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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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ACHA, Mountains of, in the province and government of Guayana; they run from N to S on the shore of the river Caroni.

ACHACACHE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Omasuyos, the capital of this province, in Peru. It contains, besides the parish chapel, another, in which is an image of Christ, with the dedicatory title of La Misericordia. [Lat. 16° 33' 30" S. Long. 79° 23' 20" W.]

ACHAGUA, a nation of Indians of the nuevo Reyno de Granada, who dwell among the plains of Gazanare and Meta, and in the woods which skirt the river Ele. They are bold in their engagements with wild beasts, but with human beings they have recourse rather to poison and stratagem; they are dexterous in the use of the dart and spear, and never miss their aim; are particularly fond of horses, of which they take the utmost care, anointing and rubbing them with oil ; and it is a great thing among them to have one of these animals of peculiar size and beauty. They go naked, but, for the sake of decency, wear a small apron made of the thread of aloes, the rest of their bodies being painted of different colours. They are accustomed, at the birth of their children, to smear them with a bituminous ointment, which hinders the hair from growing, even upon the eyebrows. The women's brows are also entirely deprived of hair, and the juice of jagua being immediately rubbed into the little holes formed by the depilatory operation, they remain bald for ever after. They are of a gentle disposisition, but much given to intoxication. The Jesuits reduced many to the catholic faith, forming them into settlements, in 1661 .

ACHALA, Mountains of, in the province and government of Tucuman, bounded by the mountains of Cuyo or Mendoza, of the kingdom of Chile; they run from N N W to S S E at the sources of the river Quarto.

Achamqui. See CHANQUI.

ACHAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Guamanga in Peru, situate on the confines which divide the above province from Huanta.

ACHEPE, Bay of, a small port of the N. sea, on the E, coast of the Isla Real, or Cape Breton. It is close to N. cape.

[ACHIACHICA, a town in Mexico. See Angelos.]

ACHIANTLAS, Miguel de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepozcolula. It contains a convent of monks of Santo Domingo, and 260 families of Indians, who occupy themselves in cultivating and improving the land. It is eight leagues to the W with an inclination to the S of its capital.

ACHIBAMBA, a river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito; it rises in the mountains, and enters the Marañon.

ACHINUTLAN, a very lofty mountain of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It is on the shore of the river Orinoco, and to the E of the Ciudad Real, (royal city), the river Tacuragua running between them.

ACHIRA. See Cata-Magu.

ACHITE, a small river of the province and government of Guayana. It runs from S to N and enters the Cuyuni.

ACHOCALLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pacages in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Viacha.

ACHOGOA, a settlement of the province and government of Cinaloa, founded by the missionaries of the Jesuits, between the rivers Tuerte, Mayo, and Ribas.

ACHOMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru. In its vicinity is a volcano, called Amboto and Sahuarcuca, which vomits smoke and flames; the latter of which are seen clearly at night.

ACHONGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Lircay.

ACHOUPEKAHIGAN, a river of Canada. It runs E afterwards turns to the S and enters the lake of St. Thomas.

[ACKLIN'S Island. See Crooked Island.]

ACLA, a small city of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province of Darien, founded by Gabriel de Roxas, in 1514, on the coast of the S. sea, at the mouth of the gulph of Uraba, in front of the island of Pinos, with a good fort, then much frequented and very convenient, from having a good bottom, but somewhat incommoded by currents. Pedro Arias Davila built here a fort for its defence in 1516; but the settlement, nevertheless, did not keep long together, the Spaniards having abandoned it, on account of its unhealthiness, in 1532. [Lat. 8° 56' N. Long. 77° 40' W.]

ACOBAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru. It was the capital, but at present the town of Guancavelica bears that title, on account of its being the residence of the governor and other people of consequence. It is of a good temperature, and so abundant in grain, that its crops of wheat amount to 25,000 bushels yearly. In an estate near it, are some pyramidical stones, and in other parts

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(CANISSEX, a small river of the district ofMaine.)

CANIOUIS, a race of Indians of the provinceand government of Louisiana, inhabiting the shoresof the river Akansas.

(CANNARES, Indians of the province ofQuito in Peru. They are very well made, andvery active ; they wear their hair long, whichthey weave and bind about their heads in form ofa crown. Their clothes are made of wool or cot-ton, and they wear fine fashioned boots. Theirwomen are handsome and fond of the Spaniards ;they generally till and manure the ground, whilsttheir husbands at home card, spin, and weavewool and cotton. Their country had many richgold mines, now drained by the Spaniards. Theland bears good wheat and barley, and has finevineyards. The magnificent palace of Theoma-bamba was in the country of the Cannares. SeeCANARIS.)

(CANNAVERAL Cape, the extreme point ofrocks on the e. side of the peninsula of E. Florida.It has Mosquitos inlet n. by w. and a large shoals. by e. This was the bounds of Carolina bycharter from Charles II. Lat. 28° 17' n. Long. 80° 20' w.')

(CANNAYAH, a village on the n. side ofWashington island, on the n. w. coast of N. Ame-rica.)

CANNES, Island of the, on the s. coast ofNova Scotia, between the islands La Cruz andLa Verde.

CANNESIS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Louisiana, situate at the source ofthe river Rouge, or Colorado, with a fort built bythe French.

CANO, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of its capital.

CANOA, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.

Canoa, a bay in one of the islands of the Cai-cos, directly to the w. of that of Caico Grande,looking immediately in that direction, and nearthe point of Mongon.

CANOCOTA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Collahuas in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of Chibay.

CANOE, Islands of, in the river Mississippi,just opposite to where the river Roche runs into it.

(Canoe Ridge, a rugged mountain about 200miles w. of Philadelphia, forming the e. boundaryof Bald Eagle valley.)

CANOGANDl, a river of the province and

government of Chocó in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises in the sierras of Abide, runs tothe w. and enters the Paganagandi.

CANOMA or Guarihuma, or Guarihuma, a river of theprovince and country of the Amazonas, in thepart possessed by the Portuguese. It rises in theterritory of the Andirases Indians, and enters a kindof lake formed by different branches of the riverMadera.

CANONA, a lake of the province and countryof the Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese,and in one of those numerous islands which formthe arms of the river Madera, on the side of theisland of Topinambas.

(CANONNICUT Island, in Newport county,Rhode island, lies about three miles w. of New-port, the s. end of which, (called Beaver Tail,on which stands the light-house), extends aboutas far s. as the s. end of Rhode island. It extendsn. about seven miles, its average breadth beingabout one mile ; the e. shore forming the w. partof Newport harbour, and the w. shore being aboutthree miles from the Narraganset shore. On thispoint is Jamestown. It was purchased of the In-dians in 1657, and in 1678 was incorporated bythe name of Jamestown. The soil is luxuriant,producing grain and grass in abundance. James-town contains 507 inhabitants, including 16sIaves.)

(CANONSBURGH, a town in Washingtoncounty, Pennsylvania, on the n. side of the w.branch of Chartier’s creek, which runs n. by e.into Ohio river, about five miles below Pittsburg.In its environs are several valuable mills. Hereare about 50 houses and an academy, seven milesn. e. by e. of Washington, and 15 s. w. of Pitts-burg.)

CANOS, Blancos, a small river of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay, which runsn. and enters the Nanduygazu.

CANOT, a small river of Louisiana ; it runss. w. between the rivers Ailes and Oviscousin, andenters the Mississippi.

Canot, another river of N. Carolina. It runsto the n.w. and enters the Cherokees.

CANOTS, or Canoas, a river of the kingdomof Brazil, in the province and captainship of SanPablo. It rises near the coast opposite the islandof Santa Catalina, runs to the w. in a serpentinecourse, and serves as the source of the large riverUruguay.

CANSACOTO, a settlement of the kingdom ofQuito, in the corregimiento of the district calledDe las Cinco Leguas de su Capital.

CANSEAU, an island of Nova Scotia in N.

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CARACAS.

