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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
A G A
vince of Orinoco, and part of the Saliva nation,forming a separate district, and situate in theplains of San Juan, of the new kingdom of Gra-nada, near the river Sinaruco. It was destroyedby the Caribee indians in 1684.
AFUERA, one of the islands of Juan Fer-nandes, on the S. sea coast, in the kingdom ofChile. About 400 leagues to the n. of Cape Horn.This coast swarms with sea lions and wolves.Lat. 33° 47' s. Long. 80° 41' w.
[Aga|AGA]], a mountain of the province and captain-ship oi Rio Janeiro in Brazil. It is between therivers Irutiba and Tapoana, on the sea-coast.
AGACES, a nation of Indians, of the provinceof Paraguay, on the shore of the river of thisname, towards the e. The people are numerous,valiant, and of a lofty stature. In ancient timesthey were masters of that river, cruising about init, and being the enemies of the Guaranies ; butafter several conflicts, they were at last subjectedby Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, governor of theprovince, in 1642.
AGAMENTIGUS, a river of the province andcolony of New England, of York county, dis-trict of Maine. It is indebted to the ocean for itswaters, through Pascataqua bay ; having no con-siderable aid from streams of fresh water. Itsmouth is about four miles s. from Cape Neddieriver. Small vessels can enter here.]
43' w. from Greenwich. It is a nofed land-markfor seamen, and is a good directory for the entryof Pascataqua harbour, as it lies very nearly inthe same meridian with it and with Pigeon hill,on Cape Ann. The mountain is covered witliwood and shrubs, and affords pasture up to itssummit, where there is an enchanting prospect.The cultivated parts of the country, especially onthe s. and s. w. appear as a beautiful garden, in-tersected by the majestic river Pascataqua, itsbays and branches. The immense ranges ofmountains on the «. and n. w. afford a sublimespectacle ; and on the sea side the various in-dentings of the coast, from Cape Ann to CapeElizabeth, are plainly in view in a clear day ; andthe Atlantic stretches to the e. as far as the powerof vision extends. At this spot the bearing of thefollowing objects were taken, with a good sur-veying instrument, October 11, 1780.
Summit of the White mountains, n. 15° w.
Cape Porpoise, n. 63° e.
Rochester hill, n. 64° w,
Tuckaway South peak, s. 80° w.
Frost’s hill, Kittery, s. 57° w.
Saddle of Bonabeag, w. 14° w.
Isle of Shoals Meeting-house, s. 6° r.
Varney’s hill, in Dover, distant 10| miles bymensuration, «. 89° zo. Variation of theneedle, 6° te).]
AGENAGATENINGA, a river of the pro-vince and country of the Amazonas, in the Portu-guese territory. It rises in the country of theAnamaris Indians, runs n. and enters the abundantstream of the Madera.
C H A
C H A
It was conquered and united to the empire byInca Roca, the sixth Emperor.
CHALLAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarquilla or Pataz in Peru,in the district of which is an estate called Huasil-las, where there is a house of entertainment be-longing to the religion of St. Francis, in whichreside the missionaries who assist in the conversionof the infidel Indians of the mountains.
CHAMA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Maracaibo. It rises at the foot of thesnowy sierra, runs, making the form of two SS, tothe e. and rt;. and passing by to the s. of the cityof Merida, returns n. and enters the great lake ofMaracaibo at the side opposite its mouth.
CHAMACON, a river of the province and go-vernment of Darien in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; it rises in the mountains of the e. coast,and runs from s. e. to n. w. until it enters the largeriver Atrato near its mouth.
CHAMACUERO, San Francisco de, a set-tlement and head settlement of the district of thealcaldia mayor of Zelaya in the province and bi-shopric of Meohoacan. It contains 690 families ofIndians, and more than 30 of Spaniards, Mustees,and Mulaltoes, with a convent of the order of St.Francis ; is five leagues to the n. of its capital.
CHAMAL, a settlement of Indians of the Chi-chimeca nation, in the head settlement of the dis-trict of Tamazunchale, and alcaldia mayor of Valles,in Nueva Espana ; situate in a valley of the samename. Its inhabitants having been reduced atthe beginning of the 18th century, and having re-quested a priest, one was sent them of the religionof St. Francis ; but no sooner did he arrive amongstthem than they put him to death, eating his body,and at the same time destroying the settlement.They were, however, afterwards reduced to thefaith, rather through the hostilities practised against
them by their neighbours than a desire of embrac-ing it. It is five leagues from Nuestra Senorade la Soledad.
CHAMANGUE, a river of the province andgovernment of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom ofQuito. It runs through the territory of the city ofAvila from n. w. to s. e. and enters the river Coca,on the w. side, in lat. 46° s.
CHAMARIAPA, a settlement of the provinceof Barcelona, and government of Curaana, in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; one of those which areunder the care of the religious observers of St.Francis, the missionaries of Piritu. It is to thew. of the mesa (table land) of Guanipa.
