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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]





raense advantage to the neighbouring states, parti-cularly to Virginia. Of that state it has been ob-served, with some little exaggeration, however,that “ every planter has a river at his door.”)

(CHESHIRE county, in New Hampshire, lies inthe s. w. part of the state, on the e. bank of Con-necticut river. It has the state of Massachusettson the s. Grafton county on the n. and Hillsbo-rough county e. It lias 34 townships, of whichCharlestown and Keene are the chief, and 28,772inhabitants, including 16 slaves.)

(Cheshire, a township in Berkshire county,Massachusetts ; famous for its good cheese ; 140miles fi. w. from Boston.)

(Cheshire, a township in New-Haven county,Connecticut, 15 miles n. of New-Haven city, and26 of Hartford. It contains an Episcopalchurch and academy, and three Conffreffationalchurches.)

(CHESNUT HILL, a township in Northamptoncounty, Pennsylvania.)

(Chesnut Creek, a branch of the Great Kanha-way, in Virginia, where it crosses the Carolinaline. Here, it is said, are iron mines.)

(Chesnut Ridge. Part of the Alleghanymountains, in Pennsylvania, are thus called, s. e.of Greensborough.)

CHESSOT, a town of the province and colonyof North Carolina ; situate on the shore of theriver Euphasee.

(CHESTER, a township in Lunenburg county,Nova Scotia, on Mali one bay, settled originallyby a few families from New England. Fromhence to Windsor is a road, the distance of 25miles.)

(Chester, a small plantation in Lincoln county,Maine, nine miles from Titcomb. It has eight ornine families.)

(Chester, a township in Hampshire county,Massachusetts, adjoining Westfield on the e. andabout 20 miles n. w. of Springfield. It contains177 houses, and 1119 inhabitants.)

(Chester, a large, pleasant, and elegant town-ship in Rockingham county. New Hampshire.It is 21 miles in length ; and on the w. side is apretty large lake, which sends its waters to Merri-mack river. It was incorporated in 1722, andcontains 1902 inhabitants, who are chiefly farmers.It is situated on the e. side of Merrimack river,14 miles n. w. of Haverhill, as far w. of Exeter,35 tflTby s. of Portsmouth, six n. of Londonderry,and 306 from Philadelphia. From the compactpart of this town there is a gentle descent to thesea, which, in a clear day, may be seen fromthence. It is a post-town, and contains about 60

houses and a Congregational church. Rattlesnakehill, in this township, is a great curiosity; it ishalf a mile in diameter, of a circular form, and400 feet high. On the side, 10 yards from itsbase, is the entrance of a cave, called the Devil’sDen, which is a room 15 or 20 feet square, andfour feet high, floored and circled by a regularrock, from the upper part of which are depend-ent many excrescences, nearly in the form andsize of a pear, which, when approached by a torch,throw out a sparkling lustre of almost every hue;It is a cold, dreary place, of which many fright-ful stories are told by those who delight in themarvellous.)

(Chester, a township in Windsor county, Ver-mont, w. of Springfield, and II miles w. by s. ofCharlestown, in New Hampshire, and contains981 inhabitants.)

(Chester, a borough and post-town in Penn-sylvania, and the capital of Delaware county;pleasantly situated on the w. side of Delaware ri-ver, near Marcus hook, and 13 miles n. e. of Wil-mington. It contains about 60 houses, built on aregular plan, a court-house, and a gaol. FromCliester to Philadelphia is 20 miles by water, and15 n. e. by land ; here the river is narrowed byislands of marsh, which are generally banked,and turned into rich and immensely valuable mea-dows. The first colonial assembly was convenedhere, the 4th of December 1682. The place af-fords genteel inns and good entertainment, and isthe resort of much company from the metropolisduringthe summer season. It was incorporated inDecember 1795, and is governed by two bur-gesses, a constable, a town-clerk, and three assist-ants ; whose power is limited to preserve the peaceand order of the place.)

(Chester County, in Pennsylvania, w. of Dela-ware county, and s. w. of Philadelphia ; about 45miles in length, and 30 in breadth. It contains33 townships, of which West Chester is the shiretown, and 27,937 inhabitants, of whom 145 areslaves. Iron ore is found in the n. parts, whichemploys six forges : these manufacture 'about1000 tons of bar-iron annually.)

