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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]



CASONA, a river of the province of Guayana :it runs e. and enters the Esquivo,

CASPANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Atacama, and of the archbishopricof Charcas, in Peru ; annexed to the curacy ofChiuchiu.

(CASPEAN, or Beautiful, a small lake inGreensborough, Vermont. It has Hazen block-house on its w. side. It is a head water of LaMoille river.)

CASPIYACU, a small river of the provinceand government of Mainas in the kingdom of Qui-to ; it runs from s. s. e, to n. n, w. and enters theYana at its sources.

(CASQUIPIBIAC, a river on the n. side of Cha-leur bay, about a league from Black cape, n. n. in the bottom of Casquipibiac cove, at thedistance of about one league from which is thegreat river of Casquipibiac. It lies about w, fromthe former, and affords a small cod and salmonfishery.)

(CASSITAH, an Indian town in the w. part ofGeorgia; which, as well as the Coweta town, is60 miles below the Horse ford, on Chattahouseeriver.)

CASTA, San Pedro de, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Coquimbo in thekingdom of Chile : it runs n. n. e. and enters theMames near the sea-coast.

(CASTAHANA, Indians of N. America, whoresemble the Dotames, except that they tradeprincipally Avith the Crow Indians, and that theywould most probably prefer visiting an establish-ment on the Yellow Stone river, or at its mouth onthe Missouri.)

CASTEENS, a small river of the province ofSagadohook : it runs s. and enters the sea in thebay of Penobscot. On its shore and at its mouth isa settlement of Indians, where the English have afort and an establishment.

CASTELA, a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Moxos in the king-dom of Quito, being formed from those of the Beniand Paravari ; it afterwards unites itself with thatoftheYtenes, and changes its name to Madera,which joins the Maranon on the s. side, in lat. 3°13' 18" s.

CASTELLANOS, Puerto, a port in the largeisland of San Sebastian, and near the coast of Bra-zil, and province and captainship of San Vin-cente.

CASTILLA, Santo Tomas de, a settlementof the province and government of Honduras in thekingdom of Guatemala. Its port is good, and wellfrequented with vessels.

CASTILLA DEL ORO. See Tierra Firme*

CASTILLO, a river of the province and districtof Quillota in the kingdom of Chile : it runs w-and joins the Pcrquilabquien to enter the Lon-gamilla.

Castillo, a port of the coast, in the same pro-vince and kingdom, between the former river andthe port Valparaiso.

Castillo, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of thecity of Cordova ; situate on the shores of the riverTercero, near the mouth Avhere this enters the Sa-ladillo.

CASTILLOS Grandes, an island of the pro-vince and captainship of Rey in Brazil. It is verynear the coast, between the cape Santa Maria ofthe river La Plata and the cape of Las Yncas;the Portuguese have a fort in it.

Castillos Grandes, another island, withthe addition of Chicos, to distinguish it from theother in the same province and kingdom, and ata little distance from the above island.

Castillos Grandes, a point of land or ex-tremity of the island of Guadalupe, opposite thoseof Deseada and of Marigalante.- It is thus calledfrom two castles which it has in it.

(CASTINE, the shire town of Hancock county,district of Maine, is situate on Penobscot bay. Itwas taken from the town of Penobscot, and incor-porated in Feb. 1796. It is named after a Frenchgentleman who resided here ISO years ago, asalso)

(Castine River, which is about 14 mileslong, is navigable lor six miles, and has severalmills at the head of it. It empties into Penobscotbay.)

(CASTLE Island. See Crooked Island.)

(CASTLETOWN, a township in Richmondcounty, Stateti island, New York, which contains805 inhabitants, including 114 slaves; 114 of itsinhabitants are electors.)

(CASTLETON, a township and river in Rut-land county, Vermont, 20 miles s. e. of mount In-dependence at Ticonderoga. Lake Bombazon ischiefly in this town, and sends its waters into Cas-tleton river, which, rising in Pittsford, passesthrough this town in a s. westerley course, and failsinto Pultney river in the town of Fairhaven, a littlebelow Colonel Lyon’s iron Avorks. Fort War-ner stands in thistoAvn. Inhabitants 805.)

(CASTOR’S River, in Newfoundland island,empties in the harbour of St. John’s. Its size isconsiderable for 15 miles from the sea.)

