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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
vince and government, on the shore of the riverMasparro, between the cities of New and Old Ba-rinas.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and government of La Sonora in NuevaEspana ; situate in the country of the SobaipurisIndians, on the shore of a river which enters theGila, between the settlements of San Cosme andSan Angelo.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in thekingdom of Guatemala.
Catalina, Santa, an island of the N. sea,near the coast of Tierra Firme, opposite the Escu-do de Veraguas. It is of a good temperature, fer-tile, and abounding in cattle and fruits. It had init a settlement defended by two castles, called San-tiago and Santa Teresa; which, together with thetown, were destroyed by an English pirate, JohnMorgan, who took the island in 1665 ; and al-though it was recovered in the same year by thepresident of Panama and Colonel Don J uan Perezde Guzman, it remained abandoned and desert.
Catalina, Santa, a valley, in which there isalso a small settlement, in the Nuevo Reyno deLeon ; annexed to the curacy of its capital, fromwhence it lies three leagues to the w. It contains20 families in its neighbourhood, and producesonly some sorts of pulse and some goats.
CATAMAIU, a large and rapid river of theprovince and government of Loxa in the kingdomof Quito, also called Chira, at the part where itenters the sea. It rises in the paramo or desertmountain of Sabanilla ; and collecting the watersof several smaller rivers, runs from s. to n.until it unites itself with tlie Gonzanama, whichenters it on the s. side, in lat. S° 47' s. ; it thenturns its course to the xo. and afterwards to the5 . w. and receives the tributary streams of therivers Quiros, Macara, and Pelingara ; all ofwhich enter it on the s. side. Being swelled withthese, it takes the name of Amotape, from the settle-ment of this name, situate on its shore. Near itsmouth this river is called Colan, and it empties it-self into the sea in the corregimiento and provinceofPiura. The countries which it laves are fertileand beautiful, and its banks are covered with or-chards and plantations of sugar-canes of the terri-tory of Loxa. The climate here is very hot, andin the valleys formed by this river the inhabitantsare much afflicted with the tertian fever ; its wa-ters are generally very cold and unwliolesonic.
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territory, where the noble families of Loxa havetheir best possessions.
CHUQUISACA, La Plata,a city and capital of the province of Peru, foundedby Pedro Anzures in 1539, who gave it this name.It had a settlement of Indians on the same spot.The first founders called it La Plata, from thecelebrated mine of this metal (silver) in the moun-tain of Porco, close to the aforesaid settlement,and from whence immense wealth was extractedby the emperors the Jncas of Peru. This city issituate on a plain surrounded by pleasant hills,which defend it from the inclemency of the winds ;the climate is mild and agreeable, but during thewinter, dreadful tempests, accompanied with thun-der and lightning, are not unusual ; the edificesare good, handsome, and well adorned, havingdelightful orchards and gardens. The waters aredelicate, cold, and salutary, and divided intodifferent aqueducts, by which they are carried tothe public fountains, forming an object at onceuseful and ornamental. Its nobility is of the firstand most distinguished families of Peru, who havemany privileges and distinctions. The cathedralconsists of three naves ; it is very rich, and adorn-ed with fine furniture and beautiful paintings.It contains convents of the religious orders of St.Domingo, St. Augustin, St. Francis, La Merced,and San Juan de Dios, with a good hospital, ahandsome college and a magnificent church whichbelonged to the regulars of the company ; alsothree monasteries of nuns, the one of Santa Clara,the other of Santa Monica, and the third of theCarmelites ; a royal university with the title ofSan Francisco Xavier, the rector of which wasuniversally of the college of the regulars of thecompany of the Jesuits. It has also two housesof study for youth, the one the seminary of SanChristoval, and the other the college of San Juan,which were likewise under the controul of theJesuits until the year 1767 ; also an hermitage de-dicated to San Roque. It was erected into abishopric by the pontiff Julius III. in 1551, andafterwards into a metropolitan in 1608, with anarchbishop, five dignitaries, six canons, four pre-bends, and as many more demi-prebends. Thetribunal of audience was erected here in 1559, andafterwards those of the inquisition of the cruzada.Its arms are a shield divided horizontally, havingin the upper part two mountains with a cross uponeach, in the middle a tree with two columns on thesides, in the lower part to the left two lions rampant,
on the right two towers with two lions, a standardbeing in the middle, and the whole embossedupon a silver field. At the distance of six leaguesfrom this city passes the river Pilcoraayu, bywhich it is supplied with good fish, and upon theshores of the Cachimayu, which is only twoleagues distant, the nobility have many rural seats.In 1662 a great insurrection took place hereamongst the Mustees and the people of colour.It is the native place of several illustrious persons,and amongst others of the following :
Don Rodrigo de Orozco, Marquis of Mortara,captain-general of the principality of Cataluna,and of the council of state and war.
