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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
C H A
C H A
(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)
CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement ofMongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced)annexed to the curacy of the same. Its tempera-ture is mild, and abounds in pure good water, andin the productions of a hot climate.
CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ;situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, fromwhence its temperature is so cold that it is seldomany crops can be gathered from the seeds that aresown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 inthe wards of its district, and a convent of the reli-gious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settle-ment.
CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district ofPuerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in thekingdom of Quito, at a small distance from thesea-coast and bay of its name ; this title beingalso applied to the point which forms the samebay.
CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina,which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. Thewhole of it abounds in cataracts, and its watersthrow up immense quantities of coal, which wasthe cause of its being thus named.
CHARCA, a settlement of the province and
corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Sacaca.
CHARCAS, an extensive province of the king-dom of Peru, composed of various others. Its ju-risdiction comprehends the district of this royalaudience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the cor-regimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, andextends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It isbounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian servingas a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregi-miento of Atacama, which is of its district, andforms the most n. part of this province in that di-rection, and being closed in on its other sides bythe kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, in-cluding the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . :is in many parts very thinly peopled, and coveredwith large desert tracts, and rugged and impene-trable mountains, and again by the elevated cordil-leras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras orpampas, which serve to mark its size and the relativedistances of its territories. Its temperature through-out is extremely cold, although there are not want-ing parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At thetime that this province was in the possession of theIndians, and previous to the entrance of the Spa-niards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointlyunder the name of Charcas ; and the conquest ofthese was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui,fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the ter-ritory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Hereit was that his conquests terminated : nor did thesubjection of these parts extend farther than Col-laysuyo until after his death, when he was suc-ceeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor,who carried on still farther the victories which hadbeen already gained, conquering all the nations asfar on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwardsfounded the city of this name, called also La Plata.After that the Spaniards had reduced that part ofPeru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and thatthe civil wars and dissensions which existed be-tween these were at an end, they endeavoured tofollow up their enterprise by making a conquest ofthe most distant nations. To this end, in 1538,Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force,and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues,found in them such a spirited opposition, that afterseveral battles he was brought to think this objectwas nearly impracticable : this idea was strength-ened by the reception he had met with from theChuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given himconvincing proofs of their valour and warlikespirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just
CONGO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra N ueva ;situate on the shore of a river, which gives itits name, and of the coast of the S. sea, withinthe gulf of S. Miguel.
CONGURIPO, Santiago de, a- settlement ofthe head settlement of Puruandiro, and alcaldtamayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopricof Mechoacan ; situate on a plain or shore of theRio Grande. It is of a hot temperature, and con-tains 12 families of Spaniards and Mustees^ and 57of Indians. Twenty-six leagues from the captitalPasquaro.
CONICARI, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana ; situateon the shore and at the source of the river Mayo.It is a reduccion of the missions which were heldby the regulars of the company of Jesuits.
CONIMA, a settlement of the province and cor-
regimiento of Paucarcolla in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Moxo.
CONNECTICUT, a county of the provinceand colony of New England in N. America. It isbounded w. by New York and the river Hudson ;is separated from the large island by an arm of thesea to the s. ; has to the e. Rhode island, with partof the colony of Massachusetts, and the other partof the same colony to the n. It is traversed by ariver of the same name, which is the largest of thewhole province, and navigable by large vessels for40 miles. This province abounds in wood, tur-pentine, and resins ; in the collecting of whichnumbers of the inhabitants are occupied, althoughthe greater part of them are employed in fishing,and in hewing timber for the building of vesselsand other useful purposes. The merchants of theprovince once sent to King Charles II. some tim-ber or trees, of so fine a growth as to serve formasts of ships of the largest burthen. The greattrade of woods and timbers carried on by meansof the river has much increased its navigation.This territory is not without its mines of metal,such as lead, iron, and copper: the first of thesehave yielded some emolument, but the othershave never yet produced any thing considerable,notwithstanding the repeated attempts which havebeen made to work them. This county is wellpeopled and flourishing, since it numbers upwardsof 40,000 souls, notwithstanding the devastationsthat it has suftered through the French, the In-dians, and the pirates, in the reign of Queen Anne,when all the fishing vessels were destroyed.When this colony was first founded, many greatprivileges were given it, which have always beenmaintained by the English governor, throughthe fidelity which it manifested in not joiningthe insurrection of the province of Massachusetts,until, in the last war, it was separated from themetropolis, as is seen in the article U n ited StatesOF America.
