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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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and pleasantly situated. Before the deslrnction oftil is town by the British in 1775, several brandiesof mannfadures were carried on to great advan-tage, some of which have been since revived : par-ticularly tlic manufacture of pot and pearl ashes,ship-building, rum, leather in all its branches,silver, tin, brass, and pewter. Three rope-walkshave lately been erected in this town, and tlie in-crease of its houses, population, trade, and naviga-tion, have been very great within a few' years past.This town is a port of entry in conjunction withBoston. At the head of the neck there is a bridgeover Mystic river, which connects Charlestown withMalden.)

CHARLESTOWN, another city of the island ofNevis, one of the Caribes, in the Antilles ; in w Inchthere are beautiful houses and shops well providedwith every thing ; is defended by a fort calledCharles. It has a market every Saturday, begin-ning at sun-rise and finishing at mid-day, whitherthe Negroes bring 'maize, names, garden-herbs,fruits, &c. In the parish of San Juan is a pieceof sulphureous land, in the upper extremity of anopening of the land, called Solfatara, or Sulphurgut, which is so hot as to be telt through the solesof the shoes when being trodden upon. At thefoot of the declivity of this same part of the city,is a small hot stream, called the Bath, which beingsupposed to rise from the aforesaid spot, loses itselfshortly in the sand. Towards the side lying nextthe sea are two fountains, one of hot water, theother of cold, and of these two are formed the lakeof Blackrock, the waters of which are of a moderatewarmth, and which lies to the n. of the city, beingnearly a quarter of a mile’s distance from the placewhere are caught eels and silver-fish, resemblingthe cod and slimgut in flavour, the latter of whichlias a head disproportioned to its body. [A prodi-gious piece ol Nevis mountain falling down in anearthquake several years ago, left a large vacuity,which is still to be seen. The altitude of thismountain, taken by a quadrant from Charlestownbay, is said to be a mile and a half perpendicular ;and from the said bay to the top, four miles. Thedeclivity from this mountain to the town is verysteep half-way, but afterwards easy of ascent.] InLat. 17° 8' u. and long. 62° 40' w.

Charlestown, another city of the island ofBarbadoes ; the situation of which is two leaguesfrom that of San Miguel. It has a good port de-fended by two castles ; the one beyoml the other,and both commanding the city and the road: inthe middle of them is a platform. Tlse inhabitantscarry on a great trade with the other islands.

(CHARLESTOWN, a township in Montgomery

county. New York, on the s. side of Mohawk river,about 32 miles w. of Schenectady. By the statecensus of 1796, 456 of the inhabitants are elec-tors.)

(Charlestown, a township in Mason county,Kentucky ; situate on the Ohio, at the mouth ofLauren’s creek. It contains but few houses, andis six miles n. of Washington, and 60 n. e. of Lex-ington. Lat. 38° 28' n.)

(Charlestown, a township in Chester county,Pennsylvania.)

(Charlestown, a post town in Cheshire county,New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecticutriver, 30 miles s. of Dartmouth college, upwards of70 n. of Northampton, 116 n. of w. of Boston, 120w. by 71. of Portsmouth, and 431 n. n. e. of Phila-delphia. It was incorporated in 1753, and con-tains 90 or 100 houses, a Congregational church,a court-house, and an academy. The road fromBoston to Quebec passes through this town. Lat.43° 16' n. Long. 72° 23' w. A small internaltrade is carried on here.)

(Charlestown, a post town in Cecil county,Maryland, near the head of Chesapeak bay ; sixmites e. n. e. from the mouth of Susquehannahriver, 10 zo. s. w. from Elktown, and 50 s. w. by zb.from Philadelphia. Here are about 20 houses,chiefly inhabited by fishermen employed in theherring fishery. Lat. 39° 36' w.)