CHAMBA, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, towardsthe s. It runs from e. to w. passes near the settle-uient of Vilcabamba, and then enters the river Ma-lacatos.
(CHAMBERSBURG, a post town in Pennsyl-vania, and the chief of Franklin county. Itis situated on the e. branch of Conogocheaguecreek, a water of Potow.mac river, in a rich andhighly cultivated country and healthy situation-.Here are about 200 houses, two Presbyterianchurches, a stone gaol, a handsome court-housebuUt of brick, a paper and merchant mill. It is58 miles e. by s. of Bedford, 11 w. zo. of Shippens-burg, and 157 w. of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 57'n. Long. 77° 40' a-'.)
CHAMBIRA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito ;situale at the source of the river of its name. Itrises to the e. of the settlement of Pinches, betweenthe rivers Tigre and Pastaza, and runs nearly pa-rallel to the former, where it enters, with a muchincreased body, into the Maranon.
(CHAMBLEE River, or Sorell, a water ofthe St. Lawrence, issuing from lake Champlain,300 yards wide when lowest. It is shoal in dryseasons, but of sufficient breadth for rafting lumber,&c. spring and fall. It was called both Sorcll andRichlieu when the French held Canada.)
CHAMBLI, a French fort in the province and
C H I A P A
fast for a long time together : they consequentlycat frequently ; the common food on these occa-sions being cJmcolatc, and which is even handedto them whilst at church. This irreverence thebishop very properly proclaimed against ; but itis said that this execution of his duty cost him noless than his life. It is 100 leagues distant fromGuatemala. Lat. 17'^ 4'. Long. 93° 53'.
CHIAPA, another city in the same province,which, to distinguish it from the former, is calledCliiapa de los Indios; these (the Indians) being,for the most part, its inhabitants ; is the largestsettlement in the whole province, and is situate ina valley close upon the river Tabasco, being 12leagues distant from the former city. It has va-rious churches, abounds in wealth, and is the placewherein the Indian families first settled. Theyenjoy many privileges and exemptions, owing tothe zeal of the bishop, J^rtr/y Bartolorae de las Ca-sas, their procurator at court. The river aboundsgreatly in fine fish ; and is full of barks, withwhich the}" occasionally represent sea-fights. Inthe city also there are commonly balls, plays, con-certs, bull-fights, and spectacles of horsemanship ;since the inhabitants are much given to diversions,and in these grudge no expence.
Bishops of Chiapa.
1. Don Fray Juan de Arteaga y Avendano, na-tive of Estepa in Andalucia ; elected in 1541 : hedied in the same year in Mexico, before he arrivedat his church.
2. Don Fray Bartolome de las Casas, a manrenowned lor his zeal in favour of the Indians ; hewas born at Seville, where he studied, and passedover to the island of St. Domingo, where he saidthe first mass ever celebrated in that part of theworld. He returned to Spain, in 1515, to declaimagainst the tyrannies which were practised againstthe Indians. He went back the following year tojNueva Espana, where he took the habit of a monkof St. Dominic ; and returning a second time toSpain, he was presented by the Emperor to thebishopric of Chiapa, which office he did not ac-cept ; blit was afterwards prevailed upon to do soby the united entreaties of the whole of his order ;he therefore entered upon it in 1544. He then leftthe bishopric, and returned, for the third time, toSpain ; and having retired to his convent of Val-ladolid, died in 1550.
3. Don Fray Tomas Casillas, also of the orderof St. Dominic ; he was sub-prior of the conventof Salamanca, and passed over to America withFray Bartolome de las Casas. Being renownedfor the great zeal which he manifested in tlie con-version of the infidel Indians, he was nominated
to be bishop in 1560 ; which office he accepted atthe express command of its general. He made thevisitation of all his bishopric, and died full of vir-tues, in 1567.
4. Don Fray Domingo de Lara, of the order ofSt. Domingo ; he made so strong a refusal of hiselection, his renunciation of the office not havingbeen admitted, that he prayed to God that hemight die before that the bulls should arrive fromRome; and this was actually the case, since hedeparted this life in 1572, before he was conse-crated.
5. Don Fray Alonzo de Noroila, who governedthe church here seven years, and had for suc-cessor,
6. Don Fray Pedro de Feria, native of the townof this name in Estreraadura, a monk of the orderof St. Dominic; he passed over to America, wasprior of the convent of Mexico, and provincial ofthat province ; he returned to Spain, refused thegeneral visitation to which he was appointed, andretiree! to his convent of Salamanca ; was presentedwith the bishopric of Chiapa, which he also re-fused ; but being commanded by his superiors, heafterwards accepted it, and governed 14 years,until 1588, when he died.