(Chester Court-House, in South Carolina, 22miles s. of Pinckney court-house, and 58 n. w. ofColumbia. A post-office is kept here.)

(Chester River, a navigable water of thee. side of Maryland, which rises two miles withinthe line of Delaware state, by two sources, Cyprusand Andover creeks, which unite at Bridgetown ;runs nearly s. w. ; after passing Chester it runs s.nearly three miles, when it receives South-Easterncreek ; and 15 miles farther, in a s. w. direction, it

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Ingenio del Oro

Nueva Cbocaya,Talina,












And in the district of Tarija,

Tarija de Vieja, La Concepcion,

San Bernardo de Tarija, Berraeo.

The district of Tarija is a territory full of que-hradas and craggy mountains, as far as the punasand lofty plains of Escayache and Tacsora, wherethere are two salt lakes. It is composed of fourfertile valleys lying on the skirts of hills, and inthese are found human bones of a prodigious size,petrified, shin-bones of a yard and a quarter long,and teeth larger than a fist. In the midst of one ofthese valleys is the town of San Bernardo de Tarija,which is the capital of the province. Its reparti-miento used to amount to 82,350 dollars, and itsalcavala to 558 dollars per annum. For the settle-ments of this district, see above.

Chichas, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in thesame kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Sala-manca.

Chichas, a river of the province and govern-ment of Tucumán, in the district and jurisdictionof the city of Xuxuy, which divides this city fromthat of the capital of San Miguel.

(CHICHESTER, Upper and Lower, twotownships in Delaware county, Pennsylva-nia.)

(Chichester, a small township in Rocking-ham county, New Hampshire, about 35 miles n. w.of Exeter, and 45 from Portsmouth. It lies onSuncook river, was incorporated in 1727, andcontains 491 inhabitants.)

CHICHIBACOA, Cabo de, a cape on thecoast of the province and government of SantaMarta, and kingdom of Tierra Firrae ; 80 leaguesto the w. of that city.

CHICHICAPA, a settlement and capital of thealcaldia mayor of the province and bishopric ofOaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tem-perature, and was anciently the real of the mostesteemed silver mines; but is at present muchfallen of, the working of the mines having been for

the most part abandoned from the want of hands,in as much as the natives have given themselvesup to the trade of cochineal, in which its territoryabounds : it produces also much seed and maize.Its jurisdiction includes some of the finest andrichest provinces. It consists of five head settle-ments of districts, to which are subject as manyother. Its capital contains 430 families of Indians,and some of Spaniards, Muslees, and Mulattoes.Ninety leagues s. e. of Mexico. The other settle-ments are.

Zimitlan,Tepezimatlan,La Magdalena,Atzozola.

Rio Hondo or Thequila,

San Agustin de Losi-



Cozan tepee,

CHICHICATEPEC, a settlement and head set-tlement of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in NuevaEspana, is of a cold temperature, contains 26 fa-milies of Indians, and is seven leagues to the s. e.of its capital.

CHICHICOAUTLA, St. Francisco de, asettlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Metepeque in Nueva Espana. It contains 91families of Indians.

CHICHIMEQUILLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitaquaro, and alcaldiamayor Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacanand kingdom of Nueva Espana. It contains 84families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league tothe s. of its head settlement.

CHICHIQUILA, a settlement of the head set-tlement of Quinuxtlan, and alcaldia mayor of SanJuan de los Llanos, in Nueva Espana. It contains180 families of Indians.

CHICHOI, a settlement of the province andkingdom of Guatemala.

CHICHOPON, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Xuambos.

CHICIBICHE, a point of the coast of the pro-vince and government of Venezuela, opposite theisland of Aves.

(CHICKAHOMINY, a small navigable riverin Virginia. At its mouth in James river, 37miles from point Comfort, in Chesapeak bay, is abar, on which is only 12 feet water at commonflood tide. Vessels passing that may go eightmiles up the river; those of 10 feet draught 12miles ; and vessels of six tons burden may go 32miles up the river.)

(CHICKAMACOMICO Creek, in Dorchestercounty, Maryland, runs s. between the towns ofMiddletown and Vienna, and empties into Fishingbay.)

