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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
emolument which used to be derived to the Eng-lish froPA the skins of the castor, is at presentgreatly abridged from the circumstance of the In-dians invariably destroying this animal; but theloss is in a great measure made up from the greatgain acquired in the sale of turpentine, fish, andpitch. Here they cultivate quantities of indigoof three sorts, much maize, and in the low landsexcellent rice. All this province is a plain 80miles in length, carrying on a great commerce inthe above productions, and formerly that of ricewas very considerable; it being computed to haveyielded that article to the value of 150,000/. ster-ling per annum. In its woods are many exquisitekinds of timber, and the country abounds withrabbits, hares, dantas, deer, pheasants, partridges,cranes, pigeons, and other birds, and with num-bers of ravenous and fierce wolves, against theattacks of which it is difficult to preserve thecattle. The European animals have also multi-plied here astonishingly, so that it is not unusualfor persons, who at first had not more than three orfour cows, now to possess as many thousands.These two provinces forming Carolina have 10navigable rivers, with an infinite number of smallernote, all abounding in fish ; but they hare fewgood ports, and the best of these is Cape Fear.N. Carolina is not so rich as is S. Carolina, andDenton was formerly the capital of the former,but it is at present reduced to a miserable village ;the capital of both is Charlestown, which since thelast w^r is independent of the jEnglish, togetherwith all the country, which now forms one of the 13provinces composing the United States of America.[See North Carolina and South Carolina.]
(CAROLINE County, in Virginia, is on the s.side of Rappahannock river, which separates itfrom King George’s county. It is about 40 milessquare, and contains 17,489 inhabitants, including10,292 slaves.)
whole province. It abounds in gold mines, andis fertile in all the fruits peculiar to the climate,but it is much reduced.
Caroni, a large and abundant river of the pro-vince of Guayana. It rises in the mountains in-habited by the Mediterranean Caribes Indians,runs many leagues, laving the territory of the Ca-puchin missionaries of Guayana. Its shores arevery delightful, from the variety of trees and birdsfound upon them. It enters the Orinoco on the s.side, eight leagues from the garrison of Guayana,and 72 leagues before this river enters the sea, be-ing divided into two arms, which form a smallisland. It is very abundant and wide, but it isnot navigable, on account of the rapidity of its cur-rent, and from its being filled with little islands andshoals, as likewise on account of a great waterfallor cataract, which causes a prodigious noise, and isclose to the mission and settlement of Aguacagua.Its waters are very clear, although at first sightthey appear dark and muddy, which effect is pro-duced from the bed of the river being of a sand ofthis colour. Its source, though not accuratelyknown, is affirmed by the Caribes Indians to bein the snowy sierra to the n. of the lake of Parime,that also being the source by which this lake issupplied. At its entrance into the Orinoco, itgushes with &uch impetuosity as to repel the watersof this river the distance of a gun’s shot, [or, as'Depons observes, half a league. Its course is di-rectly from s. to n. and its source is more than100 leagues from its mouth.]
==CARORA, S. Juan Bautista del Por-tillo DE==, a city of the province and governmentof Venezuela, founded by Captain John Salamancain 1572, and not in 1566, as is asserted by FatherColeti, in the Siege of Baraquiga. It is situate inthe savanas or Uanuras ; is of a hot temperature,but very healthy, although deficient in water,since the river Morere, which passes in its vicinity,affords but a trifling stream in tlie summer, and isat times entirely dry. In its district are bred allkinds of cattle, but particularly thegoat, as the quan-tities of thorns and thistles found in this countryrender it peculiarly adapted for the nourishmentof this animal. It abounds in very fine grains,also in aromatic balsams and gums, noted for thecure of w'ounds. At present it is reduced to amiserable population, unworthy of the name of acity, consisting of Mustees, Mulattoes, and some In-dians.; but it still preserves a very good parishchurch, a convent of monks of St. hhancisco, and
San Nicolas de laPaz,
San J uan de lasPalmas,
San Nicolas deBari,
San Bernardo A-bad,
Tiquicio de Aden-tro,
Tiquicio de Afu-era,
Zienega del Oro,San Carlos de Co-losina.
San Geronimo deBuenavista.
The capital is a large city adorned with beauti-ful buildings, founded by Pedro de Heredia in1533, on the shore of a great and very convenientbay more than two leagues in length. It was call-ed Calamari in the time of the Indians, which sig-nifies, in their language, the land of craw-fish, fromthe abundance of these found in it. It is situateon a sandy island, which forming a narrow strait,gives a communication to the part called TierraBomba ; on the left it is entered by a woodenbridge, having a suburb called Xiximani, whichis another island uniting with the continent bymeans of a bridge in the same manner as itself.It is well fortified, and is the residence of a go-vernor, with the title of captain-general, dependenton the viceroy of Santa Fe, having beeu indepen-dent till the year 1739. Besides the precinct andbastions, it has a half-moon, which defends theentrance or gate ; and at a small distance is thecastle of San Felipe de Baraxas, situate on aneminence, and on the side of the bay the castles ofSan Luis, Santa Cruz, San Joseph, San P'elipe,and Pastelillo, which were rebuilt in a modernmanner, in 1654;, by the Lieutenant-general DonIgnacio de Sala, with the names of San Fernando,San Joseph, El Angel, and El Pastelillo. Thecathedral church is magnificent, and included in itis the parish of Sagrario, besides two other pa-rishes called La Trinidad and Santo Toribo. Ithas the convents of monks of St. Francisco, St.Domingo, St. Augustin, St. Diego, La Merced,and San Juan de Dios, which is an hospital, andsituate at the top of a high mountain without thewalls of the city, at a quarter of a league’s dis-tance from the convent of the barefooted Augustins,called Nuestra Senora de la Popa ; to this con-vent vessels are accustomed to offer up a salutationas soon as they discover it at sea. It has also acollege which belonged to the society of Jesuits,a convent of Santa Clara, one of the Observersof San Francisco, and another of barefooted Car-
melites. At a small distance without the city isthe hospital of San Lazaro for lepers, which ma-lady is epidemical in the country. It has also atribunal of the inquisition, established in 1610, ofwhich there is only three in all America, and put-tingthis city, in this pointof view, onafooting withthe metropolitan cities Lima and Mexico. It is thehead of a bishopric erected in 1534 by his holinessClement VII. The bay abounds in fish of variouskinds, but it is infested by marine wolves. Theclimate of this city is very hot ; from May to No-vember, which are the winter months, thunder,rain, and tempests are very frequent, but fromthis inconvenience they derive an advantage offilling with water their cisterns, called aijibes, andwhich afford them the only supply of this inostnecessary article ; accordingly every house is fur-nished with one of these cisterns : from Decemberto April, which is the summer, the heat is exces-sive, occasioning continual perspiration, whichdebilitates the frame, and causes the inhabitants tohave a pale and unhealthy appearance, althoughthey nevertheless enjoy good health, it being notunusual to find amongst them persons exceeding80 years of age. The irregularity of this climateproduces several very afflicting disorders, as theblack vomit, which is most common amongststrangers and sea-faring people, few of whom havethe luck to escape it, but no person ever has ittwice. The inhabitants are likewise much trou-bled with the leprosy, or disease of St. Lazarus ; theculebrilla, which is an insect which breeds under theskin, and causes a swelling which is accustomed toterminate in gangrene and spasms or convulsions :besides these inconveniences, there are multitudesof troublesome insects which infest the houses,such as beetles, niguas, scorpions, centipeds, andmorcielagos. The largest trees are the caob, thecedar, the maria, and balsam ; of the first aremade canoes, out of the solid trunk, for fishing andcommerce ; the red cedar is better than the white,and the two last, not to mention their utility fromthe compactness of their timber, for their delicioussmell and beautiful colour, are the trees fromwhence are procured those admirable distillationscalled the oil of Maria and balsam of Tolu. Hereare also tamarind trees, medlars, sapotas, papai/as,cassias, and Indian apple trees, producing deli-cate and pleasant fruits ; the fruit, however, of thelast mentioned is poisonous, and many who, de-ceived by the beauty of these apples, have therashness to taste them, soon repent of their folly,for they immediately swell to a distressing degree :so if perchance any one should sleep under itsbranches, he will be afflicted in the same way.
The antidote, however, is oil taken in abundanceinternally, and applied outwardly. Neither wheatnor barley are known here, but the place aboundsin maize and rice, of which they make cakes, andwhich are the common bread of the natives, andmore particularly so that called cazave^ being asort of cake made of the root yiica^ name, or mo-niato. There are also a great number of cottontrees. The arms of this city are a green crossupon a gold ground, with a lion rampant oneach side. It was sacked in 1593 by RobertBaal, a pirate ; in 1583, by Sir Francis Drake, 23years from the time of its being fortified, and notfrom its foundation, as according to Mr. La Ma-tiniere ; again iti 1695, by Mr. Ducase, assisted bythe adventurers or fiibustiers, who completely pil-laged it : but a great sensation having been causedamongst the inhabitants at the loss of a superb se-pulchre made of silver, in which it rvas usual ona good Friday to deposit the eucharist, they hadthe good fortune to obtain its restitution throughthe interest and favour of Louis XI F. TheEnglish, under the command of Admiral Vernonand Sir Charles Ogle, besieged this city in 1740,when, although its castles were destroyed, andit was completely besieged, it would not surren-der, being gloriously defended by the viceroyDon Sebastian de Esiava, and Don Bias de Lezo,who caused the English to abandon the enterprisewith precipitancy and with great loss. [For thisconduct on the part of the English, several reasonswere assigned besides the strength of the place ;namely, the mortality among the troops, wantof skill in the commanders, and certain ditferencesbetween the admiral and the general. The forti-fications which they demolished have since beenrepaired.] It is the only part of all America wherethere is etfective coin of a fourth part of a real insilver. Its inhabitants amount to 9160 souls incommunion. It has been the native place of manycelebrated persons, such are,
Don Augustin Samiento de Sotomayor, of the or-der of Santiago, viscount of Portillo.
Don Andres de la Vega, professor at Salamanca,a famous lawyer.
Fray Carlos de Melgarejo, a religious Domini-can, an excellent preacher, and a man of unble-mished life.
Don Caspar de Cuba and Arce, head collegiateof San Marcos de Lima, oidor of Chile.
Don Gonzalo de Herrera, Marquis of Villalta,governor of Antioquia.
Don Gregorio Castellar y Mantilla, governor ofCumana, and general of the armada of the guardof the coasts of Cartagena.
Don Joseph de Paredes, captain of infantry,knight of the order of Santiago.
Fray Joseph Pacheco, of the order of St. Au-gustin, master, visitor, and vicar-general i:i his pro-vince of the Nuevo Reyno.
The Father Joseph de Urbina, of the extin-guished company, rector of the college of SantaFe.
Don.Iuan Fernandez Rosillo, dean of the churchof his country, bishop of V^erapez and of Mecho-acan .
Fray Juan Pereyra, a religious Dominican.
Don Lope Duke Estrada, kiiight of the order ofSantiago.
It is in long. 75° 24' and lat. 10° 25' n. [Foraccount of the present revolutions, see Vene-zuela.]
Bishops who have presided in Cartagena.
1. Don Fray Tomas del Toro, a monk of theorder of St. Domingo, elected the . first bishop in1532; but being at Talavera, his country, at thetime, he unfortunately died before he was conse-crated.
2. Don Fray Geronimo de Loaisa, a Dominicanmonk, renowned for his virtue and talent, and forhis experience in Indian affairs ; he was elected inthe room of the former, was consecrated at Valla-dolid, and there he erected the church into a ca-thedral in 1538, the same year in which he enteredCartagena ; from hence he was promoted to thearchbishopric of Lima in 1542.
3. Don Fray Francisco de Santa Maria y Bena-vides, of the order of St. Gerome, of the illustriousfamily of the Marquises of Fromesta ; serving atthat time the Emperor in Flanders, he took to areligious life, and was elected bishop of Cartagenain 1543. The city, in his time, was plundered bytwo pirates, lieaded by the Spanisli pilot AlonsoVexines, who cominitted thisactout of revenge fora flogging he had received ; they also ill-treatedthe venerable prelate, who had the additional griev-ance, in the year L551, of witnessing the city inflames. In 1554 he was promoted to the churchof Modonedo in Galicia, and was succeeded inCartagena by,
4. Don Fray Gregorio de Beteta, a Dominicanmonk, brought up in the convent of Salamanca, andone of the twenty who went to the Nuevo Reynode Gratiada, from whence he passed over to Mex-ico to convert the Indians, and afterwards withthe same object to the provinces of Santa Marta,Uraba, ami Cartagena ; and being teacher amicurate in one of his settlements, he received theorder of presentation to this bishopric in 1555 ;although he endeavoured to decline the dignify,
he was at length persuaded to accept it by the ac-clamations and remonstrances of all parties, andespecially of the vicar-general of his order; hebegan to preside without being consecrated ; butbeing yet full of scruples, he renounced the office,and without permission returned to Spain ; h^ thenwent to Koine, but being desired by his holiness toreturn to his diocese, he was said to have been somuch affected as not to have been able to prevailupon himself to enter the city : he returned, there-fore, immediately to the coast, and embarked forFlorida, with a view of converting some of theinfidels ; and with this object he again set off forSpain, in order to obtain his renunciation ; whenbeing at length tired with his wanderings, andAvorn out Avith age, he died in his convent of To-ledo in 1562.
5. Don Juan de Simancas, native of Cordova,collegian of San Clemente de Bolonia ; he enteredin 1560, went to be consecrated at Santa Fe, andupon his return, had the mortification to find thatthe suburbs of Xiximani had been sacked by someFrench pirates ; which disaster was again repeatedin the following year, 1561. This bishop, afterhaving governed his church for the space of 10years, and suffering much from the influence of ahot climate, left the see without a licence, andreturned to his country, where he died in1570.
6. Don Ft. Luis Zapata de Cardenas, of theorder of St. Francis, native of Llerena in Estre-madura, third commissary-general of the Indies ;elected bishop in 1570, promoted to the archbi-shopric of Santa Fe before he left Spain, and in hisplace was chosen,
7. Don Fr. Juan de Vivero, a monk of the or-der of St. Augustin, native of Valladolid ; hepassed over into America, was prior of the conventof Lima, founder of the convent of Cuzco, electedbishop, which he renounced ; nor would he ac-cept the archbishopric of Chacas, to which he waspromoted : he died in Toledo.