(Charlestown, a district in the lower countryof S. Carolina, subdivided into 14 parishes. Thislarge district, of which the city of Charleston is thechief town, lies between Santee and Combaheerivers. It pays 21,473/. 14s. 6d. sterling, taxes. Itsends to the state legislature 48 representatives and13 senators, and one member to congress. It con-tains 66,986 inhabitants, of whom only 16,352 arefree.)

(Charlestown, a village in Berkley county,Virginia ; situate on the great road leading fromPhiladelphia to Winchester ; eight miles fromShepherdstown, and 20 from Winchester.)

(Charlestown, a township in Washingtoncounty, Rhode Island state, having the Atlanticocean on the s. and separated from Richmond on the71. by Charles river, a water of Fawcatiick. Some ofits ponds empty into Fawcatiick river, otliers intothe sea. It is 19 miles /L ti:;. of Newport, andcontains 2022 inhabitants, including 12 slaves. Afew years ago there w'ere about 500 Indians in thestate ; the greater part of them resided in tin's town-ship. They are peaceable and well disposed togovernment, and s|5cak the English language.)

CHARLETON, an island situate near the e.coast of the country of Labrador, in the part of N.

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raense advantage to the neighbouring states, parti-cularly to Virginia. Of that state it has been ob-served, with some little exaggeration, however,that “ every planter has a river at his door.”)

(CHESHIRE county, in New Hampshire, lies inthe s. w. part of the state, on the e. bank of Con-necticut river. It has the state of Massachusettson the s. Grafton county on the n. and Hillsbo-rough county e. It lias 34 townships, of whichCharlestown and Keene are the chief, and 28,772inhabitants, including 16 slaves.)

(Cheshire, a township in Berkshire county,Massachusetts ; famous for its good cheese ; 140miles fi. w. from Boston.)

(Cheshire, a township in New-Haven county,Connecticut, 15 miles n. of New-Haven city, and26 s.to. of Hartford. It contains an Episcopalchurch and academy, and three Conffreffationalchurches.)

(CHESNUT HILL, a township in Northamptoncounty, Pennsylvania.)

(Chesnut Creek, a branch of the Great Kanha-way, in Virginia, where it crosses the Carolinaline. Here, it is said, are iron mines.)

(Chesnut Ridge. Part of the Alleghanymountains, in Pennsylvania, are thus called, s. e.of Greensborough.)

CHESSOT, a town of the province and colonyof North Carolina ; situate on the shore of theriver Euphasee.

(CHESTER, a township in Lunenburg county,Nova Scotia, on Mali one bay, settled originallyby a few families from New England. Fromhence to Windsor is a road, the distance of 25miles.)

(Chester, a small plantation in Lincoln county,Maine, nine miles from Titcomb. It has eight ornine families.)

(Chester, a township in Hampshire county,Massachusetts, adjoining Westfield on the e. andabout 20 miles n. w. of Springfield. It contains177 houses, and 1119 inhabitants.)

(Chester, a large, pleasant, and elegant town-ship in Rockingham county. New Hampshire.It is 21 miles in length ; and on the w. side is apretty large lake, which sends its waters to Merri-mack river. It was incorporated in 1722, andcontains 1902 inhabitants, who are chiefly farmers.It is situated on the e. side of Merrimack river,14 miles n. w. of Haverhill, as far w. of Exeter,35 tflTby s. of Portsmouth, six n. of Londonderry,and 306 from Philadelphia. From the compactpart of this town there is a gentle descent to thesea, which, in a clear day, may be seen fromthence. It is a post-town, and contains about 60

houses and a Congregational church. Rattlesnakehill, in this township, is a great curiosity; it ishalf a mile in diameter, of a circular form, and400 feet high. On the side, 10 yards from itsbase, is the entrance of a cave, called the Devil’sDen, which is a room 15 or 20 feet square, andfour feet high, floored and circled by a regularrock, from the upper part of which are depend-ent many excrescences, nearly in the form andsize of a pear, which, when approached by a torch,throw out a sparkling lustre of almost every hue;It is a cold, dreary place, of which many fright-ful stories are told by those who delight in themarvellous.)

