shannandoah county,Virginia, situate on the point of land formed bythe junction of Allen’s or North river and Southriver, which form the Shannandoah ; 16 miles s.by w. of Winchester. Lat. 39° 4' n. Long.78° 25' w.)

(Chester County, in Pinckney district, SouthCarolina, lies in the s.e. corner of the district, onW ateree river, and contains 6866 inhabitants ; ofwhom 5866 are whites, and 938 slaves. It sendstwo representatives, but no senator, to the statelegislature.)

(Chester, a town in Cumberland county, Vir-ginia ; situate on the s. w. bank of James river,15 miles n. of Blandford, and six s. of Rich-mond.)

(CHESTERFIELD, a township in Hampshirecounty, Massachusetts, 14 mites w. of Northamp-ton. It contains 180 houses, and 1183 inha-bitants.)

(Chesterfield, a township in Cheshire county.New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticutriver, having Westmoreland n. and Hinsdale s.It was incorporated in 1752, and contains 1905 in-habitants. It lies about 25 miles s. by w. ofCharlestown, and about 90 or 100 w. of Ports-mouth. About the year 1730, the garrison offort Dummer was alarmed with frequent explosions,and with columns of fire and smoke, emitted fromW est River mountain in th is township , and four milesdistant from that fort. The like appearances havebeen observed at various times since ; particularly,one in 1752 was the most severe of any. Thereare two places where the rocks bear marks of hav-ing been heated and calcined.)

(Chesterfield County, in South Carolina, isin Cheraws district, on the North Carolina line. Itis about 30 mites long, and 29 broad.)

Chesterfield County, in Virginia, is betweenJames and Appamatox rivers. It is about 30miles long, and 25 broad ; and contains 14,214inhabitants, including 7487 slaves.)

(Chesterfield Inlet, on the w. side of Hud-son’s bay, in New South Wales, upwards of 200miles in length, and from 10 to 30 in breadth ; fullof islands.)

(CHESTERTOWN, a post-town and the capi-tal of Kent county, Maryland, on the w. side of

Chester river, 16 miles s.w. of Georgetown, 38e. by s. from Baltimore, and 81 s.w. of Philadel*phia. It contains about 140 houses, a church,college, court-house, and gaol. The college wasincorporated in 1782, by the name of Washing-ton. It is under the direction of 24 trustees, whoare empowered to supply vacancies and hold,estates, whose yearly value shall not exceed 6000/.currency. In 1787 it had a permanent fund of1250/. a year settled upon it by law. Lat. 39° 12'n. Long. 76° 10' cc;.)

CHETIMACHAS, a river of the province andgovernment of Louisiana. It is an arm of theMississippi, which runs s. e. and enters the sea onthe side of the bay of Asuncion or Ascension. [Onthe Chetiraachas, six leagues from the Mississippi,there is a settlement of Indians of the same name ;and thus far it is uniformly 100 yards broad, andfrom two to four fathoms cleep, vfhen the water islowest. Some drifted logs have formed a shoal atits mouth on the Mississippi ; but as the water isdeep under them they could be easily removed;and the Indians say there is nothing to impede na-vigation from their village to the gulf. The banksare more elevated than those of the Mississippi, andin some places are so high as never to be over-flowed. The natural productions are the same ason the Mississippi, but the soil, from the extraordi-nary size and compactness of the canes, is supe-rior. If measures were adopted and pursued witha view to improve this communication, there wouldsoon be on its banks the most prosperous and im-portant settlements in that colony.)

(Chetimachas, Grand Lake of, in Loui-.siana, near the mouth of the Mississippi, is 24miles long, and nine broad. Lake de Portage,which is 13 miles long, and If broad, commu-nicates with this lake at the n. end, by a straita quarter of a mile wide. The country bor-dering on these lakes is low and flat, timbered withcypress, live and other kinds of oak ; and on the€. side, the land between it and the Chafalaya riveris divided by innumerable streams, which occa-sion as many islands. Some of these streams are*navigable. A little distance from the s. e. short?of the lake Chetimachas, is an island where per-sons passing that way generally halt as a restingplace. Nearly opposite this island there is anopening which leads to the sea. It is about 150yards wide, and has 16 or 17 fathoms water.)

CHETO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; tothe curacy of which is annexed the extensive val-ley of Huaillabamba, in the province of Chncha-poyas.

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CHETU, Santissima Trinidad de, a settle-ment of the province and corregimiento of Caxa-marca in Peru.

CHEUELUS, or CHAVELOS, a barbarous nationof Indians of the country of Marañon, who inhabitthe woods bordeiing upon the river Aguarico, tothe e. and in the vicinity of the lakes. Theyarc warlike, of a cruel and treacherous nature, andin eternal enmity with their neighbours. M. de laMartiniere will have it, that the name Chavelos isderived from the French wovd chevezLV, the menand the women both allowing and encouraging thegrowth of their hair till it reaches down to thewaist ; supposing, forsooth, that these Indiansmust either have known French when they werediscovered, or that their discoverers, at all events,must have been French.

CHEURA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.It runs w. ?z. e. and e. washing the country of theancient Esmeraldas Indians: it afterwards enterstheriver of its name on the e. side, in lat. 1° 23' n.

CHEWOCHEE, a settlement of North Caro-lina ; situate on the skirt of the mountains of Tcl-liquo.

CHIA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zi-paquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; cele-brated in the time of the Indians for having beenthe title of the kings ox npas of Bogota; the in-vestiture of which dignity was always transferredwith the greatest possible solemnity. It is of a verycold temperature, although salutary ; and issituate on a beautiful plain, on the shore of theriver Bogota, four leagues to the n. of Santa F6.

CHIAMILA, a head settlement of the alcaldíamayor of Motines in Nueva España, contains SOfamilies of Indians.

CHIAMOTO. See Seyota.

CHIANTLA, a settlement of the province andnlcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Gua-temala.

CHIAPA, a province and alcaldia mayor of thekingdom of Guatemala ; bounded on the«. by theprovince of Tabasco, c. by that of Vera Paz, w.by that of Oaxaca of Nueva Espaha, and s. e. bythat of Soconusco. It extends 85 leagues from e.to w. and is nearly 30 across at its widest part.It was conquered by Captain Diego Marariegosin 1531 : is divided into districts or alcaldiasmayores^ which are those of Zoques, Chontales,Los Llanos, and Xiquipila ; is of a warm andmoist temperature, although it has some parts inwhich the cold predominates. Its woods aboundwith large trees of pine, cypress, cedar, and wal-nut; and of others of a resinous kind, from which

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are extracted aromatic gums, balsams, and liquidamber, tacamaca, copal, &c. It produces also, inabundance, maize, swine, honey, cotton, cochi-neal, which is only made use of for the purposeof dyeing the cotton ; also cacao, and much pepperand achoie, or the heart-leaved bixa'; also vfiriouskinds of domestic and wild birds, especially par-rots, which are very beautiful and highly esteemed ;a small bird, called tolo, less than a young pigeon,with green wings ; this is caught by the Indians,who pluck from its tail some feathers, Avhich theyprize highly, and then restoring it to liberty; itbeing a capital offence, according to their laws, todestroy it. The sheep, goats, and pigs, whichhave been brought from Europe, have multipledin this province in a most extraordinary manner ;so also have horses, which are of such an esteemedbreed, that the colts are taken from hence to Mex-ico, a distance of 500 miles. In the woods breedmany lions, leopards, tigers, and wild boars,a great number of snakes, some being 20 feet inlength, and others of a beautiful crimson colour,streaked with black and white. Tlie territory is,for the most part, rugged and mountainous, andwatered by different rivers : none of these, how-ever, are of any particular consideration, althoughthat which bears the name of this province is themedium by which the aforesaid productions arecarried to the other provinces ; and although thisprovince may be accounted comparatively poor,from being without mines of gold or silver, it isnevertheless of the greatest importance, as beingthe outwork or barrier to New Spain, from the fa-cility with which this kingdom might be enteredby the river Tabasco. The capital is the royalcity of Chiapa, situate on a delightful plain. Itis the head of a bishopric, erected in 1538; andhas for arms a shield, upon which arc two sierras,with a river passing between them : above theone is a golden castle, with a lion rampant upon it ;and above the other a green palm, bearing fruit,and another lion, the whole being upon a red field.These arms were granted by the Emperor CharlesV. in 1535. The cathedral is very beautiful. Itcontains three convents of the order of St. Francis,La Merced, and St. Domingo ; a monastery ofnuns, and five hermitages. Its population isscanty and poor, and the principal commerce con-sists in cocoa-nuts, cotton, wool, sugar, cochineal,and other articles. Its nobility, although poor, arevery proud, as having descended from some an-cient families of the first nobility of Spain ; suchas those of Mendoza, Velasco, Cortes, &c. Thewomen suffer great debility at the stomach on ac-count of the excessive heat, ami they can never

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in Nueva Espana, is of a mild temperature ; si-tuate in a pleasant and fertile plain, and one whichabounds in maize, wheat, and other seeds. It con-tains S68 families of Indians, 13 of Spaniards, anda convent of the religious order of St. Francis;is one league n. of its capital,

Chiautla, with the addition of La Sal, an-other settlement, the capital of its jurisdiction, inthe same kingdom, thus called from the salt minesfound in it formerly, and from which the inhabi-tants used to derive a great commerce. At pre-sent it is in a thorough state of decay, not only asits trade has fallen off in the other provinces ; butas the Indians have applied themselves rather tothe cultivation of the soil and the planting of fruitsand pulse, from the traffic of which they derivetheir maintenance. It is inhabited by 650 familiesof Mexican Indians, and 40 of Spaniards, J\/us~iees, and Mulattoes. It contains a convent of thereligious order of St. Augustin. The jurisdictionis so much reduced that it is not more than fiveleagues in length and three in width, void of com-merce, and has but a small revenue. Its inhabi-tants, although they are somewhat given to thebreeding of small cattle, yet this must hardly beconsidered with them a branch of commerce,since they have scarcely enough of these where-with to support theiiiselves. It contains only twoother settlements, and these are,

Xicotlan, Huehetlan.

Forty-five leagues s. e. to the s. w. of Mexico.
CHIBACOA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore ofa river to the w. of the town of Nirua.

CHIBATA, a settlement of the . province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, and the head settlement of the corregi-miento of Indies, is of a very cold and fresh tem-perature, abounding in productions, and particu-larly in cattle, from the fleeces and hides of whichare made quantities of blankets, linen cloths, andother articles for garments. It may contain about200 Indians, and it is eight leagues to the n. e.of Tunja, lying between this latter place and thesettlement of Siachoque.

CHIBAI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Collahuas in Peru.

CHICA, an island of the N. sea, one of theLucayas ; situate between the islands Siguate andSt. Andrew. The English gave it the name ofLittle.

CHICACHAE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Louisiana or S. Carolina, in whichthe English have a fort and establishment to carry

on commerce with the Indians, is situated on theshore of the river Sonlahove.