3. George of Spira, a German knight, nomi-nated by the Weltzers in 1533 : he died in 1540,leaving the title of provisional governor to,

4. Captain Juan de Villegas, a title which wasenjoyed but a few days, inasmuch as the audienceof St. Domingo, immediately upon their hearing oftlie death of Spira, appointed,

5. Don Rodrigo do Bastidas, bishop of that -holy church ; he governed till the year 1541, andbeing promoted to the bishopric of Puertorico,the government in the mean time devolved upon,

6. Diego Boica, a Portuguese gentleman, aknight of the order of Christ ; he was confirmedin the government by the audience of St. Domingo ;but in a very few days after he was superseded by,

7. Enrique Rembolt, a German ; who also go-verned a very short time, inasmuch as the excessesthat he committed, and the clamours of the inha-bitants of Toro, obliged the above tribunal tosend out,

8. The Licentiate Frias, fiscal of that royalaudience ; he entered upon his functions in 1642,until the royal nomination of,

9. The Licentiate Juan Perez de Tolosa, nativeof Segovia ; a very learned and prudent man : hewas chosen by the Emperor to settle the distur-bances which had arisen from the administration ofthe Weltzers; for which reason he deprived themof it ; he entered Coro in 1546 ; and although hehad not fulfilled the three years of his appointment,he was, on account of his tried abilities, confirmedin his office for another three years, and diedin 1548.

10. Juan de Villegas, nominated as intermediategovernor by his antecedent, until the arrival of theproprietor,

11. The Licentiate Villacinda, nominated bythe Princess Doña Juana, who, in the absence ofher father, the Emperor, held the reins of govern-ment in Castilla ; this governor took the reins in1554, and died in 1557, leaving the governmentin charge of the alcaldes.

12. Gutierrez de la Peña, nominated provision-ally bythe audience of St. Domingo ; he enteredupon his functions in 1557, until the year 1559,when arrived,

13. The Licentiate Pablo Collado, who governeduntil the year 1562, when, on account of the ap-peals made against him to the audience of St. Do-mingo, this court sent out an inquisitorial judge,who might call him to account, and order himback to Spain : this was the Licentiate Bernaldes,whom they called “ Ojo de Plata,” (Eye of Silver),he having the defect of one of his eyes supplied by

this artificial means. He having, therefore, dis-placed the former governor, took the managementof affairs upon himself, until the arrival of theproper person, who was nominated by the king in1563.

14. Don Alonzo de Manzanedo, who governed avery short time since ; being of a very advancedage, he soon fell sick, and died in 1564.

15. The Licentiate Bernaldes; who havinggained a certain reputation for the strictness, affa-bility, and justice, with which he conducted him-self in his provisional government, was nominaleda second time by the audience of St. Domingo,with the general acclamation of the province ;he governed until the year following, 1565, whenarrived,

16. Don Pedro Ponce de Leon, a branch of theillustrious house of the Dukes of Arcos ; he hadbeen alcalde of Conil, came to the government inthe aforesaid year, and died in 1569.

17. Don Juan de Chaves, a native of Truxilloin Estremadura ; who was living as a citizen atSt. Domingo at tiie time that he was appointedas provisional governor by the audience, as soon asthe death of the former was known to them : heentered upon the government the same year, andheld it until the year 1572.

18. Diego Mazariego ; who entered Coro in theabove year, and governed until 1576, when hissuccessor arrived, who was,

19. Don Juan Pimentel, a branch of the houseof the Counts of Benavente, knight of the order ofSantiago ; also the first governor who establishedhis residence in the city of Santiago. He wascalled from thence to take the charge of the go-vernment, which he exercised until the year 1582,when his successor arrived.

20. Don Luis de Roxas, native of Madrid ; heentered Caracas in 1583, reigned until 1587, whenhe was succeeded by,

21. Don Domingo de Osorio, commander of thegalleys, and chief officer of the customs of the islandof St. Domingo ; at which place he was residingwhen he received advices relative to his succeed-ing the former governor : he filled his office withmuch diligence, and obtained considerable renown,and in the year 1597 was promoted to the presi-dency of St. Domingo.

22. Gonzalo de Piña Lidueña, who governeduntil 1600, when he died of an apoplectic fit ; andin the interval the audience of St. Domingo ap-pointed,

23. Alonzo Arias Baca, citizen of Coro, and sonof the renowned Dr. Bernaldes, who liad governed

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Las Mercedes, and an hospital for women. Itcontains more than 2000 inhabitants, and amongstthese many illustrious families, descended from thefirst conquerors. The Indians here are accountedthe most industrious of any in the kingdom. Theleinperaturc is mild, and it abounds in fruits andpastures : here arc also mines of various metals. Hereit was that Atahualpa was put to death by theSpanish, being the last Inca and Emperor ofPeru ; and there is still to be seen a stone, of ayard and an half long and two-thirds wide, whichserves as the foundation to the altar of the chapelwhere he met his fate. Of this palace, which wasfor the most part built of mud, but which was verylarge, and was afterwards converted into the prison,the chapel, and house of the corregidor, called DeCahildo, nothing has been left save a piece of wallof about 12 yards long and eight wide. It hasnot long been forgotten to what point the Emperorwaved Ins hand,' to signify where his pursuersmight find the treasure which might secure to himhisliberty. At a league’s distance, to the e. of thecity, arc seen the termas, or baths, as they arecalled, of the Inca ; the waters of which are notso plentiful as they were formerly, although so hotas to boil an egg ; but the egg, although it ap-pears completely done, will, if put on a commonfire to boil, take just as much time as an egg whichis perfectly cold ; if kept a day or more it breaks,and the smell and flavour of h, when eaten, is likemud ; but if it be not eaten until it be cold, thenits flavour is similar to that of any other egg* Onthe banks of the stream from whence these watersflow, and in the pools formed by them, there isfound a multitude of animalcule, which looked atthrough a microscope appear like shrimps. Lat.6° 54' 5.

CAXAMARQUILLA y Collaos, a pro-vince and corregimiento of Peru, called also Pa-táz ; bounded e. by the mountains of the infidelIndians, n.e. and n. by the province of Cha-chapoyas, ti.zo. by that of Caxarnarca, the riverMarailon flowing between the two, w. by part ofthe province of Conchucos, and s. by that of Iluai-malies. It is 26 leagues long from ?^. to s. and sixwide, where it extends itself farthest along the e.shore of the river Maranon, Avhich divides thisprovince from those of Conchucos and Huama-chuco. Its temperature is various ; in the hol-lows and uneven I'laces it is mild ; in the partslying upon the above river it is hot, and in thevery lofty parts it is cold. The territory is ruggedand uneven, and a level spot of ground, or Uarmra,is scarcely to be seen throughout the w'hole. Onthe e. side it is as it were walled in by vejy

lofty and craggy mountains, increasing in heightuntil they gradually reach the loftiest summit:but these are the provident sources of streamswhich flow down from them into the Maranon, andwhich, together with the rains, fertilize several spotsof kind, producing maize, wheat, potatoes, ocas,bark, French beans, herbs, and sugar-cane, for theworking of which there are mills on the spot.Every kind of cattle is found here in moderation,and the Maranon abounds in fish. Almost all themountains of this province have in them veins ofsilver and gold ore : but these are very deceitful,and as well upon this account as from the want ofhands, they are for the most part abandoned. Thegold mines, however, have always been worked,though the silver mines not more than 20 yearsback up to now, in which time some riches havebeen discovered ; and even at the present day thegold mines would produce 600 marks, and those ofsilver 3000. The trade of the mines is certainlythe principal commerce of the place, and it is faci-litated by four ports in the Maranon, which afforda convenient opening and communication with theother provinces. The inhabitants of this placescarcely amount to 8000, who live in 17 settle-ments. Its repartimiento used to amount to50,000 dollars, and its alca'oala to 400 dollarsper annum.

The settlements are,

Caxaraarquilla, thecapital,

Bambamarca,

Cundarmarca,

Caleman,

Asiento de Saru-milla,

Chiiia,

Santa Isabel dePias,

Quero,

Buldibuyo,

Santa Magda leade Huayo,Pataz,

La Soledad,Porcos,

Challas,

Tayabamba,

Uchos,

Uchumarca.

The settlement, the capital of this province, is ofthe same name. Lat. 7° 36' s.

Caxamarquilla, another settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Caxatambo inPeru.

Caxamarquilla, another, with the surnameof Gongor, in the same province and corregi-miento as the former ; and thus called to dis-tinguish it, being annexed to the cuacy ofGongor.

CAXAMARQUILLA, another, of the provinceand corregimiento of Huailas in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Pampas.