7. Don Fray Andres de Ubilla, of the order of St.Dominic, and native of the province of Guipuzcoa ;he took the habit in Mexico, where he studied andread the arls, and was twice prior and provincialof the province ; he came to Spain on affairstouching his religion, and returning to Mexico,found himself presented to this bishopric in 1592,where he governed until 1601, when he died, hav-ing been first promoted to the archbishopric ofMechoacan.
8. Don Lucas Duran, a friar of the order ofSantiago, chaplain of honour to his Majesty ; whoimmediately tiiat he was consecrated bishop ofChiapa, renounced his power, and the see was thenvacant nine years.
9. Don Fray Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza, na-tive of Toledo, a monk of the order of St. Augus-tin ; he passed over to America, was made bishopof Lipari, and titular in the archbishopric ofToledo ; and lastly of Chiapa, in 1607 ; fromwhence he was promoted in the following year toPopayan.
10. Don Tomas Blanes, native of Valen-cia, of the order of St. Dominic ; he passed overto Peru, where he resided many years, studyingarts and theology ; he assisted in the visitation ofthe province of St. Domingo, and having come toSpain, he was presented to the bishopric in 1609,holding the government until 1612, when he died.
[ auxiliaries, from whence has sprung that rootedantipatliy which the Araucanians preserve againstthe residue of that nation. In the course of theyear 1546, Valdivia, having passed the Maule,proceeded in his career of victory to the riverItata ; but being defeated there, he relinquishedhis plans of proceeding farther, and returned toSt. Jago.
17. Valdivia sets sail for Peru ^ and returns withmen and supplies . — Being disappointed in hissuccours from Peru, he, in 1547, was on tlie eveof his departure for that country, when Pastenesarrived, but without any men, and bringing newsof the civil war which had broken out between theconquerors of the empire of the Incas. Neverthe-less, persuaded that he miglit reap an advantagefrom these revolutions, he set sail with Pastene forPeru, taking with him a great quantity of gold;on his arrival he served, in quality of quarter-mas-ter-general, in the famous battle that decided thefate of Gonzalo Pizarro. Gasca, the president, whounder the royal standard had gained the victory,pleased with the service rendered him upon thisoccasion by Valdivia, confirmed him in his otliceof governor, and furnishing him with an abun-dance of military stores, sent him back to Chilewith two ships filled with those seditious adven-turers, of whom he was glad of an opportunity tobe disembarrassed. The Copiapins, eager to re-venge the murder of their prince, killed about thesame time 40 Spaniards, who had been detachedfrom several squadrons, and were proceeding fromPeru to Chile ; and the Coquirnbanes, instigatedby their persuasion, massacred alt the inhabitantsoi’ the colony lately founded in their territory,ra,zing the city to its foundation. Francis Aguirrewas immediately ordered there, and had severalencounters with them with various success. In1549 he rebuilt the city in a more advantageoussit nation ; its inhabitants claim him as their founder,and the most distinguished of them boast them-selves as his descendants. After a contest of nineyears, and almost incredible fatigues, Valdivia,conceiving himself well established in that part ofChile which was under the dominion of the Peru-vians, distributed the land among his soldiers,assigning to each, under the title of commandery,a considerable portion, with the inhabitants liv-ing thereon. By this means, having quieted therestless ambition of his companions, he set outanew on his march for the s. provinces, with arespectable army of Spanish and Proraauciantroops.
18. Concepcion founded. — After a journey of150 miles, he arrived, without encountering many
obstacles, at the bay of Penco, which had beenalready explored by Pastene, where, on the 5th ofOctober 1550, he founded a third city, called Con-cepcion. The situation of this place was veryadvantageous for commerce from the excellence ofits harbour, but, from the lowness of the ground,exposed in earthquakes to inundations of the sea.Accordingly we find it destroyed in this mannerby an earthquake that occurred on the 8th of J uly1730, and the 24th of May 1751; for this reason,the inhabitants established themselves, on the 24thof November 1764, in the valley of Mocha, threeleagues s. of Penco, between the rivers Andalienand Biobio, where they founded New Concepcion,The harbour is situated in the middle of the baycalled Talgacuano, a little more than two leaguesw. of Mocha ; a fort is now all the building that isleft at Penco. But to return to our history, theadjacent tribes perceiving the intention of theSpaniards to occupy this important post, gave in-formation of it to their neighbours and friends theAraucanians, who foreseeing that it would not belong before the storm would burst upon their owncountry, resolved to succour their distressed allies,in order to secure themselves. But before we pro-ceed to relate the events of this war, it may bemore advisable to give some account of the cha-racter and manners of that warlike people, whohave hitherto, with incredible valour, opposed theoverwhelming torrent of Spanish conquest, andfrom henceforward will furnish all the materials ofour history.
Of the character and manners of the Arauca-nians.