CHICACHAS, a settlement of Indians of thisnation, in the territory thus called, where the Eng-lish have an establishment or factory for com-merce.

CHICAGOU, a port of Canada, on the w. sideof the lake Michigan.

Chicagou, a river of the same province andgovernment, which runs s. then ?i. e. and entersthe former port.

CHICAHOMINI, a river of the province andcolony of Virginia, runs s.e. and turning itscourse to the s. enters the Thames.

CHICAHUASCO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Huipuxtla, and alcaldia mayor of Tepe-tango, in Nueva Espana, contains 72 families ofIndians.

CHICAHUASTEPEC, San Miguel de, asettlement of the head settlement of Zoyaltepec, andalcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan. It contains 48 fa-milies of Indians, and is 10 leagues from its headsettlement.

CHICAHUAZTLA, San Andres de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor ofTepozcolula, in the province and bishopric ofOaxaca, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, is ofa cold temperature, inhabited by 332 families ofIndians, including those of the settlements or wardsof its district, and they maintain themselves bybartering cotton garments for salt on the coast ofXicayan ; 12 leagues s. w. of its capital.

Chicahuaztla, another, a small settlement orward of the alcaldia mayor of Guachinango in thesame kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of that ofTlaola.

CHICAMA, a large, fertile, and beautiful valleyof the province and corregimiento of Truxillo inPeru. It was one of the most populous in thetimes of the gentilisra of the Indians, owing to itsagreeable and benign temperature : is watered bya river of its name, which divides it from that ofChimu. In 1540, the friar Domingo de SantoTomas founded here a convent of his order, forthe instruction of the Indians, which immediatelywas turned into a priory and a house for noviciates.It is at present, however, fallen into decay, throughthe ravages of time. This valley is six leaguesfrom the capital, to the n. in the road which leadsto the provinces of Quito, Sana, and Piura.

Chicama, a river of this province and corregi-miento. It rises in the province of Guamachuco,from two very lofty mountains, called Y ulcaguancaand Yanaguanca, to the n. e . ; and waters and fer-

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tilizes the valley which gives it its name ; and runs30 leagues, collecting the waters of many otherstreams, mountain floods, and rivulets, which aug-ment it to such a degree as to render the fording ofit impracticable just where it enters the sea.

CHICAMOCHA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises in the paramo or mounlain-desert of Albarracin, between that city and thecity of Santa Fe, on the 7i. side : when it passesthrough Tunja, being then merely a rivulet, it hasthe name of the river of Gallinazos, which it after-wards changes for that of Sogamoso ; and for thatof Chia, Avhen it passes through this settlement.It is afterwards called Chicamocha, and passesthrough various provinces, until it becomes incor-porated with the Magdalena, into which it entersin one large mouth. A little before this it formsa good port, called De la Tora, where there wasformerly a settlement, but which is at present ina state of utter ruin.

CHICANAM, a small river of the province andcolony of Surinam, or the part of Guayana pos-sessed by the Dutch. It is one of those whichenter into the Cuyuni.

CHICANI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru j annexed tothe curacy of Combaya.

(CHICAPEE, or Chickabee, a smrdl river inMassachusetts, which rises from several ponds inWorcester county, and running s.zo. unites withWare river, and six miles further empties into theConnecticut at Springfield, on the e. bank of thatriver.)

CHICAQUARO, a small settlement or ward,of the district and jurisdiction of Valladolid, in theprovince and bishopric of Mcchoacan.

CHICASAWS, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina, comprising the Indians of this nation,who have here many other settlements ; in all ofwhich the English have forts, and an establish-ment for their commerce and defence.

Chicasaws, a river of this province, whichruns w. and enters the Mississippi 788 miles fromits mouth, or entrance into the sea.

(CHICCAMOGGA, a large creek, which runsn.w. into Tennessee river. Its rnoutli is six milesabove the Whirl, and about 27 s. w. from themouth of the Ilivvassee. The Chiccamogga Indiantowns lie on this creek, and on the bank of theTennessee. See Ciiickamages.)

CHICHAS y Tarija, a province and correg/-miertto of Peru ; bounded on the n. by that ofGinti, s. by that of Tucuman, the river called

Quiaca serving as the line of division, vo. by thatof Lipes, and n. by that of Porco. The district ofTarija belonging to this corregimiento, which is 40leagues distant from the capital of Chichas, isbounded e. by the territories of the infidel Chiri-guanos, Chanaes, and Mataguayos Indians, to thefirst settlements of which from the last habitationsof Tarija there is a narrow, craggy, and mountain-ous route of 14 leagues in length. It is alsobounded on the n. and w. by the valley of Pilaya,and on the s, by the jurisdiction of Xuxui. Thedistrict of Chichas is 140 leagues in circumference,and that of Tarija 80, being either of them inter-sected by some extensive seiTanias : in the boun-daries of the former there are many farms andestates for breeding cattle, where are also producedpotatoes, maize, wheat, barley and other grain,likewise some wine. Here are mines of gold andsilver, which were formerly very rich ; it havingbeen usual for the principal ones to yield somethousand marks in each caxon ; this being espe-cially the case in the mines of Nueva Chocaya,which still yield to this da}-- 60 or 60 marks. Manyof the metals found in these mines are worked upfor useful purposes. The mines of Chilocoa have,on the Whole, been most celebrated fortlieir riches.The rivers, which are of some note, are that ofSupacha, which flows down from the cordillera ofLipes, and running e. passes through the middle ofthe province until it enters the valley of Cinti, ofthe province of Pilaya and Paspaya ; and another,called Toropalca, which enters the province ofPorco, and passes on to the same part of Cinti.The inhabitants of this district amount to 6200.In the settlement of Tatasi both men and womenare subject to a distressing lunacy, which causesthem to run wildly and heedlessly over the moun-tains, without any regard to the precipices whichlie in their way ; since it has generally been ob-served that they dash themselves headlong down :if, however, it should happen that they are notkilled, the fall, they say, frequently restores themto a sane mind. The observation, that the animalsof this country, namely, \\ie vicunas and the nativesheep, are subject to this malady, is without founda-tion ; but it is thought to arise from the peculiareflluviasof the minerals abounding here, and whichhave a great tendency to cause convulsions. Thewomen of tlie aforesaid settlement, when about tobring forth children, like to be delivered of themin the low parts of the qiiebradas, or deep glens.The settlements of this province are,

Santiago de Cota- San Antonio de Riogaiia, Blanco,

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Cotagaitilla,Escara,Chacnacocha,Chequelti,Colnaca,Calccha,Tomola,Tumula,Estarca,

Tupisa,

Oploca,

Tatasi,

Ingenio del Oro

Nueva Cbocaya,Talina,

Verque,

Chacapa,

Clioroma,

Libilibi,

Moraya,

Moxo,

Tojo,

Sococha,

Remedios,

Chisloca,

Suipacha.

And in the district of Tarija,

Tarija de Vieja, La Concepcion,

San Bernardo de Tarija, Berraeo.

The district of Tarija is a territory full of que-hradas and craggy mountains, as far as the punasand lofty plains of Escayache and Tacsora, wherethere are two salt lakes. It is composed of fourfertile valleys lying on the skirts of hills, and inthese are found human bones of a prodigious size,petrified, shin-bones of a yard and a quarter long,and teeth larger than a fist. In the midst of one ofthese valleys is the town of San Bernardo de Tarija,which is the capital of the province. Its reparti-miento used to amount to 82,350 dollars, and itsalcavala to 558 dollars per annum. For the settle-ments of this district, see above.

Chichas, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in thesame kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Sala-manca.

Chichas, a river of the province and govern-ment of Tucumán, in the district and jurisdictionof the city of Xuxuy, which divides this city fromthat of the capital of San Miguel.

(CHICHESTER, Upper and Lower, twotownships in Delaware county, Pennsylva-nia.)

(Chichester, a small township in Rocking-ham county, New Hampshire, about 35 miles n. w.of Exeter, and 45 from Portsmouth. It lies onSuncook river, was incorporated in 1727, andcontains 491 inhabitants.)

CHICHIBACOA, Cabo de, a cape on thecoast of the province and government of SantaMarta, and kingdom of Tierra Firrae ; 80 leaguesto the w. of that city.

CHICHICAPA, a settlement and capital of thealcaldia mayor of the province and bishopric ofOaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tem-perature, and was anciently the real of the mostesteemed silver mines; but is at present muchfallen of, the working of the mines having been for

the most part abandoned from the want of hands,in as much as the natives have given themselvesup to the trade of cochineal, in which its territoryabounds : it produces also much seed and maize.Its jurisdiction includes some of the finest andrichest provinces. It consists of five head settle-ments of districts, to which are subject as manyother. Its capital contains 430 families of Indians,and some of Spaniards, Muslees, and Mulattoes.Ninety leagues s. e. of Mexico. The other settle-ments are.

Zimitlan,Tepezimatlan,La Magdalena,Atzozola.

Rio Hondo or Thequila,

San Agustin de Losi-

cha,

Tetipai,

Cozan tepee,

CHICHICATEPEC, a settlement and head set-tlement of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in NuevaEspana, is of a cold temperature, contains 26 fa-milies of Indians, and is seven leagues to the s. e.of its capital.

CHICHICOAUTLA, St. Francisco de, asettlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Metepeque in Nueva Espana. It contains 91families of Indians.

CHICHIMEQUILLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitaquaro, and alcaldiamayor Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacanand kingdom of Nueva Espana. It contains 84families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league tothe s. of its head settlement.

CHICHIQUILA, a settlement of the head set-tlement of Quinuxtlan, and alcaldia mayor of SanJuan de los Llanos, in Nueva Espana. It contains180 families of Indians.

CHICHOI, a settlement of the province andkingdom of Guatemala.

CHICHOPON, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Xuambos.

CHICIBICHE, a point of the coast of the pro-vince and government of Venezuela, opposite theisland of Aves.

(CHICKAHOMINY, a small navigable riverin Virginia. At its mouth in James river, 37miles from point Comfort, in Chesapeak bay, is abar, on which is only 12 feet water at commonflood tide. Vessels passing that may go eightmiles up the river; those of 10 feet draught 12miles ; and vessels of six tons burden may go 32miles up the river.)

(CHICKAMACOMICO Creek, in Dorchestercounty, Maryland, runs s. between the towns ofMiddletown and Vienna, and empties into Fishingbay.)

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(CHICKAMAGES, a part of the Cherokee na-tion of Indians, known by this name, inhabit fivevillages on Tennessee river. See CHICCA-MOGGA.)

CHICKAMINE, a river of the province andcolony of Virginia.

(CHICKASAW Bluff is on the e. bank of theMississippi, witiiin the territories of the UnitedStates, in lat. 35 n. The Spaniards erected herea strong stockaded fort, with cannon, and furnishedit with troops, all in the space of 24 hours, in themonth of June 1795. It has since been given up,.according to the treaty of 1796.)

(Chickasaw, a creek which falls into theWabash from the c. a little below Post St. Vin-cent.)