8. Don Fr. Dionisio de los Santos, of the orderof Santiago, prior of the convent of Granada, andprovincial of the province of Andalucia ; electedin 1573 : he died in 1578.
9. Don Fr. Juan de Montalvo, of the same orderof St. Domingo, native of Arevalo ; elected bishop,he entered Cartagena in 1579, passed over to SantaFe to the synod celebrated there by the archbishop ;and in 1583 had the mortification of seeing hiscity sacked, plundered, and destroyed by SirFrancis Drake; Avhich calamity had such a greateffect upon him, and well knowing noAV that hehad no means of relieving the necessities of the
poor, who were dependent upon him, he fell sickand died the same year.
10. Don Fr. Diego Osorio, of the same orderof St. Domingo ; he went over as a monk to Car-tagena, from thence to Lima and Nueva Espana,received the presentation to this bishopric in 1587,which he would not accept, and died in 1579, inMexico.
11. Don Fr. Antonio de Hervias, also a Domi-nican monk, collegian of San Gregorio de Valla-dolid, his native place, where he had studiedarts ; he passed over to Peru, and was the firstmorning-lecturer in the university of Lima, ma-nager of the studies, qualificator of the inquisition,vicar-general of the province of Quito, and after-wards presented to the bishopric of Arequipa,then to that of Verapaz, and lastly to that of Car-tagena, where he died in 1590.
12. Don Fr. Pedro de Arevalo, monk of the or-der of St. Gerome ; he was consecrated in Spain,and renounced the bishopric before he came totake possession of it.
13. Don Fr. Juan de Ladrada, a Dominicanmonk, native of Granada ; he A^'as curate and re-ligious instructor in the Indies, in the settlements ofSuesca and Bogota, vicar-general of his religionin the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, lecturer on thesacred scriptures and on theology in Santa Fe,'was consecrated bishop of Cartagena in 1596 : herebuilt the cathedral, established a choir of boysand chaplains, and made a present of a canopy tobe carried by the priests over the blessed sacra-ment when in procession ; he assisted at the foun-dation of the college of the regulars of the societyof Jesuits, and of that of the fathers called thebarefooted Augustins, on the mountain of LaPopa ; he had the satisfaction of having for hisprovisor the celebrated Don Bernardino de Al-mansa, a wise and virtuous man, who was after-Avards archbishop of Santa Fe ; he frequentlyvisited his bishopric, and after having governed17 years, died in 1613.
14. Don Fr. Pedro de Vega, a monk of thesame order of St. Domingo, native of Bubiercain the kingdom of Aragon, professor of theologyand of the sacred AA'ritings in the universities ofLerida and Zaragoza ; he entered Cartagena asbishop in 1614, and his short duration disappintedthe hopes he had so universally excited, for hedied in 1616.
15. Don Diego Ramirez de Zepeda, friar of theorder of Santiago, native of Lima, a renownedpreacher, and consummate theologist ; being atMadrid, he was elected, and died before he couldreach the bishopric.
also De Piedras ; at its top is, according to the ac-count of Don J nan de la Cruz, the Bugio delGato, which serves as a watch-tower, which othersmaintain is situate upon the point Canoa, just byits side.
CARUPANO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme, on the sea-shore, at the cape of Tres Pun-tas i there are in its district 25 small estates ofcacao, 35 of sugar-cane, a few of yucas and otherfruits ; some of them belonging to its inhabitants,and others to tlie inhabitants of Margareta andCumana.
CARUPARABAS, a nation of Indians but littleknown, who inhabit the woods and shores of therivers which run into the Negro.
(CARVEL OF St. Thomas, a rock between theVirgin isles e. and Porto Rico on the w. at a smalldistance it appears like a sail, as it is white andlias two points. Between it and St. Thomas, passesSir Francis Drake’s channel.)
(CARVEL, a township in Plymouth county,Massachussetts. Here is a pond with such plentyof iron ore, that 500 tons have been dragged out ofthe clear water in a year. They have a furnaceupon a stream which runs from the pond ; and theiron made of this ore is better than that made outof bog ore, and some is almost as good as refinediron.)
CASABLANCA, San Gabriel de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Teutitlan, andalcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan, in Nueva Espana:it contains 34 families of Indians, who live by thecommerce of salt from some saMnes which they havein their district, at about a league’s distance fromthis settlement ; here are also some crops of maize :it is of a hot temperature, and lies two leagues fromits head settlement.
Casablanca, also with the dedicatory title ofSanta Barbara, a town of the province and cor-regimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile,situate on the coast : it formerly belonged to thejurisdiction of Valparaiso, from which it was se-parated.
CASANARE, a large river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the NuevoReyno de Granada ; on the shores of which arevarious settlements of the missions, which underthis name were held at the expence of the regularsof the society of Jesuits, and which are at presentunder the care of the monks of St. Domingo : itrises in the paramos or mountain-deserts of Chita,of the district of the city of Pamplona, and afterrunning many leagues, divides itself into twobranches : the one, named the Uruhi, enters theMeta ; and the other, named the Sirapuco, entersthe Orinoco, first receiving those of Purare andTacoragua. To the w. of this river are the reduc-ciones of the Pantos Indians, and to the n. those ofthe Pautes ; to the e. and upon a plain, is the riverSan Salvador, aftbrding an handy port for commu-nication with the Meta and the Orinoco : it is after-wards entered by the river Tame, which pours intoit in a large stream from the same sierras, and hasupon its banks the two numerous nations, the reduc-ciones of the Giraras and Botoyes Indians.
Casanare, a settlement of Indians, of the reduc-ciones which were made by the regulars of thesociety of Jesuits, in the same province and govern-ment as the former river : it consists of the AchaguasIndians, being situate on the shore of that river,with a good and well-frequented port : it is fertile^and abounds in maize, yucas, and above all incattle : its natives, who are very numerous, employthemselves in making little trunks of cane neatlypainted of various colours, and mats and sieves^which they call manares : here are also some whiteinhabitants, and the reduccion is now under the careof the religion of St. Domingo.
CASAPA, a settlement of the missions which
(CASQUIPIBIAC, a river on the n. side of Cha-leur bay, about a league from Black cape, n. w.by n. in the bottom of Casquipibiac cove, at thedistance of about one league from which is thegreat river of Casquipibiac. It lies about w, fromthe former, and affords a small cod and salmonfishery.)
(CASTAHANA, Indians of N. America, whoresemble the Dotames, except that they tradeprincipally Avith the Crow Indians, and that theywould most probably prefer visiting an establish-ment on the Yellow Stone river, or at its mouth onthe Missouri.)
CASTEENS, a small river of the province ofSagadohook : it runs s. and enters the sea in thebay of Penobscot. On its shore and at its mouth isa settlement of Indians, where the English have afort and an establishment.
CASTELA, a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Moxos in the king-dom of Quito, being formed from those of the Beniand Paravari ; it afterwards unites itself with thatoftheYtenes, and changes its name to Madera,which joins the Maranon on the s. side, in lat. 3°13' 18" s.
CASTILLA DEL ORO. See Tierra Firme*
Castillo, a port of the coast, in the same pro-vince and kingdom, between the former river andthe port Valparaiso.
Castillo, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of thecity of Cordova ; situate on the shores of the riverTercero, near the mouth Avhere this enters the Sa-ladillo.
CASTILLOS Grandes, an island of the pro-vince and captainship of Rey in Brazil. It is verynear the coast, between the cape Santa Maria ofthe river La Plata and the cape of Las Yncas;the Portuguese have a fort in it.
Castillos Grandes, another island, withthe addition of Chicos, to distinguish it from theother in the same province and kingdom, and ata little distance from the above island.
(CASTINE, the shire town of Hancock county,district of Maine, is situate on Penobscot bay. Itwas taken from the town of Penobscot, and incor-porated in Feb. 1796. It is named after a Frenchgentleman who resided here ISO years ago, asalso)
(Castine River, which is about 14 mileslong, is navigable lor six miles, and has severalmills at the head of it. It empties into Penobscotbay.)
(CASTLE Island. See Crooked Island.)
(CASTLETON, a township and river in Rut-land county, Vermont, 20 miles s. e. of mount In-dependence at Ticonderoga. Lake Bombazon ischiefly in this town, and sends its waters into Cas-tleton river, which, rising in Pittsford, passesthrough this town in a s. westerley course, and failsinto Pultney river in the town of Fairhaven, a littlebelow Colonel Lyon’s iron Avorks. Fort War-ner stands in thistoAvn. Inhabitants 805.)
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certain seasons of tlie year it is so filled withfish, for seven leagues from its mouth, that theIndians are accustomed to harpoon them from theshores.
Cauten, a point of land, or cape, which is oneof those which form the entrance of the formerriver.
(CAVELLO, Puerto, Borburata. Oneleague e. of Puerto Cavello, was originally the onlyresort of vessels trading to this part of Venezuela.Puerto Cavello was merely frequented by smugglers,fishermen, and the outcasts of the interior. Theold town is surrounded by tlic sea, excepting aspace of a few fathoms to tlie w. ; through whichthey have now cut a canal communicating to thesea on the n. of the town to that on the s. ; thusforming an island, the egress being by a bridgewith a gate which is shut every evening, and atwhich is placed the principal guard. This islandbeing too small for the increasing population,houses were built on a tongue of land to the w. ofthe town, which was the only part free from inun-dation ; and this has now become the residence ofthe merchants, and the principal place. The totalpopulation of Puerto Cavello is 7600, of which,excepting the military and the officers of govern-ment, none are of the nobility. The whites aregenerally employed in trade and navigation ; thechief correspondence being with the ports of thecontinent or the neighbouring colonies ; for, al-though the port has been open from 1798 to thetrade of the metropolis, there is as yet but. littlecommunication with it. Of about 60 vessels trad-ing to this place, 20 at least are from Jamaica, and20 from Cura 9 oa, whilst only four or five are fromSpain. According to the custom-house books, thecargoes of these veesels are of little value ; but therevenue is defrauded, and the vessels discharge theirlading on the coast before entering the port. Thisplace supplies all the w. part of Venezuela,
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and the jurisdiction of Valencia, San Carlos, Bari-quisimeto, San Felipe, and a part of the valleys ofAragoa. About 20 Europeans engross the w holetrade. All vessels trading to the neighbourhoodresort here for repairs, and nothing but the un-wholsoraeness of the air prevents Puerto Cavellobecoming the most important port in America.This insalubrity arises from the exhalations fromthe rain water that accumulates in a clayey marshto the s. of the city. It is particularly fatal tothose who are not seasoned to the climate. In1793 a Spanish squadron anchored at Puerto Ca-vello ; but in six months of its stay, it lost one-thirdof the crew; and in 1802 a French squadron in20 days lost 16 i officers and men. It has beencomputed that 20,000 piastres fortes would be suf-ficient to drain this tatal marsh. The inhabitantsare supplied by conduits with water from a riverthat runs into the sea one- fourth of a league w. ofthe town. A military commander is also at thehead of the police, and is likewise the administra-tor of justice, his decisions being subject to an ap-peal to the royal audience. The people have de-manded the establishment of a cahildo, but withoutsuccess. They obtained in 1800 a single alcalde ywho is appointed annually ; but great inconveni-ences have been found to arise from this arrange-ment.
There is no convent, and but one church, inPuerto Cavello. The foundation of another churchwas begun, but for want of funds it has not beehcompleted. There is a military hospital, and an-other for the poor. The garrison consists of acompany of the regiment of Caracas in time ofpeace ; but daring war it is reinforced from themilitia and troops of the line. 'I'hcre arc from 300to 400 galley-slaves always employed onthepiiblicworks.
Puerto Cavello is 30 leagues from Caracas,in embarking for La Guaira, and 48 leaguesin the direction of Valencia, Maracay, Tulraero,La Victoria, atid San Pedro. Reaumur’s thermo-meter is generally in August at 26°, and in Janu-ary from 18° to 19°. Lat. 10° 20' «. Long. 70*30' w. of Paris. See Puerto Cabello.)
(CAVENDISH, a township in Windsor county,Vermont, w. of Wcathersfield, on Black river,having 491 inhabitants. Upon this river, andwithin this township, the channel has been worndown 100 feet, and rocks of very large dimensionshave been undermined and thrown down one uponanother. Holes are wrought in the rocks of va-rious dimensions and forms ; some cylindrical,from one to eight feet in diameter, and from one to15 feet in depth ; others are of a spherical form.
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from six to 20 feet diameter, worn almost perfectlysmooth, into the solid body of a rock.]
CAXAMARCA, a province and corregimientoof Peru, in the bishopric of Truxillo ; boundeds. e. by the province of Caxamarquilla, e. by thatof Chachapoyas, n.w. by that of Luya and Chil-Igos : all these three being situate at that part oft^e Maranon which serves as a limit to this pro-vince of Caxamarca. It is bounded ». by the pro-vince of Jaen, n. w. by that of Piura, w. by thatof Saha and by a part of Truxillo, and s. by thatof Huamachuco. It is in length 40 leagues froms. e. ion. w. ; and in breadth, or across, 36 leagues.To enter it through the province of Truxillo, whichis the grand road, it is necessary to pass the cordil-lera, which is not here so lofty as in the s. pro-vinces. This province, however, abounds witheminences which are branches of the cordillera;and on account of the height and situation ofthese, a great variety of temperature is experienced,some parts being subject to an intense heat, andothers to , a severe cold. Thus it partakes of thenature of the sierra, and its uneven figure no lesscorresponds with it : but it is for the most part of agood temperature, particularly in the capital. Theprovince abounds greatly in all kinds of fruits andcattle : in it are fabricated cloths, baizes, blankets,canvas for sails of ships, and cotton garments of aVery fine and excellent quality. Formerly its prin-cipal commerce was in swine ; at present it is not,though these animals still abound in some parts.It is watered by many rivers, of which those risingon the w. side of the cordillera, as the Sana, Lam-bay eque, and those passing through the provinceof Truxillo, all enter the S. sea. The others,amongst which that of the Criznejas is the largest,incoporate themselves with the Maranon. On itsshores are lavaderos, or washing-places of gold;and its rivers in general abound in very good andwholesome fish. Besides the fruits and the pro-ductions of every kind found in this province, ithas to boast many gold and silver mines, some ofwhich are worked. There a e also some of copper,
very fine lead, brimstone, and alcaparrosa. To-wards the n. part, where it touches the province ofJaen, are found some bark-trees, the production ofwhich, although not equal to the trees of Loxa, isof the colour of heated copper, and possesses allthe virtues of the common bark. Here are alsomany medicinal herbs, and amongst them the cele-brated calagimla. In the time of the Indians, andbefore the conquest, it was so well peopled that itsnatives formed upwards of 500 settlements. Atpresent they amount to 46,000, being divided into46 settlements. The capital bears the same title,and the repartimiento of the corregidor used toamount to 80,000 dollars, and it paid an alcavalaof 640 dollars per annum.