Fra}/ Antonio de Calancha, a monk of St. Au-gustin, a celebrated author.
Don Rodrigo de Santillana, oidor of Valladolid,and afterwards in his country.
The venerable Friar Martin de Aguirre, of theorder of St. Augustin.
Don Alonso Corveda de Zarate, canon of Lima,and professor of languages.
The Father Maestro Diego Trexo, a Do-minican monk.
The Father Juan de Cordoba, of the extin-guished company of Jesuits, a celebrated theo-logist.
Its archbishopric has for suffragans, the bishop-rics of Santa (3ruz de la Sierra, La Paz, Tucu-man, and La Ascencion of Paraguay ; and to itsdiocese belong 188 curacies. Its inhabitants inand about it amount to 13,000, of which 4000 areSpaniards, 3000 Mustees, 4500 Indians, and 15,000Negroes and Mulattoes. It is 290 leagues fromCuzco, in lat. 19° 31' s.
Archbishops of the church of La Plata.
1. Don Frau Tomas de San Martin, a monk ofthe order of St. Dominic, a master in his order,and one of the first monks who passed over intoPeru with the Friar Vicente de Valverde; he W 2 isprovincial there, returned to Spain with the Licen-tiate Pedro de la Gasca, and as a reward for hislabours, presented by the king to the first arch-bishopric of Charcas, in 1553: he died in 1559.
2. Don Fraj/ Pedro de la Torre, who waselected, but not consecrated ; and in his place,
3. Don Fray Alonso de la Cerda.
4. Don Fernan Gonzalez de la Cuesta, who laidthe foundation of the cathedral church.
5. Don Fray Domingo de Santo Tomas, of theorder of St. Dominic, a noted preacher, and one ofthose who went over to Peru with the Fray VicenteValverde ; he was prior in different convents, andgeneral visitor of his order in those kingdoms.
6. Don Fernando de Santillana, native of Se-
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rapid current, between high banks on eacli side,and pours the whole body of its water over a per-pendicular rock of about 40 (some say more) feetin height, which extends quite across the riverlike a mill-dam. The banks of the river, imme-diately below the falls, are about 100 feet high.
A bridge 1100 feet long, and 24 feet wide, restingon 13 piers, was erected, at the expence of 12,000dollars, in 1794, a mile below the falls, from whicha spectator may have a grand view of them; butthey appear most romantically from Lansinburghhill, five miles e. of them. 1
(COHONGORONTO is the name of Potow-raack river before it breaks through the Blueridge, in lat, 39° 45' n. Its whole length to theBlue ridge may be about 160 miles ; from thenceit assumes the name of Potowmack, which see.)
COIABAMBA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chilques and Masques inPeru; annexed to the curacy of Calpi. Anearthquake was experienced in this province in1707, Avhich desolated many settlements ; whenalso happened that extraordinary phenomenonwhich is accredited and related by Don CosineBueno, geographer of Lima, as having takenplace ; which was, that a small estate was by thisearthquake removed from one side of the river tothe other, together with the house, garden, andinhabitants, without their perceiving any thinghad happened ; and as the event took place atmidnight, Avhen they were all asleep, that theywere not a little surprised to find themselves esta-blished in the curacy of Colcha. This extraordi-nary occurrence, however, has its precedent ina similar circumstance which happened in thekingdom of Quito.