Caxamarquilla, another, of the provinceand corregimiento of Tarma in the same king-

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dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pasco ; in whichis the celebrated mountain and mine of Lauri-cocha.

CAXAMARQUILLA Y COLLAOS, the territory ofthe missions which forms part of the former pro-vince, and which is a reduccion of the infidel moun-tain Indians, who have been converted by themonks of St. Francis: these Indians are main-tained by a portion paid by the kin«?’s procuratorout of the royal coffers at Lima. They dwell tothe e. of the province, and are reduced to foursettlements ; two of the Ibita, and two of the Cho-lona nation. It is now 90 years since their foun-dation, and the number of Indians may at presentamount to 2000. Those settlements are situateupon mountains covered with trees and thickwoods ; from whence the natives procure incense,cffCflo, resinous gums, oil of Maria, dragon’s blood,the reed called bejuco^ dried fish, honey, wax,monkeys, parrots, and macaws, whicli^ are thebranches of its commerce ; tliough not less so isthe coca plant, which they pack up in measures offour bushels each , and carry in abundance to differentparts, for the consumption of the whole province.The missionaries of the above order have madevarious attempts, and have spared neither painsnor labour in penetrating into the interior parts ofthe mountains ; having repeatedly discovered otherbarbarous nations, whom they would fain have re-duced to the divine knowledge of the gospel.

The aforesaid settlements are,

Jesus de Sion, San Buenaventura,

Jesus de Ochonache, Pisano.

CAXATAMBO, a province and corregimientoof Peru, bounded n. by that of Huailas, n. e. bythat of Conchuios, e. by that of Huamalies, s. e.by that of Tarma, s. by the part of Chancay calledChecras, s. e. by the low part of Chancay, and n.w. by that of Santa. It is in length 34 leagues n. e.s. w. and 32 in width n. w. s. e. ; the greaterpart of it is situate in a serrama. Its temperatureis consequently cold, except in the broken and un-even spots and in the low lands. Besides the pro-ductions peculiar to the serrama., this provinceabounds in all sorts of seeds and fruits; in allspecies of cattle, especially of the sheep kind, fromthe fleece of whicli its inhabitants manufacturemuch cloth peculiar to the country ; this beingthe principal source of its commerce. It producessome grain and cochineal, used for dyes ; and if thislatter article were cultivated, it would bring greatprofit. Amongst tlie mountains of this provincethere is one called Huilagirca of fine flint, and twomines of sulphur and alcaparrosa, articles employedin the colouring of wools, not only in this province,

VOL. I.

but in those of Huanuco, Huamalies, and Jauja:It has also mines of good yeso or gypsum. Theprincipal rivers by which it is irrigated, are twowhich rise in the same soil, and both of which enterthe S. sea, after having laved the contiguous pro-vinces ^ in former times there were fine silver mines,which are still worked, but for some reason or other,to very little profit. On the n. c. part, on some emi-nences, is a spot called Las Tres Cruces, (The ThreeCrosses), there being as many of these fixed up hereto determine its boundaries, and that of the pro-vince of Santa Huailas. Its population consists ofthe 69 following settlements : its repartimiento usedto amount to 1^0, (XX) dollars, and the akavala to1046 dollars per annum.

Caxatambo, the ca-

Cochas,

pital,

Huanchai,

Astobambas,

Gorgor,

Uicas,

Huucahori,

Mangas,

Palpay,

Ptiequian,

Chingos,

Copa,

Caxamarquili* de

Gorgorillo,

Gorgor,

Paellon,

Churin,

Chamas,

Huacho,

Nanis,

Curay,

Chiquian,

Tancur,

Huasta,

A cay a,

Acquia,

Rap;is,

Matara,

Pachangara,

Ticllos,

Palpas, distinct from

Roca,

the other,

Corpanqui,

Naba,

Llaclla,

Oyon,

Can is,

Tinta,

Caxamarquilla,

Mallay,

Rajan,

Andajes,

Hacas,

Chimba,

Carhuapampa,

Caras,

Pimachi,

Larcha,

Machaca,

Maui,

Chilcas,

Calpa,

Ocros,

Caujul,

Cheque,

Nabdn,

Congay,

Conchas,

Copa,

Ayndeo,

Caxacay,

Ambar,

Huaillacayan,

Cocharnarca,

Yaraor,

A^arocalla,

Raclla,

Huaca,

Colquios,

Quintai.

Caxatambo, a settlement and the capital of theformer province. Lat. 10° 27' s.

CAXHUACAN, S. Francisco de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Teutalpan, and al-

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Luis de Cabrera, to make an cfl’ecliial discoveryof this nation, but he did not succeed. In 1662the innermost part of this country was penetratedby Fatlier Geronimo Montemayor, of the extin-guished company of Jesuits. He discovered anation of Indians, whose manners correspondedwith this ; but he did not succeed in establishingmissions, for want of labourers, and from other ob-stacles which arose.

CEUADAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom ofQuito. On its n. side is a large estate calledZeogun.

Ceuadas, a very abundant river of the sameprovince and kingdom, from which the above set-tlement borrowed its title. It rises from the lake ofCoraycocha, Avhich is in the desert mountain or"pararno of Tioloma. It runs n. and passing bythe former settlement, becomes united witli anotherriver, formed by two streams flowing down fronrtheparamo of Lalangiiso, and from the waste watersof the lake Colta ; it then passes through the set-tlement of Pungala, its course inclining slightly tothe e. and at a league’s distance from the settlementof Puni, is entered by the Riobamba near the Cu-bigies, another river which flows down from themountain of Chimborazo, and following its courseto the«. for some distance, turns to the c.as soon asit reaches the w. of the mountain of Tungaragua,and at last empties itself into the Maranon ; rvhenit passes through the settlement of Penipe, it flowsin so large a body that it can be passed only bymeans of a bridge, which is built there of reeds ;and before it reaches the ba/ios or baths, it col-lects the Avaters of the Tacunga, Ambato, and otherrivers, Avhich flowing doAvn from the one and theother cordillera, have their rise in the s. summitof Eiinisa, and in the s. part of Ruminambi andCotopasci.

CEUALLOS, Morro de los, an island ofthe river Taquari, formed by this dividing itselfinto two arms to enter the river Paraguay, in theprovince and government of this name.

CEUICO, a small river of the island of St.Domingo. It rises in the mountains of the e. head,runs n. n. e. and enters the grand river Juna, a littlebefore it runs into the sea.

CHABACONDE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Callahuas in Peru.

(CHABAQUIDDICK Isle belongs to Duke’scounty, Massachusetts. It lies near to, and extendsacross the e. end of Martha’s Vineyard island.)

CHABIN, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile. It

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runs from w. to e. being navigable by small vesselstill it enters the S. sea.

CHABUCO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile.

CHACAIAM, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tarma in Peru.

CHACAICO, a settlement of Indians of theisland of Laxa in the kingdom of Chile ; situate atthe source and on the shore of the river Renayco.

CHACALTANGUIS, a settlement and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofCozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, is of a moisttemperature, and situate on the shore of the largeriver Alvarado. It contains seven families of Spa-niards, 18 of Mulattoes and Negroes, and 75 ofPopolucos Indians. Within its district are 19 en-gines or mills for making refined sugar ; and itsterritory produces maize and cotton in abundance ;is three leagues to the e. of its capital.

CHACALTONGO , Natividad de, a settlementand head settlement of the district of the alcaldiamayor of Tepozcolula, is of a cold temperature,and surrounded by eight wards within its district ;in all of which there are 160 families of Indians,who cultivate much maize and wheat ; is sevenleagues between the e. and s. of its capital.

CHACANORA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Caxamarca in the samekingdom.

CHACAO, a city of the island of Chiloe in thekingdom of Chile. It is the residence of the go-vernor, is garrisoned with a small guard, and hasthe best port in the island. Lat. 41° 50' s.

CHACAPA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Challana.

Chacapa, another settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chicas and Tarija, in the dis-trict of the former ; annexed to the curacy ofTupisa.

CHACAPALAPA, a settlement of the head set-tlement and alcaldia mayor of Ygualapa in NuevaEspana, is three leagues to the n. of that place.

CHACAPALPA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Guarochiri in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Santa Olaya.

(CHACAPOYAS. See Chachapoyas.)

CHACARACUIAN, a settlement of the pro-province and government of Cumaná in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate in the mid-dle of the serrania of that province. It isunder the care of the Catalanian Capuchin fa-thers ; and, according to Cruz, on the coast ofthe sea of Paria.