The settlements are.
Caxamarca, the ca-pital,
Trinidad de Chetu,S. Francisco doCay an,
Santa Catalina deChugod,
San Pablo de Cha-lique,
S. Luis de Tuniba-din,
S. Bernardino de
S. Juan de Llallan,Nepos,
San Miguel de Pal-laques,
San Juan de Huam-bos,
Todos Santos deChota,Tacabamba,Yauyucan.
its figure is
The capital is large and handsomeirregular, and it is situate upon a level plainT Thehouses are of clay, and the streets are wide andstraight. The parish church, Avhich has threenaves, is of finely worked stone, and the buildingexpences of it Avere defrayed by King Charles II.in the time of the viceroy the Duke of La Palata,in 1682. It has a parish of Spaniards, calledSanta Catalina ; two of Indians, which are SanPedro and San Joseph ; two convents of the orderof St. Francis, one of the Observers, and anotherof the Recoletans ; an hospital and a convent ofBethlemites, a monastery of nuns of La Concepcion,an house of entertainment of Nuestra Senora de
caldia mayor of Zacattan, in Nueva España, fiveleagues from its head settlement.
CAXICA, or Busongote, a settlement of thecorregimiento of Zipaquira in the Nuevo Reynode Granada, is of a moderately cold temperature,being agreeable and healthy, and producing muchwheat, maize, barley, and other productions inci-dental to a cold climate. Its population amountsto 150 families, and as many families of Indians,who had in it a capital fortress, in which the Zipaor king of Bogota shut himself up in order to de-fend the entrance into his kingdom against theSpaniards: he was, however, routed and taken byGonzalo Ximenez de Quesada in 1537. Is fiveleagues to the n. of Santa Fe.
CAXITITLAN, the alcaldia mayor and dis-trict or jurisdiction of the kingdom of Nueva Ga-licia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara : in its districtis a large, fertile valley, abounding in every kind ofseed, as maize, wheat, French beans, and varioussorts of pulse : is of a mild temperature, and thedistrict of its jurisdiction consists of six settlements :in it is the great lake or sea of Chapala : it is sevenleagues s, e. of Guadalaxara. Long. 102° 43'. Lat.20° 35'.
San Luis, Istahuacan,
Cuyatan, Santa Cruz,
CAXITLAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Almololoyan, and alcaldia mayor of Colina,in Nueva España : it contains 30 families of Spa-niards, 20 of Mustees, and five of Mulattoes : inits district are various estates of palms of Cocos,(palmasde Qocos)^ and some herds of large cattle :is seven leagues to the w. of its head settlement.
(CAYAHAGA, or Cayuga, sometimes calledthe Great River, empties in at the s. bank of lakeErie, 40 miles e. of the mouth of Huron ; havingan Indian town of the same name on its banks. Itis navigable for boats ; and its mouth is wide, anddeep enough to receive large sloops from the lake.Near this are the celebrated rocks which projectover the lake. They are several miles in lengtl),and rise 40 or 50 feet perpendicular out of thewater. Some parts of them consist of several strataof different colours, lying in a horizontal direction,and so exactly parallel, that they resemble thework of art. The view from the land is grand,but the water presents the most magnificent pros-pect of this sublime work of nature ; it is attended,however, with great danger ; for if the least stormArises, the force of the surf is such that no vessel
can escape being dashed to pieces against the rocks .Colonel Broadshead suffered shipwreck here in thelate war, and lost a number of his men, when astrong wind arose, so that the last canoe narrowlyescaped. The heathen Indians, when they passthis impending danger, offer a sacrifice of tobaccoto the water. Part of the boundary line betweenthe United States of America and the Indiansbegins at the mouth of Cayahaga, and run‘< up thesame to the portage between that and the Tuscarawabranch of the Muskingum. The Cayuga nation,consisting of 500 Indians, 40 of whom reside in theUnited States, the rest in Canada, receive of thestate of New York an annuity of 2300 dollars, be-sides 50 dollars granted to one of their chiefs, as aconsideration for lands sold by them to the state,and 500 dollars from the United States, agreeablyto the treaty of 1794. See Six Nations.)
CAYENNE, a large island of the province andgovernment of Guayana : it is six leagues in lengthfrom n. to s. and three quarters of a league in itsbroadest part. On the n. side it has the sea, onthe VO . the river Cayenne, on thee, the Ou>ti, andon the s. an arm which is formed by this and theOrapii. The soil is excellent, fertile, and irrigatedby many streams. That part whicli looks to then. is the most pleasant and healthy ; and in it aremany mountains well cultivated and covered withcountry seats. The part facing the s. is muchlower, and abounds in meadows, called salanas,and which arc inundated in the rainy seasons.The point of the island formed by the mouth ofthe river Cayenne, is called Caperoux, where thereis a fortress with a French garrison, and below thisa convenient and large port, capable of containingin security 100 ships. The French establishedthemselves in this island in the year 1625, andabandoned it in 1654, when the English enteredit, and were routed by Mr. de la Barre, in the year1664. The Dutch had their revenge in 1676 : butthe year following it was recovered by the French,under the command of D’Estrees, on whom the ce-lebrated Jesuit Carlos de la Rue made the followinginscription :
Vice AmeralioCayana. TabacoVI. CaptisBatavorumAmericana classedeleta
[The capitulation of Cayenne to the Englisharms, in conjunction with the Portuguese, took
place on the 12th of January 1809 ; the Englishin this brave contest having been commanded byLieutenant-colonel Marques, and Captain Yeo.JBesides the capital tliere are in this island thetowns of Armire, inhabited by Jews, as likewisethose of Matuiri, Matahuri, Courrou, and Cona-nama, inhabited by French, Negroes, Mustees, andMulattoes ; but few by Indians, these living for themost part retired in the mountains and Avoods tothe s. These towns were converted to the faith bythe society of the Jesuits, who had here establisheda mission, Avhich afterwards fell to decay.
(The province of Cayenne is bounded on the n.by the Dutch colony of Surinam; w. by tlie woodsand mountains inhabited by barbarians, and s. bythe country of the Portuguese on the borders of theMaranon.) The principal rivers which water it,and which empty themselves into the Atlanticocean, are the Cabo, Apurvaca, Cayenne, Vuya,and Barca. Its chief commerce is in sugar, Avhichis manufactured in various mills by the Negroes.(In 1752 the exports of the colony were 260,541 lbs.of arnotto, 80,365 lbs. sugar, 17,919 lbs. cotton,26,881 lbs. coffee, 91,916 lbs. cacao, beside timberand planks.)
Cayenne, the capital of the above island, issmall, well built, and populous. It is at the n.point of the island, at the foot of the castle of Sanljuis, and defended by two other redoubts, the onecalled Courrow, and the other Sinarari, with ahandsome, convenient, and large port ; the greaterpart of the houses, which amount to about 200, arebuilt of wood. Besides the parish called San Sal-vador, there is a fine one which belonged to the Je-suits, as also an excellent house for the governor.The form of the city is an irregular hexagon, wellfortified ; in Lat. 5“ n. Long. 52° 16' w.
Cayenne, a river of the above province, (whichrises in the mountains near the lake of Parime, runsthrough the country of the Galibis, a nation ofCaribe Indians, and is 100 leagues long; theisland which it environs being 18 leagues in circuit.)
CAYETANO, San , a settlement of the provinceand government of Cartagena in the kingdom ofTierra Firme ; situate on the mountain of the di-vision of Maria ; six leagues to the n. n. e. of theswamp which takes the name of this town. It isone of those new establishments founded in the year1776 by the Governor Don Juan Pimienia.
Indians, on the banks of a river between the settle-ments of San Louis, and San Francisco Xavier.
(CAYLOMA, a jurisdiction under the bishop ofArequipa, 32 leagues e. of that city, in S. America,in Peru, famous for the silver mines in the moun-tains of the same name, which are very rich,though they have been worked for a long time.The country round it is cold and barren. Thereis an office here for receiving the king’s fifths andvending quicksilver. See Cailloma.)
(CAYMANS, three small islands, 55 leaguesn. n. w. of the island of Jamaica, in the West Indiesthe most s. of which is called the Great Caymans,which is inhabited by 160 people, who are descend-ants of the old Buccaniers. It has no harbour forships of burden, only a tolerable anchoring placeon the s. w. The climate and soil are singularlysalubrious, and the people are vigorous, and com-monly live to a great age. 'I'hey raise all kinds ofproduce for their own use and to spare. Theirchief employment is to pilot vessels to the adjacentislands, and to fish for turtle ; with w hich last theysupply Port Royal and other places in great quan-tities. Great Caymans lies in Lat. 19° 15' n. Long.81° 33' w.)
(CAYUGA, a beautiful lake in Onondaga,county, Ncav York, from 35 to 40 miles long,about two miles wide, in some places three, andabounds with salmon, bass, cat-fish, eels, &c. Itlies between Seneca and Owasco lake, and at the n.end empties into Scayace river, which is the 5 . e.part of Seneca river, Avhose waters run to lake On-tario. On each side of the lake is a ferry-house,where good attendance is given. The reservationlands of the Cayuga Indians lie on both sides of thelake, at its n. end.)
CAZERES, San Augustin de, or San Martin
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ters the sea between the river Rosa and the settle-ment and parisli of Cul de Sac.
CERINZA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofTunja in tlie Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of acold temperature, and abounds in cattle and theproductions peculiar to the climate. It contains300 families, and lies in a valley, from which ittakes its name.
CERMEN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the side ofthe town of San Felipe, towards the e. betweenthis town and the settlement of Agua Culebras, onthe shore of the river Iraqui.
CERRALUO, a town and presidency of theNuevo Reyno de Leon, garrisoned by a squadronof 12 soldiers and a captain, who is governor ofthis district, for the'purpose of restraining the bor-dering infidel Indians. Between the e. and n. isthe large river of this name ; and from this begins atract of extensive country, inhabited by barba-rous nations, who impede the communication andcommerce Avith regard to this part and the pro-vinces of Tejas and Nuevas Felipinas. Is 35leagues to the e. of its capital.
Cerraluo, a bay of the coast and gulf of Ca-lifornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, opposite an islandwhich is also thus called ; the one and theother hav-ing been named out of compliment to the Marquis ofCerraluo, viceroy of Nueva Espana. TJie afore-said island is large, and lies between the formerbay and the coast of Nueva Espana.
Cerrito, another, with the surname of SantaAna. See Ctuayaquie.
==Cerro, another, called San Miguel de CerroGordo==, which is a garrison of the province of Te-peguana in the kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Itssituation is similar to the road which leads to it,namely, a plain level surface ; although, indeed,it is divided by a declivity, in ivhich there is apool of water, and by Avhich passengers usuallypass. This garrison is the residence of a captain,a Serjeant , and 28 soldiers, who are appointed tosuppress the sallies of the infidel Indians. In itsvicinity is a cultivated estate, having a beautifulorchard, abounding in fruit-trees and in zepas,which also produce fruit of a delicious flavour.The garrison lies 50 leagues n. w. of the capitalGuadiana.
Cerros, San Felipe de los, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Uruapa, and alcaldia mayorof Valladolid, in the province and bishopric ofMcchoacan. It contains 26 families of Indians,and lies eight leagues to the e. of its head settle-ment, and 10 from the capital.
CESARA, a large and copious river of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, which was called bythe Indians Pompatao, meaning in their idiom,“ the lord of all rivers,” is formed of severalsmall rivers, which flow down from the snowysierras of Santa Marta. It runs s. leaving the ex-tensive llamtras of Upar until it reaches the lakeZapatosa, from whence itj issues, divided into fourarms, which afterwards unite, and so, following acourse of 70 leagues to the w, enters the Magda-lena on the <?. side, and to the s. of the little settle-ment called Banco.
CESARES, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe kingdom of Chile towards the s. Of themare told many fabulous accounts, although theyare, in fact, but little known. Some believe themto be formed of Spaniards and Indians, being thoseAvho Avere lost in the straits of Magellan, and be-longed to the armada which, at the beginning ofthe conquest of America, Avas sent by the bishop ofPlacencia to discover the Malucas. Others pre-tend that the Arucanos, after they had destroyedthe city of Osonio, in 1599, took aAvay with themthe Spanish Avomen ; and that it Avas from the pro-duction of these Avomen and the Indiatis that thisnation of the Cesares arose. Certain it is, that theyare of an agreeable colour, of a pleasing aspect,and of good dispositions. They have some lightof Christianity, live without any fixed abode ; andsome have affirmed that they have heard the soundof bells in their territorj". It Avas attempted in1638, by the governor of Tucuman, Don Geronimo
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Brocal de la Mina de, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru ;finnexed to the curacy of Santa Barbara.
CHACMA, or Chamaca, a valley of the pro-vince of Cuzco and kingdom of Peru, near thecoast of the S. sea. It was well peopled in formertimes, and abounds now in sugar-cane, from whichsugar is made. It was conquered and united tothe empire by Huaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor.