COIACHI, a settlement of the missions whichwere held at the expence of the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara,and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, 18 leagues andan half between the s. w. and s. e. of the town andreal of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
COIAIMA, a settlement and head settlementof the corregimiento of this name in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature,produces cacao, sugar-cane, maize, ^uca<!, plan-tains, and an infinite quantity of cattle and swine ;but it is much infested with reptiles and insects,vipers, snakes, spiders, and mosquitoes. It alsoabounds in gold, and the Indians to the number of450, who go to Santa Fe to pay their tribute, pro-ceed in companies, and are accustomed to collect
in four or five daj's, on Die shores of the river Sal-dana, as much gold as is necessary for the tributethey are obliged to pay in the city.
COIOACAN, a district and alcaldia mayor ofNueva España. It is one of the most pleasant,and fertile in wheat, maize, barley, and other seeds.Nearly the whole of its population live in coun-try houses, in gardens and orchards which pro-duce quantities of fruit, such as pears of severalkinds, peaches, apples, prunes, plums, damsons,pomegranates, quinces, oranges, and lemons, withwhich a great commerce is carried on rviththe cityof Mexico. In some parts of this province clothsand baizes are fabricated. It belongs to thejurisdiction of the marquisate Del Valle de Oax-aca ; to which the tributes are paid, the king re-taining the sum of four tomines, (a Spanishcoin weighing the third part of a drachm.) Thesettlements of this district are,
San Angel, Chapultepec,
San Augustin de las Nuestra Senora de los
The capital, which bears the same name, is alarge, pleasant, fertile, and well peopled town. Ithas shady arbours, country houses, and orchardsand gardens, which serve as a recreation to thepeople of Mexico, from whence it is distant twoleagues to the s. s. e. Its population amounts to1885 Indian families. It has a good convent ofthe religious order of St. Dominic, and manywork-shops, in which are fabricated cloths, baizes,and serges. Long. 99° 4'. Lat. 19° 20'.
COIOMEAPA, Santa Maria de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Theacan in Nueva Espana. It contains 300families of Indians, and 20 of Mustees and Mu-lattoes. Twelve leagues s. e. of its capital.
(state of Massachusetts. The counties are dividedand subdivided into townships and parishes ; ineach of which is one or more places of publicworship, and school-houses at convenient distances.The number of townships is about 200. Eachtownship is a corporation invested with powers suf-ficient for their own internal regulation. Thenumber of representatives is sometimes 180; butmore commonly about 160 ; a number fully ade-quate to legislate for a wise and virtuous people,well informed, and jealous of their rights ; andwhose external circumstances approach nearer toequality than those, perhaps, of any other peoplein a state of civilization in the world.
The principal rivers in this state are, Connecti-cut, Housatonick, the Thames, and their branches,which, with such others as are worthy of notice,are described under their respective names. Thewhole of the sea-coast is indented with harbours,many of which are safe and commodious ; thoseof New London and New Haven are the most im-portant. This state sends seven representatives tocongress. Connecticut, though subject to the ex-tremes of heat and cold, in their seasons, and tofrequent sudden changes, is very healthful. It isgenerally broken land, made up of mountains,hills, and valleys ; and is exceedingly w'ell-watered.Some small parts of it are thin and barren. Itsprincipal productions are Indian corn, rye, wheatin many parts of the state, oats, and barley, whichare heavy and good, and of late buck-wheat, flaxin large quantities, some hemp, potatoes of severalkinds, pumpkins, turnips, peas, beans, &c. &c. ;fruits of all kinds which are common to the cli-mate. The soil is very well calculated for pas-turage and mowing, which enables the farmers tofeed large numbers of neat cattle and horses.
The trade of Connecticut is principally with theW. India islands, and is carried on in vessels from60 to 140 tons. The exports consist of horses,mules, oxen, oak-staves, hoops, pine-boards, oak-plank, beams, Indian corn, fish, beef, pork, &c.Horses, live cattle, and lumber, are permitted inthe Dutch, Danish, and French ports. A largenumber of coasting vessels are employed in carry-ing the produce of the state to other states. ToRhode island, Massachusetts, and New Hamp-shire, they carry pork, wheat, corn, and rye ;to N. and S. Carolina, and Georgia, butter,cheese, salted beef, cider, apples, potatoes, hay,&c. and receive in return, rice, indigo, and money.But as New York is nearer, and the state of themarkets always well known, much of the produce ofConnecticut, especially of the w. parts, is carriedthere ; particularly pot and pearl-ashes, flax-seed.