(Chickasaw, a river which empties into theMississippi, on the e. side, 104 miles from themouth of Margot, and 67 s. w. of Mine au Fer.Tlie lands here are of an excellent quality, andcovered with a variety of useful timber, canes, &c.This river may be ascended during high floods up-wards of SO miles with boats of several tons burden.)

(Chickasaws, a famous nation of Indians, whoinhabit the country on the e. side of the Mississippi,on the head branches of the Tombigbee, Mobile,and Yazoo rivers, in the n. zo. corner of the state ofGeorgia, and n. of the country of the Chactaws.Their country is an extensive plain, tolerably wellwatered from springs, and of a pretty good soil.They have seven towns, the central one of whichis in lat. 34° 23' «• long. 89° 30' w. The num-ber of souls in this nation has been formerlyreckoned at 1725, of which 575 were fighting men.There are some Negroes among the Chickasaws,who either were taken captive in war, or ran awayfrom their masters, and sought safety among theIndians. In 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, with 900men, besides seamen, sailed from Cuba with a de-sign to conquer Florida. He travelled n. to theChickasaw country, about lat. 35° or 36° ; and threeyears after died, and was buried on the bank ofMississipi river.)

CHICLAIO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Saña in Peru, in which there is aconvent of the religious order of St. Francis.

CHICO, Rio, a settlement and garrison of theprovince and government of Sonora ; situate onthe shore of the river Yaqui.

Chico, a river of the province and governmentof Panamá in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountains to the s. of the istmo, oristhmus, near the settlement of Chepo ; and runss. ze. and enters the sea in the bay or gulf of Pa-nama.

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Chico, another river of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru. It runs to the e.of the jurisdiction of the city ofXuxuy,

Chico, a small island, called Morro, near thecoast of the province and government of SantaMarta ; opposite this city, and not far from ano-ther island, distinguished by the name of MorroGrande.

CHICOANTEPEC, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldla mayor of Zoques in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHICOLAPA, a settlement of the head settle-ment, and alcaldla mayor of Coatepec, in NuevaEspana ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. Itcontains 187 families of Indians, who celebrateevery Friday throughout the year a teanguis orfair, at which are sold cattle and other productionsof the country. At these times it is a place of ge-neral rendezvous for the inhabitants of all the con-tiguous provinces ; and this fair has, from the greatconcourse of people usually assembling here, ob-tained the title of the famous teanguis of S. Vi-cente de Chicolapa. It is extremely fertile and plea-sant, and surrounded by several very small settle-ments or wards.

CHICOMESUCHIL, a settlement and headsettlement of tlie alcaldia mayor of Yxtepexi ofthe province and bishopric of Oaxaca in NuevaEspana, is of a hot temperature, and contains300 families of Indians, who exercise themselves inthe making scarlet cloths and cotton garments.

CHICOMI, a settlement and head settlement ofthe district of the alcaldia mayor of Tampico inNueva Espana. It contains 45 families of Indians,and lies 10 leagues to the s. of its capital.

CHICOMOCELO, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Chiapa. in the kingdom ofGuatemala ; [having a cave very narrow at theentry, but spacious within, with a stagnant lake,which is, however, clear, and is two fathoms deeptowards the banks.]

CHICONAUTA, St. Tomas de, a settlementof the alcaldia mayor of Ecatepec in NuevaEspana; annexed to the curacy of its capital;from whence it is distant one league to the n. n. e.It contains 160 families of Indians.

CHICONCUAC, S. Miguel de, a settlementof the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tez-cuco in Nueva Espana. It contains 123 familiesof Indians, and six of Spaniards. It produces agood proportion of grain, seeds, and cattte, fromthe fleeces of which they derive great emolument,as also from the coarse stuffs manufactured of thesame. It is one league to the n. of its capital.

CHICONCUASO, a settlement of the head

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settlement of Naiilingo, and alcaldm mayor ofXalapa, in Nueva Espaila, the name of which sig-nifies the place of six fountains. It is situate inthe most lofty part of a rugged and mountainoussierra, on which account its temperature is everywhere cold, and subject more than any other partof its district to continual fogs and rains. Itscommerce consists in maize, which it produces inabundance, and in the breeding of swine, both ofwhich articles are carried for sale to Vera Cruz.Its inhabitants are also engaged in the mule-droveswhich pass through these parts in tlieir way tothe windward coasts, and which proceed over aroad so rough and stony that they are under thenecessity of descending and ascending precipicesby means of steps or artificial passages hewn outof the rocks ; and however difficult this might ap-pear to some, they do not experience any gleatdelay, although the animals are very heavilyloaded, and the road be rendered still more difli-cult, if, as it often happens, the journey be per-formed in the winter season. This very stonyroute is a narrow pass or defile which shortens theway leading to the province of La Guasca. Theinhabitants of this settlement are composed of 236families of Indians. It lies three short leagues tothe n. of its capital.

CHICONCUAUTLA, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Guachinango inNueva Espana. It is of a mild temperature, andcontains 270 families of Indians, including thethree other small settlements of its district. Sixleagues to the e. of its capital.

CHICONTEPEC, a settlement of the headsettlement of Tlalixcoya, and alcaldia maijor ofMizantla, in Nueva Espaila. It contains 53 fa-milies of Indians.

CHICORATO, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the society ofJesuits, in the province and government of Ci-naloa.

CHICUAS, a nation of Indians of Peru. It isat present reduced to merely a settlement of theprovince of Condesuyos, in which is found abun-dance of cochineal, made use of by the natives indyeing of wool ; this being the branch of com-merce by which they maintain themselves.

CHIEGNETO, a settlement and fort of theEnglish, in the province and colony of NovaScotia, in the most interior part of the bay ofEundy.

Chiegneto, a small river of the above pro-vince, which rises from a lake, runs s. and entersthe Basin of the Mines.

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Chiegneto, a cape or point of the coast of thesame province, in the bay of Fundy.

CHIEN, Trou au, a river of the island ofGuadalupe. It rises in the mountains towardsthe e. runs e. and enters the sea between the pointof Petit Carbet and the river Trou or Chat.

==CHIENS, ISLA DE LOS, or Island of theDogs==, in the gulf of St. Lawrence, at the entranceof the strait of Belleisle, and on the w. coa«t of theisland of Newfoundland.

CHIETLAN, a head settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Yzucar in Nueva Espaila. It was for-merly the corregbniento, and is at present embo-died with this jurisdiction. It is of a warm andmoist temperature, but very pleasant, and coveredwith gardens full of flowers, fruits, and vegetables.The territory also abounds in wheat, maize, andother seeds, and particularly in dates, the wholeof the district being covered with palms. Its in-habitants consist of 267 families of Spaniards,Mustees, and Mulattocs, and of 356 families of In-dians, including those dwelling in the settlementswhich belong to this district. It abounds like-wise in garbanzos, or Spanish pease, anniseed, andmelons, all of which are of the best quality of anj^in the whole kingdom. It lies three leagues s. ofits capital.

The aforesaid settlements are,

Ahuehuezingo,

San Nicolas de Tenaxcalco,

Santiago de Azalan.

CHIGNAL, VOLCAN DE, a mountain of theprovince and corregimiento of Maúle in the king-dom of Chile, distinct from the other which isnear to it and of the same name.

(CHIGNECTO Channel, then. to. arm of thebay of Fundy, into which Petitcodiac river falls.The spring tides rise here 60 feet.)

CHIGUACHI, a settlement of the corregimi-ento of Ubaqué in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ;situate behind the mountains of Guadalupe andMonserrat, of the city of Santa Fe, from whence itis distant five leagues to the c. It is of a delight-ful temperature, and abounds in wheat, maize,barley, potatoes, sugar-cane, and plantains. Itsinhabitants consist of 200 families of Spaniards,and a very tew Indians.

CHIGUAGUA, San Felipe de, a town ofthe province of Taraumara, and kingdom ofNueva Viscaya ; situate near the river San Pedro.Its population consists of 2000 families of Spa-niards, and some of Mustees and Mulattoes. Thetown is large and well built, and the liouses arehandsome ; amongst otlier buildings, the most con-

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tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues tothe w. n. w. of Mexico.

Chilchota, another settlement of the headsettlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui-catlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountainwhich is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading incochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.It is eight leagues from its head settlement.

Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory titleof San Pedro. It is of the head settlement ofQuimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de losLlanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami-lies of Indians.

CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlementand real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix-miquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215families of Indians, and in the real are 27 ofSpaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. Itis of an extremely cold and moist temperature,and its commerce depends upon the working ofthe lead mines. Some silver mines were formerlyworked here, but these yielded so base a metal,and in such small quantities, that they were en-tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yieldedby far the greatest emolument. Five leagues tothe e. of its capital.

CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame-rica, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by thestraits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on thee. by the provinces of Tucuman and BuenosAyres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, andon the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal-lanicas from the straits and the plains or desertsof Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. TheInca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carriedhis conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, inlat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the firstSpaniard who discovered this country, in the year1335, and began its conquest, which was after-wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe-dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, andafterwards met with a disgraceful death at thehands of the Indians, having been made prisonerby them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are themost valorous and warlike of all in America ) theyhave maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde-pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they areseparated by the river Biobio. This is the limitof the country possessed by them ; and thoughthe Spaniards have penetrated through differententrances into their territories, and there built va-rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these beenpulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-

fenders of their liberty and their country. Theyare most dexterous in the management of the lance,sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macanawood ; and although they are equally so in thepractice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” Theyare very agile and dexterous horsemen, and theirhorses are excellent, since those which run wild,and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have notdegenerated, or become at all inferior to the bestwhich that country produces. The part whichthe Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends itswhole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapoto the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond theisle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, asit were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera ofthe Andes ; from these descend infinite streams andrivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,and forming a country altogether charming andluxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for theconvenience and enjoyment of life, producing, inregular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame-rica and Europe. The summer here begins inSeptember, the estio (or hot summer) in December,the autumn in March, and the winter in June.The climate is similar to that of Spain, and thetemperature varies according to the elevation ofthe land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,and which are very low, are of a warm tempera-ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture thanwhat they derive from some small rivers descend-ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the spaceof 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the otherprovinces it rains more frequently, in proportionas they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,from April to September ; for which reason theyare more fertile. These provinces are watered bymore than 40 rivers, which also descend from thecordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snowmelted in the summer, swelling them to a greatheight. They generally abound in fish of themost delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and manyothers. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main-taining a vast population by the shell-fish foundupon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the mostdelicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasya species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,and tunnies, which come at their seasons onthe coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra-bas of Andaluda. For some years past they saltdown cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a