(Chester, a township in Windsor county, Ver-mont, w. of Springfield, and II miles w. by s. ofCharlestown, in New Hampshire, and contains981 inhabitants.)

(Chester, a borough and post-town in Penn-sylvania, and the capital of Delaware county;pleasantly situated on the w. side of Delaware ri-ver, near Marcus hook, and 13 miles n. e. of Wil-mington. It contains about 60 houses, built on aregular plan, a court-house, and a gaol. FromCliester to Philadelphia is 20 miles by water, and15 n. e. by land ; here the river is narrowed byislands of marsh, which are generally banked,and turned into rich and immensely valuable mea-dows. The first colonial assembly was convenedhere, the 4th of December 1682. The place af-fords genteel inns and good entertainment, and isthe resort of much company from the metropolisduringthe summer season. It was incorporated inDecember 1795, and is governed by two bur-gesses, a constable, a town-clerk, and three assist-ants ; whose power is limited to preserve the peaceand order of the place.)

(Chester County, in Pennsylvania, w. of Dela-ware county, and s. w. of Philadelphia ; about 45miles in length, and 30 in breadth. It contains33 townships, of which West Chester is the shiretown, and 27,937 inhabitants, of whom 145 areslaves. Iron ore is found in the n. parts, whichemploys six forges : these manufacture 'about1000 tons of bar-iron annually.)

(Chester Court-House, in South Carolina, 22miles s. of Pinckney court-house, and 58 n. w. ofColumbia. A post-office is kept here.)

(Chester River, a navigable water of thee. side of Maryland, which rises two miles withinthe line of Delaware state, by two sources, Cyprusand Andover creeks, which unite at Bridgetown ;runs nearly s. w. ; after passing Chester it runs s.nearly three miles, when it receives South-Easterncreek ; and 15 miles farther, in a s. w. direction, it

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empties into Chesapeak bay, at Love point. It formsan island at its mouth, and by acbannel on the e. sideof Kent island, communicates with. Eastern bay.It is proposed to cut a canal, about 1 1 miles long,from Andover creek, a mile and a half fromBridgetown to Salisbury, on Upper Duck creek,which falls into Delaware at Hook island.)

(Chester, a small town in Shannandoah county,Virginia, situate on the point of land formed bythe junction of Allen’s or North river and Southriver, which form the Shannandoah ; 16 miles s.by w. of Winchester. Lat. 39° 4' n. Long.78° 25' w.)

(Chester County, in Pinckney district, SouthCarolina, lies in the s.e. corner of the district, onW ateree river, and contains 6866 inhabitants ; ofwhom 5866 are whites, and 938 slaves. It sendstwo representatives, but no senator, to the statelegislature.)

(Chester, a town in Cumberland county, Vir-ginia ; situate on the s. w. bank of James river,15 miles n. of Blandford, and six s. of Rich-mond.)

(CHESTERFIELD, a township in Hampshirecounty, Massachusetts, 14 mites w. of Northamp-ton. It contains 180 houses, and 1183 inha-bitants.)

(Chesterfield, a township in Cheshire county.New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticutriver, having Westmoreland n. and Hinsdale s.It was incorporated in 1752, and contains 1905 in-habitants. It lies about 25 miles s. by w. ofCharlestown, and about 90 or 100 w. of Ports-mouth. About the year 1730, the garrison offort Dummer was alarmed with frequent explosions,and with columns of fire and smoke, emitted fromW est River mountain in th is township , and four milesdistant from that fort. The like appearances havebeen observed at various times since ; particularly,one in 1752 was the most severe of any. Thereare two places where the rocks bear marks of hav-ing been heated and calcined.)

(Chesterfield County, in South Carolina, isin Cheraws district, on the North Carolina line. Itis about 30 mites long, and 29 broad.)

Chesterfield County, in Virginia, is betweenJames and Appamatox rivers. It is about 30miles long, and 25 broad ; and contains 14,214inhabitants, including 7487 slaves.)