beef, pork, cheese and butter, in large quantities.Most of the produce of Connecticut river from theparts of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Ver-mont, as well as of Connecticut, which are adja-cent, goes to the same market. Considerablequantities of the produce of the e. parts of thestate are marketed at Boston, Providence, andNorwich. The value of the whole exported pro-duce and commodities from this state, before theyear 1774, was then estimated at about 200,000?.iav/ful money annually. In the year ending Sept.SO, 1791, the amount of foreign exports was710,340 dollars, besides articles carried to differ-ent parts of the United States, to a great amount.In the year 1792, 749,925 dollars; in the year1793, 770,239 dollars ; and in the year 1794,806,7'46 dollars. This state owns and employs inthe foreign and coasting trade 32,897 tons ofshipping.
The farmers in Connecticut, and their fami-lies, are mostly clothed in plain, decent, home-spun cloth. Their linens and woollens are manu-factured in the family way ; and although theyare generally of a coarser kind, they are of astronger texture, and much more durable thanthose imported from France anrl Great Britain.Many of their cloths are fine and handsome. Hereare large orchards of mulberry-trees ; and silk-worms have been reared so successfully, as to pro-mise not only a supply of silk to the inhabitants,buta surplnssagefor exportation. In New Haven arelinen and button manufactories. In Hartford a wool-len manufactory has been established ; likewise glassworks, a snuft' and powder mill, iron works, and aslitting mill. Iron-works are established also at Sa-lisbury, Norwich, and other parts of the state. AtStafford is a furnace at which are made largequantities of hollow ware, and other ironmongery,sufficient to supply the whole state. Paper is ma-nufactured at Norwich, Hartford, New Haven,and in Litchfield county. Ironmongery, hats,candles, leather, shoes, and boots, are manufac-tured in this state. A duck manufactory has beenestablished at Stratford. The state of Connecticutis laid out in small farms, from 50 to 300 and 400acres each, which are held by the farmers in feesimple; and are generally well cultivated. Thestate is chequered with innumerable roads or high-ways crossing each other in every direction. Atraveller in any of these roads, even in the mostunsettled parts of the state, will seldom pass morethan two or three miles without finding a house orcottage, and a farm under such improvements asto afford the necessaries for the support of a family.The whole state resembles a well cultivated garden,)
residences here, it has fallen into decay ; and al-though it is now reduced to a small town, the-4itleof Capital has not been taken from it. Its onlyinhabitants are those who own some estates in itsdistrict, and this forms a government subordinateto that of the Havana. [The damage done by theearthquake of October 1810, to the shipping at tlieHavana, was computed at 600,000 dollars.; theinjury at St. Jago could not be correctly estimated,but the loss of the lives at both places was believedto be not fewer than 350. In long. 76° 3', andlat. 20° r.l
CUBAGUA, an island of the N. sea, near thecoast of Tierra Firme, discovered by tiie AdmiralChristopher Columbus. It is three leagues incircumference, and is barren, but has been, -informer times, celebrated for the almost incredibleabundance of beautiful pearls found upon thecoast, the riches of which caused its commerce tobe very great, and promoted the building in itthe city of New Cadiz; but at present, since thefishery is abandoned, this town has fallen entirelyinto decay, and the island has become desert. Itis a little more than a league’s distance from theisland of Margareta, in lat. 10° 42' n.
CUBZIO, a settlement of the corregimientoof Bogota in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada;situate ort the shore of the river Bogota, near thefamous waterfal of Tequendama. Its climate isagreeable and fertile, and it abounds in gardensand orchards, in which are particularly cultivatedwhite lilies, these meeting with a ready sale forornamenting the churches of Santa Fe and theother neighbouring settlements.
CUCAITA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate in a valley which is pleasant,and of a cold and healthy temperature. It pro-duces in abundance very good wheat, maize,truffles, and other fruits of a cold climate ; hereare some fiocks of sheep, and of their wool aremade various woven articles. It is small, but never-theless contains 23 families and 50 Indians. Itis a league and an half to the s. w. of Tunja, inthe road which leads from Leiba to Chiquinquiraand Velez, between the settlements of Samaca andSora.