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smaller size, are more delicate, and of superiorflavour to those caught in Newfoundland. Am-bergris is also found upon the coast. The moun-tains abound in trees of the most beautiful kind,laurels, oaks of four sorts, the carob-tree, thewood of M'hich is extremely hard, reulis, cinna-mon-trees, Cyprus, sandal, paraguas, hazel-nut,ivall-nut, volos, and alerces, which are a kind ofcedar, of which they make planks in great num-bers to carry to Lima and other parts. Many ofthese trees are green the whole year round, fromthe moisture and shelter they derive from the cor-dillera, which contains in its bowels much fire, asappears from the volcanoes found upon it, andwhich are 12 in number, without counting manyothers, even as far as the straits of Magellan. Al-though these mountains and woods are so immense,beasts of a savage kind are rarely to be found, ex-cepting such, now and then, as a tiger or leopard ;but there are great numbers of deer, stags, vicunas,and Imanacos, which served as food for the In-dians; as likewise of birds, as ducks, vandurrias,swans, herons, kites, doves, piuguenes, tarlales,parrots, hawks, falcons, goshawks ; and many sing-ing birds, as goldfinches, larks, starlings, diucas,trillies, and many others. Its present vegetableproductions are wheat, barley, Indian wheat, grainsof different kinds, oil of the finest olives, excellentwines, much esteemed in Peru; all kinds of suc-culent fruits, oranges, lemons, innumerable sorts ofapples, and every kind of garden herb. Flax andliemp is cultivated here, from which they makerigging for vessels trading to the S. seas ; and thiscould be supplied in a proportion equal to any de-mand. This kingdom keeps up a considerabletrade with Peru ; for, one year with the other, itsends to Lima from 150 to 180,000 bushels ofwheat, 120,000 quintals of grease, much wine,and other productions, as almonds, nuts, lentils,a sort of wild marjoram and bastard saffron ; andtakes in exchange sugar and cloths of the country.It derives also great emolument from large herdsof the cow kind, from flocks of sheep and goats,of the skins of which they procure fine tanned lea-ther, leathern jackets, sharaois leather, and soles ofshoes : from these animals is also procured muchfat or tallow. Flere are numerous breeds of mostbeautiful horse.s, and some of these, from excellingall the others in the swiftness of their paces, arecalled aguiliUias. It also abounds in mules, andit would still more so, if, as formerly, they werein request at Peru, where their skins were usedinstead of fine cloths and carpets. Baizes arc stillmade ; as likewise some sorts of small cord, coarse€tutfs, and many kinds of sackcloth, which is the

common vesture, and consists of a square garment,with an opening to admit the head ; but manylooms have been lost through a want of Indians inthe manufactories. The greater part of thesepeople still prefer their original uncivilized state,depending upon the natural fruits of the earth forfor their food ; for, besides the productions aboveenumerated, they used to gather, without thetrouble of cultivation, all sorts of delicious fruits,such as pines, though different from those of Eu-rope; and to make excellent chiclia of the murtilla.Indeed the luxuriance and abundance of delicateflowers, and aromatic and medicinal herbs, is al-most incredible ; of the last the following are themost esteemed for their virtue, viz. the cancliala-gua, quinchemali, alhahaquilla, and culen. Itcontains many mines of the richest gold, silver,copper, lead, tin, quick-silver, brimstone, load-stone, and coal : yielding immense riches, whichthe Indians never appreciated, nor even gavethemselves the least trouble about, until the con-quest of the Incas, who began to work them ;sending portions of gold to Cuzco for the orna-ment of the temples and palaces, rather by way ofgift than of tribute. The incursions and rebel-lions of the Indians, principally of the Arauca-nians, who, in the year J599, took and destroyedsix cities, viz. Valdivia, Imperial, Angol, SantaCrux, Chilian, and Concepcion, is the cause whythe population is in many places not large, andthat it consists of poor people, living in smallcommunities ; the fact being, that they are alwaj^sliving in constant dread of a surprise from the In-dians; not but that on the confines there are gar-risons, well defended by Spanish troops, with ne-cessary provisions of artillery, victuals, and am-munition. The war which has from the begin-ning been sustained by the Spaniards against thesemost ferocious Indians, has tended greatly to re-duce the numbers of the former ; some havingbeen killed on the spot, and others doomed to beslaves to their indignant conquerors. Indeed,when it was found that arms were of no availagainst them, some missionaries of the society ofthe Jesuits were sent among them, in the year1612, in order to propagate the gospel ; when theFathers Horacio Vechi and Martin de Arandasuffered martyrdom at their hands: after which atreaty of peace was made by the Governor Mar-quis de Baides, A. D. 1640, and which has sincebeen renewed yearly ; their deputies coming re-gularly to the capital to receive the presents fromthe king of Spain. They have, notwithstanding,at different times broken the treaty, making in-cursions into the Spanish towns, and their manner4

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of declaring war is by sending from town to townan arrow clenched in a dead man’s hand,which they call comocatoria; and this they didin the year 1723, making terrible havoc andslaughter. This kingdom is evidently, fromwhat has been asserted, the most fertile, abun-dant, rich, and delightful region of all America ;to which Nature has granted, in profusion, allthat she has given to others, either with a sparinghand, or at too high a price. The people areliealthy and robust. The wind which generallyprevails is thes. w. and the Puelche, which comesfrom the cordillera, is somewhat troublesome. [ThePuelche wind takes its name from some Indians socalled, and from whose country it blows.] Chileis divided into two bishoprics, suffragan to thearchbishopric of Lima ; and these are of Santiagoand La Concepcion. It is governed by a president,governor, and captain-general, which title wasfirst possessed by Doii Melchor Bravo de Saravia,and its government is divided into 18 provincesor districts, which are,

Cuyo,

Copiapo,

l-a Serena or CoquimbiQuillota,

Aconcagua,

Santiago,

Melipilla,

Rancagua,

Colchagua,

And the islands of Juatal is Santiago.

Catalogue of the barbarous Nations and principalPlaces in the kingdom of Chile.

Nations. Mountains.

Chacao,

Chilian,

Concepcion.

Confines,

Copiapo,

Coquimbo or La Se-

rena,

Imperial,

Loyola,

Mendoza,

Osorno,

Santiago,

San Juan de la Fron-tera,

San Luis de Loyola,Valdivia,

Valparaiso,

Villarica.

Forts.

Arauco,

Los Angeles,

Eyou,

Guasco,

Y tata,

Labapi,

Laxa,

Lebo,

Ligua,

Liman,

Limathi,

Longatoma,

Mapocho,

Mataquito,

Maule,

Maypo,

Nubbe or Nuble,Pereroa,

Poangue,

Queule,

Ralemo,

Salado,

Teno,

Maule,

Tucapel,

Tongoy,

Ytata,

Yumbel.

Topocalma,

Chilian,

Promontories.

Turuyan,

Estancia del Rey or

Ballena,

Uten.

Rede,

Carnero,

Ports.

Puchacay,

Cauten,

Castro,

La Concepcion,

Changui,

Cauten,

Valdivia,

Feliz,

Cerrito Verde,

Chiloe,

Villiva,

Chacao,

Fernandez. The capi-

Rivers.

Andalie,

Cumberland,

Guasco,

Antallis,

Araucanos,

Cauquis,

Chauracabis,

Guarpes,

JUncos,

Pequenches,

Pevinges,

Pincus,

Poyas,

P niches,Yanacunas.

Lakes.

Aguas Calientes,Guanacache,Mallabauquen,Padaguel,

Puren.

Antojo,

Chilian, vole.

Chuapa, vole.

Estancia de Rey, gold,Larapangui, silver,Ligua, vole.

Llaon, gold,Llupangui, gold,Notuco, vole.

Payen, lead,

Peteroa, vole.

Petorca, gold,Quillacoya, gold,Sinn, vole.

Yapel, gold.

Cities.

Calbuco,

Canetej

Castro,

Arancagua,

Biobio,

Buono,

Cachapoal,

Cauquenes,

Cauren,

Cauten,

Chavin,

Civapa,

Claro,

Copiapo,

Curarahua,

De Lora,

De la Sal,

Paracas,

Quillin,

Talcaguano,

Tome,

Tongoy.

Isles.

Chiloe,

Clones,

Farallones,

Fernandez,

Guaiteca,

Moche,

Quiriquina,

Santa Maria.

Catalogue of the Presidents, Governors, and Cap-tains-general of the Kingdom of Chile.

1. The Adelantado Pedro de Valdivia, conquer-or of the kingdom; he served much, and withgreat valour, in the conquest of Peru, was a colo-nel of foot under Francis Pizarro, entered in theyear 1537, founded the first towns, and governeduntil the year 1551 ; he was made prisoner, fight-

2

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[lized state.— ‘6 The metals.— 1 . Substitute forwriting.

Chap. II. Fi rst expedition of the Spaniards inChile.— Encounters with the natives., with varioussuccess, until the alliance formed between theSpaniards and Promaucians.

1. Almagvo marches against Chile. —2. Road fromPeru to Chile.-— o. Kindhj received at Copiapo.—4. First European blood shed.— 5. Battle withthe Promaucians.— Q. Expedition abandoned,and why.—l. Valdivia marches against Chile.—8. Province of St. Ja go describe'd.—'il. The ca-pital founded.— \0. Steady enmitnj of the Mapo-chinians.—l\. The mine of Quillota.— 12. The

compassionate ulmena. 13. Recruits fom

Peru, under Monroy.—-\t^. Stratagem of theQuillotanes.-—\5. Serena founded.— \Q. Pro-maucian cdlies.—ll . Valdivia sets sail for Peru,and returns with men and supplies.— \8. Con-cepcion founded.

Chap. III. Of the character and manners of theAraucanians .

1. Local situation.— 2. Character .-—3. Dress.—

4. Dwellings.— b. Division of the Araucanian

state.— 6. Its political form.-— 7. Civil institu-tions.— 8. Military system.— 3. Their arms,and mode of making av/r.— -10. Division of thespoil.— 1\. Sacrifice after the war. — \2. Con-gress of peace.— 13. System of religion.—!^.Funeral ceremonies.— \b. Division of time.—16. Astronomical ideas.— \7. Measures.— \8.Phetoric.— \9. Poetry . — 20. Medical skill.— -21. Commerce.— 22. National pride.— 23. Kind-ness towards each other.— 2^. Mode of saluta-tion. 25. Proper names.-— 20. Domestic em-

ployments. — 27. Food. -— 28. Music, and otherdiversions.

Chap. IV. The wars of the Araucanians with theSpaniards, and concomitant events.

1. The Toqui Aillavila.—2. The Toqui Lincoyan.—3. Imperial founded.---!^. Villariqa founded. —

5. The Cunches.—G. Valdivia founded.-— 7 . For-tresses of Fiiren, Tucapel, and Araiico built.—8. City of the Frontiers founded. -— 9. Threeprincipal military offices instituted at Concepcion.

