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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]




Brocal de la Mina de, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru ;finnexed to the curacy of Santa Barbara.

CHACLAIA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Ambana.

CHACLIA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of Santa Olaya.

CHACMA, or Chamaca, a valley of the pro-vince of Cuzco and kingdom of Peru, near thecoast of the S. sea. It was well peopled in formertimes, and abounds now in sugar-cane, from whichsugar is made. It was conquered and united tothe empire by Huaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor.

CHACNA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Colcabamba.

CHACO, a province of the kingdom of Peru,called the Gran Chaco, is an extensive country ;having as its boundary to the e. the river Para-guay, and being bounded on the [n.e. by the pro-vince of the Chiquitos Indians ; on the n. by thatof Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; on the zo. it touchesupon the provinces of Mizque, Tomina, Porna-bamba, Pilaya, Paspaya, Tarija, and Tucuman.On the s. it extends as far as the jurisdiction of thegovernment of Buenos Ayres, which is its farthestlimits. Towards the n. it is 150 leagues widefrom e. to w. and 250 leagues long from n. to s. ;but to make these distances, it requires manymonths, owing to the unevenness and roughness ofthe territory. It is called Chaco, or, with morepropriety, Chacu, which, in the Quechuan lan-guage, signifies junta, or company, from the cir-cumstance of its having been formed of Indians ofseveral countries, who had fled from the conquer-ing arms of the Incas, and afterwards from thoseof the Spaniards. Towards the w. it has someserraniasj which are branches of the cordilhrn ;where, on account of their immense height, thecold is very great ; but in the low grounds, whichare for the most part plains, the temperature is hot.It is full of thick woods, and in many parts isswampy and wet ; particularly in the part lyingtowards the e. on the road to Paraguay. In thewet season, which lasts from the month of Novem-ber to April, the rivers leave their beds and formvarious lakes, some of which dry up, and someremain. This province has some rivers of note ;such are the Salado and the Bermejo ; is one of themost fertile provinces in America, and would, ifit were cultivated, afford, in the greatest abun-dance, those productions wnich are now thrownaway upon the infinite number of barbarous na-


tions who inhabit it. It produces a great varietyof fine woods and fruit-trees; such as walnuts andnuts, although different from those of Europe, butwhich arc extremely well tasted ; beautiful cedars ;quebrachos^ thus called on account of their hard-ness ; guqyacanes, carob-trees, balsams, marias,palms, some of which are more than 30 yards inheight; almonds, cacaos, ceihas, whicli are verylarge trees, bearing in the pods a remarkable softwool, used for quilts, since it cannot be spun ; cot-ton-trees, mistoles, of the heart of which the In-dians make darts and cimeters ; myrrh, sarzafraz-trees, bark, and others, which have the interiorbark so delicate and white as occasionally to serveinstead of writing paper; others there are, whicli,at one or two yards up their stems, form a kind ofbarrel or pipe, and being of a very tough bark,are accustomed to be ripped open by the Indians,and thus serve as vessels, in which these keep theirliquor called chieha ; it is from this that theywhimsically call this plant palo borracho, ordrunken tree. In this province are found alsocanes for walking sticks, as fine as those of Asia ;and in the trunks of trees, in holes of the rocksand below the ground, are quantities of honey andwax wrought by bees, of which there are reckonedto be more than 12 sorts : some of the wax, besidesbeing transparent, is extremely fragrant and deli-cious to the taste, whilst some is so sour as to re-semble the juice of boiled lemons. One sort ofthese bees fabricate, with great skill, excellenthives of mud upon the branches of trees, and ofthe shape of a decanter, which are so hard thatthey will not break in falling down upon theground ; they, morever, are filled Avith exquisitewax and Avell-flavoured honey. The fruit-treeswhich this province produces, are oranges, cedars,lemons, apples, pears, melocotones^ (or peaches en-grafted on quinces), figs, nuts, prunes, and olives,also passion-floAvers ; all of which have beenbrought hither from the city of Santiago de Gua-dalcazar. Here are palms Avhich have cups con-taining 25 kernels each, differing only slightlyfrom the palms of Europe by having a flavour ofthe cocoa, and being somewhat larger. Here isalso a plant called chahuar, having prickles likethe savine, of which are made threads similar tohemp, for the manufacture of nets, bags, and somesorts of coarse garments : its root serves as food forthe Indians, as do also yucas, potatoes, and others.It has an innumerable quantity of birds, namely,Avild pigeons, ducks, herons, mountain-peacocks’pheasants, crows, condors, partridges, falcons,SAvans, periguanas, ostriches, parrots, and onekind of bird which exactly imitates an organ, and

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wreck, and amongst these many valuables of goldand silver, which had grown quite discoloured, tothe amount of 40,000 dollars. Lat. 2°2l' s.

CHANEL, some islands near the coast of thecountry of Labrador, in the gulf of St. Lawrence.They are numerous and very small, one of thembeing very long and narrow ; forming a channelwith the coast, and giving its name to the rest.

CHANESES, a barbarous nation of Indians, ofthe province and government of Paraguay ; dwell-ing to the n. of the Rio de la Plata, and boundedby the Xarayes and Xacoces. They have theirhouses near the lakes, and maintain themselves byfishing.

CHANGAME, some small islands of the S. sea,and of the bay of Panamá, in the province and go-vernment of Tierra Firme. They are two in num-ber, being situate near the coast, and having be-tween them a shallow or quicksand, by which theyare communicated. They abound in a species ofbirds, from which they take their name.