1. Local situation . — The Araucanians inhabitthat delightful country situate between the riversBiobio and Valdivia, and between the Andes andthe sea, extending from 36° 44' to 39“ 50' of s.latitude. They derive their appellation of Arau-canians from the province of Arauco, which,though the smallest in their territory, has, likeHolland, given its name to the whole nation,either from its having been the first to unite withthe neighbouring provinces, or from having atsome remote period reduced them under its do-minion. This people, ever enthusiastically at-tached to their independence, pride themselves inbeing called auca, which signifies frank or free ;and those Spaniards who had left the army in theNetherlands to serve in Chile, gave to this countrythe name of Araucanian Flanders, or the InvincibleState ; and some of them have even had the mag-nanimity to celebrate in epic poetry tlie exploits]
ftime (1555) extended over the whole of S.America, did not think proper to commit the go-vernment to either, but in their place directed thattlie corre^idors ot the city should have the com-mand, each in his respective district, until furtherorders.
17. Concepcion rehuiU^ and destroyed by Lau-taro . — Upon a remonstrance of the inhabitants tothe court of audience, Villagran was afterwardsappointed to the command, but merely, however,with the ti(l<‘ of correffidor, receiving orders atthe same time to rebuild the city of Concepcion.No sooner was this order executed, than the youngLantaro rallied his array, and, exasperated againstwhat he termed “ obstinacy,” passed the Biobiowithout delay, and attacked tlie Spaniards, whoimprudently confiding in their valour, awaitedhim in the open plain. The first encounter de-cided the fate of the battle. The Amucanians en-tered the fort with those citizens who fled withprecipitation, and killed a great number of them ;some indeed embarked in a ship which was in theport, and others fled into the woods. Thus Lau-taro, having plundered and burned the city asbefore, returned laden with spoils to his wontedstation. Continued victories had so heightenedthe confidence of this commander, that nothingappeared to him impossible, and he formed thedetermination of attacking the Spaniards in theirvery capital, of carrying his arms against Santiagoitself. He accordingly passed with a chosen bandof 600 followers through the country of the Pro-maucians, where his indignation did not fail toI vent itself upon these people : a people detestedby him for having submitted to the Spanish yoke.The inhabitants of Santiago could not at first be-lieve it possible that he should have had the bold-ness to undertake a journey of SOO miles in orderto attack tliem ; but being undeceived as to thefact, thought proper to make some preparations ofdefence.
18. Lauiaro arrives at Saiitiago . — Lautaro hadnow encamped his army in a low meadow, on theshore of the Matiquito ; a measure he had beenobliged to adopt from repeated loss he had sus-tained in some skirmishes with young Villagran,who had taken the command on account of his fa-tlier being confined by sickness ; but the fatherhaving recovered his health, and being stronglysolicited by the citizens, who every moment ex-pected to see the Araucaniaris at their gates, atlength, in 1556, began his march with 196 Spa-niards, and 1000 auxiliaries, in search of Lautaro;but too well remernberingthe defeat of Mariguenu,he resolved to attack him by surprise. With this
intent ho quitted the great road, secretly directedhis march by the sea-shore, and under the guid-ance of a spy, by a private path, came at day-break upon the Araucanian encampment,
19. Death of Lautaro. — Lautaro, who at thatmoment had retired to rest, after having been uponguard, as was his custom during the night, leap-ed from his bed at the first alarm of the sentinels,and ran to the entrenchments to observe the enemy ;at this moment a dart, hurled by one of the Indianauxiliaries, pierced his heart, and he fell lifelessin the arms of his companions. It would seemthat fortune, hitherto propitious, was desirous byso sudden a death to save him from the mortifica-tion of finding himself, for the first time in his life,defeated. It is, however, not improbable that hisgenius, so fertile in expedients, would have sug-gested to h ira some plan to have baffled the at-tempts of the assailants, if this fatal accident hadnot occurred. Encouraged by this unexpectedsuccess, Villagran attacked the fortifications on allsides, and forced an entrance, notwithstandingthe obstinate resistance of the Araucanians, who,retiring to an angle of the works, determined ra-ther to be cut to pieces than to surrender them-selves to those who had slain their beloved general.In vain the Spanish commander repeatedly oileredthem quarter ; none of them accepted it, exceptinga few of the neighbouring Indians who happenedto be in their camp. The Araucanians perishedto a man, after having fought with such obstinacy,that a few of the last souglit their death by throw-ing themselves on the lances of their enemies.This victory, which was not obtained withoutgreat loss by the victors, was celebrated for threedays in succession in Santiago, and in all the otherSpanish settlements, with the utmost demonstra-tions of joy. The Spaniards felicitated themselveson being at last freed from an enemy, who at theearly age of 19 had already obtained so manyvictories over their nation, and who possessed ta-lents capable of entirely destroying their establish-ments in Chile, and even harassing them in Peru,as he liad resolved upon, when he had restored theliberty of his native country. The Araucanianstor a long time lamented the loss of their valiantcountryman, to whom they owed all the successof their arms, and on whose conduct and valourth(*y entirely relied for the recovery of their liber-ties. His name is still celebraied in their heroicsongs, and his actions proposed as the most glo-rious model for the imitation of their youth.