— \Q. The Toqui Caupolican. 11. Valdivia

slain.— Lautaro appointed lieutenant-general,—12. The mountain Mariguenu. 13. The Go-

vernor Villa gr an. —1^. Conception destroyed.—15. The small-pox appears.-— \0. Decision ofthe audience of Lima 1 'especting the governors.-—17. Concepcion rebuilt, and destroyed by Lau-taro.— Lautaro arrives at Santiago.— 19.Death of Lautaro.— 20. Caupolican raises thesiege of Imperial.— 21. The Governor Don Gar-

cia Hurtado de Mendoza.— 22. Caupolican takenprisoner and impaled.— 23. Cahete founded.—24. The Cur.ches, their curious embassy and stra-tagem.— 25. Archipelago of Chiloe discovered.-—26. City of Osorno founded.— 27 . Caupolican theSecond.— 28. The Guarpes subjected.— 29. St.Juan and Mendoza founded,— 30. Villagran re-instated. — 31. The province of Tucuman re-stored, afterwards retaken. 32. Cahete de-stroyed.— 33. Pedro Villagran. ---34. The To-qui Pcdllataru,— 35. Archipelago of Chiloe sub-jected; description of the same ; its inhabitants,fc.-—36. The court of audience established.—

37. Suppression of the tribunal of audience.— -

38. Description of the Pehuenches .—39 . De-scription of the Chiquillanians . — 40. Landingand defeat of the English.— ^1. Nature oj thewar in anno 1589. — 42. Independence restored.--43. Expedition of the Dutch.-— All theSpanish settlements destroyed.— 1^5. Court of au-dience re-established.— i6. Ineffectual efforts ofPhilip III. to establish a lasting peace. — VI .Second expedition of the Dutch.— F8. Secondexpedition o f the English.— ^9. Peace at lengthconcluded.-— 50. Last expedition of the Dutch.— 51. Dreadful earthquake. — 52. Commercewith the French.— 53. How the Pehuenches be-came inimical to the Spaniards.— 51. Peace re-stored.

Chap. V. Present state of Chile.

1. Civil government.— 2. Military force.— -3. Ec-clesiastical government. 4. The cities anddwellings.— 5. Population.— 6. Chilian Creoles.—7. ^ate of arts and sciences.— 8. The pea-santry .—9. Dress, S;c.— 10. Diseases; small-pox, how cured.— 11 . Manners, moral and phy-sical. 12. Internal and external commerce,

mines, imports, and exports. — 13. Natural divi-sions.— U. Poliiiced divisions.— 15. Climate.— -16. Of rain. — 11 . Winds.— -IS. Meteors.— 19.Volcanoes. — 20. Earthquakes. —21. Some de-tail of productions.— 22. Present revolution.

Chap. I.

Origin and language of the Chilians .—Conquestof the Peruvians, and state of Chile before thearrival of the Spaniards.-— What was then itspolitical establishments, government, and arts.Of the origin and huiguage of the Chilians, notraces are to be found further back than the middleof the 15th century, -which was the time when (hePeruvians first began (heir conquests in this de-lightful country. It is the general opinion thatAmerica was settled from the n. e. part of Asia,but the opinion entertained by the Chilians is, (hat '3 E 2

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[proof that these tribes were in the habit of inter-course with each other, and were not insulated, orseparated by vast deserts, or by inmiense lakes orforests, which is the case in many other ])arls ofAmerica. Another proof of their civilization, andperhaps equally so, as to the amount of population,is, that they liad in many parts of the countryaqueducts for watering their fields, which wereconstructed with much skill. Among these, thecanal which for the space of many miles bordersthe rough skirts of the mountains in the vicinity ofthe capital, and waters the land to the of thatcity, is particularly remarkable for its extent andsolidity. The right of property was fully esta-blished among the Chilians ; they were found tohave collected themselves in societies, more or lessnumerous, in those districts that were best suited totheir occupation ; and here, having establishedthemselves in large villages, called cora, a namewhich they at present give to the Spanish cities, orin small ones, which they denominated lov, theyenjoyed a specific form of government, and theyhad in each village or hamlet a chief, called nlmen,signitying a rich man, who in certain points wassubject to the supreme ruler of the tribe, who w asknown by the same name. They built their housesof a quadrangular form, and covered the roof withrushes ; the walls were made of wood plasteredwith clay, and sometimes of brick, called by themtica. A house of similar construction at the villageof Casa Blanca, is mentioned by Vancouver ashaving afforded accommodation to himself andfriends on their way to St. Jago : indeed, they arestill {he common dwellings of the Indians ; andsome of the villages before mentioned exist atpresent in several parts of Spanish Chile ; and ofthese the most considerable are Bampa, in the pro-vince of St. Jago, and Lora, in that of Maule.Tliey manufactured cloths for their garments fromthe wool of the Chililiueque : they used two kindsof looms ; the first not unlike that used in Eurojie,the other vertical. It is very certain tliat the artof pottery is very ancient in Chile, as on openinga large heap of stones in the mountains of Arauco,an urn of extraordinary size was discovered at thebottom.

6. The metals . — The mines of gold, silver, andother metals, with which this country abounds,had not yet been fully appreciated ; but they ex-tracted from the earth gold, silver, copper, tin,and lead, and after purifying, employed thesemetals in a variety of useful and curious works.They had also discovered the method of makingsalt upon the sea-shore, and extracted fossil saltfrom several mountains which abounded in that

production. They procured dyes of all coloursfor their cloths, not only from the juice of plants,but also from mineral earths, and had discoveredthe art of fixing them by means of the pokiira, aluminous stone of an astringent quality. Insteadof soap, the composition of which they had notdiscovered, although acquainted with lye, they em-ployed the bark of the quilkii, w hich is an excellentsubstitute. From the seeds of the madi they ob-tained an oil, Avhich is very good to eat and toburn, though it is not ascertained Avhether theyever applied it to the latter purpose. Altlioiighhunting was not a principal occupation with thesepeople, thej'^ were accustomed to take such wildanimals as are found in their country, particularlybirds, of which there are great quantities. It isalleged, that from their connection with the Peru-vians, they had advanced so far with respect to theenlargement of the sphere of their ideas, as to in-vent words capable of expressing any number ;mari signifying with them 10, i^ataca 100, andquaranca 1000.

7. Substitute for ximting. — To preserve the me-mory of their transactions, they made use, as othernations have done, of the pron, called by the Peru-vians quippo, which Avas a skein of thread of severalcolours, with a number of knots : the subjecttreated of Avas indicated by the colours, and theknots designated the number or quantity. Theprogress Avhich they had made in physic and astro-nomy Avas indeed Avonderful ; but an account ofthese, of their religion, their music, and militaryskill, is deferred until we treat of the Araucaniiuis,Avho still continue the faithful dcjxisitories of allthe science and ancient customs of the Chilians,(See subsequent chapter III.)

Chap. IT.

First expeditions of the Spaniards m Chile ; encoun-ters with the natives, zeith various success, until

the alliance formed bctzocen the Spaniards and

the Pramaucians,

1. Ahnagro marches against Chile . — FnmeisPizaiTO and Diego Almagro having put to deaththe Ir.ca Atahuaipa, had subjected the empire ofPeru to the dominion of Spain. Pizarro, desirousof enjoying w ithout a rival tliis important conquest,made at their mutual expence, persuaded his com-panion to undertake the reduction of Cliilc, cele-brated for its riches throughout all these countries.Almagro, filled Avith sanguine expectations ofbooty, began his march for that territory in the endof the year 15S3, Avith an army composed of 570Spaniards and 15,000 Peruvians, under tlie com-mand of Paullu, the brother of the IncaManco, the]

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[tors of the battle, saw themselves compelled to sus-tain the vigorous attack of tlie enemy, aud advanc-ing with their horse, began a furious battle, Avhichcontinued with great loss upon either side till nightseparated the combatants- Although the Promau-cians had been very roughly handled, they lost notcourage, but encamped in the sight of their enemy,determined to renew the attack the next morning.The Spaniards, however, though by the custom ofEurope the_y considered themselves as victors,having kept possession of the field, were very dif-ferently inclined. Having been accustomed tosubdue immense provinces with little or no resist-ance, they became disgusted willi an enterprisewhich could not be effected without great fatigue,and the loss of much blood, since in its prosecutionthey must contend with a bold and independent na-tion, by whom they were not believed to be im-mortal.

6. Expedition abandoned, and whp. — Thus all,by common consent, resolved to abandon this ex-pedition ; but they Avere of various opinions re-specting their retreat, some being desirous of re-turning to Peru, while others wished to form a set-tlement in the n. provinces, where they had beenreceived Avith such hospitality. The first opinionwas supported by Almagro, Avhose mind began tobe impressed by the suggestions contained in theletters of his friends. Accordingly Ave find him re-turning Avith his army to Peru in 1538: he tookpossession of the ancient capital of that empire ;and after several ineffectual jiegociations, fought abattle with the brother of Pizarro, by Avhom he Avastaken, tried, and beheaded as a disturber of thepublic peace. His army having dispersed attheir defeat, afterAvards reassembled under the titleofthe soldiers of Chile, and e.xecuted ncAv disturb-ances in Peru, already sufficiently agitated. Suchwas the fate of the first expedition against Chile,undertaken by the best body of European troopsthat had as yet been collected in those parts. Thethirst of riches Avas the moving spring ofthe ex-pedition, and the disappointment of their hopes ofobtaining them, the cause of its failure. FrancisPizarro, having by the deatli of his rival obtainedthe absolute command ofthe Spanish possessions inS. America, lost not sight of the conquest of Chile,which he conceived might, in any event, prove animportant acquisition to him. Among the adv’en-turers avIio hatl come to Peru, were two officerscommissioned by the court of Spain, under thetitles of Governors, to attempt this expedition. Tothe first, called Pedro Sanchez de FIoz, Avas com-mitted the conquest of the country as far as tlic riverMaule ; and to the other, Carmargo, the remainder

to the Archipelago of Chiloe. Pizarro, jealous ofthese men, under frivolous pretexts, refused to con-firm the royal nomination, and appointed to thisexpeditioi! his quarter-master, Pedro de Valdivia,a prudent and active officer, who Inid gaiticd ex-perience in the Italian Avar, and wiiat was still agreater recommendation, Avas attached to his party ;directing him to take De Hoz with him, Avho Avasprobably more (o be feared than his colleague, andto ailoAv him every advantage in the partidon ofthe lands.

7. Valdivia marches against Chile. — This officerhaving determined to cstabiisli a pennanent settle-ment in the country, set out on his march in theyear 1540, Avith 200 Spaniards, and a numerousbody of Peruvian auxiliaries, accompanied bysome monks, several Avomen, and a great numberof European quadrupeds, Avith CAmry tiling requisitefor a new colony. He pursued the same route asAlmagro ; but, instructed by the misfortunes of hispredecessor, he did not attempt to pass the Andesuntil midsummer. He entered Chile Avithout in-curring any loss, but very difi’erent Avas the recep-tion lie experienced from the inhabitants of the n.provinces from that Avhich Almago had met Avith.Those people, informed of the fate of Peru, amifreed from the submission they professed to owe theInca, did not consider themselves obliged to respecttheir invaders. They of course began to attackthem upon all sides, Avith more valour than con-duct. liike barbarians in general, incapable ofmaking a common cause Avihli each other, and fora long time accustomed to the j'oke of servitude,they attacked them by hordes or tribes, as theyadvanced, without that steady firmness Avhich cha-racterises the valour of a civilized people. TheSpaniards, hoAvever, notwithstanding the ill-com-bined opposition of the natives, traversed the pro-vinces ofCopiapo, Coquimbo, Quillota, and Meli-pilla, and arrived, much harrassed, but Avith littleloss, at that of Mapocho, now called St. Jago.