CHANGO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Chacayan.

CHANQUI, or Achanqui, a promontory orcape of the province and corregimiento of Valdiviain the kingdom of Chile ; being eight leagues tothe s. of San Marcelo. It forms and covers themouth or entrance of the gulf of Los Coronados,with the other cape, which is to thes. called De laBallena.

CHANTACO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito,to the w. of Chuquri-bamba, and to the s. of SanPedro, consists entirely of Indians, and lies uponthe bank of a small river, being of an excellentclimate.

CHANTALI, a settlement of the province andgovernment of aen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the river ofits name.

CHANUSSI, a river of the country of Las Ama-zonas, which runs from c. to w. through the woodslying towards the w. and enters the Guallaga onits ^ sido

CHANXEWATER, an English settlement inthe province and colony of New York ; situatenear the e. arm of the river Delaware.

CHAO, Farallones de, two small islands ofthe S. sea, near the coast of the province and cor-regimiento of Truxillo in Peru.

Chao, Morro de, a mountain of the coast ofthe same corregimiento.

CHAPA, Puerto de, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucumán, in the juris-

diction of the city of Cordoba ; situate near therivers Segundo and Tercero, at the foot of theMontana Nevada, or Snowy mountain.

CHAPACOTO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom ofQuito ; situate at the skirt of the Gran Cuesta, ormountain of San Antonio. Through it passes asmall river, which runs down from this mountain,and empties itself in the river of Chimbo ; is of avery cold temperature, and lies in the middle of awood. Lat. l°40's.

CHAPADA, Sierra, mountains of the king-dom of Brazil, in the province and captainshipof Todos Santos. They run from e. to w. untilthey reach nearly as far as the coast.

CHAPALA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlan inNueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the greatlake or sea of this name ; has a good convent ofthe monks of St. Francis, and in its valley, whichis very fertile, there is an abundance of all kinds ofseed, as wheat, maize, French beans, and many de-licious fruits.

Chapala, another settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Zaiula in the same kingdom ; situate ina plain of a mild temperature. It contains 42 fa-milies of Indians, who trade in seeds and otherfruits, since its district abounds in garden grounds.It has a convent of the religious of St. Francis ;lies 22 leagues between the e. and n. of its capital.

Chapala, a great lake of the kingdom ofNueva Galicia, called Mar de Chapala, on ac-count of its size, is navigated by many vessels,and is extremely well stocked with fish ; fromwhich the inhabitants of the immediate settlementsderive their source of commerce.

CHAPAMARCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Loxa, in the kingdom ofQuito; situate to the s. of the capital.

CHAPANCHICA. See Madrigal.

CHAPARE, or Parati, a river of the provinceand government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Itrises in the serrania of the Altos or Lofts of Inti-nuyo, from two small rivers which unite ; runs inan inclined course to the e. and enters the Mar-more Grande, forming a good port.

CHAPARIPARI, a river of the province andgovernment of Cumaná, runs e. and enters thesea in the gulf of Triste.

CHAPARRA, Valle de, a valley of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Cumaná in Peru ; inthe vicinity of which is a mine abounding in ametal called chumillo.

CHAPARRAL, a small settlement of the cor-regimiento of Coyaima in the Nuevo Reyno de

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at that critical moment received fresh succours,that were sent from Cuzco by his brother the Mar-quis Don Francisco Pizarro, he would have fallena sacrifice, with the whole of the Spanish army, tothat undertaking : but being invigorated by thisassistance, he succeeded in routing the Indians,and in obliging them to surrender to the Spanishgovernment. In 1539 the Marquis Don Fran-cisco Pizarro, seeing the importance of making anestablishment here, resolved upon building of atown, giving a commission to Captain Pedro Au-zures to execute the same. This person actuallyput into effect the plan suggested, founding thetown in exactly the same spot in which formerlystood the settlement of Chuquisaca. Here manyof its conquerors settled and became citizens, andthey gave it the name of La Plata, or Silver, fromsome mines of this metal which are found in themountain of Porco, which lies at a small distancefrom this city, and from which the Inca Emperorswere accustomed to extract immense emolument.Notwithstanding this name it has never lost itsoriginal title, Chuquisaca, although indeed it isbadly pronounced by the Spaniards ; since the In-dians, and with great propriety, will have it Cho-quezaca, Choquechaca, or Choquisacha; all ofwhich, however pronounced, signify, the first,moun-tains of gold ; the second, cunchos of gold, orfields of brambles with yellow twigs ; and the third,bridges of gold. Although this province is exten-sive, it is composed of various others, which weshall notice under their proper heads. This keepsits present name, from being the one of all theothers the most abounding in minerals, seeds, andcattle ; as well as being the one best peopled withIndians. It is watered by many large rivers ; andthe whole of it composes an archbishopric, towhich arc suffragan the bishoprics of La Paz,Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Tucuman, Paraguay,and Buenos Ayres. It belongs to the viceroyaltyof this latter place since the time that this waserected, and that the government was entrusted tothe royal audience established in 1559. The afore-said district comprehends in its jurisdiction allthe following provinces and corregimientos :Tomino, Cochabamba,

Porco, Chayanta,

Tarija, Paria,

Lipes, Carangas,

Amparaez, Cicasica,

Oruro, Atacama ;


In which are contained 188 settlements and cura-cies, in which there were in 1651 about 100,000Indians. The capital of the whole jurisdiction is

the aforesaid city of Chuquisaca or La Plata. —[Charcas joined the new government of BuenosAyres in 1810. See La Plata,]

Those who have been Presidents in the RoyalAudience of Charcas.