CHACO, a province of the kingdom of Peru,called the Gran Chaco, is an extensive country ;having as its boundary to the e. the river Para-guay, and being bounded on the [n.e. by the pro-vince of the Chiquitos Indians ; on the n. by thatof Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; on the zo. it touchesupon the provinces of Mizque, Tomina, Porna-bamba, Pilaya, Paspaya, Tarija, and Tucuman.On the s. it extends as far as the jurisdiction of thegovernment of Buenos Ayres, which is its farthestlimits. Towards the n. it is 150 leagues widefrom e. to w. and 250 leagues long from n. to s. ;but to make these distances, it requires manymonths, owing to the unevenness and roughness ofthe territory. It is called Chaco, or, with morepropriety, Chacu, which, in the Quechuan lan-guage, signifies junta, or company, from the cir-cumstance of its having been formed of Indians ofseveral countries, who had fled from the conquer-ing arms of the Incas, and afterwards from thoseof the Spaniards. Towards the w. it has someserraniasj which are branches of the cordilhrn ;where, on account of their immense height, thecold is very great ; but in the low grounds, whichare for the most part plains, the temperature is hot.It is full of thick woods, and in many parts isswampy and wet ; particularly in the part lyingtowards the e. on the road to Paraguay. In thewet season, which lasts from the month of Novem-ber to April, the rivers leave their beds and formvarious lakes, some of which dry up, and someremain. This province has some rivers of note ;such are the Salado and the Bermejo ; is one of themost fertile provinces in America, and would, ifit were cultivated, afford, in the greatest abun-dance, those productions wnich are now thrownaway upon the infinite number of barbarous na-
tions who inhabit it. It produces a great varietyof fine woods and fruit-trees; such as walnuts andnuts, although different from those of Europe, butwhich arc extremely well tasted ; beautiful cedars ;quebrachos^ thus called on account of their hard-ness ; guqyacanes, carob-trees, balsams, marias,palms, some of which are more than 30 yards inheight; almonds, cacaos, ceihas, whicli are verylarge trees, bearing in the pods a remarkable softwool, used for quilts, since it cannot be spun ; cot-ton-trees, mistoles, of the heart of which the In-dians make darts and cimeters ; myrrh, sarzafraz-trees, bark, and others, which have the interiorbark so delicate and white as occasionally to serveinstead of writing paper; others there are, whicli,at one or two yards up their stems, form a kind ofbarrel or pipe, and being of a very tough bark,are accustomed to be ripped open by the Indians,and thus serve as vessels, in which these keep theirliquor called chieha ; it is from this that theywhimsically call this plant palo borracho, ordrunken tree. In this province are found alsocanes for walking sticks, as fine as those of Asia ;and in the trunks of trees, in holes of the rocksand below the ground, are quantities of honey andwax wrought by bees, of which there are reckonedto be more than 12 sorts : some of the wax, besidesbeing transparent, is extremely fragrant and deli-cious to the taste, whilst some is so sour as to re-semble the juice of boiled lemons. One sort ofthese bees fabricate, with great skill, excellenthives of mud upon the branches of trees, and ofthe shape of a decanter, which are so hard thatthey will not break in falling down upon theground ; they, morever, are filled Avith exquisitewax and Avell-flavoured honey. The fruit-treeswhich this province produces, are oranges, cedars,lemons, apples, pears, melocotones^ (or peaches en-grafted on quinces), figs, nuts, prunes, and olives,also passion-floAvers ; all of which have beenbrought hither from the city of Santiago de Gua-dalcazar. Here are palms Avhich have cups con-taining 25 kernels each, differing only slightlyfrom the palms of Europe by having a flavour ofthe cocoa, and being somewhat larger. Here isalso a plant called chahuar, having prickles likethe savine, of which are made threads similar tohemp, for the manufacture of nets, bags, and somesorts of coarse garments : its root serves as food forthe Indians, as do also yucas, potatoes, and others.It has an innumerable quantity of birds, namely,Avild pigeons, ducks, herons, mountain-peacocks’pheasants, crows, condors, partridges, falcons,SAvans, periguanas, ostriches, parrots, and onekind of bird which exactly imitates an organ, and
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CHACTAW, a settlement and capital of theIndian district of this name in Louisiana, in whichthe French had a fort and establishment. (TheChactaws, or Flat-heads, are a powerful, hardy,subtle, and intrepid race of Indians, "vpho inhabita very fine and extensive tract of hilly country,with large and fertile plains intervening, betweenthe Alabama and Mississippi rivers, and in the w.part of the state of Georgia. This natioti had,not many years ago, 43 towns and villages, inthree divisions, containing 12,123 souls, of which4041 were fighting men. They are called by thetraders Flat-heads, all the males having the foreand hind part of their skulls artificially flattenedwhen young. These men, unlike the Muscogul-ges, are slovenly and negligent in every part oftheir dress, but otherwise are said to be ingenious,sensible, and virtuous men, bold and intrepid, yetquiet and peaceable. Some late travellers, how-ever, have observed that they pay little attentionto the most necessary rules of moral conduct, atleast that unnatural crimes were too frequent amongthem. Dift'erent from most of the Indian nationsbordering on the United States, they have largeplantations or country farms, where they employmuch of their time in agricultural improvements,after the manner of the Avhite people. Althoughtheir territories are not one-fburth so large as thoseof the Muscogulge confedraey, the number of in-habitants is greater. The Chactaws and Creeksare inveterate enemies* to each other. There area considerable number of these Indians on the w.side of the Mississippi, who have not been homefor several years. A bout 12 miles above the postat Oachcta on that river, there is a small villageof them of about 30 men, who have lived there forseveral years, and made corn ; and likewise onBayau Chico, in the n. part of the district ofAppalousa, there is another village of them ofabout fifty men, who have been there for aboutnine years, and say they have the governor of
Louisiana’s permission to settle there. Besidesthese, there are rambling hunting parties of themto be met with all over Lower Louisiana. Theyare at war with the Caddoques, and liked by. neither red nor white people.)
(CHACTOOS, Indians of N. America, wholive on Bayau Boeuf, about 10 miles to the s. ofBayau Rapide, on Red river, towards Appalousa ;a small, honest people ; are aborigines of thecountry where they live; of men about 30 ; di-minishing; have their own peculiar tongue;speak Mobilian. The lands they claim on BayauBceuf are inferior to no part of Louisiana in depthand richness of soil, growth of timber, pleasant-ness of surface, and goodness of water.. TheBayau Bceuf falls into the Chaffeli, and dischargesthrough Appalousa and Attakapa into Vermilionbay.)
CHACURIES, a settlement of the jurisdictionof the city of Pedraga, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, is of the missions which were held thereof the order of St. Domingo. It is but small, andits climate is hot.
(CHADBOURNE’S River, district of Maine,called by some Great Works river, about 30 milesfrom the mouth of the Bonnebeag pond, fromwhich it flows. It is said to have taken its lattername from a mill with 18 saws, moved by onewheel, erected by one Lodors. But the projectwas soon laid aside. The former name is derivedfrom Mr. Chadbourne, one of the first settlers,,who purchased the land on the mouth of it, of thenatives, and whose posterity possess it at this day.)
CHAGRE, a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Panamá in the king-dom of Tierra Firme, has its origin and sourcein the mountains near the valley of Pacora, andtakes its course in various directions, makingmany windings, which are called randa/es, until itenters the N. sea. It is navigated by large vesselscalled chatas, (having no keels), up as far as thesettlement of Cruces, where is the wharf for un-lading, and the royal custom-houses ; the greaterpart of the commerce being conducted by thismeans, to avoid the obstacles occurring from a badand rocky road from Portobeloto Panama. It hasdifferent forts for the defence of its entrance ; thefirst is the castle of its name, at the entrance ormouth ; the second is that of Gatun, situate upona long strip of land formed by a river of this name ;and the third is that of Trinidad, situate in a simb
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(country of the Iroquees Indians. It is handsomeand well built, on the margin of the river of thesame name, about 12 or 15 miles s. w. from Mont-real, and n. of St. John’s fort. It was taken bythe Americans, Oct. 20, 1775, and retaken by theBritish, Jan. 18, 1776. Lat. 45° 26' w.)
Chambo, a very large river, which rises nearthe former settlement, and runs with such rapiditythat it cannot be forded ; is consequently passedover by means of various bridges made of osiers.
CHAME, a settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Natá in the province and kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near a river, and two leagues fromthe coast of the S. sea. It produces maize, plan-tains, and other fruits ; swine, fowl, turkeys, andother birds, with which it supplies, by means ofcanoes, the markets of the city of Panama, fromwhence it is nine leagues distant.
CHAMETLAN, a province and alcaldia mayorof Nueva España, also called Del Rosario ; bound-ed n. by the province of Culiacan, s. by that of Xa-lisco or Sentipac, e. and n. e. by that of Zacate-cas and Nueva Galicia, and w. by the S. sea ; is30 leagues long from e. to w. and 25 wide n. s. ;is of, a very hot temperature, and the greater partof it is a mountainous and rugged country, abound-ing in. noxious animals and insects, and on thisaccount uninhabitable in the summer and in therainy season. It was conquered by Don Juan deIbarra in 1554, has many mines of silver and gold,which were formerly worked, but which at presentare all abandoned, as well from their having filledwith water, as from the scantiness of the means ofthe inhabitants to work them. The royal mines,however, are productive of some emolument, andare in fafct the support of the place. It producessome maize, and much tobacco , and cotton, towhich article the soil is exactly suited, though notso to wheat, which yields here but sparingly. Onthe banks of the lakes formed by the sea, is left athick incrustation of salt in the month of April ;and although the inhabitants spare no pains to col-lect this valuable commodity, yet abundance of itis lost from the Avant of hands to collect it ere theheats come on, when it very quickly disappears.
Some large cattle are bred here. It is very badlypeopled, or, to speak more truly, it is as it weredesert, having only three settlements and someestates. It is irrigated by a river which flowsdown from the sierra Madre, and passes throughthe capital, the waters of which are made usefulfor the working of the mines. The same river entersthe sea two leagues from the settlement of Chamet-lan, and has abundance of fish, which are caughtwith ease, as well upon its shores as in marsheswhich it forms. Tlie capital, which is the resi-dence of the alcalde mayor, is the real del Ro-sario.
Chametlan, a settlement of the former alcaldíamayor ; from thence taking its name. It containsonly five or six Indians, and some Spaniards, Mus-tees, and Mulattoes, who, the greater part of theyear, live in the estates which they have for thebreeding of large cattle, and on the farms for thecultivation of maize and cotton.
CHAMESA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; annexed to the curacy of Nopsa. Itis of a cold temperature, and produces the fruitscorresponding to such a climate, particularlywheat, which is of the best quality. It contains100 Avhite inhabitants, and as many Indians, andis a little more than eight leagues from its ca-pital.
CHAMI, San Juan de, a settlement of theprovince and government of Chocó ; situate in thedistrict of Thatama, near the ruins of the city ofSan Juan de Rodas, to the w. of the city of San-tiago de Arma.
CHAMICUROS, S. Francisco Xavier de,a settlement of the missions which were held by theregulars of the company of Jesuits, in the provinceand government of Mainas, of the kingdom ofQuito ; founded in 1670 by the Father LorenzoLucero. '
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20. Don Ignacio de Flores, native of Quito,who had served as captain of cavalry in the regi-ment of the volunteers of Aragon, and who was go-vernor of the province of Moxos, being of the rankof colonel ; he was nominated as president by wayof reward for his services, in having been instru-mental to the pacification of the Indians of Peru,and to the succouring of the city of La Paz, whichwas besieged by rebels : he governed until 1786,when he was removed from the presidency.
Charcas, a ferocious and barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru, to the s.w. of the lakes of Aul-laga and of Paria ; conquered by Mayta Capac,fourth monarch of the Incas. At present theyare reduced to the Christian faith in the govern-ment of Chuquisaca or La Plata.
Santa Maria Charcas, a settlement, with the dedicatory titleof Santa Maria, being the real of the mines of thekingdom of Nueva Galicia, in which are markedthe boundaries of its jurisdiction, and those ofNueva Espana, the last district of the bishopric ofMechoacan. It contains a convent of the religi-ous order of St. Francis, and 50 families of Spa-niards, ilfwstees, and Mulattoes, as also many of In-dians dispersed in the rancherias and the estatesof its district: is 130 leagues to the n. J to then. w. of Mexico, 75 from Guadalaxera, and 18 tothe n. e. of the sierra of Pinos. Lat. 22° 55'.Long. 100° 40'.
Charcas, another settlement and real of themines of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate two leagues from thecapital. In its vicinity are the estates of Panuco,in which they work with quicksilver the metals ofthe mines. To its curacy, which is adminsteredby one of the Catholic clergy, are annexed twosmall settlements of Serranos Indians, amongst whomare found some few of the Tepeguana nation.
(Charles River, in Massachusetts, called an-ciently Quinobequin, is a considerable stream,the principal branch of which rises from a pondbordering on Hopkinton. It passes through Hollis-ton and Bellingham, and divides Medway fromMed field, Wrentham, and Franklin, and thenceinto Dedham, where, by a curious bend, it forms apeninsula of 900 acres of land. A stream calledlother brook runs out of this river in this town,and falls into Neponsit river, forming a naturalcanal, uniting the two rivers, and affording a num-ber of excellent mill-seats. From Dedham thecourse of the river is n. dividing Newton fromNeedham, Weston, and Waltham, passing overromantic falls ; it then bends to the n. e. and e.through Watertown and Cambridge, and passinginto Boston harbour, mingles with the waters ofMystic river, at the point of the peninsula ofCharlestown. It is navigable for boats to Water-town, seven miles. The most remarkable bridgeson this river are those which connect Boston withCharlestown and Cambridge. SeeBosxoN. Thereareseven paper mills on this river, besides other mills.][Charles County, on the w. shore of Maryland,lies between Potowmack and Patuxent rivers. Itschief town is port Tobacco, on the river of thatname. Its extreme length is 28 miles, its breadth24, and it contains 20,613 inhabitants, including10,085 slaves. The country has few hills, is gene-rally low and sandy, and produces tobacco, Indiancorn, sweet potatoes, &c.)
CHARLES. See Carlos, San.
CHARLESTON, a capital city of S. Carolina,is one of the best of N. America, excelling inbeauty, grandeur, and commerce. It is situateupon a long strip of land between two navigablerivers, which are Ashley and Cowper, and thegreater part of it upon the latter. This forms inthe city two small bays, the one to the n. and theother to the s. The town is of a regular construc-tion, and well fortified both by nature and art,having six bastions and a line of entrenchment ; onthe side of the river Cowper it has the bastions of
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Black, Granville, Craven, and a half-moon; onthe n. a line, and in front of the river Ashley thebastion of Colliton, and the covered half-moon ofJohnson, with a draw-bridge to pass the line, andanother to pass the half-moon. Besides these worksof regular fortification, it has a fort erected upona point of land at the entrance of the river Ashley,which commands the channel and the vessels : butthe bastions, the palisade, and the ditch on theland-side, having suffered much damage in anhurricane, and it being thought by the GovernorNicholson, that they were of too great an extent todefend themselves, they were by his command de-stroyed. This city is, as it were, a continual fair,being the market for the fruits of the whole pro-vince : the streets are well projected, and the edi-fices are grand and of fine architecture, especiallythe church, which is magnificent, spacious, andone of the best in all N . America : there are severalother churches belonging to different sects, and theFrench protestants have a very fine one in the prin-cipal street. The town consists of 800 housesbuilt of wood as to the greater part, although thereare some of stone ; all of them having glass win-dows, and manifesting a degree of elegance and or-nament in their structure : is the residence of thegovernor of the province, and in it is held the ge-neral assembly and the tribunal of judicature.Here are many rich nobles and opulent merchants,and almost all its inhabitants exhibit a costly ap-pearance, and live in a state of consummate luxury.It has a public library, which owes its establishmentto Doctor Thomas Bray. The liberty of con-science enjoyed in this city, and which was grantedto its inhabitants a short time after its foundation,caused it to become very populous. This effectwas further heightened by the extensive commerceit enjoyed ; and thus has it, with many other qua-lities of pre-eminence, become one of the finest set-tlements in America.