8. Province, of St. Jago described. — This pro-vince, Avhich is more than 600 miles distance fromthe confines of Peru, is one of the most fertile andpleasant in the kingdom. Its name signifies theland of many people;” and from the accounts ofthe first Avriters upon Chile, its population corres-ponded thercAvith, being extrcnsciy numerous. Jtlies upon the confines of the principal mountainof the Andes, and is 140 miles in circiimfereiicc.It is watered by the rivers Maypo, Colina, Lampa,and Mapocho, Avhich last divides it into two nearlyequal parts; and after pursuing a subterraneouscourse for the space of five miles, again shows it-self Avith increased copiousness, and disdiarges itsl

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[waters into the Majpo. The mountains of Caren,which terminate it on the n. abound witli veins ofgold ; and in that part of tlie Andes whicli boundsit at the e, arc found several rich mines of silver.Valdivia, who liad endeavoured to penetrate as faras possible into the country, in order to render itditlicnlt for Ids soldiers to return to Peru, deter-mined to make a settlement in this province,which, from its natural advantages, and its remote-ness, appeared to him more suitable than any otherfor the centre of his conquests.

9. Capital founded.—Wiih. this view, havingselected a convenient situation on the left shore ofthe Mapocho, on the 24th February 1541, helaid the foundations of the capital of the kingdom,to which, in honour of that apostle, he gave thename of St. Jago. In laying out the city, he di-vided the ground into plats or squares, each con-taining 4096 toises, a fourth of Avhich he allowedto every citizen, a plan which has been pursuedin the foundation of all the other cities ; one of theseplats, lying upon the great square, he destined forthe cathedral and the bishop’s palace, Avhich heintended to build there, and the one opposite forthat of the government. He likewise appointed amagistracy, according to the forms of Spain, fromsuch of his army as were the best qualified ; andto protect the settlement in case of an attack, heconstructed a fort upon a hill in the centre of tliecity, Avhich has since received the name of St.Lucia. Many have applauded the discernmentof Valdivia, in having made choice of this situa-tion for the seat of the capital of the colony. Butconsidering the wants of a great city, it would havebeen better placed 15 miles farther to the s. uponthe Maypo, a large river, Avhich has a direct com-munication with the sea, and might easily be ren-dered navigable for ships of the largest size. Thiscity, however, contained in 1807 more than 40,000inhabitants, and is rapidly increasing in popula-tion, from its being the seat of government, andfrom its great commerce, supported by the luxuryof the Avealthy inhabitants. Meanwhile the na-tives saw Avith a jealous eye this new establishment,and concerted measures, although late, for freeingthemselves of these unAvelcome intruders, Valdiviahaving discovered their intentions in season, con-fifiedthe chiefs of the conspiracy in the fortress ;and suspecting some secret intelligence betAveenthem and the neighbouring Promaucians, repairedwith 60 horse to the river Cachapoal to Avatchtheir movements. But this measure was unneces-sary ; that fearless people had not the policy tothink of uniting Avith their neighbours in order tosecure themselves from the impending danger.

10. Steady unanimity of the Mapochinians . —The Mapochinians, taking advantage of the de-parture of the general, fell upon the colony withinconceivable furj^, burned the half-built houses,and assailed the citadel, wherein the inhabitants hadtaken refuge, oh all sides. Notwithstanding theultimate defeat Avhich the Mapochinians expe-rienced in this battle, and others of not less import-ance Avhich they afterwards experienced, the}-never ceased, for the space of six years, until theirutter ruin, to keep the Spaniards closely besieged,attacking them upon every occasion that offered,and cutting off their provisions, in such a mannerthat they Avere compelled to subsist upon unwhole-some and loathsome viands, and upon the littlegrain that they could raise beneath the cannon ofthe place. The fertile plains of the neighbour-hood had become desert and uncultivated, as theinhabitants had destroyed their crops and retiredto the mountains. This mode of life did not fail todisgust the soldiers of Valdivia, but he contriAmdAvith much prudence and address to sooth theirturbulent spirits, painting to them in seducingcolours the happy prospect that aAvaited them.

11. The mine of Valdivia had often

heard in Peru that the valley of Quillota abounded inmines of gold, and imagined that he might obtainfrom thence a sufficient quantity to satisfy his sol-diers ; in consequence, notwithstanding the diffi-culties Avith which he was surrounded, he sentthither a detachment of troops, with orders tosuperintend the digging of this precious metal.The mine that Avas opened Avas so rich that itsproduct surpassed their most sanguine hopes ;their present and past sufferings were all buried inoblivion, nor Avas there one among them who hadthe remotest wish of quitting the country. Thegovernor, (for Valdivia had persuaded the magis-tracy of the city to give him this title), Avho Avasnaturally enterprising, encouraged by this success,had a frigate built in the mouth of the river Chile,Avhich traverses the valley, in order more readilyto obtain succours from Peru, without which hewas fully sensible he could not succeed in accom-plishing his vast undertakings. In the mean time,as the state of affairs was urgent, Valdivia wasresolved to send to Peru by land two of his cap-tains, Alonzo Monroy and Pedro Miranda, withsix companions, whose spurs, bits, and stirrups hedirected to be made of gold, hoping to entice, bythis proof of the opulence of the country, his fel-loAV-citizens to come to his assistance. These mes-sengers, though escorted by 30 men on horseback,who were ordered to accompany them to the bor-ders of Chile, Avere attacked and defeated by 100]

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[modesty and simplicity ; their dress is entirely ofwool, and, agreeable to the natural taste, of agreenish blue colour ; it consists of a tunic, a gir-dle, and a short cloak, called ichella, which isfastened before with a silver buckle. The tunic,called chiamal^ is long, and descends to the feet ; itis without sleeves, and is fastened upon the shoul-der by silver broches or buckles ; this dress,sanctioned by custom, is never varied ; but togratify their love of finery, they adorn themselveswith all those trinkets which caprice or vanity sug-gests. They divide their hair into several tresses,Avhich float in graceful negligence over their shoul-ders, and decorate their heads with a species offalse emerald, called glianca, held by them in highestimation ; their necklaces and bracelets are ofglass, and their ear-rings, which are square, ofsilver ; they have rings upon each finger, thegreater part of which are of silver. It is calculatedthat more than 100,000 marks of this metal areemployed in these female ornaments, since theyare worn even by the poorest class.

4. Dwellings . — We have already given someaccount of the dwellings of the ancient Chilians :the Araucanians, tenacious, as are all nations notcorrupted by luxury, of the customs of theircountry, have made no change in their mode ofbuilding. But as they are almost all polygamists,the size of their houses is proportioned to the num-ber of women they can maintain ; the interior ofthese houses is very simple ; the luxury of conve-nience, splendour, and show, is altogether un-known in them, and necessity alone is consultedin the selection of their furniture. They neverform towns, but live in scattered villages or ham-lets on the banks of rivers, or in plains that areeasily irrigated. Their local attachments arestrong, each family preferring to live upon theland inherited from its ancestors, which they cul-tivate sufficiently for their subsistence. The geniusof this haughty people, in which the savage stillpredominates, will not permit them to live irtwalled cities, which they consider as a mark ofservitude.

5. Division of the Araucanian state.— Althoughin their settlements the Araucanians are wanting inregularity, that is by no means the case in thepolitical division of their state, which is regulatedwith much nicety and intelligence. They havedivided it from n. to s. into four tdhal-mapiis, orparallel tetrarchates, that are nearly equal, towhich they give the names of Laiiquen-mapu, themaritime country ; L,elbun-mapu^ the plain coun-try ; Inapire-mapUy the country at the foot of theAndes ; and Pire-mapuj or that of the Andes.

Each uthal-mapu is divided into five aillareguesor provinces; and each aillaregue, into nine reguesor counties. The maritime country comprehendsthe provinces of Arauco, Tucapel, lllicura, Bo-roa, and Nagtolten ; the country of the plain in-cludes those of Encol, Puren, Reposura, Ma-quegua, and Mariquina ; that at the foot of theAndes contains Mar veil, Colhue, Chacaico, Que-cheregua, and Guanagua ; and in that of theAndes is included all the valleys of the cordillerasysituate within the limits already mentioned,which arc inhabited by the Puelches. These moun-taineers, who were formerly a distinct nation, inalliance Avith the Araucanians, are now unitedunder their government, and have the same ma-gistrates. In the second and third articles of theregulations of Lonquilmo, made in the year 1784,the limits of each uthal-mapu are expresslj" defined,and its districts marked out. It declares to beappertaining to that of the cordilleras., the Huilli-ches of Changolo, those of Gayolto and Rucacho-roy, to the s. ; the Puelches and Indian pampas tothe n. from Malalque and the frontiers of Mendozato the Mamil-mapu in the pampas of BuenosAyres ; the whole forming a corporate body withthe Puelches and Pehuenches of Maule, Chilian,and Antuco; so that at present, in case of an in-fraction of the treaty, it may easily be known whatuthal-mapu is to make satisfaction. This divi-sion of Araucania, Avhich discovers a certain de-gree of refinement in its political administration, isof a date anterior to the arrival of the Spaniards,and serves as a basis for the civil government ofthe Araucanians, w'hich is aristocratic, as that ofmany other barbarous nations has been. Thisspecies of republic consists of three orders of no-bility, each subordinate to the other; the toqiiis,the apo~ulmenes, and the ulmenes, all of Avhomhave their respective vassals. The toquis, whomay be styled tetrarchs, are four in number, andpreside over the uthal-mapus. The appellation oftoqui is derived from the verb toquin, which sig-nifies to judge or command ; they are independentof each other, but confederated for the publicAvelfare. The apo-iilmenes or arch-ulmenes go-vern the provinces under their respective toquis.The ulraenes, who are the prefects of the regues orcounties, are dependent upon the apo-ulmenes ;this dependence, however, is confined almost en-tirely to military affairs. Although the ulmenesare the lowest in the scale of the Araucanian aris-tocracy, the superior ranks, generally speaking,are comprehended under the same title, which isequivalent to that of cacique. The discriminativebadge of the toqui is a species of battle-axe, made]

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[Puelclies, in order to satisfy that valiant tribe, whoamount to the fourth part of the population of thestate. Nor have the Araucanians ever Jiad causeto repent of this selection. During the last war,one of these mountaineers, Leviantu, lieutenant-general of Curignancu, harassed the Spaniardsgreatly, and gave their troops constant employ-ment. The army is at present composed of infan-try and of horse. It originally consisted entirelyof the former : but in their first battles witli theSpaniards, perceiving the great advantages whichtheir enemies derived from their cavalry, theysoon began to discipline themselves in the samemanner. Their first care was to procure a goodbreed of horses, which in a short time became sonumerous, that in the year 1568, seventeen yearsafter their first opposing the Spanish arms, theywere able to furnish several squadrons ; and in theyear 1585, the cavalry was first regularly organizedby the Toqui Cadegtiala. The infantry, which theycall narrwntuUnco, is divided into regiments andcompanies : each regiment consists of one thou-sand men, and contains ten companies of one hun-dred. The cavalry is divided in like manner,but the number of liorse is not always the same.They have all their particular standards, but eachbears a star, which is the national device. Thesoldiers are not clothed in uniform, according tothe European custom, but all wear beneath theirusual dress cuirasses of leather, hardened by a pe-culiar mode of dressing ; their shields and helmetsare .also m.ade of the saiiie materi.al.