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on the banks of the river of its name, near wherethis river joins that of Florido. It is garrisonedby a captain, a lieutenant, a serjeant, and 33 sol-diers, to guard against the irruptions of the infidelIndians. In its vicinity are the estates of La Ci-enega, Sapian, and El Pilar. Fifty-eight leaguesto the n.n.e. of the city of Guadalaxara.

CONCHUCOS, a province and corresimientoof Peru ; bounded n. by the province of Huama-chucos, n. e. by that of Pataz, and separated fromthence by the river Marafion, e. and s. e. by theprovince of Huraalies, and s. by that of Caxa-tambo. It is 52 leagues in length, and in someparts 20 in width. It is of a very irregular figure,and of various temperature, according to the dif-ferent situation of its territories ; cold in all theparts bordering upon the cordil/era, mild in someparts, and in others excessively hot. It is 'V-erypleasant, and it has all kinds of fruits, which itproduces in abundance, and in the same mannerwheat, barley, and pot herbs. On its skirts arefound numerous herds of cattle of every species,and from the wools of some of these are made thecloth manufactures of the country, which meetwith a ready demand in the other provinces. Theprincipal rivers by which it is watered are three ;and these are formed by various streams : the oneof them enters that of Santa to the zo. and theother two the Marafion. The most s. is called DeMiraflores, and the other, which is very large,keeps the name of the province. Here are somemines of silver, which were formerly very rich ;as also some lavaderos, or washing places of gold,of the purest quality, the standard weight of itbeing 23 carats. Also in the curacy of Llamelinare some mines of brimstone, and a fountain orstream, the waters of which, falling down into adeep slough, become condensed and converted intoa stone called Catachi, in the form of columns muchresembling wax-candles, of a very white colour.The same substance is used as a remedy againstthe bloody flux, and it is said, that being madeinto powders, and mixed Avith the white of an egg,it forms a salve which accelerates in a Avonderfulmanner the knitting of fractured bones. It com-prehends 15 curacies, Avithout the annexed settle-ments, all of Avhich, the former and the latter, are

as folloAVS :

Huari del Rey, the ca-pital,



San Marcos,

San Ildefonso,

San Christoval,Yunga,











M irgas,






San Luis de Huari,







Conch UCOS,




CONCHUCOS, a settlement of the same pro-vince ; annexed to the curacy of Pallasca.

CONCHUCOS, a river of the province and cor-regimiento of the same name in Peru, Avhich risesin the cordillera. It runs s. and enters the Ma-ranon near the settlement of Uchos in the provinceof Andahuailas.

CONCON, a port of the coast of the kingdQmof Chile, in the S. sea, and province and corregi-miento of Quillota,

(CONCORD, a post-toAvn of New Hampshire,very flourishing, and pleasantly situated on thew. bank of Merrimack river, in Rockinghamcounty, eight miles above Hookset falls. Thelegislature, of late, have commonly held their ses-sions here ; and from its central situation, and athriving back country, it will probably become thepermanent seat of government. Much of the tradeof the upper country centres here. A liandsoraetall bridge across the Merrimack connects thistown Avith Pembroke. It has 1747 inhabitants,and Avas incorporated in 1765. The Indian nameAvas Penacook. It was granted by Massachusetts,and called Rumford. Tlie compact part of thetown contains about 170 houses, a Congregationalchurcli, and an academy, which was incorporatedin 1790. It is 54 miles w. n. w. of Portsmouth,58 s. w. of Dartmouth college, and 70 n. fromBoston. Lat. 43” 12' n. Long. 71° 31' a?.)

(Concord, in Essex county, Vermont, lies onConnecticut river, opposite a part of the Fifteen-mile falls.)

(Concord, in Massachusetts, a post-town, oneof the most considerable towns in Middlesexcounty ; situated on Concord river, in a healthyand pleasant spot, nearly in the centre of thecounty, and 18 miles n. w. of Boston, and 17 e.of Lancaster. Its Indian name Avas Musquetequid;and it owes its present name to the peaceable man-ner in which it was obtained from the natives.The first settlers, among whom Avere the Rev.Messrs. Buckley and Jones, having settled- the