[Charleston, the metropolis of S. Carolina,is the most considerable town in the state; situatein the district of the same name, and on the tongueof land formed by the confluent streams of Ashleyand Cowper, which are short rivers, but large andnavigable. These waters unite immediately belowthe city, and form a spacious and convenient har-bour, which communicates with the ocean just be-low Sullivan’s island, which it leaves on. the n. sevenmiles s, e. of Charleston. In these rivers the tiderises in common about six feet and a half; but uni-formly rises 10 or 12 inches more during a nighttide. The fact is certain ; the cause unknown.The continual agitation which the tides occasionin the waters which almost surround Charleston,
the refreshing sea-breezes which are regularly felt,and the smoke arising from so many chimneys,render this city more healthy than any part of thelow country in the s. states. On this account it isthe resort of great numbers of gentlemen invalidsfrom the W. India islands, and of the rich plantersfrom the country, who come here to spend thesickly months, as they are called, in quest of healthand of the social enjoyments whicli the city affords ;and in no part of America are the social blessingsenjoyed more rationally and liberally than here.The following statement exhibits the greatest andleast height of Fahrenheit’s thermometer for severalyears past in Charleston.
State of the weather for 1807, ending Decem-ber 31.
Thermometer, highest~ ’ lowest
30° 1' to 30° 77'
1 to 13142 inches IfN.E. S.W,
Ditto meanBarometerHygrometerFall of rainPrevailing windsDays of rain
Do. of thunderDo. of snow
Unaffected hospitality — affability — ease of man-ners and address — and a disposition to make theirguests welcome, easy, and pleased with themselves,are characteristics of the respectable people ofCharleston. In speaking of the capital, it oughtto be observed, for the honour of the people ofCarolina in general, that when, in common with theother colonies, in the contest with Britain, they re-solved against the use of certain luxuries, and evennecessaries of life, those articles which improve themind, enlarge the understanding, and correct thetaste, were excepted ; the importation of bookswas permitted as formerly. The land on whichthe town is built is flat and low, and the waterbrackish and unwholesome. The streets are prettyregularly cut, and open beautiful prospects, andhave subterranean drains to carry off’ filth and keep]
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(the city clean and healthy ; but are too narrow forso large a place and so warm a climate. Theirgeneral breadth is from 35 to 66 feet. The houseswhich have been lately built are brick with tiledroofs. The buildings in general are elegant, andmost of them are neat, airy, and well furnished.The public buildings are, an exchange, a state-bouse, an armoury, a poor-house, and an orphan’shouse. Here are several respectable academies.Part of the old barracks has been handsomely fittedlip, and converted into a college, and there area number of students ; but it can only be called asyet a respectable academy. Here are two banks ;a branch of the national bank, and the S. Carolinabank, established in 1792. The houses for publicworship are, two Episcopal churches, two for In-dependents, one for Scotch Presbyterians, one forBaptists, one for German Lutherans, two for Me-thodists, one for French Protestants, a meeting-house for Quakers, a Roman Catholic chapel, anda Jewish synagogue. Little attention is paid tothe public markets ; a great proportion of the mostwealthy inhabitants having plantations, from whichthey receive supplies of almost every article ofliving. The country abounds with poultry andwild ducks. Their beef, mutton, and veal are notgenerally of the best kind ; and few fish are foundin the market. In 1787 it was computed that therewere 1600 houses in this city, and 15,000 inhabi-tants, including 5400 slaves ; and what evincesthe healthiness of the place, upwards of 200 of thewhite inhabitants were above 60 years of age. In1791 there were 16,359 inhabitants, of whom 7684were slaves. This city has often suffered muchby fire ; the last and most destructive happened aslate as June 1796. Charleston was incorporatedin 1783, and divided into three wards, which chooseas many wardens, from among whom the citizenselect an intendant of the city. The intendant andwardens form the city-council, who have power tomake and enforce bye-laws for the regulation ofthe city. The value of exports from this port, inthe year ending November 1787, amounted to505,279/. 19^. 5d. sterling. The number of vesselscleared from the custom-house the same year was947, measuring 62,118 tons; 735 of these, mea-suring 41,531 tons, were American ; theothers be-longed to Great Britain, Ireland, Spain, France, andthe United Netherlands. In the year 1794 the valueof exports amounted to 3,846,392 dollars. It is 60miles s. w. by s. of Georgetown, 150 e. by s. ofAugusta, 497 s. by w. of Richmond, 630 s. w. bys. of Washington city ; 763 s. w. by s. of Philadel-phia, and 1110 s. w. of Boston. Lat. 32° 48'.Long. 80° 2' w. Knoxville, the capital of the state
of Tennessee, is much nearer to this than to anysea-port town in the Atlantic ocean. A waggonroad of only 15 miles is wanted to open the com-munication ; and the plan is about to be executedby the state.)
Charleston, another capital city of the countyof Middlesex in New England; situate on thebank of the river Charles. It is well peopled andof a good construction, occupying the whole of thespace which lies between the aforesaid river andthat of Mystic, the former river dividing the cityfrom Boston, in the same manner as the Thamesdivides London from Southwark. It has a raft forthe traffic of the river instead of a bridge, the fareor produce of which belongs to the college of Nor-wood in the city of Cambridge, which is close by :this city is as it were the half of Boston, and itssituation, as being upon a peninsula, is very ad-vantageous. At certain times it has fairs, and isthe meeting place for the assembly of the county.It has a very large and handsome church, and amarketplace, ornamentally and conveniently situateon the river side, at which there are sold all kindsof flesh, fish, and other necessaries ; it has twolarge streets leading to it. The river is navigable,and runs through the country for many leagues. Isin Lat. 42° 24' n. Long. 71° 6' ay.
(CHARLESTOWN, the principal town inMiddlesex county, Massachusetts, called Misha-wun by the aboriginal inhabitants, lies n. of Boston,with which it is now connected by Charles riverbridge. The town, properly so called, is built ona peninsula formed by Mystic river on the e. anda bay setting up from Charles river on the w. Itis very advantageously situated for health, naviga-tion, trade, and manufactures of almost all the va-rious kinds. A dam across the mouth of the bay,which sets up from Charles river, would afford agreat number of mill-seats for manufactures. Bun-ker’s, Breed’s, and Cobble (now Barrell’s) hills,are celebrated in the history of the American revo-lution. The second hill has upon its summit amonument erected to the memory of Major-generalW arren, near the spot where he fell, among thefirst sacrifices to American liberty. The brow ofthe hill begins to be ornamented with eleganthouses. All these hills afford elegant and delight-ful prospects of Boston, and its charmingly varie-gated harbour, of Cambridge and its colleges, andof an extensive tract of highly cultivated country.It contains within the neck or parish about 250houses, and about 2000 inhabitants. The onlypublic buildings of consequence are, a handsomeCongregational church, with an elegant steepleand clock, and an alms-house, very commodious
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and pleasantly situated. Before the deslrnction oftil is town by the British in 1775, several brandiesof mannfadures were carried on to great advan-tage, some of which have been since revived : par-ticularly tlic manufacture of pot and pearl ashes,ship-building, rum, leather in all its branches,silver, tin, brass, and pewter. Three rope-walkshave lately been erected in this town, and tlie in-crease of its houses, population, trade, and naviga-tion, have been very great within a few' years past.This town is a port of entry in conjunction withBoston. At the head of the neck there is a bridgeover Mystic river, which connects Charlestown withMalden.)
CHARLESTOWN, another city of the island ofNevis, one of the Caribes, in the Antilles ; in w Inchthere are beautiful houses and shops well providedwith every thing ; is defended by a fort calledCharles. It has a market every Saturday, begin-ning at sun-rise and finishing at mid-day, whitherthe Negroes bring 'maize, names, garden-herbs,fruits, &c. In the parish of San Juan is a pieceof sulphureous land, in the upper extremity of anopening of the land, called Solfatara, or Sulphurgut, which is so hot as to be telt through the solesof the shoes when being trodden upon. At thefoot of the declivity of this same part of the city,is a small hot stream, called the Bath, which beingsupposed to rise from the aforesaid spot, loses itselfshortly in the sand. Towards the side lying nextthe sea are two fountains, one of hot water, theother of cold, and of these two are formed the lakeof Blackrock, the waters of which are of a moderatewarmth, and which lies to the n. of the city, beingnearly a quarter of a mile’s distance from the placewhere are caught eels and silver-fish, resemblingthe cod and slimgut in flavour, the latter of whichlias a head disproportioned to its body. [A prodi-gious piece ol Nevis mountain falling down in anearthquake several years ago, left a large vacuity,which is still to be seen. The altitude of thismountain, taken by a quadrant from Charlestownbay, is said to be a mile and a half perpendicular ;and from the said bay to the top, four miles. Thedeclivity from this mountain to the town is verysteep half-way, but afterwards easy of ascent.] InLat. 17° 8' u. and long. 62° 40' w.
Charlestown, another city of the island ofBarbadoes ; the situation of which is two leaguesfrom that of San Miguel. It has a good port de-fended by two castles ; the one beyoml the other,and both commanding the city and the road: inthe middle of them is a platform. Tlse inhabitantscarry on a great trade with the other islands.
county. New York, on the s. side of Mohawk river,about 32 miles w. of Schenectady. By the statecensus of 1796, 456 of the inhabitants are elec-tors.)
(Charlestown, a township in Mason county,Kentucky ; situate on the Ohio, at the mouth ofLauren’s creek. It contains but few houses, andis six miles n. of Washington, and 60 n. e. of Lex-ington. Lat. 38° 28' n.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cheshire county,New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecticutriver, 30 miles s. of Dartmouth college, upwards of70 n. of Northampton, 116 n. of w. of Boston, 120w. by 71. of Portsmouth, and 431 n. n. e. of Phila-delphia. It was incorporated in 1753, and con-tains 90 or 100 houses, a Congregational church,a court-house, and an academy. The road fromBoston to Quebec passes through this town. Lat.43° 16' n. Long. 72° 23' w. A small internaltrade is carried on here.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cecil county,Maryland, near the head of Chesapeak bay ; sixmites e. n. e. from the mouth of Susquehannahriver, 10 zo. s. w. from Elktown, and 50 s. w. by zb.from Philadelphia. Here are about 20 houses,chiefly inhabited by fishermen employed in theherring fishery. Lat. 39° 36' w.)
(Charlestown, a district in the lower countryof S. Carolina, subdivided into 14 parishes. Thislarge district, of which the city of Charleston is thechief town, lies between Santee and Combaheerivers. It pays 21,473/. 14s. 6d. sterling, taxes. Itsends to the state legislature 48 representatives and13 senators, and one member to congress. It con-tains 66,986 inhabitants, of whom only 16,352 arefree.)
(Charlestown, a township in Washingtoncounty, Rhode Island state, having the Atlanticocean on the s. and separated from Richmond on the71. by Charles river, a water of Fawcatiick. Some ofits ponds empty into Fawcatiick river, otliers intothe sea. It is 19 miles /L ti:;. of Newport, andcontains 2022 inhabitants, including 12 slaves. Afew years ago there w'ere about 500 Indians in thestate ; the greater part of them resided in tin's town-ship. They are peaceable and well disposed togovernment, and s|5cak the English language.)
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America called New South Wales. Its territoryconsists of a white dry sand, and it is covered withsmall trees and shrubs. This island has a beauti-ful appearance in the spring to those Avho discoverit after a voyage of three or four months, and afterhaving seen nothing but a multitude of mountainscovered with frost, which lie in the bay, and in thestrait of Hudson, and which are rocks petrifiedwith eternal ice. This island appears at that sea-son as though it were one heap of verdure. Theair at the bottom of the bay, although in 51“ of hit.and nearer to the sun than London, is excessivelycold for nine months, and extremely hot the remain-ing three, save when the n. w. wind prevails. Thesoil on the e. <^s well as on the w. side produces allkinds of grain and fruits of fine qualities, whichare cultivated on the shore of the river Rupert.Lat. 52“ 12' n. Long. 80“ w.
CHARO, Matlazingo, the alcaldía mayorof the province and bishopric of Mechoacán inNueva España, of a mild and dry temperature,being the extremity of the sierra of Otzumatlan ;the heights of which are intersected with manyveins of metals, which manifest themselves veryplainly, although they have never yet been dugout ; and in the wet seasons the clay or mud pitsrender the roads impassable. It is watered by theriver which rises in the pool or lake of Valladolid,and by which the crops of wheat, maize, lentils, andthe fruits peculiar to the place, are rendered fertileand productive. This reduced jurisdiction belongsto the Marquises of Valle, and is subject to theDukes of Terranova. Its population is reduced tosome ranchos, or meetings for the purpose of labour,and to the capital, which has the same name, andwhich contains a convent of the religious order ofSt. Augustin, this being one of the first templesbuilt by the Spaniards in this kingdom, the presentdilapidated state of it bearing ample testimony toits great antiquity. It contains 430 families ofPirindas Indians, employed in labour and in thecultivation of the land, and in making bread, whichis carried for the supply' of Valladolid, the neigh-bouring ranchos and estates. It should also have45 or 50 families of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulat-toes. Is .50 leagues to the w. of Mexico, and twoto the e. of Valladolid. Long. 100° 44'. Lat.19“34'.
CHARPENTIER, Fond du, a bay of the n. e.
coast of the island of Martinique, between the townand parish of Marigot and the Pan de Azucar.
CHARRUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofParaguay, who inhabit the parts lying between therivers Parana and Uruguay. These Indians arethe most idle of any in America, and it has beenattempted in vain to reduce them to any thing likea civilized state.
Charruas, a settlement of this province andgovernment.
Charruas, a river of the same province, whichruns s. s. w. and enters the Paraná.
(Chartier’s Creek. See Canonsburg andMorganza.)