9. Their army and mode of mailing war . — Thecavalry is .armed with swords and lances; the in-fantry Avith pikes or clubs pointed with iron.They formerly employed boAvs and slings, in theuse of Avhich they AA'ere very dexterous ; but sincethe arrival of the Spaniards, they have almost en-tirely relinquished them ; experience having taughtthem to avoid the destructive eft'ect of their mus-ketry, by immediately closing in, and fightinghand to hand Avith the enemy. The art of njak-ing gunpoAvder is as yet unknoAvn to this Avarlikepeople. Either they regard it but little, or, Avhatis more probable, those Spaniards Avith Avhom theyhave sometimes traded Avould not, if they Avercthemselves acquainted Avith it, communicate tothem the composition. It is, however, believedtlmt they made use at first of the greatest exertionsto obtain the knowledge of this secret, so importantin the present system of warfare. The discoveryof poAvder is Avell ascertained to have been owingmore to accident than to the efforts of human in-genuity, although some pretend that it Avas knoAvn

in China long before the period that it was disco-coA'ered in Europe. The inhabitants of the coun-try relate the following anecdote respecting gun-powder, Avhich, however fabulous and absurd itmay appe.ar, is generally credited. The Arau-canians, on first seeing Negroes Avith the Spaniards,imagined th.at tliey prepared from them the pow-der Avhich tliey used. Soon after, having takenone of those unfortunate men, tliey first coveredliim with stripes from head to foot, and afterw ardsInirned him to a coal, in order, by reducing it topow'der, to obtain the so much Avislied-for secret ;but were soon convinced of the fallacy of theirchemical principles. In their various encountersAvith the Spaniards, they occasionally took fromthem powder and muskets, which, in the subse-quent battles, they employed Avith as much skillas if they had been for a long time accustomed tothem; but as soon as the powder Avas expended,they were forced to resume their former arras.The Dutcli, Avhen they took the city of Valdivia,attempted to form an alliance Avith them, and pro-mised to supply them Avith powder and cannon ;but as they distrusted all Europeans, they Avouldnot listen to their proposal. Before setting out onhis expedition, the general assigns three days forconsultation, in order to consider aneAv the plansof the campaign, and to adopt the best expedients.Upon this occasion every one has the liberty ofoffering his opinion, if he deems it conducive tothe public Avelfare. In the mean time the generalconsults in secret with the officers of his staff uponthe plans Avhich he has formed, and the means ofremedying sinister events. After tiiis the armycommences its march to the sound of drums, be-ing alvAays preceded by several advanced parties,in order to prevent a surprise. The infantry, asAveil as cavalry, jrroceed on horseback ; but oncoming to action, they immediately dismount, andform themselves into their respective comp.anies.Each soldier is obliged to bring from home notonly his arms, but his supply of provisions, ac-cording to the custom of the Romans. As all areliable to military service, so no one in particular isobliged to contribute to the support of the army.The provision consists in a small sack of parchedmeal for each, which, diluted with Av.ater, fur-nishes sufficient food for them until they are enabledto live at free quarters upon the enemy. TheAraucanian troops are extremely vigilant; theyadopt at night the most prudent measures, by en-camping in secure and advantageous positions.On these occasions centinels are placed upon allsides ; and in presence of the enemy tliey re-]

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[an earthquake happens, the Guecubu has given ita shock : nor does any one die that is not suffo-cated by the Guccubu. The ulrnenes of theircelestial hierarchy are the genii, who have thecharge of all created things, and who, in concertwith the benevolent Meulen, form a counterpoiseto the enormous power of Guecubu. They are ofboth sexes, male and female, who always continuepure and chaste, propagation being unknown totheir system of the spiritual world. The males arecalled gen^ that is, lords, unless this word shouldbe the same as the ginn of the Arabians. The fe-males are called amei-malghen, which signifiesspiritual nymphs or fairies, and perform for men theoffices of lares, or familiar spirits. There is notan Araucanian but imagines he has one of these inhis service. Nien cai gni amchimalghen, “ 1 keepmy nymph still,” is a common expression whenthey succeed in an undertaking. The Arauca-nians carry still farther their ideas of the analogybetween the celestial government and their own ;for as their ulrnenes have not the right of imposingany species of service or contributions upon theirsubjects, still less, in their opinion, should those ofcelestial race require it of man, since they have nooccasion for it. Governed by these singular opi-nions, they pay to them no exterior worship. Theyhave neither temples nor idols, nor are they accus-tomed to offer any sacrifices, except in cases ofSome severe calamity, or on concluding a peace ;at such times they sacrifice animats, and burn to-bacco, which they think is the incense the mostagreeable to their deities. Nevertheless they in-voke them and implore their aid upon urgent oc-casions, addressing themselves principally to Pillanand to Meulen. To this little regard for religion,is oAving the indifference which they have mani-fested at the introduction of Christianity amongthem, which is tolerated in all the provinces oftheir dominion. The missionaries are there muchrespected, well treated, and have full liberty ofpublicly preaching their tenets, but notwithstand-ing there are but few of the natives who are con-verted. If the Araucanians discover little regardfor their deities, they are, however, very supersti-tious in many points of less importance. Theyfirmly believe in divination, and pay the greatestattention to such favourable or unfirvourable omensas the capriciousness of their imagination may sug-gest. Those idle observations are particularly di-rected to dreams, to the singing and flight of birds,which are esteemed by the whole of them the truestinterpreters of the will of the gods. The fearlessAraucanian, who with incredible valour confrontsdeath in battle, trembles at the sight of an owl.

Their puerile weakness in this respect would ap-pear incompatible with the strength of their intel-lect, if the history of the human mind did not fur-nish us with continual examples of similar contra-dictions. They consult upon all occasions theirdiviners, or pretenders to a knowledge of futu-rity, who are sometimes called gligim or gugol,among whom are some Avho pass for genpugnuygenpiru, &c. which signifies masters of the hea-vens, of epidemic diseases, and of worms or in-sects ; and, like the llamas of Tibet, boast of beingable to produce rain, of having the power to cureall disorders, and to prevent the ravages of theworms which destroy the corn. They are in greatdread of the calcus, or pretended sorcerers, who,they imagine, keep concealed by day in cavernswith their disciples, called ivitnches, man-animals,and who at night transform themselves into noc-turnal birds, make incursions in the air, and shootinvisible arrows at their enemies. Their super-stitious credulity is particularly obvious in the se-rious stories which they relate of apparitions, phan-toms, and hobgoblins; respecting which they haveinnumerable tales. But, in truth, is there a nationon earth so far removed from credulity in that par-ticular, as to claim a right of laughing at the Arau-canians ? They have, nevertheless, some amongthem who are philosophers enough to despise suchcredulity as an absurdity, and to laugh at the follyof their countrymen. They are all, however,agreed in the belief of the immortality of the soul.This consolatory truth is deeply rooted, and in amanner innate with them. They hold that man iscomposed of two substances essentially different :the corruptible body, which they call anca, andthe soul, am or pulli, which they say is ancanoluyincorporeal, and mugealu, eternal, or existing forever. This distinction is so fully establishedamong them, that they frequently make use of theword anca metaphorically, to denote a part, thehalf, or the subject of any thing. As respects thestate of the soul after its separation from the body,they are not however agreed. All concur in say-ing, with the other American tribes, that afterdeath they go towards the w. beyond (he sea,to a certain place called Gulcheman ; that is, thedwelling of the men beyond the mountains. Butsome believe that this country is divided into twoparts, one pleasant, and filled with every thing de-lightful, the abode of the good ; and the other de-solate, and in want of every thing, the habitationof the Avicked. Others are of opinion that all in-discriminately enjoy there eternal pleasures, pre-tending that the deeds of this life have no influenceupon a future state.]

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[14. EMMera^ceremome^.-— Notwithstanding theyknow the difference between the body and the soul,tlieir ideas of the spirituality of the latter do notseem to be very distinct, as appears from the cere-monies practised at their funerals. As soon as oneof their nation dies, his friends and relations seatthemselves upon the ground around the body, andweep fora long time; they afterwards expose it,clothed in the best dress of the deceased, upon ahigh bier, called pzV/Mnj/, where it remains duringthe night, which they pass near it in weeping, oriu eating and drinking with those who come toconsole them ; this meeting is called curicahu/n,the black entertainment, as that colour is amongthem, as Avell as the Europeans, the symbol ofmourning. The following day, though sometimesnot until the second or third after the decease ofthe person, they carry the corpse in procession tothe eltun, or burying jdacc of the family, whichis usually situated in a wood or on a hill ; twoyoung men on horseback, riding full speed, pre-cede the procession. The bier is carried by theprincipal relations, and is surrounded by women,who bewail the deceased in the manner of thehired mourners among the Romans ; while anotherwoman, who walks behind, strews ashes in theroad, to prevent the soul from returning to its lateabode. On arriving at the place of burial, thecorpse is laid upon the surface of the ground, andsurrounded, if a man, with his arras, if a woman,with female implements, and with a great quan-tity of provisions, and with vessels filled withchica, and with wine, which according to theiropinions are necessary to subsist them during theirpassage to another world ; they sometimes evenkill a horse, and inter it in the same ground. Afterthese ceremonies, they take leave with many tearsof the deceased, wishing him a prosperous journey,and cover the corpse with earth and stones placedin a pyramidal form, upon which they pour agreatquantity of chica. The similarity between thesefuneral rites and those practised by the ancientsmust be obvious to those acquainted with the cus-toms of the latter. Immediately after the relationshave quitted the deceased, an old woman, called2'empulcague, comes, as the Araucanians believe,in the shape of a whale, to transport him to theElysiari fields ; but before Ids arrival there, he isobliged to pay a toll, for passing a very narrowstrait, to another malicious old woman who guardsit, and who, on failure, deprives the passenger ofan eye. This fable resembles much that of theferryman Charon, not that there is any probabilitythat the one was copied from the other ; as thehunaan mind, when placed in similar situations,

will give birth to the same ideas. The soul, whenseparated from the body, exercises in another lifethe same functions it performed in this, with noother difference except that they are unaccoiiv-panied with fatigue or satiety ; husbands havethere the same wives as they had on earth, butthe latter have no children, as that happy countrycannot be inhabited by any except the spirits ofthe dead ; and every thing there is spiritual. Ac-cording to their theory, the soul, notwithstandingits new condition of life, never loses its originalattachments ; and when the spirits of their country-men return, as they frequently do, they fightfuriously with those of their enemies wheneverthey meet with them in the air ; and these com-bats are the origin of tempests, thunder, andlightning. Not a storm happens upon the An-des or the ocean which th(‘y do not ascribe to abattle between the souls of their fellow-country-men and those of the Spaniards ; they say thatthe roaring of the wind is the trampling of theirhorses ; the noise of the thunder that of their drums,and the flashes of lightning the fire of their artillery.If the storm takes its course tow ards the Spanishterritory, they affirm that their spirits have putto flight those of the Spaniards, and exclaimtriumphantly, Imvime?i, imivimen, puen, laguvi-men! “ Pursue them, friends, pursue them, killthem !” If the contrary happens, they are greatlj’afflicted, and call out in consternation, Yavida-men^ puen, namunlumcnl “ Courage?, friends, befirm !” I'hus do they believe that the dead, al-though mere spirits, are possessed, like the sha.dows which thronged about iEiieas in his descentinto the infernal regions, of the same passions, anda love of the same pursuits, by w hich they wereactuated when living.