(Chesterfield Inlet, on the w. side of Hud-son’s bay, in New South Wales, upwards of 200miles in length, and from 10 to 30 in breadth ; fullof islands.)

(CHESTERTOWN, a post-town and the capi-tal of Kent county, Maryland, on the w. side of

Chester river, 16 miles s.w. of Georgetown, 38e. by s. from Baltimore, and 81 s.w. of Philadel*phia. It contains about 140 houses, a church,college, court-house, and gaol. The college wasincorporated in 1782, by the name of Washing-ton. It is under the direction of 24 trustees, whoare empowered to supply vacancies and hold,estates, whose yearly value shall not exceed 6000/.currency. In 1787 it had a permanent fund of1250/. a year settled upon it by law. Lat. 39° 12'n. Long. 76° 10' cc;.)

CHETIMACHAS, a river of the province andgovernment of Louisiana. It is an arm of theMississippi, which runs s. e. and enters the sea onthe side of the bay of Asuncion or Ascension. [Onthe Chetiraachas, six leagues from the Mississippi,there is a settlement of Indians of the same name ;and thus far it is uniformly 100 yards broad, andfrom two to four fathoms cleep, vfhen the water islowest. Some drifted logs have formed a shoal atits mouth on the Mississippi ; but as the water isdeep under them they could be easily removed;and the Indians say there is nothing to impede na-vigation from their village to the gulf. The banksare more elevated than those of the Mississippi, andin some places are so high as never to be over-flowed. The natural productions are the same ason the Mississippi, but the soil, from the extraordi-nary size and compactness of the canes, is supe-rior. If measures were adopted and pursued witha view to improve this communication, there wouldsoon be on its banks the most prosperous and im-portant settlements in that colony.)

(Chetimachas, Grand Lake of, in Loui-.siana, near the mouth of the Mississippi, is 24miles long, and nine broad. Lake de Portage,which is 13 miles long, and If broad, commu-nicates with this lake at the n. end, by a straita quarter of a mile wide. The country bor-dering on these lakes is low and flat, timbered withcypress, live and other kinds of oak ; and on the€. side, the land between it and the Chafalaya riveris divided by innumerable streams, which occa-sion as many islands. Some of these streams are*navigable. A little distance from the s. e. short?of the lake Chetimachas, is an island where per-sons passing that way generally halt as a restingplace. Nearly opposite this island there is anopening which leads to the sea. It is about 150yards wide, and has 16 or 17 fathoms water.)

CHETO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; tothe curacy of which is annexed the extensive val-ley of Huaillabamba, in the province of Chncha-poyas.

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figure, with four bastions, built wfili stockades.There were, some years since, about 2000 whiteinhabitants and 7000 slaves. They cultivate In-dian corn, tobacco, and indigo; raise vast quan-tities of poultry, wliich they send to New Or-leans. They also send to that city squared timber,staves, &c.]

COUQUECURA, a settlement of Indians ofthe province and corregimiento of Itata in thekingdom of Chile; situate on the coast.

COURIPI, a river of the province of Guay-ana==, in the F rench possessions.

COUSSA, a settlement of the English, in S.Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river of itsname.

Coussa, another settlement, in the same pro-vince and colony, on the shore of a river of thesame denomination. This river runs n. w. and en-ters the Albama.

COUSSARIE, a river of the province of Guay-ana, in the part possessed by the French. It entersthe Aprouac,

COUSSATI, a settlement of Indians of S. Ca-rolina ; situate on the shore of the river Albama.

COUUACHITOUU, a settlement of Indians ofS. Carolina, in which the English have an esta-blishment and fort for its defence.

COUUANCHI, a river of the province andcolonj'^ of Georgia, which runs e, and enters theOgeclii.

COUUANAIUUINI, a river of the provinceof Guayana, in the part which the Frenchpossess.

(COVENTRY, a township in Tolland county,Connecticut, 20 miles e. of Hartford city. ’’ It wassettled in 1709, being purchased by a number ofHartford gentlemen of one Joshua, an Indian.)