(CHARTRES, a fort which was built bythe French, on the e. side of the Mississippi,three miles n. of La Prairie du Rocher, or theRock meadows, and 12 miles n. of St. Genevieve,on the w. side of that river. It was abandoned in1772, being untenable by the constant washings ofthe Mississippi in high floods. The village s. ofthe fort was very inconsiderable in 1778. A mileabove this is a village settled by 170 warriors of thePiorias and Mitchigamias tribes of Illinois Indians,who are idle and debauched.)
(CHEGOMEGAN, a point of land about 60miles in length, on the s. side of lake Superior.About 100 miles w. of this cape, a considerableriver falls into the lake ; upon its banks abundanceof virgin copper is found.)
CHEGONOIS, a small river of the same pro-vince and colony as the former. It runs s. w, andenters the Basin des Mines.
(CHELMSFORD, a township in Middlesexcounty, Massachusetts ; situated on the s. side ofMerrimack river, 26 miles n. w. from Boston, andcontains 1144 inhabitants. There is an ingeniouslyconstructed bridge over the river at Pawtucketfalls, which connects this town with Dracut. Theroute of the Middlesex canal, designed to connectthe waters of Merrimack with those of Bostonharbour, will be s. through the e. part of Chelms-ford.)
(CHELSEA, called by the ancient natives Win-nisimet, a town in Suffolk county, Massachusetts,containing 472 inhabitants. Before its incorpora-tion, in 1738, it was award of the town of Boston,It is situated n. e. of the metropolis, and separatedfrom it by the ferry across the harbour, calledWinnisimet.)
(Chelsea, the name of a parish in the city ofNorwich, (Connecticut), called the Landing, situ-ated at the head of the river Thames, 14 miles n.of New London, on a point of land formed bythe junction ofShetucket and Norwich, or Littlerivers, w hose united waters constitute the Thames.It is a busy, commercial, thriving, romantic, andagreeable place, of about 150 houses, ascending
one above another in tiers, on artificial founda-tions, on the 5. point of a high rocky hill,)
(CHEMUNG is a township in Tioga county,New York. By the state census of 1796, 81 ofits inhabitants were electors. It has Newton w.and Oswego e. about 160 miles n. w. fiom NewYork city, measuring in a straight line. Betweenthis place and Newton, General Sullivan, in his vic-torious expedition against the Indians in 1779, hadadesperate engagement with the Six Nations, whomhe defeated. The Indians werestrongly entrenched,and it required the utmost exertions of the Ame-rican army, with field pieces, to dislodge them ;although the former, including 250 tories, amount-ed only to 800 men, while the Americans were5000 in number, ami well appointed in every re-spect.)
(CHENENGO is a n. branch of Susquehan-nah river. Many of the military townships arewatered by the n. w. branch of this river. Thetowns of Fayette, Jerico, Greene, Clinton, andChenengo, in Tioga county, lie between this riverand the e. waters of Susquehannah.)
(Chenengo, a post town, and one of the chiefin Tioga county, New York. The settled partof the town lies about 40 miles w. e. from Tiogapoint, between Chenengo river and Susquehan-nah ; has the town of Jerico on the n. By thestate census of 1796, 169 of its inhabitants areelectors. It was taken off from Montgomerycounty, and in 1791 it had only 45 inhabitants.It is 375 miles n. n. w. of Philadelphia.)
(CHENESSEE or GENESSEE River rises in Penn-sylvania, near the spot, which is the highest groundin that state, where the eastern most water of Allegha-ny river, and Pine creek, a water of Susquehannah,and Tioga river, rise. Fifty miles from its sourcethere are falls of 40 feet, and five from its mouth of 75feet, and a little above that of 96 feet. These fallsfurnish excellent mill-seats, which arc improved bythe inhabitants. After a course of about 100 miles,mostly n, e. by n. it empties into lakeQntario, four
miles and a half e. ofirondequat or Rundagut bay,and SO e. from Niagara falls. The setlleincnts onChenessee river from its month upwards, areHartford, Ontario, Wadsworth, and Williams-burgh. The last mentioned place, it is probable,wili soon be the seat of extensive comineice.There will not be a carrying place between NewYork city and Williamsburgh Avhen tiie w.canals and locks shall be completed. The carry-ing places at present areas follows, viz. Albanyto Schenectady, 16 miles ; from the head of tiieMohawk to Wood creek, one ; Oswego lalls, two ;Chenessee falls, two ; so that there are but 2 1 milesland carriage necessary, in order to convey com-modities from a tract of country capable of main-taining several millions of people. The famousChenessee flats lie on the borders of this river.They arc about 20 miles long, and about fourwide; the soil is remarkably rich, quite clear oftrees, producing grass near 10 feet high. Tlieseflats are estimated to be worth 200,000/. as theynow lie. They arc mostly the property of theIndians.)
CHENGUE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Santa Marta in the kingdom ofTierra Firme ; situate on the sea-coast. It wassacked by William Gauson in 1655, who alsodestroyed and plundered circumjacent estates.
(CHEPAWAS, or Chipeways, an Indiannation inhabiting the coast of lake Superior andthe islands in the lake. They could, according toMr. Hutchins, furnish 1000 warriors 20 yearsago. Otlier tribes of this nation inhabit the coun-try round Saguinam or Sagana bay, and lakeHuron, bay Puan, and a part of lake Michigan.They were lately hostile to the United States, but,by the treaty of Greenville, August 3. 1795, theyyielded to them the island De Bois Blanc. SeeSix Nations.)
CHEPETLAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment, and alcaldía mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Es-paña. It contains 203 families of Indians, wholive by tiie making and selling of chocolate cups.Two leagues to the n. n. 70. of Tenango.
sippi to the lands claimed by the Sioux, withwhom they still cop.tend for dominion. Theyclaim also, c. of the Mississippi, the country ex-tending as far as lake Superior, including thewaters of the St. lamis. Tliis country is thicklycovered with timber generally, lies level, andgenerally fertile, though a considerable propor-tion of it is intersected and broken up by smalllakes, morasses, and small swamps, particularlyabout the heads of the Mississipi and river St.Louis. They do not cultivate, but live princi-pally on the wild rice, which they procure in greatabundance on the borders of Leach lake and thebanks of the Mississipi. Their number has beenconsiderably reduced by W'ars and tlie small-pox.Their trade is at its greatest extent.)
(Chepewas, of Red Lake, Indians of N. Ame-rica, who claim the country about Red Lake andRed Lake river, as far as the Red river of lakeWinnipie, beyond which last river they contendwith the Sioux for territory. This is a low levelcountry, and generally thickly covered with timber,interrupted with many swamps and morasses. This,as well as the other bands of Chepewas, are es-teemed the best hunters in the ti. to. country ; butfrom the long residence of this band in the countrythey now inhabit, game is become scarce ; there-fore their trade is supposed to be at its greatest ex-tent. The Chepewas are a well-disposed people,but excessively fond of spirituous liquors.)
(Chepewas, of River Pembena, Indians of N.America, who formerly resided on the e. side ofthe Mississippi, at Sand lake, but were induced bythe N. W. company to remove, a few years since,to the river Pembena. They do not claim thelands on which they hunt. Tiie country is level,and the soil good. The w. side of the river ispi incipally prumVs, or open plains ; on the e. sidethere is a greater proportion of timber. Theirtrade at present is a very valuable one, and willprobably increase for some years. They do notcultivate, but live by hunting. They are well-disposed towards the whites.)
CHEPILLO, a small island of the S. sea, inthe gulf of Panamá, and at the mouth or entranceofthe river Bayano, is somewhat more than twoleagues distant Irom the continent; three miles incircumference, and enjoys a pleasant climate, al-though sometim.es subject to intense heat. It wasformerly inhabited by the Indians, of whom there
vernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito. It runs from 7i. to s, and enters tlieChinchipe on the n. side, somewhat lower thanwhere this latter is entered by the Naraballe, andnear a small settlement of Indians.
Cherokee, a large river of the above colonyand province, called also Hogohegee and Calla-maco. It rises in the county of Augusta, and takesits name from a numerous nation of Indians ; runsV). for many leagues, forming a curve, and entersthe Ohio near the fourches of the Mississippi. Nearto this river are some very large and fertile plains ;and according to the account rendered by the In-dians, there are, at the distance of 40 leagues fromthe Chicazas nation, four islands, called Tahogale,Kakick, Cochali, and Tali, inhabited by as manyother different nations of Indians. (Cherokee wasthe ancient name of Tennessee river. The name ofTennessee was formerly confined to the fourteenthbranch, which empties 15 mites above the mouth ofClinch river, and 18 below Knoxville.)
Cherokee, the country of the Indians of thenation of this name in North Carolina. It standsw. as far as the Mississippi, and w. as far as theconfines of the Six Nations. It was ceded to theEnglish by the treaty of Westminster, in 1729.(This celebrated Indian nation is now on the de-cline. They reside in the n. parts of Georgia,and the s. parts of the state of Tennessee ; havingthe Apalachian or Cherokee mountains on the e.which separate them from North and South Caro-lina, and Tennessee river on the n. and w. and theCreek Indians on the s. The present line betweenthem and the state of Tennessee is not yet settled.A line of experiment was drawn, in 1792, fromClinch river across Holston to Chilhove mountain ;but the Cherokee commissioners not appearing, itis called a line of experiment. The complexion ofthe Cherokees is brighter than that of the neigh-bouring Indians. They are robust and well made,and taller than many of their neighbours ; beinggenerally six feet high, a few are more, and someless. Their women are tall, slender, and delicate.The talents and morals of the Cherokees are heldin great esteem. They were formerly a powerfulnation ; but by continual wars, in which it has beentheir destiny lo be engaged with the n. In-dian tribes, and with the whites, they are now re-duced to about 1500 warriors ; and they are be-coming weak and pusillanimous. Some writersestimate their numbers at 2500 warriors. Theyhave 43 towns now inhabited.)
Cherokee, a settlement of Indians of this na-tion, in the same country as that in which the Eng-lish had a fort and establishment, at the source ofthe river Caillon ; which spot is at present aban-doned.
CHERREPE, a port of the coast of Peru, and ofthe S. sea, in the province and corregimienlo ofSaña, is open, unprotected, and shallow ; andconsequently frequented only by vessels driven toit through stress, and for the sake of convenience.It is in lat. 7° 70' s.
(CHERRY Valley, a post-town in Otsegocounty, New York, at the head of the creek of thesame name, about 12 miles >/. e. of Coopersfown,and 18 s. of Canajohary, 61 w. of Albany,and 336 from Philadelphia. It contains about 30houses, and a Presbyterian church. There is anacademy here, which contained, in 1796, 50 or 60scholars. It is a spacious buildit)g, 60 feet by 40.The township is very large, and lies along the e.side of Otsego lake, and its outlet to Adiqnatangiecreek. By the state census of 1796, it appearsthat 629 of its inhabitants are electors. This set-tlement sutlered severely from the Indians in thelate war.)
(CHESAPEAK is one of the largest and safestbays in the United States. Its entrance is nearlye. n. e. and s. s. between cape Charles, lat. 37°13' and cape Henry, lat. 37°, in Virginia, 12 mileswide, and it extends 70 miles to the ??. dividingVirginia and Maryland. It is from 7 to IS milesbroad, and generally as much as 9 fathoms deep ;affording many commodious harbours, and a saleand easy navigation. It has many fertile islands,and these are generally along the c. side of the bay,except a few solitary ones near the xo. shore. Anumber of navigable rivers and other streamsempty into if, the chief of which are Susque-hannab, Fatapsco, Patuxent, Pofowmack, Rap-pahannock, and A^ork, which are all large and na-vigable. Chesapeak bay'- afibrds many excellentfisheries of herring and shad. There are also ex-cellent crabs and oysters. It is the resort ofswans, but is more particularly remarkable for aspecies of wild duck, called camashac/c, whoseflesh is entirely free from any fishy taste, and isadmired by epicures for its richness and delicacy.In a coinnierciul point of view, this bay is of im--
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fast for a long time together : they consequentlycat frequently ; the common food on these occa-sions being cJmcolatc, and which is even handedto them whilst at church. This irreverence thebishop very properly proclaimed against ; but itis said that this execution of his duty cost him noless than his life. It is 100 leagues distant fromGuatemala. Lat. 17'^ 4'. Long. 93° 53'.
CHIAPA, another city in the same province,which, to distinguish it from the former, is calledCliiapa de los Indios; these (the Indians) being,for the most part, its inhabitants ; is the largestsettlement in the whole province, and is situate ina valley close upon the river Tabasco, being 12leagues distant from the former city. It has va-rious churches, abounds in wealth, and is the placewherein the Indian families first settled. Theyenjoy many privileges and exemptions, owing tothe zeal of the bishop, J^rtr/y Bartolorae de las Ca-sas, their procurator at court. The river aboundsgreatly in fine fish ; and is full of barks, withwhich the}" occasionally represent sea-fights. Inthe city also there are commonly balls, plays, con-certs, bull-fights, and spectacles of horsemanship ;since the inhabitants are much given to diversions,and in these grudge no expence.
Bishops of Chiapa.
1. Don Fray Juan de Arteaga y Avendano, na-tive of Estepa in Andalucia ; elected in 1541 : hedied in the same year in Mexico, before he arrivedat his church.
2. Don Fray Bartolome de las Casas, a manrenowned lor his zeal in favour of the Indians ; hewas born at Seville, where he studied, and passedover to the island of St. Domingo, where he saidthe first mass ever celebrated in that part of theworld. He returned to Spain, in 1515, to declaimagainst the tyrannies which were practised againstthe Indians. He went back the following year tojNueva Espana, where he took the habit of a monkof St. Dominic ; and returning a second time toSpain, he was presented by the Emperor to thebishopric of Chiapa, which office he did not ac-cept ; blit was afterwards prevailed upon to do soby the united entreaties of the whole of his order ;he therefore entered upon it in 1544. He then leftthe bishopric, and returned, for the third time, toSpain ; and having retired to his convent of Val-ladolid, died in 1550.
3. Don Fray Tomas Casillas, also of the orderof St. Dominic ; he was sub-prior of the conventof Salamanca, and passed over to America withFray Bartolome de las Casas. Being renownedfor the great zeal which he manifested in tlie con-version of the infidel Indians, he was nominated
to be bishop in 1560 ; which office he accepted atthe express command of its general. He made thevisitation of all his bishopric, and died full of vir-tues, in 1567.