(Castor, Estanque del, a lake of the pro-vince and colony of Virginia, on the shore of the

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CRAVO, Santa Barbara de, a settlement ofthe jurisdiction of Santiago de las Atalayas, of thegovernment of Los Llanos of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is on the shore of the large river of itsname, upon a very pleasant mountain plain, verynear to i\\ellanura at the bottom of the mountain, andwhere formerly stood the city of San Joseph deCravo, founded by the governor of this province in1644, but which was soon after destroyed. Thctem-perature here is not so hot as in the other parts ofthe province, from its being', as we have beforeobserved, in the vicinity of t\\e paramos or moun-taiti deserts. It produces in abundance maize,plantains, and pucas, of which is made the bestcazave of any in the kingdom, also many trees ofa hard and strong wood, used as a medicine inspotted fevers, and a specific against poisons, sothat it is much esteemed, and they make of itdrinking cups. Here are other trees, good forcuring the flux, their virtue in this disorder havingbeen accidentally discovered as follows. A la-bourer, as he was cutting down one of these trees,let his hatchet fall upon his foot; but rememberingthat by pressing his foot against the tree it wouldstop the blood, he did so, and a splinter thus gettinginto the wound, the cut soon healed without theapplication of any other remedy. Here are largebreeds of horned cattle, and the natives, whoshould amount to 100 Indians, and about as manywhites, are much given to agriculture. Eightleagues from the settlement of Morcote.

Cravo, a river of the former province and go-vernment. It rises in the province of Tunja, nearthe lake of Labranza, passes before the city, towhich it gives its name, and after running manyleagues, enters the Meta.

CRAVO, another river, in the district and juris-diction of Pamplona, of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises to the e. of the settlement ofCapitanejo, runs s. s. e. and enters the river Caza-nare, according to Beilin, in his map of the courseof a part of the Orinoco; and indeed ^\e doubt ifhe be not correct. In the woods upon its shoreslive some barbarian Indians, the }ietoyes,.Acira-guas, and Guaibas. its mouth is in tat. 3° SO' n.

(CREE Indians, The, inhabit of Littlelake Winnipeg, around fort Daiipiiin, in UpperCanada.)

(CREEKS, an Indian nation, described alsounder tfie name of Muskogulge or Muskogee,in addition to 'which is the following particulars,from the manuscript joarnal of an infeliigent tra-veller : “ Coosa river, and its main branches, formthe re. line of settlements or villages of the Creeks,but their hunting grounds cxtaid 200 miles be-

yond, to the Tombigbee, which is the dividingline between their coufitry and that of the Chac-taws. The smallest of their towns have from 20to 30 ho'.ises in them, and some of them containfrom 130 to 200, that are wholly compact. Thehouses stand in clusters of four, five, six, seven,and eight together, irregularly distributed up anddown the banks of the rivers or small streams.Each cluster of houses contains a clan or family orelations, who eat and live in common. Eac!town has a public square, hot-house, and yard ne.the centre of it, appropriatad to various pubhuses. The following are the names of the prin-cipal towns of the Upper and Lower Creeks thathave public squares ; beginning at the head of theCoosa or Coosa Hatcha river, viz. Upper Utalas,Abbacoochees, Natchez, Coosas, Oteetoocheenas,Pine Catchas, Pocuntullahases, Weeokes, LittleTallassie, Tuskeegees, Coosadas, Alabamas, Ta-wasas, Pawactas, Autobas, Auhoba, W eelump-kees Big,W eelumpkees Little, Wacacoys, Wack-soy, Ochees. The following towns are in thecentral, inland, and high country, between theCoosa and Taliapoosee rivers, in the district calledthe Hillabees, viz. Hillabees, Killeegko, Oakchoys,Slakagulgas, and Wacacoys; on the waters ofthe Taliapoosee, from the head of the river down-ward, the following, viz. Tuckabatchee, Tehassa,Totacaga, New Aork, Chalaacpaulley, Logus-pogus, Oakfuskee, Ufala Little, Ufala Big, Soga-hatches,Tuckabatchees, Big Tallassce or Half-wayHouse, Clewaleys, Coosahatches, Coolamies, Sha-Vt'anese or Savanas, Kenlsulka, and Mnckeleses.The towns of the Low'er Creeks, beginning on thehead waters of the Chattahoosee, and so on down-wards, are Chelu Ninny, Chattahoosee, liohtatoga,Cowetas, Cussitahs, Chalagatscaor, Broken Arrow,Euchces several, Hitchatces several, Palachuolo,Chewackala ; besides 20 towns and villages ofthe Little and Big Chehaus, low down on Flint andChattahoosee rivers. From their roving and un-steady manner of living, it is impossible to deter-mine, 'with much precision, the number of Indiansthat comimse tlie Creek nation. General M‘GiI-livray estimates the number of gun-men to be be-tween 3 and 6000, exclusive of the Semiuolcs, Avhoare of little or no accosmt in war, except as smallparties of marauders, acting independent of thegeneral interest of the others. The wliole numberof individuals may be about 23 or 26,000 souls.Every town and village has one established whitetrader in it, and generally a family of whites, wholiave fled from some part of the tfontiers. Theyoften, to have revenge, and to obtain jdunder thatmay be taken, use their influence to scud out pre«3 Y 2