20. Caupolican raises the siege of Imperial.But above all, Caupolican felt this fatal loss; ashe was a sincere lover of his country, far from]
[order to practise his troops, and subsist them attlie expence of the enemy ; and after defeatingone of V^illagran’s sons, who, with n large force,
I came to give him battle, he marched against Ca-
nete ; but V^illagran, convinced of the imposibilityV of defending it, anticipated him by withdrawing
all the inhabitants, part of whom retired to Impe-rial, and part to Concepcion. The Araucanians, ontheir arrival, did not fail to destroy this city ; tlieyset it on lire, and in a short time it was entirelyconsumed.
i 33. Pedro Villagr an. -—In the mean time Vil-
lagran, more the victim of grief and mental anxietythan of his disoider, died, universally regretted bythe colonists, who lost in him a wise, humane,and valiant commander, to whose prudent con-duct they had been indebted for the preservationof their conquests. Before his death he ap-pointed as his successor, by a special commis-sion from the court, his eldest son Pedro, whose‘ mental endowments were no way inferior to hisfather’s. The death of the governor appeared toAntiguenu to present a fav;ourable opportunity toundertake some important enterprise. Havingformed his army, which consisted of 4000 men,into two divisions, he ordered one, under the com-mand of his vice-toqui, to lay siege to Concep-I cion, in order to attract thither the attention of the
1 Spaniards, while with the other he marched against
the fort of Arauco. The siege was protracted toa considerable length ; the commanders thereforedetermined to settle the affair by single combat;but after having fought, with the greatest obstinacyfor the space of two hours, they were separated bytheir men. But what force had not been able toeffect, was performed by famine. Several boats; loaded with provisions had repeatedly attempted
in vain to relieve the besieged : the vigilance ofthe besiegers opposed so insuperable an obstacle,|j| that Bernal, the commander, saw himself at length
'■ compelled to abandon the place. The Araucanians
J permitted the garrison to retire without molestation,
and contented themselves with burning the housesand demolishing the walls. The capture of An-gol, after that of Cahete and Arauco, appearedI easy to Antiguenu, but the attempt cost him his
I • life ; for after the most brilliant feats of valour andintrepidity, he was forced along with a crowd ofsoldiers who fled, and, falling from a high bank intoa river, Avas drowned.
34. The U'oqui Paillataru — Antiguenu had for' , successor in the toquiate Paillataru, the brother or
I cousin of the celebrated Lautaro. During the same
:i time a change was made of the Spanish governor.
Rodrigo de Quiroga, Avho bad been appointed to
’ ‘ VOI.. I.
that office by the royal audience of Lima, beganhis administration by arresting his predecessor,and sending him prisoner to Peru. Having re-ceived a reinforcement of 300 soldiers in 1665,he entered the Araucanian territory, rebuilt thefort of Arauco, and the city of Canete, con-structed a new fortress at the celebrated post ofQiiipeo, and ravaged the neighbouring provinces.Towards the end of the following year he sent theMarshal Ruiz Gamboa with 60 men to subject theinhabitants of the Archipelago of Chiloe ; thatofficer encountered no resistance, and founded inthe principal island the city of Castro and the portof Chacao.
35. Ar hipelago of Chiloe subjected ; descriptionof the same, iis inh(d)itanis, &c. — The islands ofthe Archipelago amount to 80, and have to all ap-pearance been produced by earthquakes, owingto the great number of volcanoes, with whichthat country formerly abounded. Every part ofthem exhibits the most unquestionable marks offire. Several mountains in the great island ofChiloe, which has given its name to the ArchipC'lago, are conqmsed of basaltic columns, whichsome authors s rongly urge could have been pro-duced only by the operation of fire. The nativeinhabitants, though descerided from the continentalChilians, as them appearance, their manners, andtheir language all evince, are nevertheless of a verydifferent character, being of a pacific, or rather atimid disposition. They made no opposition, aswe have already observed, to the handful of Spa-niards who came there to subjugate them, although^their population is said to have exceeded 70,000 ;nor have they ever attempted to shake off the yokeuntil the beginning of the last century, Avhen an in-surrection of no great importance was excited, andsoon quelled. The number of inhabitants at presentamounts to upwards of 11,000; they are dividedinto 76 districts or ulrnenates, the greater part ofwhich are subject to the Spanish commanders, andare obliged to render personal service for fifty daysin the year, according to the feudal laws, whichare rigidly observed in this province, notwithstand-ing they have been for a long time abolishedthroughout the rest of the kingdom. 'I'iieseislanders generally possess a quickness of'ctipacity,and very readily learn whatever is taught them.They haAm a genius for mechanical arts, an<l excelin carpentry, cabinet-making, and turnery, from thefrequent occasions Avhich they have to exercisethem, all their churches and houses being built ofwood. They are very good manufaefurersof linenand woollen, Avith which they mix the feathers ofsea-birds, and form beautitul coverings for their]
[fo confirm, the experiments of M. Lassone, pliy-sicmn to the queen of France, in the cure of thesmall-pox witli cow’s milk, published by himselfin the Medical Transactions of Paris for the year1779. The couniryman, however, employed milkalone, whereas M. De Lassone thought it advisableto mix it with a decoction of parsley roots. Theseinstances would seem to prove that milk has thesingular property of lessening the virulence of thisdisorder, and repressing its noxious and deadlyqualities. It is for the Jennerians to consider howfar these facts may corroborate, or what may betheir analogy to the principles that are inculcatedby the vaccine institutions of this country.