4. Don Fray Domingo de Lara, of the order ofSt. Domingo ; he made so strong a refusal of hiselection, his renunciation of the office not havingbeen admitted, that he prayed to God that hemight die before that the bulls should arrive fromRome; and this was actually the case, since hedeparted this life in 1572, before he was conse-crated.
5. Don Fray Alonzo de Noroila, who governedthe church here seven years, and had for suc-cessor,
6. Don Fray Pedro de Feria, native of the townof this name in Estreraadura, a monk of the orderof St. Dominic; he passed over to America, wasprior of the convent of Mexico, and provincial ofthat province ; he returned to Spain, refused thegeneral visitation to which he was appointed, andretiree! to his convent of Salamanca ; was presentedwith the bishopric of Chiapa, which he also re-fused ; but being commanded by his superiors, heafterwards accepted it, and governed 14 years,until 1588, when he died.
7. Don Fray Andres de Ubilla, of the order of St.Dominic, and native of the province of Guipuzcoa ;he took the habit in Mexico, where he studied andread the arls, and was twice prior and provincialof the province ; he came to Spain on affairstouching his religion, and returning to Mexico,found himself presented to this bishopric in 1592,where he governed until 1601, when he died, hav-ing been first promoted to the archbishopric ofMechoacan.
8. Don Lucas Duran, a friar of the order ofSantiago, chaplain of honour to his Majesty ; whoimmediately tiiat he was consecrated bishop ofChiapa, renounced his power, and the see was thenvacant nine years.
9. Don Fray Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza, na-tive of Toledo, a monk of the order of St. Augus-tin ; he passed over to America, was made bishopof Lipari, and titular in the archbishopric ofToledo ; and lastly of Chiapa, in 1607 ; fromwhence he was promoted in the following year toPopayan.
10. Don Tomas Blanes, native of Valen-cia, of the order of St. Dominic ; he passed overto Peru, where he resided many years, studyingarts and theology ; he assisted in the visitation ofthe province of St. Domingo, and having come toSpain, he was presented to the bishopric in 1609,holding the government until 1612, when he died.
tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues tothe w. n. w. of Mexico.
Chilchota, another settlement of the headsettlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui-catlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountainwhich is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading incochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.It is eight leagues from its head settlement.
Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory titleof San Pedro. It is of the head settlement ofQuimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de losLlanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami-lies of Indians.
CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlementand real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix-miquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215families of Indians, and in the real are 27 ofSpaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. Itis of an extremely cold and moist temperature,and its commerce depends upon the working ofthe lead mines. Some silver mines were formerlyworked here, but these yielded so base a metal,and in such small quantities, that they were en-tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yieldedby far the greatest emolument. Five leagues tothe e. of its capital.
CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame-rica, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by thestraits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on thee. by the provinces of Tucuman and BuenosAyres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, andon the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal-lanicas from the straits and the plains or desertsof Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. TheInca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carriedhis conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, inlat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the firstSpaniard who discovered this country, in the year1335, and began its conquest, which was after-wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe-dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, andafterwards met with a disgraceful death at thehands of the Indians, having been made prisonerby them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are themost valorous and warlike of all in America ) theyhave maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde-pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they areseparated by the river Biobio. This is the limitof the country possessed by them ; and thoughthe Spaniards have penetrated through differententrances into their territories, and there built va-rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these beenpulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-
fenders of their liberty and their country. Theyare most dexterous in the management of the lance,sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macanawood ; and although they are equally so in thepractice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” Theyare very agile and dexterous horsemen, and theirhorses are excellent, since those which run wild,and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have notdegenerated, or become at all inferior to the bestwhich that country produces. The part whichthe Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends itswhole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapoto the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond theisle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, asit were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera ofthe Andes ; from these descend infinite streams andrivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,and forming a country altogether charming andluxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for theconvenience and enjoyment of life, producing, inregular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame-rica and Europe. The summer here begins inSeptember, the estio (or hot summer) in December,the autumn in March, and the winter in June.The climate is similar to that of Spain, and thetemperature varies according to the elevation ofthe land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,and which are very low, are of a warm tempera-ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture thanwhat they derive from some small rivers descend-ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the spaceof 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the otherprovinces it rains more frequently, in proportionas they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,from April to September ; for which reason theyare more fertile. These provinces are watered bymore than 40 rivers, which also descend from thecordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snowmelted in the summer, swelling them to a greatheight. They generally abound in fish of themost delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and manyothers. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main-taining a vast population by the shell-fish foundupon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the mostdelicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasya species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,and tunnies, which come at their seasons onthe coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra-bas of Andaluda. For some years past they saltdown cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a
of declaring war is by sending from town to townan arrow clenched in a dead man’s hand,which they call comocatoria; and this they didin the year 1723, making terrible havoc andslaughter. This kingdom is evidently, fromwhat has been asserted, the most fertile, abun-dant, rich, and delightful region of all America ;to which Nature has granted, in profusion, allthat she has given to others, either with a sparinghand, or at too high a price. The people areliealthy and robust. The wind which generallyprevails is thes. w. and the Puelche, which comesfrom the cordillera, is somewhat troublesome. [ThePuelche wind takes its name from some Indians socalled, and from whose country it blows.] Chileis divided into two bishoprics, suffragan to thearchbishopric of Lima ; and these are of Santiagoand La Concepcion. It is governed by a president,governor, and captain-general, which title wasfirst possessed by Doii Melchor Bravo de Saravia,and its government is divided into 18 provincesor districts, which are,
l-a Serena or CoquimbiQuillota,
And the islands of Juatal is Santiago.
Catalogue of the barbarous Nations and principalPlaces in the kingdom of Chile.
Coquimbo or La Se-
San Juan de la Fron-tera,
San Luis de Loyola,Valdivia,
Nubbe or Nuble,Pereroa,
Estancia del Rey or
Fernandez. The capi-
Estancia de Rey, gold,Larapangui, silver,Ligua, vole.
Llaon, gold,Llupangui, gold,Notuco, vole.
Petorca, gold,Quillacoya, gold,Sinn, vole.
De la Sal,
Catalogue of the Presidents, Governors, and Cap-tains-general of the Kingdom of Chile.
1. The Adelantado Pedro de Valdivia, conquer-or of the kingdom; he served much, and withgreat valour, in the conquest of Peru, was a colo-nel of foot under Francis Pizarro, entered in theyear 1537, founded the first towns, and governeduntil the year 1551 ; he was made prisoner, fight-
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[tlieir country was peopled from the w. Howeverdiis may be, that it was originally peopled by onenation appears possible, as all the Aborigines in-habiting it, however independent of each other,speak the same language, and have a similar ap-pearance.
1. Language. — Their language is copious, fullof harmony and richness. Each verb, either de-rivatively or conjunctively, becomes the root ofnumerous other verbs and nouns, as well adjectivesas substantives, which in their turn reproduceothers, which are secondary, modifying themselvesin an hundred different ways. There is no part ofspeech from which an appropriate verb cannot beformed by the addition of a final en. Even fromthe most simple particles vmrious verbs are derived,that giv'e great precision and strength to conversa-tion : but what is truly surprising in this languageis, that it contains no irregular verb or noun.Every thing in it may be said to be regulated witha geometrical precision, and displays much artwith great simplicity : it contains words, appa-rently of Greek and Latin derivation, and of asimilar signification in both languages. But whatis most remarkable, it differs from every other Ame-rican language, not less in its w'ords than in itsconstruction ; and with all its richness and har-mony, its theory is so easy that it may be readilylearned in a few days. Several grammars of thislanguage are to be met with, but that of Febres,printed at Lima in 1765, is particularly to be re-commended for its method and clearness. One ar-gument further in favour of the simplicity of thistongue, is the circumstance of its having main-tained itself in its pure state, and of its not liavingsunk into an unintelligible unconnected jargon,■when it is considered that the Chilians, to the afore-mentioned period, had no ideas of writing, and thattheir traditionary accounts were so crude and im-perfect, as to afford not the least degree of informa-tion to the inquisitive mind. Hence it follows thatthe first accounts of them are contained in the Peru-vian annals ; that nation, as it was more civilized,being more careful to preserve the memory of re-markable events.
2. Original state . — When the Inca Yupanquibegan to attempt the conquest of Chile, its inhabi-tants were supposed to be numerous. They weredivided into 15 tribes or communities, independentof each other, but subject to certain chiets calledulmenes. These tribes, beginning at the n. andproceeding to the s. were called Copiapins, Co-quimbanes, Quillotanes, Mapochiniaus, Promau-cians. Cures, Cauques, Penconcs, Aruucanians,Clinches, Chilotes, Chiquilanians, Pehuenches, Pu-
elches, and Huilliches. Of these were subjugatedto the Peruvian government, more by persuasionthan force, the Copiapins, Coquimbanes, Quillo-tanes, and Mapochinians ; but the valour of thePromaucians put a stop to the success of the armsof the Inca, or rather to Sinchiruca, (a prince ofthe blood royal), to whom was entrusted the com-mand of the expedition : for these brave people,naturally addicted to pleasures and diversions, andAvhose very name signifies the free dancers.^ op-posed the Peruvian army with the most heroicvalour, and entirely defeated it in a battle which,according to Garcilasso the historian, was conti-nued for three days in succession.
S. Divided into free and subjugated. — ThusChile became divided into two parts, the one free,and the other subject to foreign domination. Thetribes who had so readily submitted to the Peru-vians Avere subjected to an annual tribute in gold,an imposition which they had never before expe-rienced ; but the conquerors, Avhether they darednot hazard the attempt, or were not able to effectit, never introduced their form of government intothese provinces. Of course, the subjected Chilians,as well as the free, preserved until the arrival ofthe Spaniards their original manners, which wereby no means so rude as many are led to imagine.
4. Agriculture . — Agriculture was already knoAvn
to them ; but being in Avant of animals to till theground, they were accustomed to turn it up witha spade made of hard wood. Tiie plants whicheither necessity or accident made known to them,Avere the maize, the the guegen, the tweer,
the quinoa, pulse of various kinds, the potato, theoxalis tuberosa, the common and the yellow pump-kin or gourd, the Guinea pepper, the madi, andthe great straAvberry. To these provisions of thevegetable kind, may be added the following of theanimal, the little rabbit, and the Chiliheuque orAraucaniau camel, Avhose flesh furnished excellentfood, and Avhose avooI, clothing for these people.If tradition may be credited, they had also the hogand the domestic fowl. With these productions,Avhich required a very moderate degree of indus-try, they subsisted comfortably, and even Avith adegree of abundance, considering the few thingsAvhich their situation rendered necessary. Subsist-ence, the source of population, being thus secured,the country became rapidly peopled under the in-fluence of so mild a climate ; Avhence it appears,that the first Avriters Avho treated of Chile, cannotliave greatly exaggerated in saying, that the Spa-niards found it filled Avith inhabitants.
5. Civilized state. — It is a fact that there was butone language spoken throughout the country ; a]
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[tors of the battle, saw themselves compelled to sus-tain the vigorous attack of tlie enemy, aud advanc-ing with their horse, began a furious battle, Avhichcontinued with great loss upon either side till nightseparated the combatants- Although the Promau-cians had been very roughly handled, they lost notcourage, but encamped in the sight of their enemy,determined to renew the attack the next morning.The Spaniards, however, though by the custom ofEurope the_y considered themselves as victors,having kept possession of the field, were very dif-ferently inclined. Having been accustomed tosubdue immense provinces with little or no resist-ance, they became disgusted willi an enterprisewhich could not be effected without great fatigue,and the loss of much blood, since in its prosecutionthey must contend with a bold and independent na-tion, by whom they were not believed to be im-mortal.
6. Expedition abandoned, and whp. — Thus all,by common consent, resolved to abandon this ex-pedition ; but they Avere of various opinions re-specting their retreat, some being desirous of re-turning to Peru, while others wished to form a set-tlement in the n. provinces, where they had beenreceived Avith such hospitality. The first opinionwas supported by Almagro, Avhose mind began tobe impressed by the suggestions contained in theletters of his friends. Accordingly Ave find him re-turning Avith his army to Peru in 1538: he tookpossession of the ancient capital of that empire ;and after several ineffectual jiegociations, fought abattle with the brother of Pizarro, by Avhom he Avastaken, tried, and beheaded as a disturber of thepublic peace. His army having dispersed attheir defeat, afterAvards reassembled under the titleofthe soldiers of Chile, and e.xecuted ncAv disturb-ances in Peru, already sufficiently agitated. Suchwas the fate of the first expedition against Chile,undertaken by the best body of European troopsthat had as yet been collected in those parts. Thethirst of riches Avas the moving spring ofthe ex-pedition, and the disappointment of their hopes ofobtaining them, the cause of its failure. FrancisPizarro, having by the deatli of his rival obtainedthe absolute command ofthe Spanish possessions inS. America, lost not sight of the conquest of Chile,which he conceived might, in any event, prove animportant acquisition to him. Among the adv’en-turers avIio hatl come to Peru, were two officerscommissioned by the court of Spain, under thetitles of Governors, to attempt this expedition. Tothe first, called Pedro Sanchez de FIoz, Avas com-mitted the conquest of the country as far as tlic riverMaule ; and to the other, Carmargo, the remainder
to the Archipelago of Chiloe. Pizarro, jealous ofthese men, under frivolous pretexts, refused to con-firm the royal nomination, and appointed to thisexpeditioi! his quarter-master, Pedro de Valdivia,a prudent and active officer, who Inid gaiticd ex-perience in the Italian Avar, and wiiat was still agreater recommendation, Avas attached to his party ;directing him to take De Hoz with him, Avho Avasprobably more (o be feared than his colleague, andto ailoAv him every advantage in the partidon ofthe lands.
7. Valdivia marches against Chile. — This officerhaving determined to cstabiisli a pennanent settle-ment in the country, set out on his march in theyear 1540, Avith 200 Spaniards, and a numerousbody of Peruvian auxiliaries, accompanied bysome monks, several Avomen, and a great numberof European quadrupeds, Avith CAmry tiling requisitefor a new colony. He pursued the same route asAlmagro ; but, instructed by the misfortunes of hispredecessor, he did not attempt to pass the Andesuntil midsummer. He entered Chile Avithout in-curring any loss, but very difi’erent Avas the recep-tion lie experienced from the inhabitants of the n.provinces from that Avhich Almago had met Avith.Those people, informed of the fate of Peru, amifreed from the submission they professed to owe theInca, did not consider themselves obliged to respecttheir invaders. They of course began to attackthem upon all sides, Avith more valour than con-duct. liike barbarians in general, incapable ofmaking a common cause Avihli each other, and fora long time accustomed to the j'oke of servitude,they attacked them by hordes or tribes, as theyadvanced, without that steady firmness Avhich cha-racterises the valour of a civilized people. TheSpaniards, hoAvever, notwithstanding the ill-com-bined opposition of the natives, traversed the pro-vinces ofCopiapo, Coquimbo, Quillota, and Meli-pilla, and arrived, much harrassed, but Avith littleloss, at that of Mapocho, now called St. Jago.