(Coventry, in Rhode Island state, is then. easternmost township in Kent county. Itcontains 2477 inhabitants.)

(Coventry, a township in the n. part of NewHampshire, in Grafton county. It was incorpo-rated in 1764, and contains 80 inhabitants.)

(Coventry, a township in Orleans county,Vermont. It lies in the n. part of the state, atthe s. end of lake Memphremagog. Black riverpasses through this town in its course to Memphre-magog.)

(Coventry, a township in Chester county,Pennsylvania.)

(COW AND Calf Pasture Rivers are headbranches of Rivanna river, in Virginia.)

(COWE is the capital town of the CherokeeIndians ; situated on the foot of the hills on bothsides of the river Tennessee. Here terminates the

great vale of Cowe, exhibiting one of the mostcharming, natural, mountainous landscapes thatcan be seen. The vale is closed at Cowe by aridge of hills, called the Jore mountains. Thetown contains about 100 habitations. In the con-stitution of the state of Tennessee, Cowe is de-scribed as near the line which separates Tennesseefrom Virginia, and is divided from Old Chota,another Indian town, by that part of the GreatIron or Smoaky mountain, called Unicoi or Unacamountain).

COWETAS, a city of the province and colonyof Georgia in N. America. It is 500 miles distantfrom Frederick, belongs to the Creek Indians,and in it General Oglethorp held his conferenceswith the caciques or chiefs of the various tribescomposing this nation, as also with the deputiesfrom the Chactaws and the Chicasaws, who in-habit the parts lying between the English andFrench establishments. He here made some newtreaties with the natives, and to a greater extentthan those formerly executed. Lat. 32° 12' n.Long. 85° 52' w. (See Apalachichola Town.)

(COWS Island. See Vache.)

(COWTENS, a place so called, in S. Carolina,between the Pacolet river and the head branch ofBroad river. This is the spot where General Mor-gan gained a complete victory over Lieutenant-co-lonel Tarleton, January 11, 1781, having only 12men killed and 60 wounded. The British had 39commissioned officers killed, wounded, and takenprisoners ; 100 rank and file killed, 200 wounded,and 500 prisoners. They left behind two piecesof artillery, two standards, 800 muskets, 35 bag-gage waggons, and 100 drago"on horses, which fellinto the hands of the Americans. The field ofbattle was in an open wood.)

COX, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes,in the district of the parish of San Joseph, nearthe e. coast.

Cox, another settlement in the same island,distinct from the former, and not far distantfrom it.

COXCATLAN, S. Juan Bautista de, asettlement and head settlement of the district of thea/caMa mayor of Valles in Nueva Espana ; situateon the bank of a stream which runs through aglen bordered with mountains and woods. It con-tans 1131 families of Mexican Indians, SO of Spa-niards, and various others of Mulattoes and Jlfus-tees, all of whom subsist by agriculture, and inraising various sorts of seeds, sugar-canes, andcotton. Fifteen leagues from the capital.

Coxcatlan, another settlement and head settle-ment of the alcddia mayor of Thehuacan in the

fr

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moiily called Acklin’s island), and Long Kej, (orFortune island), are tlie principal, Castle island(a very small one) is the most s. and is situated atthe s. end of Acklin’s island, which is the largestof the group, and extends about 50 miles in length ;atthew. extremity it is seven miles in breadth,but grows narrow towards the s. N. Crookedisland is upwards of 20 miles long, and from two tosix broad; Long Key, about two miles in length,l)ut very narrow : on this latter island is a valuablesalt pond. Near Bird rock, which is the mostw, extremity of the group, and at the w. point ofN. Crooked island, is a reef harbour, and a goodanchorage ; a settlement has been lately establishedthere, called Pitt’s Town, and this is the placewhere the Jamaica packet, on her return to Eu-rope through the Crooked island passage, leavesonce every month the Bahama mail from England,and takes on board the mail for Europe ; a port ofentry is now established there. There is likewisevery good anchorage, and plenty of fresh water atthe French w'ells, which lie at the bottom of thebay, about half-way between Bird rock and thes.end of Long Key. There is also a good harbour,(called Atwood’s harbour) at the w. end of Acklin’sisland, but fit only for small vessels, and anotherat Major’s Keys, on the n. side of N, Crookedisland, for vessels drawing eight or nine feet water.The population in ISOtf amounted to about 40whites, and 950 Negroes, men, women, andchildren; and previous to May 1803, lands weregranted by the crown, (o the amount oi 24,2 18 acres,for the purpose of cultivation. The middle of theisland lies in lat. 22^ 30' «. ; long. 74° tii). SeeBahamas.)