(Connecticut, one of the United States ofNorth America, called by the ancient nativesQunnihticut, is situated between lat. 41° and 42°2' n. and between long. 71° 20' and 7.3° 15' w. Itsgreatest breadth is 72 miles, its length 100 miles;bounded «. by Massachusetts ; e. by Rhode island ;s. by the sound which divides it from Long island ;and w. by the state of New York. This statecontains about 4674 square miles; equal to about2,640,000 acres. It is divided into eight counties,viz. Fairfield, New Haven, Middlesex, and NewLondon, which extend along the sound from w. toc. : Litchfield, Hartford, Tolland, and Windham,extend in the same direction on the border of the]3 T 2
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Oaxaca. It contains only 20 families of Indians,wbo live by the cultivation of the cochineal plantand seeds.
COZOCOZONQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor ofViUalta, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains 85 families of Indians, and is29 leagues to the e. of its capital.
COZUMEL, an island of the N. sea, oppositethe e. coast of Yucatan, to the province and go-vernment of which it belongs. It is 10 leagueslong n. w.f s. w. and from four to five wide. It isfertile, and abounds in fruit and cattle, and iscovered with shady trees. The Indians call it Cu-zamel, which in their language signifies the islandof swallows. Here was the most renowned sanc-tuary of any belonging to the Indians in this pro-vince, and a noted pilgrimage, and the remains ofsome causeways over which the pilgrims used topass. It was discovered by the Captain Juan deGrijalba in 1518, and the Spaniards gave it thename of Santa Cruz, from a cross that was de-posited in it by Hernan Cortes, when he demolishedthe idols, and when at the same time the first massever said in this kingdom of Nueva Espana, wascelebrated by the Fray Bartolome de Olrnedo, ofthe order of La Merced, At present it is inhabitedby Indians only. It is three leagues distant fromthe coast of Tierra Firme.
CRABS, or Boriquen, an island of the N. sea ;situate on the s. side of the island of St. Domingo,first called so by the Bucaniers, from the abundanceof crabs found upon its coast. It is large andbeautiful, and its mountains and plains arc covered
with trees. The English established themselveshere in 1718, but they were attacked and drivenout by the Spaniards of St. Domingo in 17^0, whocould not suffer a colony of strangers to settle sonear them. The women and children were, how-ever, taken prisoners, and carried to the capital andPortobelo. See Boriquen.
(CRANBERRY, a thriving town in Middlesexcounty. New Jersey, nine miles e. of Princeton,and 16 s. s. w. of Brunswick. It contains a hand-some Presbyterian church, and a variety of manu-factures are carried on by its industrious in-habitants. The stage from New York to Phila-delphia passes through Amboy, this town, andthence to Bordentown.)
(CRANSTON is the s. easternmost townshipof Providence county, Rhode Island, situated onthe w. bank of Providence river, five miles s. ofthe town of Providence. The corajiact part of thetown contains 50 or 60 houses, a Baptist meetinghouse, handsome school-house, a distillery, and anumber of saw and grist mills^and is called Paw-tuxet, from the river, on both sides of whose mouthit stands, and over which is a bridge connectingthe two parts of the town. It makes a pretty ap-pearance as you pass it on the river. The wholetownship contains 1877 inhabitants.)
CRAVEN, a county of the province and colonyof Carolina in N. America, situate on the shore ofthe river Congaree, which divides the provinceinto South and North. It is filled with English andF'rench protestants. The latter of these disem-barked here to establish themselves in 1706, butwere routed, and the greater part put to death bythe hands of the former. The river Sewee watersthis county, and its first establishment was owingto some families wlio had come hither from NewEngland. It has no large city nor any considerabletown, but has two forts upon the river Saute, theone called Sheuinirigh fort, which is 45 miles fromtlie entrance or mouth of the river, and the othercalled Congaree, 65 miles from the other. [It con-tains 10,469 inhabitants, of whom S658are slaves.}