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(is generally 5. s.zc. as likewise through Massachus-setts, and part of Connecticut, until it reaches thecity of Middleton ; after wliich it runs a s, s. e.course to its mouth. The navigation of this beau-tiful river, which, like the Nile, fertilizes tiie landsthrough which it runs, is much obstructed byfalls ; two of these are between New Hampshireand Vermont, the first are called the Fifteen-milefalls ; here the river is rapid for 20 miles : thesecond remarkable fall is at Walpole, formerlycalled the Great falls, but now called Bellows’falls. Above these the breadth of the river is insome places 22, in other places not above 16 rods;the depth of the channel is about 25 feet, and com-monly runs full of water. In September 1792,however, owing to the severe drought, the waterof the river, it is said, “ passed within (he spaceof 12 feet wide, and 2| feet deep.” A large rockdivides the stream into two channels, each about90 feet wide ; when the river is low, the e. channelis dry, being crossed by a solid rock ; and thewhole stream falls into the w. channel, where it iscontracted to the breadth of 16 feet, and flows withastonishing rapidity. There are several pitches,one above another, in the length of half a mile, thelargest of which is that where the rock divides thestream. A bridge of timber was projected over this fallby Colonel Hale, in the year 1784, 365 feet long,and supported in the middle by the island rock,and under it the highest floods pass without doingany injury; this is the only bridge on the river,but it is contemplated to erect another, SO milesabove, at the middle bar of Agar falls, where thepassage for the water, between the rocks, is 100feet wide ; this will connect the towns of Lebanonin New Hampshire, and Hartford in Vermont ; asthe former bridge connects Walpole in NewHampshire with Rockingham in Vermont. Not-withstanding the velocity of the current at Bellows’falls, above described, the salmon pass up theriver, and are taken many miles above, but the shadproceed no farther. On the steep sides of theisland rock, at the fall, hang several arm chairs,secured by a counterpoise ; in these the fishermensit to catch salmon with fishing nets. In the courseof the river, through Massachusetts, are the fallsat South Hadley, around which locks and canalswere completed in 1795, by an enterprising com-pany, incorporated for that purpose in 1792, bythe legislature of Massachusetts. In Connecticutthe river is obstructed by falls at Enfield, to ren-der which navigable in boats, a company has beenincorporated, and a sum of money raised by lot-tery, but nothing effectual is yet done. The

average descent of this river from Weathersfield inVermont, 150 miles from its mouth, is two feet toa mile, according to the barometrical observationsof J. Winthrop, Esq. made in 1786. The riversor streams which fall into Connecticut river arenumerous; such of them as are worthy of noticewill be seen under their respective names. At itsmouth is a bar of sand, which considerably ob-structs the navigation ; it has 10 feet water on itat full tides, and the depth is the same to Middle-ton, from which the bar is 36 miles distant. AboveMiddleton there are some shoals which have onlysix feet water at high tide, and here the tide ebbsand flows about eight inches ; three miles abovethat city the river is contracted to about 40 rodsin breadth, by two high mountains ; on almostevery other part of the river the banks are low,and spread into fine extensive meadows. In thespring floods, which generally happen in May,these meadows are covered with water. At Hart-ford, the water sometimes rises 20 feet above thecommon surface of the river, and the water hav-ing no other outlet but the above mentioned strait,it is sometimes tw o or three weeks before it returnsto its usual bed ; these floods add nothing to-thedepth of water on the bar at the mouth of theriver, as the bar lies too far off in the sound to beaffected by them. This river is navigable toHartford city upwards of 50 miles from its mouth,and the produce of the country for 200 miles aboveit, is brought thither in boats. The boats whichare used in this business are flat-bottomed, long,and narrow, and of so light a make as to be port-able in carts : before the construction of locks andcanals on (his river, they were taken out at threedifferent carrying places, all of which made 15miles : it is expected that in a few years the ob-structions will be all removed. Sturgeon, salmon,and shad, are caught in plenty in their season, fromthe mouth of the river upwards, excepting stur-geon, which do not ascend the upper falls; be-sides a variety of small fish, such as pike, carp,perch, &c. There is yet a strong expectation ofopening a communication between this river andthe Merrimack, through Sugar river, which runsinto the Connecticut at Claremont in New Mamp-shire, and the Contoocook, which falls into tlieMerrimack at Boscawen. From this river wereemployed, in 1789, three brigs of 180 tons each,in the European trade ; and about 60 sail, from60 to 150 tons, in the VV. India trade, besidesa few fishermen, and 40 or 50 coasting vessels.The number has considerably increased since.)

(Connecticut, a stream in Long island, New

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