(Crooked Lake, in the Genessee country,communicates in an e, by n. diiection with Senecalake.)

(Crooked Lake, one of tlie chain of small lakeswhich connects the lake of tiie Woods with lakeSuperior, on the boundary line between the UnitedStates and Upper Canada, remarkable for its rug-ged cliff, in the cxacks of which are a number ofarrow's sticking.)

(Crooked River, in Camden county, Georgia,empties into the sea, opposite Cumberland island,12 or 14 miles n. from the mouth of St. Mary’s.Its banks are well timbered, and its course is e.by ??.)

(CROSS-CREEK, a township in Washingtoncounty, Pennsylvania.)

(Cross-Creeks. See Fayettevilee.)

(Cross-Roads, the name of a place in N. Caro-lina. near Duplin court-house, 23 miles from

Sampson court-house, and 23 from S. Washing-ton.)

(Cross-Roads, a village in Kent county, Mary-land, situated two miles s. of Georgetown, onSassafras river, and is thus named from four roadswhich meet and cross each other iu the village.)

(Cross-Roads, a village in Chester county,Pennsylvania, where six ditferent roads meet. Itis 27 miles s. e. of Lancaster, 11 n. by w. of Elk-ton in Maryland, and about 18 w.n.w. of Wil-mington iu Delaware.)

CROSSING, a settlement of the island of Bar-badoes, in the district of the parish of San Juan.

(CROSSWICKS, a village in Burlingtoncounty, New Jersey; through which the line ofstages passes from New York to Philadelphia.It has a respectable Quaker meeting-house, fourmiles 5. ti;. of Allen town, eight s. e. of Trenton,and 14 s. w. of Burlington.)

(CROTON River, a n. e. water of Hudsonriver, rises in the town of New Fairfield in Con-necticut, and running through Dutchess county,empties into Tappan bay. Croton bridge is thrownover this river three miles from its mouth, on thegreat road to Albany ; this is a solid, substantialbridge, 1400 feet long, the road narrow, piercingthrough a slate hill; it is supported by 16 stonepillars. Here is an admirable view of Croton falls,where the water precipitates itself between 60 and70 feet perpendicular, and over high slate banks,in some places 100 feet, the river spreading intothree streams as it enters the Hudson.)

(CROW Creek falls into the Tennessee, fromthe n. w. opposite the Crow town, 15 miles be-low Nickajack town.)

(Crow Indians, a people of N. America, di-vided into four bands, called by themselves Ahah'-ar-ro-pir-no-pah, No6-ta, Pa-rees-car, and E-liart'-sar. They annually visit the Mandans, Me-netares, and Ahwahhaways, to whom they barterliorses, mules, leather lodges, and many articlesof Indian apparel, for which they receive in re-turn guns, ammunition, axes, kettles, awls, andother European manufactures. When they re-turn to their country, they are in turn visited bythe Paunch and Snake Indians, to whom they bar-ter most of the articles they have obtained from thenations on the Missouri, for horses and mules, ofwhich those rrations have a greater abundance thanthemselves. They also obtain of the Snake In-dians bridle-bits and blankets, and some otherarticles, which those Indians purchase from theSpaniards. Their country is fertile, and wellwatered, and in many parts well timbered.

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