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CHAQUIMINAS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Asangaro in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Sandia in the province of Ca-rabaya.

CHARABAYE, a settlement of the provinceand government of Venezuela ; situate on the shoreof a river in the district of the city of Caracas, andto the e. of the town of Victoria.

CHARACATO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. In itschurch is a miraculous image of Nuestra Senorade la Purificacion or Candelaria, to which singulardevotion is paid.

CHARAI, a settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Cinaloa ; situate on the shore ofa river of the fort which lies between the settle-ments of Ziribijoa and Mochicauchi.

(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)

CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement ofMongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced)annexed to the curacy of the same. Its tempera-ture is mild, and abounds in pure good water, andin the productions of a hot climate.

CHARANDO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Guimeo, and alcaldia mayor of Cirandaro,in Nueva Espafia ; annexed to the curacy of Turi-cato.

CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ;situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, fromwhence its temperature is so cold that it is seldomany crops can be gathered from the seeds that aresown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 inthe wards of its district, and a convent of the reli-gious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settle-ment.

CHARAPE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito.

CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district ofPuerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in thekingdom of Quito, at a small distance from thesea-coast and bay of its name ; this title beingalso applied to the point which forms the samebay.

CHARAZANI, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina,which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. Thewhole of it abounds in cataracts, and its watersthrow up immense quantities of coal, which wasthe cause of its being thus named.

CHARCA, a settlement of the province and

corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Sacaca.

CHARCANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru.

CHARCAS, an extensive province of the king-dom of Peru, composed of various others. Its ju-risdiction comprehends the district of this royalaudience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the cor-regimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, andextends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It isbounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian servingas a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregi-miento of Atacama, which is of its district, andforms the most n. part of this province in that di-rection, and being closed in on its other sides bythe kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, in-cluding the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . :is in many parts very thinly peopled, and coveredwith large desert tracts, and rugged and impene-trable mountains, and again by the elevated cordil-leras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras orpampas, which serve to mark its size and the relativedistances of its territories. Its temperature through-out is extremely cold, although there are not want-ing parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At thetime that this province was in the possession of theIndians, and previous to the entrance of the Spa-niards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointlyunder the name of Charcas ; and the conquest ofthese was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui,fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the ter-ritory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Hereit was that his conquests terminated : nor did thesubjection of these parts extend farther than Col-laysuyo until after his death, when he was suc-ceeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor,who carried on still farther the victories which hadbeen already gained, conquering all the nations asfar on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwardsfounded the city of this name, called also La Plata.After that the Spaniards had reduced that part ofPeru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and thatthe civil wars and dissensions which existed be-tween these were at an end, they endeavoured tofollow up their enterprise by making a conquest ofthe most distant nations. To this end, in 1538,Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force,and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues,found in them such a spirited opposition, that afterseveral battles he was brought to think this objectwas nearly impracticable : this idea was strength-ened by the reception he had met with from theChuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given himconvincing proofs of their valour and warlikespirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just

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in Nueva Espana, is of a mild temperature ; si-tuate in a pleasant and fertile plain, and one whichabounds in maize, wheat, and other seeds. It con-tains S68 families of Indians, 13 of Spaniards, anda convent of the religious order of St. Francis;is one league n. of its capital,

Chiautla, with the addition of La Sal, an-other settlement, the capital of its jurisdiction, inthe same kingdom, thus called from the salt minesfound in it formerly, and from which the inhabi-tants used to derive a great commerce. At pre-sent it is in a thorough state of decay, not only asits trade has fallen off in the other provinces ; butas the Indians have applied themselves rather tothe cultivation of the soil and the planting of fruitsand pulse, from the traffic of which they derivetheir maintenance. It is inhabited by 650 familiesof Mexican Indians, and 40 of Spaniards, J\/us~iees, and Mulattoes. It contains a convent of thereligious order of St. Augustin. The jurisdictionis so much reduced that it is not more than fiveleagues in length and three in width, void of com-merce, and has but a small revenue. Its inhabi-tants, although they are somewhat given to thebreeding of small cattle, yet this must hardly beconsidered with them a branch of commerce,since they have scarcely enough of these where-with to support theiiiselves. It contains only twoother settlements, and these are,

Xicotlan, Huehetlan.

Forty-five leagues s. e. to the s. w. of Mexico.
CHIBACOA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore ofa river to the w. of the town of Nirua.

CHIBATA, a settlement of the . province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, and the head settlement of the corregi-miento of Indies, is of a very cold and fresh tem-perature, abounding in productions, and particu-larly in cattle, from the fleeces and hides of whichare made quantities of blankets, linen cloths, andother articles for garments. It may contain about200 Indians, and it is eight leagues to the n. e.of Tunja, lying between this latter place and thesettlement of Siachoque.

CHIBAI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Collahuas in Peru.

CHICA, an island of the N. sea, one of theLucayas ; situate between the islands Siguate andSt. Andrew. The English gave it the name ofLittle.

CHICACHAE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Louisiana or S. Carolina, in whichthe English have a fort and establishment to carry

on commerce with the Indians, is situated on theshore of the river Sonlahove.

CHICACHAS, a settlement of Indians of thisnation, in the territory thus called, where the Eng-lish have an establishment or factory for com-merce.

CHICAGOU, a port of Canada, on the w. sideof the lake Michigan.

Chicagou, a river of the same province andgovernment, which runs s. then ?i. e. and entersthe former port.

CHICAHOMINI, a river of the province andcolony of Virginia, runs s.e. and turning itscourse to the s. enters the Thames.

CHICAHUASCO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Huipuxtla, and alcaldia mayor of Tepe-tango, in Nueva Espana, contains 72 families ofIndians.

CHICAHUASTEPEC, San Miguel de, asettlement of the head settlement of Zoyaltepec, andalcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan. It contains 48 fa-milies of Indians, and is 10 leagues from its headsettlement.

CHICAHUAZTLA, San Andres de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor ofTepozcolula, in the province and bishopric ofOaxaca, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, is ofa cold temperature, inhabited by 332 families ofIndians, including those of the settlements or wardsof its district, and they maintain themselves bybartering cotton garments for salt on the coast ofXicayan ; 12 leagues s. w. of its capital.

Chicahuaztla, another, a small settlement orward of the alcaldia mayor of Guachinango in thesame kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of that ofTlaola.

CHICAMA, a large, fertile, and beautiful valleyof the province and corregimiento of Truxillo inPeru. It was one of the most populous in thetimes of the gentilisra of the Indians, owing to itsagreeable and benign temperature : is watered bya river of its name, which divides it from that ofChimu. In 1540, the friar Domingo de SantoTomas founded here a convent of his order, forthe instruction of the Indians, which immediatelywas turned into a priory and a house for noviciates.It is at present, however, fallen into decay, throughthe ravages of time. This valley is six leaguesfrom the capital, to the n. in the road which leadsto the provinces of Quito, Sana, and Piura.

Chicama, a river of this province and corregi-miento. It rises in the province of Guamachuco,from two very lofty mountains, called Y ulcaguancaand Yanaguanca, to the n. e . ; and waters and fer-

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rdistinguished for being very sure-footed and active.The horned cattle have, through the favourabletemperature of the climate, acquired a larger size,while their flesh has become better and more nu-tritive ; the sheep imported from Spain retain awool as beautiful as that of the best Spanish sheep,each sheep yielding annually from 10 to 15 lbs. ofwool ; they breed twice a-year, and have gene-rally two at a birth. The common price of cattlethroughout the country is from three to fourfilippi (fifteen or twenty francs), but in the sea-ports the price is fixed by an ancient regulation,at 10 crowns ; of which the commandant of theport receives four, and the owner six.

The different kinds of trees known in Chileamount to 97, and of these only 13 shed theirleaves : amongst the plants, there are 3000 notmentioned in botanical works. _The melons hereare, according to Molina, three feet long, and theonly fruits unknown are medlars, service apples,three-grained medlar, and the jujubre. Of theindigenous worms, insects, &c. are 36 species,andthetunicated cuttle-fish found here is of 150 lbs.weight. There are 13 species of crabs and craw-fish found on the sea-coast, and four species in thefresh waters. There are 135 species ofland-birds,and of quadrupeds 36, without those imported.The various kinds of esculent fish found upon thecoast are computed by the fishermen at 76, the mostof them differing from those of the n. hemisphere,and appearing to be peculiar to that sea.