1. The Licentiate Pedro Ramirez de Quinones,first president, in 1559.

2. The Licentiate Juan de Matienzo, a cele-brated jurisconsult, in 1580.

3. The Licentiate Zepeda, in 1588.

4. The Licentiate Alonso Maldonado de Torres,in 1606.

5. Don Juan de Lizarazu, knight of the orderof Santiago ; he passed over to the presidency ofQuito in 1612.

6. Don Diego de Portugal, in 1614.

7. Don Alonzo Perez de Salazar, who was pre-sident of Quito, and was promoted to this, wherehe governed until the year 1620.

8. Don Juan de Caravajal y Sande, promotedin 1633.

9. Don Dionisio Perez Manrique, knight ofthe order of Santiago, collegiate in the collegeof Los Manriques de Alcala, rector of the uni-versity there, oidor of Lima, and president ofQuito, from whence he was removed to be pre-sident of this audience of Charcas in 1646 ; whence,having exercised it till 1654, he was removed tothat of Santa Fe.

10. Don Pedro Vazquez de Velasco, who pre-sided until the year 1661.

11. Don Bartolome Gonzalez de Poveda, pro-moted in 1678 ; he was made archbishop of theholy church of Charcas, remaining in the presi-dency until 1688.

12. Don Diego Mesia, native of Lima, oidor ofits royal audience, and formerly of that of Quito ;he was promoted to the presidency of Charcas in1688.

13. Don Jorge Manrique de Lara, who wasoidor of Panama, afterwards of Charcas, as alsopresident.

14. Don Gabriel Antonio Matienzo, president in1723.

15. Don Francisco de Herboso, who was ap-pointed in 1725, and presided until 1732.

16. Don Agustin de Jauregui, knight of theorder of Santiago, and native of Lima.

17. Don Juan Francisco Pestana, adjutant-major of the regiment of Spanish guards ; he wasnominated in 1752, and presided until 1769.

18. Don Ambrosio de Benavides, who enteredin the above year, and presided until 1777.

19. Don Agustin de Pinedo, who succeededthe former, and governed until 1782.

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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]

CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.

CHILOSTUTA, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Zedales in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHILPANSINGO, a settlement of the intendancy of Mexico, surroundedwith fertile fields of wheat. Elevation 1080 me-tres, or 3542 feet.

CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.

to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,


San Lorenzo,Parapacucho,
























Same name, another settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in the same king-dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pucquin.

CHILTAL, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Atacames or Esmeraldas in thekingdom of Quito ; situate in the valley of Chota,on the shore of the river Mira.

CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.

Same name, a river of the province and alcal-diamayor of Tabasco, which runs into the sea.

CHILUA, San Marcos de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru ;annexed to the Curacy of Huamanguilla.

CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.

3 L 2

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a settlement founded seven leag'ues from the placecalled the Puerto, but in 16GS they tied, all ofthem, to the mountains, although in the same yearthey returned back again to the settlement.

CHIRIGUANA, a large settlement of the pro-vince and government of Santa Marta in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature,and the territory is level, fertile, and beautiful.It has besides the parish church a convent or houseof entertainment of the religious order of St.Francis.

CHIRIGUANOS, a country and nation of theinfidel Indians of the province and government ofSanta Cruz de la Sierra in Peru, from whence itlies 20 leagues to thes. It is bounded on the the province of Tomina, and s. e. by that ofChuquisaca ; is composed of different settlements,each governed by its captain or cazique, subject,in a certain degree, to the above government.These people, though they refuse to adopt the Ca-tholic religion, are in perfect amity with the Spa-niards, trading with them in wax, cotton, andmaize. This nation, by the incursions which tlieymade, used at first to give frequent alarm to theprovince, and once had the address to capture thecity of Chiquisaca. The Inca Yupanqui en-deavoured in vain to subdue them, and neither henor the Spaniards could avail aught with them■until they were reduced by the missionaries, theregulars of the extinguished company of the Je-suits ; since that time they have been stedfast insupporting the Spaniards against the other infidels,serving them as a barrier, and having for their ownline of defence the river Guapay. They are veryvalorous, but inconstant and faithless ; they aredescended from the nations which are found to thee. of Paraguay ; and fled from thence, to the num-ber of 4000, ^hen avoiding the threatened chastise-ment of the Portuguese, who were about to inflictcondign punishment on them for having treache-rously murdered the Captain Alexo Garcia in thetime of the King Don Juan 111. of Portugal.They were foi'merly cannibals, and used to fattentheir prisoners that these might become better fare ;but their intercourse and trade with the Spaniardshas caused them by degrees to forget this barbarouspractice, and even to give them a disgust at theirsavage neighbours, who still continue in the samepractices. They are at the present day so greatlyincreased in numbers, that they are one of themost numerous nations of America ; are besidesvery neat and clean ; and it is not uncommon forthem to rush out of their dwellings in the middleof the night to plunge and wash themselves in ariver in the most severe seasons ; their wives too.

immediately after parturition, invariably do thesame, and on their return lay themselves on a heapof sand, which they have for this purpose in thehouse; but the husband immediately takes to hisbed, and being covered all over with very largeleaves, refuses to take any other nourishment thana little broth made of maize ; it being an incorri-gible error of belief amongst them that these cere-monies will be the cause of making their childrenbold and warlike. They have shewn great powerand address in their combats with our troops whenthese first endeavoured to enter their territories,and they threw themselves in such an agile and un-daunted manner upon our fire-arms that it wasfound necessary, on our part, to insert in the rantsa lance-man between every two fusileers : the vare, moreover, so extremely nimble that it isimpossible to take them prisoners but by sur-prise.