11. Manners, moral and physical . — The inhabi-tants of the country are generally very benevolent.Contented with a comfortable subsistence, they maybe said scarcely to know what parsimony or ava-rice is, and are very rarely affected with tliat vice.Their houses are open to all travellers that come,whom they freely entertain without any idea ofpay, and often on these occasions regret that theyare not more wealthy, in order to exercise theirhospitality to a greater extent. This virtue is alsocommon in the cities, and Feuille observes, thatthe ill return that they have frequently met withfrom individuals of our nation, has never been ableto produce a diminution of tlieir native hospi-tality.” vol. II. To this hospitality it is owingthat they have not hitherto been attentive to theerection of inns and public lodging houses ; whicliwill, however, become necessary when the com.merce of the interior is more increased. LordAnson, in his voyage, gives a particular descrip-tion of the dexterity of the South American pea-sants in managing the laqiii, with whicii they takeanimals, either wild or domestic. In Chile, theinhabitants of the country constantly carry thislaqui with them, fastened to their saddles, in orderto have it ready upon occasion, and are very skil-ful in the use of it. It consists merely in a strip ofleather several fathoms in length j well twisted inthe manner of a cord, and termiiiated by a strongnoose of the same material. They make use of itboth on foot and on horseback, and in the lattercase with equal certainty, whether amidst woods,mountains, or steep declivities. On these occa-sions one end of it is fastened under the horse’sbelly, and the other held by the rider, who throwsit over the flying animal with a dexterity thatscarcely ever misses its aim. Herodotus makesmention of a similar noose which was used in battleby the Sagartians. “ The Sagartii,” he observes,“ w ere originally of Persian descent, and use thePersian language : they have no oflensive Aveapons
either of iron or brass, except their daggers : theirprincipal dependence in action is upon cords madeof twisted leather, Avhich they use in this manner ;when they engage an enemy, they throw out thesecords, having a noose at ihe extremity ; if thej'entangle in them either horse or man, they withoutdifficulty put them to death.” Bcloe’s Hcrodqtus,vol. ill. Polymnia, p. 205. The Chilians havealso employed the laqid with much success againstthe English pirates who have landed upon theircoast. TJiey are also skilful in the management ofhorses, and in the opinion of travellers, who havehad an opportunity of witnessing their dexterityand courage in this exercise, they might soon beformed into the best body of cavalry in the world.Their attachment to horses renders them particu-larly fond of horse-racing, which they conduct inthe English manner. The Negroes, avIio have beenintroduced into Chile Avholly by contraband means,are subjected to a state of servitude, which may beconsidered as tolerable in comparison to that whichthey endure in many parts of America, Avhere theinterest of the planter stifles every sentiment of hu-manity. As the planting of sugar and other ar-ticles of West Indian commerce has not been esta-blished in Chile, the slaves are employed in do-mestic services, where by attention and diligencethey may readily acquire the favour of their mas-ters. Those in most esteem are either such as areborn in the country of African parents, or the Mu-latlocs, as they become more attached to the fa-mily fo which they belong. The humanity of thegovernment or the inhabitants has introduced infavour of this unfortunate race a very proper regu-lation. Such of them as by their industry haveobtained a sum of money sufficient for the purchaseof a slave, can ransom tliemsclves by paying it totheir masters, avIu) arc obliged to receive it, andset them at liberty ; and numbers wlio have in tliismaimer obtained their freedom, are to be met Aviththroughout the country. The same laAv subsistsin all the Spanish colonics; and a slave Avho can-not redeem himself entirely, is alloAved to redeemone or more days in the Aveek, by paying a pro-portion of his price. Those who are ill treated bytheir OAvners can demand a letter of sale, Avhich isa Avritten permission to them to seek a purchaser.In case of the n-yister’s refusal, they have the pri-vilege of applying to the judge of the place, aaLoexamines their complaints, and if well founded,grants them the permission required. Such in-stances are, however, very unusual, either becausethe master, on account of his reputation, avoids re-ducing his slaves to this extremity, or that theslaves themselves contract such an attachment to ’5 K 2
C H O C H O
constitution left the lower people little more free-dom than they would have possessed under thegovernment of the Aztec kings.]