Amongst the earths of this country is a claythought to be very analogous to kaolin of theChinese ; another kind called roro, producing anexcellent black dye, and represented by Feuilleand Frazier as superior to the best Europeanblacks. The membraneous mica^ otherwise Mus-covy grass, is also found here in the greatest per-fection, both as respects its transparency and thesize of its laminae ; of this substance the countrypeople manufacture artificial flowers, and like theRussians, make use of it for glazing their houses.The thin plates which are used for windows are bymany preferred to glass, from their being pliableand less fragile, and possessing what appears to bea peculiar property, of freely admitting the lightand a view of external objects to those within,while persons without are prevented from seeingany thing in the house.

22. Present revolution. — In Chile, the autho-rity of the mother country has been supersededby the aristocracy of the colony. The govern-ment has fallen, peaceably and without resistance,into the hands of the great Creole families, whoseem hitherto to have used their power with tem-per and moderation. See La PijAta.]

Same name, a river of the former kingdom (Chile), in thedistrict of Tolten Baxo. It runs w. and entersthe sea between the rivers Tolten and Budi.

Same name, a point of the coast of the province andcorregimienio of Arequipa,

Same name, a small island of the S. sea, in the sameprovince and corregimiento.

CHILENO, Paso del, a ford of the riverJazegua, in the province and government of BuenosAyres, close to the river Cordobes.

CHILERIOS, a river of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Aires. It runs North Carolinan and cnler§the river Negro.

CHILES, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Pasto in the kingdom of Quito.

[CHILHOWEE, mountain, in the s. e. partof the state of Tennessee, and between it and theCherokee country.]

CHILIA, a settlement of the province and|corregimiento of Caxaraarquilla and Collay inPeru.

CHILINTOMO, a mountain of the provinceand government of Guayaquil in the kingdom ofQuito ; inhabited by some Indians, who, althoughreduced to the Catholic faith, are nevertheless ofsuch vile habits as constantly to manifest howdeeply idolatry is rooted in them.

CHILIPUIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru.

[CHILISQUAQUE, a township on Susque-hannah river, in Pennsylvania.]

CHILLAHUA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Carangas in Peru, and of thearchbishopric of Charcas.

[CHILLAKOTHE, an Indian town]on theGreat Miami, which was destroyed in 1782 by abody of militia from Kentucky. General Harmarsupposes this to be the “ English Tawixtwi,” inH utchins’s map. Here are the ruins of an old fort,and on both sides of the river are extensive mea-dows. This name is applied to many differentplaces, in honour of an influential chief who for-merly headed the Shawanoes. See Tawixtwi.]

[Chillakothe, Old, is an Indian town des-troyed by the forces of the United States in 1780.It lies about three miles s. of Little Mimia river jthe country in its vicinity is of a rich soil, and isbeautifully chequered with meadows.]

CHILLAN, a city, the capital of the districtand corregimiento of this name (Chillan) in the kingdom ofChile. It is very small and poor, although itcontains some families of distinction. It consists.

2h

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ment of the province and corre^innenlo of Hiia-machuco in Peru ; one of the lour divisions of thecuracy of Estancias.

CHUQUIYAPU, an ancient province of Peru,which was conquered and united to the empire byMayta Capac, fourth Emperor of the Incas, afterthe famous battle and victory of Huallu againstthe Collas Indians. It is tolerably well j, copied,and of a cold climate. Its territory abounds inexcellent pastures, iti which there are great quan-tities of cattle. In some parts, where the tempera-ture is hot, there is found maize, cacao, and sugar-cane. This country abountls in woods, and inthese are found tigers, leopards, stags, and mon-keys of many dilFerent species.

CHURCAMPA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huanta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Mayor.

[CHURCH Creek Town, in Dorchestercounty, Maryland, lies at the head of Churchcreek, a branch of Hudson river, seven miles $.w.from Cambridge.]

[Church Hill, a village in Queen Ann’s county,Maryland, at tlie head of S. E. Creek, a branch ofChester river, n. w. of Bridgetown, and n. e. ofCentreville eight miles, and 85 s. w. from Phila-delphia. Lat. 39° 6' n. Long. 76° 10' a?.]

CHURCHILL, a great river of New S. Wales,one of tlie provinces of N. America, at the mouthof which the English Hudson bay company have afort and establishment; situate in lat. 59° w. andlong. 94° 12' w. The commerce of this place isgreat and lucrative, and on account of its greatdistance entirely secure from any disturbance fromthe French. In 1747 the number of castor-skins,which were brought by 100 Indians to this spot intheir canoes, amounted to 20,000. Several otherkinds of skins were also brought from the n, by200 other Indians ; some of whom came hither bythe river Seals, or Marine Wolves, 15 leagues tothe s. of the fort. To the n. of this fort there areno castors, since there arc no woods where theseanimals are found, though there are many otherwoods Avhich abound in wolves, bears, foxes, buf-faloes, and other animals whose skins are valuable.Here are great quantities of shrubs or small trees,planted by the factory, supplying timber ; but theopposite side, of the river is most favourable to theirgrowth ; and at a still greater distance are foundlarge trees of various kinds. The company re-siding in the fort is exposed to many risks, andobliged to inhabit a rock surrounded by frosts andsnows for eight months in the year, being exposedto all the winds and tempests. On account of thedeficiency of pasture, they maintain near the fac-tory no more than four or five horses, and a bullw ith two cows ; for the maintenance of which du-ring the winter, fodder is brought from a fennybottom some miles distant from the river. Thosewho have been hero allirm, that between this riverand the river Nelson there is, at a great distanceup the country, a communication or narrow passof land, by which these rivers are divided; and theIndians who carry on this traffic, have dealingswith the English navigating the river Nelson orAlbany. [See New Britain.]

[CHURCHTOWN, a village so called, in then. e. part of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, about20 miles e.n.e. of Lancaster, and 50w.n.w.oi'Philadelphia. It has 12 houses, and an episcopalchurch ; and m the environs are two forges, which

manufacture about 450 tons of bar iron annually.
reghnienlo of Caxatambo in Peru. Its jurisdictioacomprehends the settlements of

Huacho,

Pal pas,

Curay,

Naba,

Taucir,

Oyon,

Rapas,

Tinta,

Pachangara,

Mallay.

It has some celebrated fountains of mineral waters,

CHURUBAMBA, settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Santa Maria del Valle.

CHURUMACO, a settlement of the head settle-ment and dlealdia mayor of Cinagua in NuevaEspaña ; situate in a dry and warm country ; onwhich account the seeds scarcely ever come to ma-turity, save those of maize ; melons indeed growin abundance, owing to the cultivation they find,and from water being brought to them from a riverwhich runs at least a league’s distance from thethe settlement. In its district are several herds oflarge cattle, which form the principal branch ofthe commerce of the inhabitants : these consist of80 families of Indians. In its limits are also foundsome ranchos, in which reside 22 families of Spa-niards, and 34 of Mustees and Mulattoes. At ashort distance is the mountain called Ynguaran, inwhich copper mines are found, though this metalhas not been observed much to abound. Fourleagues to the e. of its capital.

CHURUMATAS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Yamparaes in Peru, and ofthe archbishopric of Charcas.

CHUSCOS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe ancient province of Panataguas, to the n. ofthe city of Huanuco ; of which little more than itsname is known.

CHYAIZAQUES, a barbarous nation, and

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manufactures peculiar to the country, such ascoarse trowsers, baizes, and blankets. Although itis some years since this province has received anymischief from the infidels who inhabit the moun-tains of the Andes, yet it has regular advanced de-tachments or guards stationed for the defence of thefrontiers, prepared against a recurrence of the evilsexperienced in former times. As we have beforesaid, it is the largest province, so also it is the bestpeopled, since it contains upAvards of 50,000 soulsand 33 settlements, the capital of Avhich has thesame name. Its repartimiento, or tribute, used toamount to 226,730 dollars, and it used to pay analcavala of 1814 dollars per annum. The settle-ments are,

Cicasica, Mecapaca,

Coroico, Pasca,

Yanacache, Ynquisive,

Chulumani, Quimi,

Caza, Collana,

Suri, Huayrapaya,

Cabari, Coripaya,

Mohosa, Chupe,

Capinata, Milluhuay,

Ychoca, Taxma,

Coani, Choxlla,

Yaco, Chirca,

Luribay, Yrupana,

Haichayo, Colqui,

Calamarca, Plaraca,

Zapanqui, Ocavaya.