CHIRIMICHATE, a river of the provinceand government of Venezuela. It rises in thesierra opposite the point of Hicacos, and entersthe sea in this point.

CHIRINOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito.

CHIRIQUI, a district of the province and go-vernment of Santiago de Veragua in the kingdomof Tierra Firme, the last district of this province ;dividing the government from that of Guatemala,and touching upon the province of Costarica.It is of limited extent ; the country is mountainous,and its climate hot and unhealthy, surrounded onall sides by infidel Indians. Here are bred num-bers of mules, which are carried to be sold at Pa-nama and Guatemala ; upon the coast of the S.sea are found crabs which distil a purple colourused for dyeing cotton, which, although it mayfade a little, can never be entirely eradicated.They have plenty of swine, and some vegetable pro-ductions ; with which they carry on a trade, nowfallen much to decay, with the city of Panama.The capital is Santiago de Alanje.

Same name, a river of the above province (Santiago de Veragua), whichrises in the mountains on the s. and enters the sea,serving as limits to that province, and dividing itfrom that of Costarica in the kingdom of Gua-temala.

CHIRIS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru; annexedto the curacy of Huachos.

CHIRISU, a settlement of the province andcorregimieto of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a rather cold temperature, andabounds in wheat, maize, barley, a/berjas, andS M 2

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territory, where the noble families of Loxa havetheir best possessions.

CHUQUIS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huamalies in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Bailos.

CHUQUISACA, La Plata,a city and capital of the province of Peru, foundedby Pedro Anzures in 1539, who gave it this name.It had a settlement of Indians on the same spot.The first founders called it La Plata, from thecelebrated mine of this metal (silver) in the moun-tain of Porco, close to the aforesaid settlement,and from whence immense wealth was extractedby the emperors the Jncas of Peru. This city issituate on a plain surrounded by pleasant hills,which defend it from the inclemency of the winds ;the climate is mild and agreeable, but during thewinter, dreadful tempests, accompanied with thun-der and lightning, are not unusual ; the edificesare good, handsome, and well adorned, havingdelightful orchards and gardens. The waters aredelicate, cold, and salutary, and divided intodifferent aqueducts, by which they are carried tothe public fountains, forming an object at onceuseful and ornamental. Its nobility is of the firstand most distinguished families of Peru, who havemany privileges and distinctions. The cathedralconsists of three naves ; it is very rich, and adorn-ed with fine furniture and beautiful paintings.It contains convents of the religious orders of St.Domingo, St. Augustin, St. Francis, La Merced,and San Juan de Dios, with a good hospital, ahandsome college and a magnificent church whichbelonged to the regulars of the company ; alsothree monasteries of nuns, the one of Santa Clara,the other of Santa Monica, and the third of theCarmelites ; a royal university with the title ofSan Francisco Xavier, the rector of which wasuniversally of the college of the regulars of thecompany of the Jesuits. It has also two housesof study for youth, the one the seminary of SanChristoval, and the other the college of San Juan,which were likewise under the controul of theJesuits until the year 1767 ; also an hermitage de-dicated to San Roque. It was erected into abishopric by the pontiff Julius III. in 1551, andafterwards into a metropolitan in 1608, with anarchbishop, five dignitaries, six canons, four pre-bends, and as many more demi-prebends. Thetribunal of audience was erected here in 1559, andafterwards those of the inquisition of the cruzada.Its arms are a shield divided horizontally, havingin the upper part two mountains with a cross uponeach, in the middle a tree with two columns on thesides, in the lower part to the left two lions rampant,

on the right two towers with two lions, a standardbeing in the middle, and the whole embossedupon a silver field. At the distance of six leaguesfrom this city passes the river Pilcoraayu, bywhich it is supplied with good fish, and upon theshores of the Cachimayu, which is only twoleagues distant, the nobility have many rural seats.In 1662 a great insurrection took place hereamongst the Mustees and the people of colour.It is the native place of several illustrious persons,and amongst others of the following :

Don Rodrigo de Orozco, Marquis of Mortara,captain-general of the principality of Cataluna,and of the council of state and war.

Fra}/ Antonio de Calancha, a monk of St. Au-gustin, a celebrated author.

Don Rodrigo de Santillana, oidor of Valladolid,and afterwards in his country.

The venerable Friar Martin de Aguirre, of theorder of St. Augustin.

Don Alonso Corveda de Zarate, canon of Lima,and professor of languages.

The Father Maestro Diego Trexo, a Do-minican monk.

The Father Juan de Cordoba, of the extin-guished company of Jesuits, a celebrated theo-logist.

Its archbishopric has for suffragans, the bishop-rics of Santa (3ruz de la Sierra, La Paz, Tucu-man, and La Ascencion of Paraguay ; and to itsdiocese belong 188 curacies. Its inhabitants inand about it amount to 13,000, of which 4000 areSpaniards, 3000 Mustees, 4500 Indians, and 15,000Negroes and Mulattoes. It is 290 leagues fromCuzco, in lat. 19° 31' s.

