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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
of declaring war is by sending from town to townan arrow clenched in a dead man’s hand,which they call comocatoria; and this they didin the year 1723, making terrible havoc andslaughter. This kingdom is evidently, fromwhat has been asserted, the most fertile, abun-dant, rich, and delightful region of all America ;to which Nature has granted, in profusion, allthat she has given to others, either with a sparinghand, or at too high a price. The people areliealthy and robust. The wind which generallyprevails is thes. w. and the Puelche, which comesfrom the cordillera, is somewhat troublesome. [ThePuelche wind takes its name from some Indians socalled, and from whose country it blows.] Chileis divided into two bishoprics, suffragan to thearchbishopric of Lima ; and these are of Santiagoand La Concepcion. It is governed by a president,governor, and captain-general, which title wasfirst possessed by Doii Melchor Bravo de Saravia,and its government is divided into 18 provincesor districts, which are,
l-a Serena or CoquimbiQuillota,
And the islands of Juatal is Santiago.
Catalogue of the barbarous Nations and principalPlaces in the kingdom of Chile.
Coquimbo or La Se-
San Juan de la Fron-tera,
San Luis de Loyola,Valdivia,
Nubbe or Nuble,Pereroa,
Estancia del Rey or
Fernandez. The capi-
Estancia de Rey, gold,Larapangui, silver,Ligua, vole.
Llaon, gold,Llupangui, gold,Notuco, vole.
Petorca, gold,Quillacoya, gold,Sinn, vole.
De la Sal,
Catalogue of the Presidents, Governors, and Cap-tains-general of the Kingdom of Chile.
1. The Adelantado Pedro de Valdivia, conquer-or of the kingdom; he served much, and withgreat valour, in the conquest of Peru, was a colo-nel of foot under Francis Pizarro, entered in theyear 1537, founded the first towns, and governeduntil the year 1551 ; he was made prisoner, fight-
C H I L E.
[tlieir country was peopled from the w. Howeverdiis may be, that it was originally peopled by onenation appears possible, as all the Aborigines in-habiting it, however independent of each other,speak the same language, and have a similar ap-pearance.
1. Language. — Their language is copious, fullof harmony and richness. Each verb, either de-rivatively or conjunctively, becomes the root ofnumerous other verbs and nouns, as well adjectivesas substantives, which in their turn reproduceothers, which are secondary, modifying themselvesin an hundred different ways. There is no part ofspeech from which an appropriate verb cannot beformed by the addition of a final en. Even fromthe most simple particles vmrious verbs are derived,that giv'e great precision and strength to conversa-tion : but what is truly surprising in this languageis, that it contains no irregular verb or noun.Every thing in it may be said to be regulated witha geometrical precision, and displays much artwith great simplicity : it contains words, appa-rently of Greek and Latin derivation, and of asimilar signification in both languages. But whatis most remarkable, it differs from every other Ame-rican language, not less in its w'ords than in itsconstruction ; and with all its richness and har-mony, its theory is so easy that it may be readilylearned in a few days. Several grammars of thislanguage are to be met with, but that of Febres,printed at Lima in 1765, is particularly to be re-commended for its method and clearness. One ar-gument further in favour of the simplicity of thistongue, is the circumstance of its having main-tained itself in its pure state, and of its not liavingsunk into an unintelligible unconnected jargon,■when it is considered that the Chilians, to the afore-mentioned period, had no ideas of writing, and thattheir traditionary accounts were so crude and im-perfect, as to afford not the least degree of informa-tion to the inquisitive mind. Hence it follows thatthe first accounts of them are contained in the Peru-vian annals ; that nation, as it was more civilized,being more careful to preserve the memory of re-markable events.
2. Original state . — When the Inca Yupanquibegan to attempt the conquest of Chile, its inhabi-tants were supposed to be numerous. They weredivided into 15 tribes or communities, independentof each other, but subject to certain chiets calledulmenes. These tribes, beginning at the n. andproceeding to the s. were called Copiapins, Co-quimbanes, Quillotanes, Mapochiniaus, Promau-cians. Cures, Cauques, Penconcs, Aruucanians,Clinches, Chilotes, Chiquilanians, Pehuenches, Pu-
elches, and Huilliches. Of these were subjugatedto the Peruvian government, more by persuasionthan force, the Copiapins, Coquimbanes, Quillo-tanes, and Mapochinians ; but the valour of thePromaucians put a stop to the success of the armsof the Inca, or rather to Sinchiruca, (a prince ofthe blood royal), to whom was entrusted the com-mand of the expedition : for these brave people,naturally addicted to pleasures and diversions, andAvhose very name signifies the free dancers.^ op-posed the Peruvian army with the most heroicvalour, and entirely defeated it in a battle which,according to Garcilasso the historian, was conti-nued for three days in succession.