Caracato,

CICAYARI, a river of the province and countryof Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions.It rises in the territory of the Chappoanas Indians,runs n. n. w. and enters the Rio Negro.

[CICERO, a military township in New York,on the s. tv. side of Oneida lake, and between it,the Salt lake, and the Salt springs.]

CICLADAS Grandes, islands of the South sea,discovered by Mr. De Bouganville in 1763.

CICOBASA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom of Quito,and of the district of the latter. It rises in thecordillera of the province of Cuenca, runs s. andenters the river Santiago.

CIENEGA, a settlement and real of the silvermines of the province of Tepeguana, and kingdomof Nueva Vizcaya ; situate near the settlement ofParral.

Same name, another settlement, of the provinceand government of Santa Marta in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is situate on the sea-coast,and on the bank of the cknega or marsh which

VOL. I.

lies close to it, and which gives it its name. It waga reduccton of the monks of St. Domingo.

CIENEGA of Oro, another (settlement), with the surname of Oro, in the province and government of Cartagena, of thesame kingdom, it is of the district of Tolu, andformed by the re- union of other settlements in theyear 1776, effected by the Governor Don JuanPimienta.

Same name, another (settlement), of the island of Cuba; situateon the n. coast.

CIMA, a valley of the province and govornraentof Antioquia ; bounded by that of Paucura, fromwhich it is divided by the river Cauca just at itssource.

CINACANTLAN, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

==CINAGUA Y GUACANA, the alcaldia mayorand jurisdiction of the province and bishopric ofMechoacán in Nueva Espana. It is 80 leagueslong from e. to w. and 60 wide from n. to s. Itsterritory is for the most part mountainous and un-even, and its temperature bad. Its productionsare large cattle, wax, maize, and fruits. Tire ca-pital is the settlement of the same name, of a hottemperature, and inhabited by 25 families of In-dians, who cultivate maize and melons, uponwhich this scanty population consists, though itwas formerly of some consideration. It has suf-fered, no doubt, from the iinkindness of the tempera-ture, and from the wantof water. The jurisdictionis 80 leagues to the w. with a slight inclination tothe s. of Mexico. The other settlements are,Guacana, Paraquaro,

Ario, Nocupetajo,

Etuquarillo, Acuiyo,

Santa Ana Turicato. Punguco.

CINALOA, a province and government ofNueva España. It is between the w. and «. ofMexico, from whence it is distant 300 leagues. Itextends in length as far as proselytes have beenmade to the gospel, viz. to 140° ; and it ex-tends to 40° in width. On the e. of it arethe loftiest sierras of Topia, running towardsthe n. and on the w. it is embraced by the arm ofthe sea of California. On the s. it has the town ofCuliacan, and to the n. the innumerable nations ofIndians, the boundaries of which are unknown.This province lies between lat. 27° and 32° n . ; thisbeing the extent to Avhich the inissonaries havepenetrated. The temperature is extremely hot,although the cold is intense during the months ofDecember and January. It rains here very little,especially upon the coast ; and seldom more than3 p

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Santiaijo de la Monclava, and the other settlementsarc as follows :

J>an Buenaventura,Catano,

Villa del Saltillo,

Las Juntas,

La Hacienda del Alamo,Los Ranchos,

San Pedro de Boca Leo-

San Francisco Aguayo,

San Miguel,

El Presidio del Sacra-mento,

San Juan Bautista de

Rio Grande,

Petoyes,

San Francisco de Bizar. nes,

ron, Monte Rey.

Nra. Sra. de la Victoria,

COAHUITLAN, Santiago de, a settlementof the head settlement of Amuzgos, alcaldiaynayoT of Xicayan, of Nueva Espana. It is com-posed of 10 families of Indians, who are busiedin cultivating cochineal, cotton, and hainilla.Twenty -two leagues to the w. of its head settlement.

COAI, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay. It runs e. and enters theParana close to the settlement of the mission ofSt. Thomas.

COAILLO, a settlement of the province and4torreeimiento of Cañete in Peru.

COAJUSCO, San Francisco de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor ofZultepec in Nueva Espana. It contains S6 fami-lies of Indians, and is three leagues to the s. of itscapital.

COALAQUE, a settlement of the province andtorregimiento of Moquehua in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Puguina.

COANDA, a province uncultivated and littleknown, s. t of that of Jaen de Bracamoros inthe kingdom of Quito. It is full of forests, rivers,lakes, and pools ; the climate is hot, moist, andunhealthy.

COAPA, a settlement of the head settlement ofSan Luis, of the coast and alcaldia mayor ofTlapa in Nueva Espafia. It is of a hot tempera-ture, and contains 86 families of Indians.

Same name, another settlement in the alcaldia mayorof Comitlan, of the kingdom of Guatemala.

COAPAN, San Pablo de, a settlement of thehead settlement of Tlacolula, and alcaldia mayorof Xalapa, in Nueva Espana. It is very close onthe s. w. side of its head settlement.

COAPETENGO, San Martin de, a settlement of the head settlement of Zitepec, and alcaldiamayor of Tenango del Valle, in Nueva Espana.It belonged formerly to the jurisdiction of Tancuba,and was united to this of Tenango, on account ofbeing closer to it than to its former jurisdiction.It contains 35 families of Indians.

COAPILLA, a settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Zoques in the kingdom of Guatemala.

COARI, a large river of the kingdom of Peru,the head and course of which are unknown, savethat it runs through countries belonging to the in-fidel Indians till it enters the Maranon : accordingto the map of Don Juan de la Cruz, it has itssource from the large ri vers of Cuchivara or Purus,and of Tefe. It runs $. e. then «. and then turn-ing to a s. e. course, enters with a large body ofwater into the Maranon, through the territory ofthe Zurinas Indians.

Same name, a settlement of the province and coun-try of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese posses-sions. It is upon the shore of the Maranon, andat the mouth of the fornn;er river.

COATA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Paucarcolla. in Peru. In its vicinityare three eminences of 20 yards in height, andwrought by the hand ; there being a traditionamongst the Indians, that in one of them is incloseda certain great treasure taken at the time that theIncas conquered this country : in its church isvenerated an image of Nuestra Senora de la Pre-sentacion, which is a subject of devotion to all thefaithful of the neighbouring provinces. It is si-tuate on the bank of the great lake Titicaca.

COATE, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Combaya.

COATEPEC, San Geeonimo de, a headsettlement of the alcaldia mayor of Xalapa inNueva Espana. Its district is eight leagues inlength, and its own situation is very pleasant, andits productions are many, such as maize, Frenchbeans, and tobacco, the latter being its chief ar-ticle of commerce. Its inhabitants are composedof 12 families of Spaniards, 214 of Mustees andMulattoes, and 138 of Indians ; of the latter, someemploy themselves as drovers, and others in fatten-ing pigs for the supply of Vera Cruz ; land beingvery deficient, and the Avhole of the territory allot-ted to them not exceeding 600 yards. Two leaguess.e. of Xalcomulco.

COATEPEC, another settlement, in the head settlement of Teutalpan, and alcaldia mayor of Za-catlan, in the same kingdom. It contains 120families of Indians, and is three leagues from itshead settlement.

Same name, another (settlement), which is the head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Zaqualpa in thesame kingdom. It contains 150 families of In-dians.

Same name, another (settlement), with the dedicatory titleof San Francisco, of the head settlement of Esca-

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particularly those of (lie parish church, the con-vent of the monks of Niiestra Sonora de la Merced,another of St. Francis, and the hospital of S. J uande Dios. Its population consists of 200 familiesof Spaniards, 122 oi Mustees, 15 Mulattoes, and22 of Indians. In its district is found and gatheredthe celebrated plant called in the country oleacazan^■which is considered as a wonderful restorer of loststrength, and a certain specific against all kinds ofpoison. The leaves of it are applied to the partaffected, and the natives are accustomed to judgeof its virtues by its degree of adhesion. One hun-dred and fifty leagues to the w. of Mexico, inlong. 103^ 20', and lat. 18° 34'.