Archbishops of the church of La Plata.

1. Don Frau Tomas de San Martin, a monk ofthe order of St. Dominic, a master in his order,and one of the first monks who passed over intoPeru with the Friar Vicente de Valverde; he W 2 isprovincial there, returned to Spain with the Licen-tiate Pedro de la Gasca, and as a reward for hislabours, presented by the king to the first arch-bishopric of Charcas, in 1553: he died in 1559.

2. Don Fraj/ Pedro de la Torre, who waselected, but not consecrated ; and in his place,

3. Don Fray Alonso de la Cerda.

4. Don Fernan Gonzalez de la Cuesta, who laidthe foundation of the cathedral church.

5. Don Fray Domingo de Santo Tomas, of theorder of St. Dominic, a noted preacher, and one ofthose who went over to Peru with the Fray VicenteValverde ; he was prior in different convents, andgeneral visitor of his order in those kingdoms.

6. Don Fernando de Santillana, native of Se-

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c o c

c o c

Same name, another (settlement), of the province and govern-ment of Tucuman, of the jurisdiction of the cityof Cordoba ; situate on the shore of the river Se-gundo.

COCHABAMBA, a province and corregUmiento of Peru ; bounded n. by the cordillera of theAndes, e. by the heiglits of Intimuyo, e. by theprovince of Misque, s. by that of Chayanta orCharcas, s. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, w.and n. w. by that of Cicasica. It is 40 leagues inlength from n. to s. and 32 in width. This pro-vince may with justice -be called the granary ofPeru, since it produces an abundance of every kindof seed, through the mildness of its climate. Inthe higher parts are bred a tolerable quantity oflarge and small kinds of cattle. It is watered byseveral small rivers of sweet water, which fertilizethe valleys ; and in these are some magnificentestates. Almost all these small rivers becomeunited in the curacy of Capinota ; and their wa-ters, passing through the provinces of Misque andCharcas, become incorporated in the large riverwhich passes on the e. side of Santa Cruz de laSierra. In former times some mines were workedhere, and from 1747, forward, great quantities ofgold have been extracted from the lavaderos, orwashing-places, upon the heights of Choqueca-mata, although this metal is not now found therein the same abundance. Some veins of it are, how-ever, to be seen in the cordillera, although theserender but little emolument. The greatest com-merce carried on in this province depends upon itsown productions ; and the market-place of thevalley of Arque is so stocked with articles as tohave the appearance of a continual fair. It hasalso some glass kilns, as it abounds greatly in glass-wort ; likewise many sugar estates, and streams ofhot waters. Its repartirniento used to amount to186,675 dollars, and its alcavala to 1493 dollarsper annum. Its inhabitants may amount to 70,000;and these are divided into 17 curacies, two othersbeing annexed. The capital is the town of Oro-pcsa, and the rest are,

Sacaba, Carasa,

Choquecamata, Calliri,

Yani, Zipezipe,

Machacamarca, Quillacollo,

Tapacari, Passo,

Berenguela, Tiquipaya,

Coloha, Colcapirhua,

Arque, Punata,

(Japinota, Tarata.


I Inhabited by a hardy, sober, and active race,Cochabamba (as Azara observes) has risen of late

years to a considerable state of prosperity in themanufactory of glass, cotton, &c. with which, du-ring the late war, it has supplied the whole inte-rior. Blessed with fertility and a moderate cli-mate, it bids fair to be the Manchester of Peru, for1,000,000 pounds of cotton are already annuallyconsumed in its manufactures. Its surface aboundsin a variety of salts and mineral productions, andits forests teem with woods and roots for dyeing.To these Haenke has particularly turned his atten-tion, and has pointed out, besides several new ma-terials for manufacture, other processes for dyeing,worthy of our adoption in Europe. This pro-vince joined the new government of Buenos Ayresin September 1810. See La Pcata.]

Same name, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cuaylas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Llautan in the province of Santa.

Same name, an extensive valley, watered bythe pleasant streams of the river Condorillo, of theprovince of this name (Condorillo) ; in which was founded theprincipal settlement of the Indians, now calledOropesa.

Same name, a river of the same province,which rises close to the settlement of Tapacari.It runs s. s. e. and enters the Plata, after traversingmany leagues.

COCHACAJAS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru. It is35 leagues from Cuzco, and 44 from Huamanga.

COCHACALLA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Parianchacra.

COCHACASA, an ancient settlement of Indians, in the province of Chinchasuyu in Peru.It was one of the celebrated conquests of the here-ditary prince of the Incas, Yahuar Huacae, son ofthe Emperor Inca Roca, sixth in the series ofthese inonarcbs.

COCHACASCO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Chorillo.

COCHAIMA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Cheto.

COCHAMARCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru.

COCHANGARA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Xauxa in Peru .

COCHAPETI, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huailas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Cotoparazo.

COCHARCAS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Chincheros ; in which is

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tirely unknown to tiiis. Its inlmbitants lead aregular life ; they give without cxjicctation of in-demnification, and are governed l!)roughoiit the■whole tribe by the sounding of a bell. In short,they might serve as a model for all the other settle-ments of Indians in the kingdom.

COLLANA, another settlement of the same pro-vince and corregimicnto ; annexed to the curacy ofMecacapaca.