S. Divided into free and subjugated. — ThusChile became divided into two parts, the one free,and the other subject to foreign domination. Thetribes who had so readily submitted to the Peru-vians Avere subjected to an annual tribute in gold,an imposition which they had never before expe-rienced ; but the conquerors, Avhether they darednot hazard the attempt, or were not able to effectit, never introduced their form of government intothese provinces. Of course, the subjected Chilians,as well as the free, preserved until the arrival ofthe Spaniards their original manners, which wereby no means so rude as many are led to imagine.
4. Agriculture . — Agriculture was already knoAvn
to them ; but being in Avant of animals to till theground, they were accustomed to turn it up witha spade made of hard wood. Tiie plants whicheither necessity or accident made known to them,Avere the maize, the the guegen, the tweer,
the quinoa, pulse of various kinds, the potato, theoxalis tuberosa, the common and the yellow pump-kin or gourd, the Guinea pepper, the madi, andthe great straAvberry. To these provisions of thevegetable kind, may be added the following of theanimal, the little rabbit, and the Chiliheuque orAraucaniau camel, Avhose flesh furnished excellentfood, and Avhose avooI, clothing for these people.If tradition may be credited, they had also the hogand the domestic fowl. With these productions,Avhich required a very moderate degree of indus-try, they subsisted comfortably, and even Avith adegree of abundance, considering the few thingsAvhich their situation rendered necessary. Subsist-ence, the source of population, being thus secured,the country became rapidly peopled under the in-fluence of so mild a climate ; Avhence it appears,that the first Avriters Avho treated of Chile, cannotliave greatly exaggerated in saying, that the Spa-niards found it filled Avith inhabitants.
5. Civilized state. — It is a fact that there was butone language spoken throughout the country ; a]
COLATPA, a settlement of the head settlementof Olinalá, and alcald'in mayor of TIapa, in NuevaEspana. It contains 29 families of Indians, whoemploy themselves in the commerce of chia, av/hite medicinal earth, and cochineal, which aboundin their territory : n. w. of its head settlement.
COLAZA, a small and ancient province, ex-tremely fertile and delightful, belonging at the pre-sent day to the province of Popayán in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It was discovered by Sebas-tian de Benalcazar in 1536. Its inhabitants, whowere a warlike and cruel race, are entirely extir-pated.
COLCHA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento oi Lipes, and archbishopric of Charcas,in Peru. It was formerly the capital, and pre-serves in its cluirch an image of the blessed virgin,sent thither by the Emperor Charles V. It is nowannexed to the curacy of San Christoval.
COLCHAGUA, a province and^ corregimientoof the kingdom of Chile ; bounded on the e. bythe cordillera Nevada ; s. by the province ofMaule, the river Teno serving as the boundary ;and w. by the sea. It is 40 leagues in length frome. to w. and 32 in width from n. to s. Here aresome gold mines, and there were several others,the working of which has been discontinued : hereare also some copper mines. It abounds in wheat,large and small cattle, horses and mules. In apart called Cauquencs are some hot baths, whicharc much frequented, from the salutary affects theyproduce, especially upon those affected with theFrench disease, leprosy, spots on the skin, orwounds. The inhabitants of this province amountto 15,000 souls, and its capital is the town of SanFernando.
COLCHAGUA, a settlement of this province andcorregimiento, which is the head of a curacy ofanother, and contains four chapels of ease.
(COLCHESTER, a township in Ulster county.New York, on the Popachton branch of Delawareriver, s. w. of Middletown, and about 50 miless. w. by s. of Cooperstown. By the state censusof 1796, 193 of its inhabitants are electors.)
(Colchester, a large township in New Londoncounty, Connecticut, seltled in 1701 ; about 15miles tc. of Norwich, 25 s. e. of Hartford, and 20n. w. of New London city. It is in contemplationto have a post-office established in this town.)
(Colchester, a post-town in Fairfax county,Virginia ; situate on the n. e. bank of Ocquoquamcreek, three or four miles from its confluence withthe Potowmack ; and is here about 100 yardswide, and navigable for boats. It contains about40 houses, and lies 16 miles s. w. of Alexandria,106 n. by e. of Richmond, and 172 from Phila-delphia.)
(Colchester River, Nova Scotia. See Cohe-QUIT.)