COLIMAS, a barbarous nation of Indians informer times, but now reduced to the faith, in theprovince of its name; this being now incorporatedwith that of Muzo of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.These Indians are also known by the name of Ca-napayes, being united to them. Its capital is thecity of La Palma de los Colimas. See articleMuzos.

COLIMBA, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Popayán in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada.

COLINA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Santiago in the kingdom of Chile ;in the district of which there are five chapels ofcase, in a spacious and beautiful valley.

COLINA, a river of this province and kingdom,which rises in the mountains of its cordillera, andenters the Maypo.

COLIUINA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Nicaragua in the kingdom of Guate-mala ; situate upon a long strip of land on the coastof the S. sea.

(COLLA, a parish of the province and govern-ment of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a small rivernear the sea-coast, about eight leagues e. of Coloniadel Sacramento, in lat. 34° 19' 39" s. Long. 57°21' 43" w.')

COLLADOS, Ensenada de los a bay onthe s. coast of the w. head, and in the territory ofthe French, in the island of St. Domingo. It is be-tween the rock of Bareo and the river Damasein.

COLLAHUAS, and Asiento of Mines ofCaylloma, a province and corregwiiento of Peru ;bounded n. by that of Cbumbivilcas, e. by that ofCanes and Canches or Tinta, s. e, by that ofLampa, s. by that of Arequipa, and w. by that ofCamana. It is 52 leagues in length s. e. n. w. and16 in width. Its temperature is cold, from beingsituate in the cordillera ; with the exception of thatpart which borders upon Camana, where it isvery mild, especially in the five leagues where its

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jurisdiction extends itself in the valley of Sihuas ;the other five leagues reaching to tlie sea borderingon Camana. Its productions are various : thoseof the valley are comprised in wine, brandies,wheat, maize, pulse, and fruits, especially figs,which being preserved, serve as nourishment tonumbers of poor people. The other territories ofthis province are of the same temperature, thoughcomparatively barren. It abounds in large andsmall cattle, native sheep, vicunas, and some wildanimals. The roads are dangerous, from thecountry’s being extremely unequal, and the greaterpart of it beinga craggy ravine, over which labours,rather than to say runs, a pretty large river, whichhas its rise within the province. Here are manysilver mines, from which great riches were formerlyextracted, since they yielded 80 or 100 marks eachcaxon. Atthe present day they yield but sparingly,on account of their great depth, some of them being200 fathoms in descent ; they are, nevertheless,worked with tolerable profit. The principalmountain of these mines is that of Caylloma, andit was through this mine that the capital wasfounded. There are also not wanting mines ofgold, tin, lead, copper, and sulphur; but these, onaccount of the deficiency of resources, remain un-worked. The capital, as we have before stated, isCaylloma. Its repartimmito used to amount to37,100 dollars, and its alcavala to 456 dollars perannum. The other settlements of the jurisdictionare.

Tisco,

Madrigal,

Callalli,

Tapay,

Sibayo,

A^angui,

Tuty,

Achoma,

Llauta,

Murco,

Taya,

Sihuas,

Chibay,

Maca,

Canocota,

Y chupampa,

Coperaque,

Chabanaconde,

Lary,

Pinchollo,

Huanca,

Huambo,

Yura,

Hucan.

COLLANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cicasica in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Mccapa. Its Indian inhabitants havekept themselves unmixed from any other cast eversince the time of the conquest ; and in order to stillpreserve themselves so, they will not allow of anystrangers sleeping in the settlement, though heshould be sent by the corregidor. If any otherperson should come among them, he is put intoprison, and after a very short time dispatched.Owing to these precautions, the vicious propen-pensities observable in other settlements are en~

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tirely unknown to tiiis. Its inlmbitants lead aregular life ; they give without cxjicctation of in-demnification, and are governed l!)roughoiit the■whole tribe by the sounding of a bell. In short,they might serve as a model for all the other settle-ments of Indians in the kingdom.

COLLANA, another settlement of the same pro-vince and corregimicnto ; annexed to the curacy ofMecacapaca.

COLLANES, a chain of very lofty mountains,almost continually covered with snow, in the pro-vince and corre"imiento of Riobamba in the king-dom of Quito, to the s. of the river Pastaza, and ofthe mountain runguragua. They take their namefrom the nation of barbarous Indians who livescattered in the woods of these mountains, whichrun from w. to e. forming a semicircle of 20leagues. The mountain which out-tops the rest,they call the Altar.

COLLANI, a settlement of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of theJesuits in Nuevo Mexico.

COLLATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Santa Olaya.

COLLAY. See Pataz.

COLLETON, a county of the province of Ca-rolina in N. America ; situate n. of the county ofGrenville, and watered by the river Stone, whichunites itself with an arm of the Wadrnoolan. Thatpart which looks to the n, e. is peopled with es-tablishments of Indians, and forms, with the otherpart, an island called Buono, which is a little belowCharlestown, and is well cultivated and in-habited. The principal rivers of this country are,the Idistows, the S. and N. Two or three miles upthe former river, the shores are covered with plan-tations, which continue for more than three milesfurther n. where the river meets with the N. Edis-tow, and in the island formed by both of them,it is reckoned that 20 freeholders reside. Theseare thus called, from the nature of the assignmentand distribution of lands which took place in thenew colonies. But the English governor did notgrant an absolute and perpetual property, save toparticular individuals : the concession was some-times for life, sometimes considered as lineal,sometimes to descend to the wife, children, or re-lations, and sometimes with greater restrictions.The above-mentioned people have, however, theirvote in the assembly, and send to it two members.In the precinct of this county is an Episcopalchurch.

Colleton, another county, of the provinceand colony of Georgia.

Colleton, a settlement of the island of Bar-badoes, in the district of the parish ot TodosSantos.

COLLICO, a small river of the district of Tol-ten Baxo in Ihe kingdom of Chile. It runs h. n.w. and enters the river Tolten.

COLLIQUEN, a llanura, or plain, of thecorregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It is fertile, andof a dry and healthy climate, although thinly in-habited and uncultivated.

COLLIUE, a settlement of Indians of the king-dom of Chile, situate on the shore of the riverTolpan.

COLLQUE, an ancient, large, and well peo-pled settlement of Peru, to the n. of Cuzco ; con-quered and carried by force of arms by the IncaHuayna Capac, thirteenth Emperor of Peru.

COLNACA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chichos and Tarija in Peru, ofthe district of the second, and annexed to the cu-racy of its capital.

COLOATPA, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Olinalá, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, inNueva Espana. It contains 29 families of In-dians, who occupy themselves in the commerceof chia^ a white medicinal earth, and cochineal,which abounds in this territory. It lies to then. w. of its head settlement.

COLOCA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru,situate on the shore of the river of La Plata, and tothe n. of its capital.

COLOCINA, San Carlos de, a settlement ofthe province and government of Cartagena, in thedistrict of the town of Tolu; founded in 1776 bythe governor Don J uan Pimienta.

COLOCINA, some mountains of this province andgovernment, also called Betanzi, which run n. formany leagues from the valley of Penco.

COLOCOLO, a settlement of Indians of thekingdom of Chile ; situate on the shore of the riverCarampangue, and thus called from the celebratedcazique of this name, one of the chiefs in the warin which these Indians were engaged with theSpaniards.

COLOLO, a small river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs n. and en-ters the river Negro, near where this enters tireUruguay.

COLOMBAINA, a small settlement of the ju-riscidiction of Tocaima, and government of Mari-quita, and in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; an-nexed to the curacy of the settlement of Amba-leina. It is situate on the shore of the riverMagdalena; is of a very hot temperature, and

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purchase, obtained an act of incorporation, Sep-tember 3, 1655 ; and this was the most distantsettlement from the sea-shore of New England atthat time. The settlers never liad any contest withthe Indians ; and only three persons were ever kill-ed by them within the limits of the town. In1791, there were in this township 225 dwellinglionses, and 1590 inhabitants ; of the latter therewere 80 persons upwards ot 70 years old. For 13years previous to 1791, the average number ofdeaths was 17 ; one in four of whom were 70 yearsold and upwards. The public buildings are, aCongregational church, a spacious stone gaol, thebest in New England, and a very handsome countycourt-house. The town is accommodated withthree convenient bridges over the river ; one ofwhich is 208 feet long, and 18 feet wide, supportedby 12 piers, built after the manner of Charles riverbridge. This town is famous in the history of therevolution, having been the seat of the provincialcongress in 1774, and the spot where the first op-position was made to the British troops, on thememorable 19th of April 1775. The generalcourt have frequently held their sessions here whencontagious diseases have prevailed in the capital.Lat. 42° 20'

(Concord, a small river of Massachusetts,formed of two branches, which unite near thecentre of the town of Concord, whence it takes itscourse in a n. e. and n. direction through Bed-ford and Billerica, and empties itself into Merri-mack river at Tewksbury. Concord river isremarkable for the gentleness of its current, whichis scarcely perceivable by the eye. At low watermark it is from 100 to 200 feet wide, and from threeto 12 feet deep. During floods. Concord riveris near a mile in breadth ; and when viewed fromthe town of Concord, makes a fine appearance.)