COLLANES, a chain of very lofty mountains,almost continually covered with snow, in the pro-vince and corre"imiento of Riobamba in the king-dom of Quito, to the s. of the river Pastaza, and ofthe mountain runguragua. They take their namefrom the nation of barbarous Indians who livescattered in the woods of these mountains, whichrun from w. to e. forming a semicircle of 20leagues. The mountain which out-tops the rest,they call the Altar.

COLLANI, a settlement of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of theJesuits in Nuevo Mexico.

COLLATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Santa Olaya.

COLLAY. See Pataz.

COLLETON, a county of the province of Ca-rolina in N. America ; situate n. of the county ofGrenville, and watered by the river Stone, whichunites itself with an arm of the Wadrnoolan. Thatpart which looks to the n, e. is peopled with es-tablishments of Indians, and forms, with the otherpart, an island called Buono, which is a little belowCharlestown, and is well cultivated and in-habited. The principal rivers of this country are,the Idistows, the S. and N. Two or three miles upthe former river, the shores are covered with plan-tations, which continue for more than three milesfurther n. where the river meets with the N. Edis-tow, and in the island formed by both of them,it is reckoned that 20 freeholders reside. Theseare thus called, from the nature of the assignmentand distribution of lands which took place in thenew colonies. But the English governor did notgrant an absolute and perpetual property, save toparticular individuals : the concession was some-times for life, sometimes considered as lineal,sometimes to descend to the wife, children, or re-lations, and sometimes with greater restrictions.The above-mentioned people have, however, theirvote in the assembly, and send to it two members.In the precinct of this county is an Episcopalchurch.

Colleton, another county, of the provinceand colony of Georgia.

Colleton, a settlement of the island of Bar-badoes, in the district of the parish ot TodosSantos.

COLLICO, a small river of the district of Tol-ten Baxo in Ihe kingdom of Chile. It runs h. n.w. and enters the river Tolten.

COLLIQUEN, a llanura, or plain, of thecorregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It is fertile, andof a dry and healthy climate, although thinly in-habited and uncultivated.

COLLIUE, a settlement of Indians of the king-dom of Chile, situate on the shore of the riverTolpan.

COLLQUE, an ancient, large, and well peo-pled settlement of Peru, to the n. of Cuzco ; con-quered and carried by force of arms by the IncaHuayna Capac, thirteenth Emperor of Peru.

COLNACA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chichos and Tarija in Peru, ofthe district of the second, and annexed to the cu-racy of its capital.

COLOATPA, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Olinalá, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, inNueva Espana. It contains 29 families of In-dians, who occupy themselves in the commerceof chia^ a white medicinal earth, and cochineal,which abounds in this territory. It lies to then. w. of its head settlement.

COLOCA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru,situate on the shore of the river of La Plata, and tothe n. of its capital.

COLOCINA, San Carlos de, a settlement ofthe province and government of Cartagena, in thedistrict of the town of Tolu; founded in 1776 bythe governor Don J uan Pimienta.

COLOCINA, some mountains of this province andgovernment, also called Betanzi, which run n. formany leagues from the valley of Penco.

COLOCOLO, a settlement of Indians of thekingdom of Chile ; situate on the shore of the riverCarampangue, and thus called from the celebratedcazique of this name, one of the chiefs in the warin which these Indians were engaged with theSpaniards.

COLOLO, a small river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs n. and en-ters the river Negro, near where this enters tireUruguay.

COLOMBAINA, a small settlement of the ju-riscidiction of Tocaima, and government of Mari-quita, and in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; an-nexed to the curacy of the settlement of Amba-leina. It is situate on the shore of the riverMagdalena; is of a very hot temperature, and

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CRUZ, Santa, de la Sierra, a provinceand government of Peru, bounded n. by that ofMoxos, e. by tlie territory of the Chiquitos In-dians, s. by the infidel Chirigiianos and ChanaesIndians, s, w. by the province of Tomina, and that of Mizqiie. it is an extensive plain, whichon the w. side is covered with Indian dwellingsand grazing farms, as far as the river called Grandeor Huapay. It extends 28 leagues s. as far as thesame river, 18 ra. as far as the foot of the cordillera,and 24 n. being altogether covered with various es-tates, as indeed arc the parts on the other side of thecordillera. It lies very low, and is free both fromthe extreme cold and parching heat of the serra-mas, altliough the other provinces of this bishop-ric, which lie close by this province, are muchinfested with the same variations of climate. Itis, however, of a hot aiul moist temperature, andthe country is mountainous ; on its plains arefound various kinds of wood, good for building,and amongst the rest, a sort of palm, the heart ofwhich is used for making the frame works to win-dows of temples and houses, and it is generallycut to the length of 1 1 feet ; there is another kindof palm, which is called montaqui, the leaves ofwhich serve for covering the houses of the poor,and the shoots or buds for making a very argree-able sallad ; the heart of the tree is reduced to aflour, of wliich sweet cakes are made, and eateninstead of bread, for in this province neitherwheat nor vines are cultivated, the climate beingunfavourable to both. It abounds in variousspecies of canes, which serve to bind together thetimbers of w hich the houses are constructed ; oneof these species is called huembe, with which bells,though of great w'eight, are hung. In this pro-vince are all kinds of fruits, various birds, tigers,bears, wild boars, deer, and other wild animals ;amongst the fruits of the wild trees are some w'hichgrow, not upon the branches, but upon the trunkitself; that which is called huaipuru resembles alarge cherry in colour and flavour, and this,as well as others which are equally well tasted,serve as food for an infinite variety of birds ; anequal abundance of fish is likewise found in theneighbouring rivers. Here is cultivated rice,also maize, sugar-cane, j/ucas, camotes, See. andsome wild wax is found in the trunks of trees ; be-ing furnished by various kinds of bees. At thedistazice of 20 leagues to the s. of the capital, arefour settlements of Chiriguanos Indians, governedby their own captains, but subject, in some mea-sure, to this government, from being in friendshipAvith it, and trading with the Spaniards in wax,cotton, and maize. Hitherto its natives have been