8. Province, of St. Jago described. — This pro-vince, Avhich is more than 600 miles distance fromthe confines of Peru, is one of the most fertile andpleasant in the kingdom. Its name signifies theland of many people;” and from the accounts ofthe first Avriters upon Chile, its population corres-ponded thercAvith, being extrcnsciy numerous. Jtlies upon the confines of the principal mountainof the Andes, and is 140 miles in circiimfereiicc.It is watered by the rivers Maypo, Colina, Lampa,and Mapocho, Avhich last divides it into two nearlyequal parts; and after pursuing a subterraneouscourse for the space of five miles, again shows it-self Avith increased copiousness, and disdiarges itsl
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[of a people, wlio, to preserve their intlepeudencc,have shed such torrents of Spanish biood.
2. Character. — The Araucanians, aithoiighlhejdo not exceed the ordinary height of the humanspecies, are in general muscular, robust, wellproportioned, and of a martial appearance. It isvery unusual to find among them any person w'hois crooked or deformed, not from their pursuing,as some have supposed, the cruel custom of theancient Spartans, of sufibcating such unfortunatechildren, but because they leave to nature the careof forming them, Avithout obstructing her opera-tions by the improper application of bandages andstays. Their complexion, Avith the exception ofthe Boroancs, who are fair and ruddy, is of areddish broAvn, but yet clearer than that of theother Americans ; they have round faces, smallanimated eyes full of expression, a nose rather flat,a handsome mouth, even and white teeth, muscu-lar and well shaped legs, and small flat feet ; likethe Tartars, they have scarce any beard, and thesmallest hair is never to be discerned on their faces,from the care they take to pluck out the little thatappears ; they esteem it very impolite to have abeard, calling the Europeans, by Avay of reproach,the long beards. The same attention is paid toremoving the hair from their bodies, Avhere itsgrowth is more abundant ; that of their heads isthick and black, but rather coarse ; they permit itto groAv to a great length, and Avind it in tressesaround their heads ; of this they are as proud andcareful as they are averse to beards, nor could agreater affront be offered them than to cut it off.Their Avomen are delicately formed, and many ofthem, especially among the Boroanes, are veryhandsome. Possessed of great strength of consti-tution, and unencumbered with the cares thatdisturb civilized society, they are not subject, ex-cept at a very advanced period of life, to the in-firmities attendant upon old age ; they rarely be-gin to be grey before they are 60 or 70, and arcnot bald or Avrinkled until 80 ; they are generallylonger lived than the Spaniards, and many are tobe met Avitli Avhose age exceeds 100 ; and to thelatest period of their lives, they retain their sight,teeth, and memory unimpaired. Their moralqualities are proportionate to their personal en-dowments ; tiiey are intrepid, animated, ardent,patient in enduring fatigue, ever ready to sacri-fice their lives in the service of their country, en-thusiastic lovers of liberty, which they consideras an essential constituent of their existence, jea-lous of their honour, courteous, hospitable, faith-ful to their engagements, grateful for services ren-dered them, and generous and humane towards
the vanquished. But these noble qualities arcobscured by the vices inseparable from the halfsavage state of life Avhich they lead, unrefined byliterature or cultivation; these are drunkenness,debauchery, presumption, and a hauglity con-tempt for all other nations. Were the civil man-ners and innocent improvements of Europe intro-duced among them, they Avould soon become apeople deserving of universal esteem ; but underthe present system, this happy change appearsimpossible to be effected.
3. Dress. — All those nations, Avhom either thenature of the climate or a sense of decency hasinduced to clothe themselves, have made use atfirst of loose garments, as being the most easilymade. But the Araucanians, from their greatattachment to war, Avhich they consider as theonly true source of glory, haAm adopted the shortgarment, as best suited to martial conflicts ; thisdress is made of wool, as Avas that of the Greeksand Romans, and consists of a shirt, a vest, a pairof short close breeches, and a cloak in form of ascapulary, Avith an opening in the middle for thehead, made full and long so as to cover the handsand descend to the knees ; this cloak is calledponcho, and is much more commodious than ourmantles, as it leaves the arms at liberty, and maybe throAvn over the shoulder at pleasure ; it is alsoa better protection from the wind and the rain, andmore convenient for riding on horseback, forAvhich reason it is commonly Avorn, not only by theSpaniards in Chile, but by those of Peru and Pa-raguay. The shirt, vest, and breeches are abvaysof a greenish blue, or turquois, which is the fa-vourite colour of the nation, as red is that of theTartars. The poficho is also, among persons ofinferior condition, of a greenish blue; but thoseof tlie higlier classes Avear it of different colours,either Avhite, red, or blue, Avith stripes a span broad,on Avhich are Avrought, Avith much skill, figures offloAvers and animals in various colours, and the bor-der is ornamented with a handsome^ fringe : someof these po«c/ms are of so fine and elegant a tex-ture as to be sold for 150 dollars. The Arauca-nians make use of neither turbans nor hats, butAvear upon their heads a bandage of embroideredAvool, in the form of the ancient diadem ; this,whenever they salute, tiioy raise a little as a markof courtesy, and on going to Avar ornament it witha number of beautiful plumes ; they also weararound the body a long Avoollen girdle or sashhandsomely Avrought. Persons of rank wear avooI-len boots of various colours, and leather sandals,called chelle, but the common people ahvays gobarefooted. The women arc clad with innch ,3 r 2
[of porphyry or marble. The apo-ulmcnes andthe ulmenes carry staves with silver heads, but thefirst, by Avay of distinction, have a ring of thesame metal around the middle of their staves. AHthese dignities are hereditary in the male line, andproceed in the order of primogeniture. Thus havethe dukes, the counts, and marquises of the mili-tary aristocracy of the north been established,from time immemorial, under different names, in acorner of South America. With its rescinblance tothe feudal system, this government contains alsoalmost all its defects. The toqui possesses but theshadow of sovereign authority. The triple powerthat constitutes it is vested in the great body of thenobility, who decide every important question, inthe manner of the ancient Germans or modernPoles, in a general diet, which is called bidacoi/o^or aucacoijog^ the great council, or council of theAraucanians. This assembly is usually held insome large plain, wlierethey combine the pleasuresof the table with their public deliberations. Theircode of laws, which is traditionary, is denominatedadmapu^ that is to say, the customs of the country.In reality, these laws are nothing more than pri-mordial usages or tacit conventions, that have beenestablished among them, as was originally the casewith almost all the laws of other nations; theyhave consequently all the defects peculiar to suchsystems.
6. Its political form , — The clearest and mostexplicit of their political and fundamental lawsare those that regulate the limits of each authority,the order of succession in toquiates and in theulmenates, the confederation of the four tetrar-chates, the choice of the power of the comman-ders in chief in time of war, and the right of con-voking the general diets, which is the privilegeof the toquis ; all these laws have for their objectthe preservation of liberty, and the establishedform of government. According to them, two ormore states cannot be held under the rule of ttiesame chief. Whenever the male branch of thereigning family becomes extinct, the vassals re-cover iheir natural right of electing their ownchief from that family which is most pleasing tothem. But before he is installed, he must be pre-sented to the toqui of their uthal-mapu, whogives notice of his election, in order that the newchief may be acknowledged and respected by allin that quality. The subjects are not, as underthe feudal government, liable to a levT/, or to anykind of personal service, except in time of war.Neither are they obliged to pay any contributionsto their chiefs, who must subsist themselves bymeans of their own property. They respect them.
however, as their superiors, or rather as the firstamong their equals ; they also attend to their deci-sions, and escort them whenever they go out ofthe state. These chiefs, elated with their authority,would gladly extend its limits, and govern as ab-solute masters; but the people, who cannot enduredespotism, oppose their pretensions, and compelthem to keep within the bounds prescribed by theircustoms.
7. Civil institutions . — The civil laws of a so-ciety whose manners are simple, and interests butlittle complicated, cannot be very numerous. TheAraucanians have but a few; these, however,would be sufficient for their state of life, if thevwere more respected and less arbitrary. Theirsystem of criminal jurisprudence, in a particularmanner, is very imperfect. The offences that aredeemed deserving of capital punishment are treach-ery, intentional homicide, adultery, the robberyof any valuable article, and witchcraft. Never-theless, those found guilty of homicide can screenthemselves from punishment by a composition withthe relations of file murdered. Husbands and fa-thers are not subject to any punishment for killingtheir wives or children, as they are declared bytheir laws to be the natural masters of their lives.Those accused of sorcery, a crime chiefly knownin countries involved in ignorance, are first tor-tured by fire, in order to make them discover theiraccomplices, and then stabbed with daggers.Other crimes, of less importance, are punished byretaliation, which is much in use among them, un-der the name of thaulonco. Justice is administeredin a tumultuous and irregular manner, and with-out any of those preliminary formalities that areobserved among civilized nations. The criminalwho is convicted of a caj>ital offence is imme-tliately put to death, accorditig to the militarycustom, witliout being suffered to rot in prison; amode of conffnement unknown to the Araucanians.it has, however, lately been introduced into Tu-capel, the seat of the government of Lauquen-inapu, by Cathicura, the then toqui of that dis-trict ; but the success of this experiment, whichwas at first very ill received by his subjects, is sup-posed generally to liave failed. The ulmenes arcthe lawful judges of their vassals, and for this rea-son their authority is less precarious. The un-conquerable pride of this people prevents themfrom adopting the wise measures of public justice jthey merely possess some general and vague ideasupon the principles of political union, whencethe executive pow'er being without force, distribu-tive justice is ill administered, or entirely aban-doned to the caprice of individuals. The injurcdl
[an earthquake happens, the Guecubu has given ita shock : nor does any one die that is not suffo-cated by the Guccubu. The ulrnenes of theircelestial hierarchy are the genii, who have thecharge of all created things, and who, in concertwith the benevolent Meulen, form a counterpoiseto the enormous power of Guecubu. They are ofboth sexes, male and female, who always continuepure and chaste, propagation being unknown totheir system of the spiritual world. The males arecalled gen^ that is, lords, unless this word shouldbe the same as the ginn of the Arabians. The fe-males are called amei-malghen, which signifiesspiritual nymphs or fairies, and perform for men theoffices of lares, or familiar spirits. There is notan Araucanian but imagines he has one of these inhis service. Nien cai gni amchimalghen, “ 1 keepmy nymph still,” is a common expression whenthey succeed in an undertaking. The Arauca-nians carry still farther their ideas of the analogybetween the celestial government and their own ;for as their ulrnenes have not the right of imposingany species of service or contributions upon theirsubjects, still less, in their opinion, should those ofcelestial race require it of man, since they have nooccasion for it. Governed by these singular opi-nions, they pay to them no exterior worship. Theyhave neither temples nor idols, nor are they accus-tomed to offer any sacrifices, except in cases ofSome severe calamity, or on concluding a peace ;at such times they sacrifice animats, and burn to-bacco, which they think is the incense the mostagreeable to their deities. Nevertheless they in-voke them and implore their aid upon urgent oc-casions, addressing themselves principally to Pillanand to Meulen. To this little regard for religion,is oAving the indifference which they have mani-fested at the introduction of Christianity amongthem, which is tolerated in all the provinces oftheir dominion. The missionaries are there muchrespected, well treated, and have full liberty ofpublicly preaching their tenets, but notwithstand-ing there are but few of the natives who are con-verted. If the Araucanians discover little regardfor their deities, they are, however, very supersti-tious in many points of less importance. Theyfirmly believe in divination, and pay the greatestattention to such favourable or unfirvourable omensas the capriciousness of their imagination may sug-gest. Those idle observations are particularly di-rected to dreams, to the singing and flight of birds,which are esteemed by the whole of them the truestinterpreters of the will of the gods. The fearlessAraucanian, who with incredible valour confrontsdeath in battle, trembles at the sight of an owl.
Their puerile weakness in this respect would ap-pear incompatible with the strength of their intel-lect, if the history of the human mind did not fur-nish us with continual examples of similar contra-dictions. They consult upon all occasions theirdiviners, or pretenders to a knowledge of futu-rity, who are sometimes called gligim or gugol,among whom are some Avho pass for genpugnuygenpiru, &c. which signifies masters of the hea-vens, of epidemic diseases, and of worms or in-sects ; and, like the llamas of Tibet, boast of beingable to produce rain, of having the power to cureall disorders, and to prevent the ravages of theworms which destroy the corn. They are in greatdread of the calcus, or pretended sorcerers, who,they imagine, keep concealed by day in cavernswith their disciples, called ivitnches, man-animals,and who at night transform themselves into noc-turnal birds, make incursions in the air, and shootinvisible arrows at their enemies. Their super-stitious credulity is particularly obvious in the se-rious stories which they relate of apparitions, phan-toms, and hobgoblins; respecting which they haveinnumerable tales. But, in truth, is there a nationon earth so far removed from credulity in that par-ticular, as to claim a right of laughing at the Arau-canians ? They have, nevertheless, some amongthem who are philosophers enough to despise suchcredulity as an absurdity, and to laugh at the follyof their countrymen. They are all, however,agreed in the belief of the immortality of the soul.This consolatory truth is deeply rooted, and in amanner innate with them. They hold that man iscomposed of two substances essentially different :the corruptible body, which they call anca, andthe soul, am or pulli, which they say is ancanoluyincorporeal, and mugealu, eternal, or existing forever. This distinction is so fully establishedamong them, that they frequently make use of theword anca metaphorically, to denote a part, thehalf, or the subject of any thing. As respects thestate of the soul after its separation from the body,they are not however agreed. All concur in say-ing, with the other American tribes, that afterdeath they go towards the w. beyond (he sea,to a certain place called Gulcheman ; that is, thedwelling of the men beyond the mountains. Butsome believe that this country is divided into twoparts, one pleasant, and filled with every thing de-lightful, the abode of the good ; and the other de-solate, and in want of every thing, the habitationof the Avicked. Others are of opinion that all in-discriminately enjoy there eternal pleasures, pre-tending that the deeds of this life have no influenceupon a future state.]