(Concord, a township in Delaware county,Pennsylvania.)

(Concord, a settlement in Georgia, on the e.bank of the Mississippi, about a mile from the s.line of Tennessee, 108 miles h. from the mouth ofYazoo river, and 218 bclov/ the Ohio.)

CONDACHE, a river of the province and go-vernment of Quixos in the kingdom of Quito. Itruns n. e. and traversing the royal road whichleads from Baza to Archidono, enters the river Co-quindo on its s. side, in 37' lat.

(CONDE, Fort, or Mobile City, is situate onthe w. side of Mobile bay, in W. Florida, about40 miles above its mouth, in the gulf of Mexico.Lat. 30° 59' n. Long. 88° 11' a'.)

CONDE, a small river of the province andcountry of the Iroquees Indians, in New France or

VOL. I.

Canada. It runs n. and enters the lake On-tario.

CONDE, another of the same name. SecV E H D E .

(CONDECEDO, or Desconocida, a cape orpromontory of N. America, in the province ofYucatán, *100 miles w. of Merida. Lat. 20° 50' n.Long. 90° 45' w.)

CONDEBAMBA, a large and beautiful valleyof the provitice and fo?TCg7'??//f>«/o of Huamachucoin Peru ; celebrated for its fertility.

CONDES, River of the, in the straits of Ma-gellan. It runs into the sea opposite the islandSanta Ana.

CONDESA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cartagena; situate near the coast,at the mouth of the Dique, which forms a com-munication between the sea and the grand riverMagdalena.

CONDESUIOS DE Arequipa, a provinceand corregimiento of Peru : bounded n. by that ofParinocochas, e. by that of Chumbivilcas, s. e.by that of Canes and Canches, and s. by that ofCollahuas. It is generally of a cold temperature,even in the less lofty parts of the cordillera ; ofa rough and broken territory, and with very badroads. Nevertheless, no inconsiderable proportionof wheat is grown in the low grounds, as likewise ofmaize, and other seeds and fruits, such as grapes,pears, peaches, apples, and some flowers. Upontlie heights breed many vicunas, huanacos, andvizcachas, and in other parts is obtained cochineal,here called macno, and which is bartered by theIndians for baizes of the manufacture of the country,and for cacao. It has some gold mines whichwere worked in former times, and which, on ac-count of the baseness of the metal, the depth of themines, and hardness of the strata, have not pro-duced so much as formerly they did, althoughthey are not now without yielding some emolu-ment : such are those of Airahua, Quiquimbo,Araure, and Aznacolea, which may produce alittle more than the expences incurred in Avorkirigthem. The gold of these mines is from 19 to 20carats, and they produce from tliree to four ounceseach cfljjow. They are Avorked by means of steeland powder, and the metals are ground in mills.The greater part of the natives of tliis province oc-cupy themselves in carrying the productions of thevalley of Mages, of the province of Carnana, suchas Avines and brandies, to the other provinces ofthe sierra; also in the cultivation of seeds, andsome in working the mines. It is watered by somesmall rivers or streams, which, incorporate them-selves, and form t-wm large rivers. The capital is3 T

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tifni appearance. A mountain similar to this isfound in the marshes of Maule.]

Copiapo, a river Avhich rises in the cordillera.It runs two leagues to the w. passes near the settle-ment of its name, and empties itself into the S. sea,serving as a port for vessels.

Morro de Copiapo, a mountain, called Morro de Copiapo,in the coast, at the side of the port of its name.

COPILA, a small settlement or ward of thealcaldia mayor of Guachinango in Nueva Espana ;annexed to the curacy of Naupan.

COPORAQUE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Canes and Canches or Tintain Peru.

COPORAQUE, another, in the province and cor-regimiento of Collahuas of the same kingdom.

COPORAQUE, another. See Vilcomayo.

(COPPER Mine, a large river of New Britain,reckoned to be the most n. in N. America. Takinga n. course, it falls into the sea in lat, 19P n. andabout long. 119° a;, from Greenwich. The ac-counts brought by the Indians of this river to theRritish ports in Hudson bay, and the specimens ofcopper produced by them, induced Mr. Hearne toset out from fort Prince of Wales, in December1770, on a journey of discovery. He reached theriver on the 14th July, at 40 miles distance fromthe sea, and found it all the way encumbered withshoals and falls, and emptying itself into it over adry flat of the shore, the tide being then out, whichseemed by the edges of the ice to rise about 12 or14 feet. This rise, on account of the falls, willcarry it but a very small way within the river’smouth ; so that the water in it has not the leastbrackish taste, Mr. Hearne had the most exten-sive view of the sea, which bore n. w. by w. andn. e. when he was about eight miles up the river.The sea at the river’s mouth was full of islandsand shoals ; but the ice was only thawed awayabout three-fourths of a mile from the shore, on the17th of July. The Esquimaux had a quantity ofwhale-bone and seal-skins at their tents on theshore.)

COPTA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Aricá in Peru.

COPTOS, silver mines of the province andcorregimiento of Guamachuco in Peru ; they aremost abundant, and have yielded immense wealth.

COPUENO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdomof Quito.

COQUEROSO, a settlement of the provinceand captainship of Sergipe in Brazil ; situate onthe shore of the river Cirti.

COQUE-UIELLE, a shoal of the n. coast ofthe island of St. Domingo, in the French posses-sions, between the point Roche-a-Picoler and theriver Grande.

COQUIBACOA, Cabo de, a point of landwhich runs into the sea, on the coast of the pro-vince and government of Venezuela, distinct fromthat of Chichibacoa. ‘

COQUIMBO, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Chile ; bounded e. by the pro-vince of Tucuman, of the kingdom of Peru, thocordillera running between ; s. by the province ofQuillota; and w. by the Pacific ocean. It is 80leagues in length s. and 40 in width e, w. Itstemperature is very benign ; and on account ofits not raining much in the sierra,, through the lowsituation of this part of the province, the snowand frost is not so common here, nor does it stayupon the ground so long as it does upon theparts which lie s. of Santiago. For the samereason the rivers are few, and th# largest of themare those of Los Santos or Limari, and that whichpasses through its capital. Many huanmos andvicunas breed here. The territory is for the mostpart broken and uneven, and produces, althoughnot in abundance, the same fruits as in the wholekingdom, such as grain, wine, and oil of excel*lent quality. It has many gold mines, likewisesome of silver, copper, lead, sulphur, white lime,and salt ; but the most abundant of all are those ofcopper; large quantities of this metal having beensent to Spain for founding artillery, and indeedfrom the same source has been made all the artilleryin this kingdom. This metal is found of two sorts,one which is called campanal, and is only fit forfounding, and the other, which has a mixture ofgold, and is called de labrar,, or working metal, andwhich is known only in this province. Here alsothey make large quantities of rigging for ships.Its inhabitants may amount to 15,000. [In thisprovince is found tlie quisco tree, with thorns ofeight inches long ; the same being used by the na-tives for knitting needles. It is noted for produc-ing the best oysters, and for a resin which is yieldedfrom the herb chilca. See Chieb.] The capitalbears the same name, or that of La Serena. Thiswas the second settlement of the kingdom, andfounded by the order of Pedro de Valdivia, byCaptain Juan Bohon, in 1543, in the valley ofCuquimpi, which gave it its name, and which,being corrupted, is now called Coquimbo, andEl Segundo de la Serena, in memory of the countryof Valdivia in Estremadura. It lies at a quarterof a league’s distance from the sea, and is situate

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