averse to embracing the Catholic religion, but inthe incursions that have been made against us bythe barbarians, they have beeiTdver ready to lendus their assistance, and in fact form for us an out-work of defence. In the aforesaid four settlementsare 500 Indians, ivho are skilled in the use of thearrow and the lance, and are divided from theother barbarians of the same nation by the riverGrande or Huapay. This river runs from Char-cas to thee, by the side of the province of Tomina,and which, after making a bend in the figure of anhalf-moon, on tlie e. side of the province of SantaCruz, enters the Marmore, first receiving anotherriver describing a similar course, and known bythe name of the Pirapiti. On the e. and on theopposite side, are some settlements of Chanaes In-dians, the territory of whom is called Isofo. Tothe s. andv. zso. towards the frontiers of Tarija, andstill further on, are very many settlements of theinfidel Chiriguanos Indians; and in the valley ofIngre alone, which is eight leagues long, we find26 ; and in some of these the religious Franciscanorder of the college of Tarija have succeeded inmaking converts, though as yet in no consider-able numbers. These Indians are the most va-lorous, perfidious, and inconstant of all the na-tions lying to the e, of the river Paraguay ; 4000of them once fled for fear of meeting chastisementfor their having traitorously put to death the Cap-tain Alexo Garcia, a Portuguese, in the time ofDon Juan III. king of Portugal; they werecannibals, and used to fatten their prisoners beforethey killed them for their banquets. Their trea-ties Avith the Spaniards, and the occasional visitsthese have been obliged to pay them in their ter-ritories, havm induced them nearly to forget thisabominable practice ; but their innate cruelty stillexists, and particularly against the neighbouringnations, upon Avhom they look down Avith thegreatest scorn ; they have increased much, and arenow one of the most numerous nations in America;they are extremely cleanly, so much so that theyAvill go down to the rivers to Avash themselves evenat midnight, and in the coldest season. The Avomenalso, immediately after parturition, plunge them-selves into the Avater, and coming home, lay them-selves down upon a liltle mound of sand, Avhich,for this purpose, they have in their houses. Theinhabitants of this province amount to 16,000, andbesides the capital, Avhich is San Lorenzo de laFrontera, there are only the following settle-ments :

Porongo, Chilon,

Samaipata, Desposorios,

Valle Grazidc, Santa Ro>a,

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Bishops who have presided in Santa Cruz de laSierra.

1. Don Antonio Calderon, native of Vilches,dean of the holy church of Santa Fe, bisliop ofPuertorico and Panama; first bishop in 1605;died at the advanced age of upwards of 100years.

2. Don Fray Fernando de Ocampo, of the re-ligious order of St. Francis, a native of Madrid.

3. Don Juan Zapata y Figueroa, native ofVelez-Malaga ; he was canon and inquisitor ofSeville ; presented to the brishopric of Santa Cruzin 1634.

Fray Juan de Arguinao, a religiousDominican, native of Lima, was prior and provin-cial in his religion, first professor of theology andwriting in that university, qualificator of the in-quisition ; presented to the bishopric of Santa Cruzin 1646, and promoted to the archbishopric ofSanta Fe in 1661.

5. Don Fray Bernardino de Cardenas, native ofLima, of the order of St. Francis ; promoted fromParaguay to this bishopric in 1666.

6. Don Fray Juan de Rivera, of the order ofSt. Augustin, native of Pisco in Peru ; first pro-fessor of theology.

7. Don Fray Juan de Esturrizaga, of the orderof preachers, native of Lima.

8. Don Pedro de Cardenas y Arbieto, native ofLima, collegian of the royal college of San Mar-tin, canon of its holy church.

9. Hon Fray Juan de los Rios, of the order ofSt. Dominic, a native of Lima, provincial of hisreligion in the province of San Juan Bautista delPeru.

10. Don Fray Miguel Alvarez de Toledo, ofthe order of Nuestra Sexiora de la Merced, electedin 1701.

11. Don Miguel Bernardo de la Fuente, deanof the holy church of Truxillo, elected in 1727.

12. Don Andres de Vergara and Uribe, electedin 1744 ; he died in 1745.

13. Don Juan Pablo de Olmedo, native of Tu-cuman, elected in 1745, died in 1757.

14. Don Fernando Perez de Obiitas, native ofArequipa, elected in the aforesaid year, died in1760.

15. Don Francisco Ramon de Herboso, nativeof Lima, elected in 1760, promoted to the arch-bishopric of Charcas in 1766.

16. Don Juan Domingo Gonzalez de la Ri-gucra, elected the aforesaid year, and promotedto the archbishopric of the holy metropolitanchurch of Lima in 1780.