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datorj parties against the settlements in their vici-nity. The Creeks are very badly armed, havingfew rifles, and are mostly armed with muskets.For near 40 years past, the Creek Indians havehad little intercourse with any other foreigners butthose of the English nation. Their prejudice infavour of every thing English, has been carefullykept alive by tories and others to this day. Mostof their towns have now in their possession Britishdrums, with the arms of the nation and other em-blems painted on them, and some of their squawspreserve the remnants of British flags. They stillbelieve that “ the great king over the water” isable to keep the whole world in subjection. Theland of the country is a common stock ; and anyindividual may remove from one part of it to an-other, and occupy vacant ground where he canfind it. The country is naturally divided intothree districts, viz. the Upper Creeks, Lower andMiddle Creeks, and Seminoles. The upper dis-trict includes all the waters of the Tallapoosee,Coosahatchee, and Alabama rivers, and is calledthe Abbacoes. The lower or middle district in-cludes all the waters of the Chattahoosee and Flintrivers, down to their junction ; and although oc-cupied by a great number of different tribes, thewhole are called Cowetaulgas or Coweta people,from the Cowetan town and tribe, the most warlikeand ancient of any in the whole nation. Thelower or s. district takes in the river Appala-chicola, and extends to the point of E. Florida,and is called the Country of the Seminoles. Agri-culture is as far advanced with the Indians as itcan well be, without the proper implements of hus-bandry. A very large majority of the nationbeing devoted to hunting in the winter, and to waror idleness in summer, cultivate but small parcelsof ground, barely sufficient for subsistence. Butmany individuals, (particularly on Flint river,among the Chehaws, who possess numbers of Ne-groes) have fenced fields, tolerably well cultivated.Having no ploughs, they break up the groundwith hoes, and scatter the seed promiscuously overthe ground in hills, but not in rows. Theyraise horses, cattle, fowls, and hogs. The onlyarticles they manufacture are eartlien pots andpans, baskets, horse-ropes or halters, smokedleather, black marble pipes, wooden spoons, andoil from acorns, hickery nuts, and chesnuts.)

(Creeks, confederated nations of Indians. SeeMuscogulge.)

(Creeks Crossing Place, on Tennessee river, isabout 40 miles e. s. e. of the mouth of Elk river, atthe Muscle shoals, and 36 s.w. of Nickajack, inthe Georgia w. territory.)

(CREGER’S Town, in Frederick county,Maryland, lies on the w. side of Monococy river,between Owing’s and Hunting creeks, which fallinto that river ; nine miles s. of Ermmtsburg, nearthe Pennsylvania line, and about 11 n. of Frede-rick town.)

CREUSE, or River Hondo, a river of Canada,which runs s.w. and enters the St. Lawrence, inthe country of the Acones Indians.

CRIPPLE, Bay of, on the s. coast of the islandof Newfoundland, on the side of Race cape.

CRISIN, a small island of the N. sea, near the71. coast of the island of St. Domingo, between theislands of Molino and Madera, opposite to portBelfin.

CRISTO. See Manta.

(CROCHE, a lake of N. America, in New SouthWales, terminated by the portage La Loche, 400paces long, and derives its name from the appear-ance of the water falling over a rock of upwardsof 30 feet. It is about 12 miles long. Lat. 36°40'. Long, 109° 25' w.)

CROIX, or Cross, a river of the province andgovernment of Louisiana, the same as that which,with the name of the Ovadeba, incorporates itselfwith the Ynsovavudela, and takes this name, till itenters the Mississippi.

Croix, another river of Nova Scotia or Acadia.It rises in the lake Konsaki, runs s. and enters thesea in the port of Portages.

Croix, another, of the same province and colony,which rises near the coast of the city of Halifax,runs 7^. and enters the basin of the Mines of the bayof Fundy.

Croix, an island near the coast of the sameprovince and colony, between that of Canes andthe bay of Mirligueche.

Croix, a bay of the island of Guadalupe, on thes. w. coast, between the river Sence, and the portof the Petite Fontaine, or Little Fountain.

Croix, a port of the n. coast of the island ofNewfoundland, in the strait of Bellisle.

Croix, a lake of Canada, in the country andterritor}'’ of the Algonquins Indians, between thatof St. 'I'homas and the river Bastican.

Croix, a small settlement in the island of Mar-tinique.

(Croix, St. See Cruz, Santa.)

CRON, a small river of the province and cap-tainship of Seara in Brazil. It rises near tliecoast, runs n. and enters the sea at the point ofTortuga.

(CROOKED Island, one of the Bahama islands,or rather a cluster of islands, of which NorthCrooked island, South Crooked island, (com-


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