The capital is the city of the same name, foundedas far back as the time ofthegentilism of the Mexi-can empire, when this nation was at enmity withthat of Chichimeca ; it was then one of the mostpopulous cities, and contained 30,000 inhabitantsand 300 temples, and served as a barrier to Moc-tezuma, in the attack against the republic ofTlaxclala ; the latter place never having been sub-jected to the Mexican yoke. This was the citywhich of all others most thwarted the designs ofHernan Cortes, but the inhabitants were discoveredin the conspiracy they had laid against him, whenthey pretended to receive him with open arrhs anda peaceable and friendly disposition, and weremade by him to suffer severely for their hypocrisy ;after which he and his whole army escaped un-injured. This city has many monuments denotingits antiquity ; and although in ancient times idolatrywas here carried to its highest pitch, yet the lightof the gospel has spread widely around its enliven-ing rays. It is of a mild and healthy temperature,rather inclined to cold than heat, being situate ona level, fertile, and beautiful plain. It has a goodconvent of the order of St. Francis, which is alsoa house of studies. Its inhabitants are composedof 50 families of Spaniards, 458 of Mustees, Mu-lattoes and Negroes, and 606 of Indians. On alofty spot which lies close to the entrance, on thec. side of the city, is a handsome chapel, in whichis venerated the image of the blessed virgin,which also bears the dedicatory title of Los Rente-dios. It is a little more than 20 leagues to the e.of Mexico, and four from Tlaxclala. Long. 98°14'. Lat. 19° 4'. [Its population is at presentestimated at about 16,000 souls.]
CHONE, a settlement which in former timeswas considerable, but now much impoverished, inthe ancient province of Cara, which is at presentunited to that of Esmeraldas. It lies upon theshore of the river Chones to the n. and is of anhot and moist climate, in lat. 33° s.
CHONES, a large river of the province ofCara in the kingdom of Quito. It runs to the w.and collects the waters of the Sanchez and theTos-sagua on the n. and on the s. those of the Cama-ron and the Platanal. At its entrance on the n.stood the city of Cara, of which the vestiges stillremain. Where it runs into the sea it forms thebay of Cara, between the s. point of Bellaca andthe n. point of laca. Its mouth is nearly twomiles and an half wide.
CHONGO, San Miguel de, a settlement ofthe alcaldíta mayor of Huamelula. It is of a verycold temperature, from its being situate in the vi-cinity of the sierra Nevada (or Snowy) of the Chon-tales, which lies on the n. side of it. Its inhabi-tants amount to 24 families of Indians, who tradein cochineal, seeds, and fruits, of which the coun-try, being naturally luxuriant, produces great quan-tities. It is watered by rivers which pass at alittle distance, and is annexed to the curacy ofTepaltepec of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayorof Nexapa, from whence it lies 20 leagues. It is-,on account of this great distance, combined withthe badness of the roads, that the natives so sel-dom can avail themselves of any instruction in theholy faith ; dying, as they often do, without theadministration of the sacraments. Indeed, there isonly one day in the year, which is the 29th ofSeptember, and on which the Indians celebrate thefestival of their titular saint Michael, when theyare visited by their curate, who then hears theirconfessions and says mass. At this time this settle-ment has somewhat the appearance of a Catholicpeople ; but being all the rest of the year left tothemselves, it is not to be wondered that many re-lapse into their pristine state of gentilisra and idola-try. Three leagues w. of its capital.
CHONGON, a settlement of Indians of theprovince and government of Guayaquil in the kingdomof Quito; situate near a small torrent, re-nowned for the stones which it washes down, of acertain crystallized matter, which being polished,resemble brilliants, and are used as buttons, rings,and other trinkets.
CHONTALES, a district of the corregimientoor alcaldia mayor of Matagulpa, in the kingdom ofGuatemala and province of Nicaragua. It is butsmall, and its natives have this name from the Spa-niards, who would by it express their natural un-couthness and stupidity.
C H U
C H Y
ment of the province and corre^innenlo of Hiia-machuco in Peru ; one of the lour divisions of thecuracy of Estancias.
CHUQUIYAPU, an ancient province of Peru,which was conquered and united to the empire byMayta Capac, fourth Emperor of the Incas, afterthe famous battle and victory of Huallu againstthe Collas Indians. It is tolerably well j, copied,and of a cold climate. Its territory abounds inexcellent pastures, iti which there are great quan-tities of cattle. In some parts, where the tempera-ture is hot, there is found maize, cacao, and sugar-cane. This country abountls in woods, and inthese are found tigers, leopards, stags, and mon-keys of many dilFerent species.
[CHURCH Creek Town, in Dorchestercounty, Maryland, lies at the head of Churchcreek, a branch of Hudson river, seven miles $.w.from Cambridge.]