17. Don Alexandro de Ochoa, elected in 1782.

Cruz, Santa, a city of the above province,which was once the capital ; founded by Nuno deChaves in 1557, after that he had passed along theshores of the river Paraguay to discover a commu-nication with the other provinces. Its inhabitants,however, not being able to stay in it through theincessant sallies of the Indians who surroundedthem, were under the necessity of changing theirsettlement ; but disagreeing in the choice of place,some of them united together, and founded the cityof Santiago del Puerto, and others that of SanLorenzo de la Frontcra, which is to-day the capi-tal, the former city being entirely abandoned.

Cruz, Santa, a settlement of the province andcorregimunto of Yauyos in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of the settlement of Pacaran in the provinceof Canete.

Cruz, Santa, another, a conversion of Indiansof the missions which were held by tlie regulars ofthe company of Jesuits, in the province and go-vernment of Mainas of the kingdom of Quito.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and go-vernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme, between the cities of Cumanagoto and Ca-riaco.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and go-vernment of Popayan ; situate to the s. of the cityof Almaguer, in the limits of the jurisdiction olQuito.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementand alca’d'ia mayor of Jochimilco in Nueva Es-pana ; situate in a mountainous and cold country,containing 46 families of Indians, who live by cut-ting timber and making fuel. It is two leagues tothe cU. of its capital.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and cor-regimiento of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Paccho.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement ofSt. Francisco del Valle, and akaldia mayor ofZultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 28 fa-milies of Indians, dedicated to the cultivation ofthe land, and cutting bark from trees. Ten leaguesfrom its head settlement.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxamarca in Peru.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcorregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of Pucquin.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcorregimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Pari.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementof Huehuetlan, and alcaldia mayor oi Cuicalian, inNueva Espana; situate on the middle of a raoun-

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vince and government of Buenos Ayres, foundedin ]629, in lat. 29° 29' 1" 5.]t])Cruz, Santa, an island oftheN. sea,^one of theAntilles, 22 leagues long and five wide. Its terri-tory is fertile, but the air unhealthy at certain sea-sons, from the low situation. It has many rivers,streams, and fountains, with three very good andconvenient ports. It was for a long while desert,until some English settled themselves in it, andbegan to cultivate it; afterwards the French pos-sessed themselves of it, in 1650, and sold it thefollowing year to the knights of Malta, from whomit was bought, in 1664, by the West India com-pany. In 1674, it was incorporated with the pos-sessions of the crown by the king of France. Itsinhabitants afterwards removed to the island of St.Domingo, demolished the forts, and sold it to acompany of Danes, of Copenhagen, who nowpossess it. It was the first of the Antilles whichwas occupied by the Spaniards ; is SO leagues

from the island of St. Christopher’s, eight fromPuertorico, six from that of Boriquen, and fivefrom that of St. Thomas. It abounds in sugarscane and tobacco, as also in fruits, which renderit very delightful. [It is said to produce SO, 000or 40,000 hhds. of sugar annually, and other W.India commodities, in tolerable plenty. It is ina high state of cultivation, and has about 3000white inhabitants and 30,000 slaves. A greatproportion of the Negroes of this island have em-braced Christianity, under the Moravian mission-aries, whose influence has been greatly promotiveof its prosperity.

The official value of the Imports and Exportsof Santa Cruz were, in

1809, imports ^^435,378, exports ^ig84,964.

1810, 422,033, 89,949.

And the quantities of the principal articles im--

ported into Great Britain were, in




Cotton Wool.

Brit. Plant.

For. Plant.

Brit. Plant.

For. Plant.







1809, 297






1810, 31




Santa Cruz is in lat. 70° 44' n. Long. 64° 43' w.See West Indies.]

Cruz, Santa, a small island in the straits©f Magellan, opposite cape Monday. The Ad-miral Pedro Sarmiento took possession of it for thecrown of Spain, that making the tenth time of itsbeing captured.

Cruz, Santa, a small island of the coast ofBrazil, in the province and captainship of Rey,between that coast and the island of Santa Catalina.

Cruz, Santa, a sand -bank or islet near the n.coast of the island of Cuba, and close to the sand-bank of Cumplido.

Cruz, Santa, a point of the coast of the provinceand government of Honduras, called Triunfo dela Cruz, (Triumph of the Cross), between theport of La Sal and the river Tian, SO leagues fromthe gulf, in lat. 15° 40'.

Cruz, Santa, a port of the coast which lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan.On one side it has the Ensenada Grande, or LargeBay, and on the other the mountain of Santa Ines.Lat. 50° 10' s.

==Cruz, Santa, a river of the coastwhich lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magel-lan. It runs into the sea.


Cruz, Santa, a small river of the provinceand captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. Itrises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea be-tween the Grande and the Dulce, opposite theshoals ofS. Antonio.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcaptainship of Seara in the same kingdom. It risesnear the coast, runs n. and enters the sea betweenthe point of Palmeras and that of Tortuga,

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andgovernment of Maracaybo. It rises in the sierraof Perija, runs e. and enters the great lake on thew. side.

Cruz, Santa, a lake of the province and countryof the Chiquitos Indians in Peru, formed from adrain issuing from the side of the river Para-guay, opposite the cordillera of San Fernando.

Cruz, Santa, a small island of the gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes; situate near thecoast, between the two islands of Catalana and SanJoseph.

Cruz, Santa, a small port of the island of Curacao, in the w. part, opposite the island of Oruba.

Cruz, Santa, a mountain on the coast of theMalvine or Falkland isles.

Cruz, Santa, a cape or point of the coast of thx

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