“ Quoe, gratia curruumArmorumque fuit vivis, quee curanitenlesPascere equos, eadem sequitur tellure repostos."

Their ideas respecting the origin of creation arcso crude and ridiculous, that to relate them wouldserve for little else than to shew the weakness ofhuman reason when left to itself. 'They haveamong them the tradition of a great deluge, inwhicli only a few persons were saved, who tookrefuge upon a high mountain, called Thegtheg,the thundering, or the sparkling, Avhich hadthreepoints, and possessed the property of moving upontlie water. From hence it is to be inferred, thatthis deluge was in consequence of some volcaniceruption, accompanied by terrible earthquakes, orshould appear to be a corrupted tradition ofNoah’s flood. Whenever a violent earthquakeoccurs, these people fly for safely to these moun-l

■i G 2

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[other laca^ and those who bear but a part of thename apellaca : these denominations incur an obli-gation of mutual esteem and aid. Relations byconsanguinity are called in general and

those of affinity quillan. Their table of genealogyis more intricate than that of the Europeans ; allthe conceivable degrees of relationship being indi-cated therein by particular names. From the mu-tual affection which subsists between them, pro-ceeds their solicitude reciprocally to assist eachother in their necessities. Not a beggar or an in-digent person is to be found throughout the wholeAraucanian territory ; even the most infirm andmost incapable of subsisting thcm.selves are de-cently clothed. This benevolence is not, however,confined only to their countrymen : they conductthemselves with the greatest hospitality towards allstrangers of Avhatever nation, and a traveller maylive in any part of their country without the leastex pence.

24. Mode of salutation, — Their usual expressionwhenever they meet is marimari ; and when theyquit each other, ventempi or venteni. They arerather tiresome in their compliments, which aregenerally too long, as they take a pride upon suchoccasions, as well as every other, in making a dis-play of their eloquence. The right hand is amongthem, as with the Europeans, the most honourablestation, contrary to the practice of the Asiatics,w ith whom the left enjoys that privilege. Theyarc naturally fond of honourable distinction, andthere is nothing they can endure with less patiencethan contempt or inattention. From hence, if aSpaniard speaks to any one of them with his haton, he immediately says to him in an indignanttone, entugo tami c?irt( sia, “ takeoff yoiir hat.” Byattention and courtesy any thing may be obtainedfrom them, and the favours whicli they receivemake an indelible impression upon their minds ;Avhile, on the contrary, ill treatment exasperatesthem to such a degree, that they proceed to ihcgreatest excesses to revenge themselves.

25. Proper names. — The names of the Arauca-nians care composed of the proper name, whicii isgenerally either an adjective or a numeral, and thefamily ajjpellation or surname, Avhich is alwaysplaced after the pro[)er name, according to the Eu-ropean custom, as Cari-lemu,^ green busli ; Meli-antu,^ four suns. Nor is there scarcely a materialobject which does not furnish them with a discri-minative name. From hence, we meet amongthem with the families of Rivers, Mountains,Stones, Lions, iScc. These families, which arecalled Cuja or Eipa^ are more or less respected ac-

cording to their rank, or the heroes they havegiven to their country. The origin of these sur-names is unknown, but is certainly of a periodmuch earlier than that of the Spanish conquests.

26. Matrimony. — By the admapu, polygamy isallowed among the Araucanians, whence they marryas many wives as they can furnish with a dower,or more properly purchase, as to obtain them theymust give to their fathers a certain amount of pro-perty, as has been, and still is, the practice in mostcountries of both continents. But in their mar-riages they scrupulously avoid the more immediatedegrees of relationship. Celibacy is considered asignominious. Old bachelors are called by wayof contempt vuchiapra, and old maids citdepra, thatis, old, idle, good for nothing. Their marriageceremonies have little formality, or, to speak moreaccurately, consist in nothing more than in carry-ing off the bride by pretended violence ; which isconsidered by them, as by the Negroes of Africa,an essential prerequiste to the nuptials. The hus-band, in concert with the father, conceals himselfwith some friends near the place where they knowthe bride is to pass. As soon as she arrives, she isseized and put on horseback behind the bride-groom, notwithstanding her pretended resistanceand her shrieks, which are far from being serious.In this manner she is conducted with much noiseto the house of her husband, where her relationsare assembled, and where they receive the presentsagreed upon, after having partaken of the nuptialentertainment. Of course, the expences of anAraucanian wedding are by no means inconsider-able ; from whence it happens that the rich alonecan maintain any considerable number of wives.The poor content themselves Avith one, or two atmost. Nor does there arise any inconveniencefrom the scarcity of Avomen, as the number of fe-males is much greater than that of males, Avhichis, hoAvever doubtful, said to be the case in thosecountries where polygamy is permitted. The firstAvife, Avho is called unendomo, is always respectedas the real and legitimate one by all the others,who are called inando7no, or secondary Avives. Shehas the management of the domestic concerns, andregulates the interior of the house. The husbandhas much to do to maintain harmony among somany women, who are not a little inclined to jea-lou.sy ; and each night, at supper, makes knownhis choice of her who is to have the honour ofsharing his bed, by directing her to prepare it.The others sleep in the same room, and no one ispermitted to approach them. Strangers, on theirarrivaljiare lodged in a cabin entirely separate from]

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C H I L E.

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[Araucanians maj justly claim tlie merit of not be-ing' ill this respect inferior to other nations. Theirgames are very numerous, and for the most partvery ingenious ; they are divided into the seden-tary and gymnastic. It is a curious fact, andworthy of notice, that among the first is tiie gameof chess, which they call comienn^ and which hasbeen known to them from time immeniorial. Thegame of quechu, which they esteem iiighiy, has agreat affinity to tliat of back-gammon ; but insteadof dice they make use of triangular pieces of bonemarked with points, which they throw with alittiehoop or circle, supported by two pegs, as wasprobably i\\e fritillus of the Ro.mans. The youthexercise themselves frequently in wrestling andrunning, ’i'hey are fond of playing at ball, whichis made from a species of rush, and called pilma.^All their gymnsatic games, many of which re-semble those of the European youth, requirestrength, are well suited to their genius, and forthe most part serve as an image of war. Whathas been said of the Araucanians does not altoge-ther apply to the Puelches, or inhabitants of thefourth uthal-mapu, situated in the Andes. These,although they conform to the general custom ofthe nation, always discover a great degree of rude-ness and savageness of manners. Their name sig-nifies eastern-men. They are of lofty stature,and are fond of hunting, which induces them fre-quently to change their habitations, and extendtheir settlements, not only to tiie eastern skirls ofthe Andes, but even to the borders of the lake Aa-gitelguapi, and to the extensive plains of Patago-nia, on the shores of the Atlantic. The Arauca-nians hold these mountaineers in high estimationfor the important services which they occasionallyrender them, and for the fidelity which they haveever observed in their alliance with them.

Chap. IT.

The wars of the Araucanians with the Spaniards,and concomitant events.

Sect. I. Comprising a period of nine years,from 1550 to 1559.

I. The Toqui Aillavila . — It was in the year1550, that the Araucanians, having resolved tosend succours to the inhabitants of Penco, whowere at that time invaded by the Spaniards, gaveorders to the Toqui Aillavila to march immediatelyto tiieir assistance at the head of 4000 men : heaccordingly passed the great river Biobio, whichseparates the Araucanian territory from that qf thePencones, and boldly offered battle to these ne-wenemies, who had advanced to meet him to theshores of the Andalien. After the first discharge

of musketry, which the Araucanians sustainedwithout being terrified or disconcerted, thus earlymanifesting how little they would regard it whenrendered familiar by habit, Aillavila, with a rapidmovement, fell at once upon the front and flanksof the Spanish army. Tiie Spaniards were con-sequently thrown into much disorder, and theirgeneral was exposed to imminent danger, havinghad his horse killed under him, when Aillavila,hurried forwards by a rash courage, received amortal wound. The Araucanians having lost theirgeneral,-with many of their most valiant officers,then retired, but in good order, leaving the fieldto the Spaniards, who had no disposition to pur-sue them. Valdivia, who had been in many bat-tles in Europe as well as America, declared thathe had never been exposed to such imminent ha-zard of his life as in this engagement.

2. The Toqui L.incoyan . — In the following yearthe Araucanians w('re again led on to tiie attack bya new toqui, Lincoyan ; when such was the ter-ror inspired by their approach, that the Spaniards,after confessing themselves, and partaking of thesacrament, thought proper to take shelter underthe cannon of their fortifications. The event ofthis battle was the cause of the foundation of thechapel dedicated to St. James, which chapel wasbuilt by the Spanish soldiers from sentiments ofgratitude, and from their supposition that the re-treat of Lincoyan, who was unsuccessful in hisfirst attack, was caused by the supernitui'aiagency of the apostle St. James himself, whomthey declared to have seen riding upon a whitehorse with a flaming sword, and striking terrorinto his enemies. The governor, after the elapseof nearly a year, resolved to attack them with areinforcement he had just received from Peru : heaccordinglj^, unobstructed by the tardy operationsof Lincoyan, bent his way towards the shores ofthe Cauten, which divides the Araucanian terri-tory into two nearly equal parts.

3. Imperial founded . — At the confluence of thisriver and that of Daraas, he founded the city ofImperial, so called in honour of the EmperorCharles the Fifth, or, as it is said by some, in con-sequence of finding there eagles with two headscut in wood, and placed as ornaments upon thetops of houses. This city was situated in a beau-tiful spot, abounding with every convenience oflife; and during the short period of its existencebecame the most flourishing of any in Chile. Itsposition on the shore of a large river, of sufficientdepth for vessels to lie close to the walls, renderedit a highly advantageous situation for commerce,and would enable it to obtain immediate succour!

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