CUCHIGAROS, a barbarous nation of In-dians, little known, who inhabit the shores of theriver Cuchigara, which enters the Maranon, andis one of the largest of those which are tributaryto the same. The natives call it Purus ; it is na-vigable, although in some parts abounding withlarge rocky shoals, and is filled with fish of dif-ferent kinds, as also with tortoises ; on its shoresgrow maize and other fruits : besides the nationaforesaid, it has on its borders those of the Gti-maiaris, Guaquiaris, Cuyaeiyayanes, Curucurus,Quatausis, Mutuanis, and Curigueres ; these lastare of a gigantic stature, being 16 palms high.They are very valorous, go naked, have largepieces of gold in their nostrils and ears ; their set-tlements lie two long months’ voyage from themouth of the river.
CUCHIN, a small river of the territory ofCuyaba in Brazil. It runs n. and enters theCamapoa; on its shore is a part called La Es-tancia, through which the Portuguese are accus-tomed to carry their canoes on their shoulders, inorder to pass from the navigation of this latter riverto that of the Matogroso.
CUCHIPIN, a small river of the same kingdom (Brazil)and territory as the two former. It rises in themountains of the Caypos Indians, runs n. n» w. andenters the Taquari.
CUCHUMATLAN, a settlement of the king-
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souls. Sixty leagues from Quito, in lat. 2° 55'5. and long. 78° 50'.
CUENCAME, San Antonio de, a town ofthe province of Tepeguana, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya. It is the rea/of the silver mines,where reside numbers of people of all ranks. Ithas a convent of the religious order of St. Francis,and in its district are various manufactories forgrinding the metals that are extracted from themines. It is 37 leagues to the n. of the capitalGuadiana, and 24 from Durango.
CUENCO, a settlement of the head settlement ofTirindaro, and alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, in theprovince and bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate ina glen surrounded by many mountains. Throughits gutters runs a crystalline stream of sweet water,which serves to fertilize its orchards and cultivatedgrounds. It contains 66 families of Indians, andis two short leagues to the n. of its head settle-ment.
CUERNAVACCA, a town of the intendancyof Mexico, the ancient Quauhnahuac, on the s.declivity of the cordillera of Guchilaque, in a tem-perate and delicious climate, finely adapted forthe cultivation of the fruit-trees of Europe.Height 1655 metres, or 5429 feet.]
CUES, San Juan de los, a settlement of thebead settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlanin Nueva Espana. It contains 72 families of In-dians, whose commerce is in maize, French beans,and fruits. In its vicinity is a sugar-mill, at which60 families of Negro slaves assist.
CUEUAS, San Agustin de las, a settlement
and head settlement of the district of the alcaldiamayor of Coyoacan in Nueva Espana. It is of avery good temperature and of a healthy situation,abounding in waters and fruit-trees, and coveredwith country houses, orchards, and gardens,which serve as a recreation to the people of Mex-ico. It has a convent of the religious order of St.Domingo, and 751 families; lying three leaguesto the s. of Mexico, and two from its capital.
Cueuas, another settlement, of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits in the province of Tepeguana, andkingdom of Nueva Espana; situate on the shoreof the river Florido, and at the distance of sixleagues from the garrison of the valley of San Bar-tolome.
Cueuas, another, of the missions which wereheld by the same regulars of the company, in theprovince of Taraumara, of the same kingdom asthe former, 20 leagues to the s. of the real of themines of Chiguagua.
CUIABA, Jesus de, a town of the province ofMatagroso in Brazil ; situate on the shore of theriver Paraguay, at its source, near the large lakeof LosXareyes. In its vicinity are some abundantgold mines, which have been worked by the Por-tuguese since the year 1740. Lat. 14° 33'.
CUIAC, Santiago de, a settlement of thehead settlement of Amatlan, and alcaldia mayor ofZacatlan, in Nueva Espana. It lies four leaguesfrom its bead settlement, but the journey to it fromthence is almost impracticable, owing to its beingsituate in the middle of the sierra.
CUIACLAZALA, a settlement of the headsettlement of San Luis de la Costa, and of the al^caldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. Itproduces a great quantity of cochineal, this beingthe only production in which its inhabitants mer-chandize. These are composed of 60 families ofIndians. It is seven leagues to the j. of itscapital.
CUIANA, a small river of the province and