[Church Hill, a village in Queen Ann’s county,Maryland, at tlie head of S. E. Creek, a branch ofChester river, n. w. of Bridgetown, and n. e. ofCentreville eight miles, and 85 s. w. from Phila-delphia. Lat. 39° 6' n. Long. 76° 10' a?.]
CHURCHILL, a great river of New S. Wales,one of tlie provinces of N. America, at the mouthof which the English Hudson bay company have afort and establishment; situate in lat. 59° w. andlong. 94° 12' w. The commerce of this place isgreat and lucrative, and on account of its greatdistance entirely secure from any disturbance fromthe French. In 1747 the number of castor-skins,which were brought by 100 Indians to this spot intheir canoes, amounted to 20,000. Several otherkinds of skins were also brought from the n, by200 other Indians ; some of whom came hither bythe river Seals, or Marine Wolves, 15 leagues tothe s. of the fort. To the n. of this fort there areno castors, since there arc no woods where theseanimals are found, though there are many otherwoods Avhich abound in wolves, bears, foxes, buf-faloes, and other animals whose skins are valuable.Here are great quantities of shrubs or small trees,planted by the factory, supplying timber ; but theopposite side, of the river is most favourable to theirgrowth ; and at a still greater distance are foundlarge trees of various kinds. The company re-siding in the fort is exposed to many risks, andobliged to inhabit a rock surrounded by frosts andsnows for eight months in the year, being exposedto all the winds and tempests. On account of thedeficiency of pasture, they maintain near the fac-tory no more than four or five horses, and a bullw ith two cows ; for the maintenance of which du-ring the winter, fodder is brought from a fennybottom some miles distant from the river. Thosewho have been hero allirm, that between this riverand the river Nelson there is, at a great distanceup the country, a communication or narrow passof land, by which these rivers are divided; and theIndians who carry on this traffic, have dealingswith the English navigating the river Nelson orAlbany. [See New Britain.]
[CHURCHTOWN, a village so called, in then. e. part of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, about20 miles e.n.e. of Lancaster, and 50w.n.w.oi'Philadelphia. It has 12 houses, and an episcopalchurch ; and m the environs are two forges, which
|manufacture about 450 tons of bar iron annually.|
It has some celebrated fountains of mineral waters,
CHURUMACO, a settlement of the head settle-ment and dlealdia mayor of Cinagua in NuevaEspaña ; situate in a dry and warm country ; onwhich account the seeds scarcely ever come to ma-turity, save those of maize ; melons indeed growin abundance, owing to the cultivation they find,and from water being brought to them from a riverwhich runs at least a league’s distance from thethe settlement. In its district are several herds oflarge cattle, which form the principal branch ofthe commerce of the inhabitants : these consist of80 families of Indians. In its limits are also foundsome ranchos, in which reside 22 families of Spa-niards, and 34 of Mustees and Mulattoes. At ashort distance is the mountain called Ynguaran, inwhich copper mines are found, though this metalhas not been observed much to abound. Fourleagues to the e. of its capital.
CHYAIZAQUES, a barbarous nation, and
C O N
on the banks of the river of its name, near wherethis river joins that of Florido. It is garrisonedby a captain, a lieutenant, a serjeant, and 33 sol-diers, to guard against the irruptions of the infidelIndians. In its vicinity are the estates of La Ci-enega, Sapian, and El Pilar. Fifty-eight leaguesto the n.n.e. of the city of Guadalaxara.
CONCHUCOS, a province and corresimientoof Peru ; bounded n. by the province of Huama-chucos, n. e. by that of Pataz, and separated fromthence by the river Marafion, e. and s. e. by theprovince of Huraalies, and s. by that of Caxa-tambo. It is 52 leagues in length, and in someparts 20 in width. It is of a very irregular figure,and of various temperature, according to the dif-ferent situation of its territories ; cold in all theparts bordering upon the cordil/era, mild in someparts, and in others excessively hot. It is 'V-erypleasant, and it has all kinds of fruits, which itproduces in abundance, and in the same mannerwheat, barley, and pot herbs. On its skirts arefound numerous herds of cattle of every species,and from the wools of some of these are made thecloth manufactures of the country, which meetwith a ready demand in the other provinces. Theprincipal rivers by which it is watered are three ;and these are formed by various streams : the oneof them enters that of Santa to the zo. and theother two the Marafion. The most s. is called DeMiraflores, and the other, which is very large,keeps the name of the province. Here are somemines of silver, which were formerly very rich ;as also some lavaderos, or washing places of gold,of the purest quality, the standard weight of itbeing 23 carats. Also in the curacy of Llamelinare some mines of brimstone, and a fountain orstream, the waters of which, falling down into adeep slough, become condensed and converted intoa stone called Catachi, in the form of columns muchresembling wax-candles, of a very white colour.The same substance is used as a remedy againstthe bloody flux, and it is said, that being madeinto powders, and mixed Avith the white of an egg,it forms a salve which accelerates in a Avonderfulmanner the knitting of fractured bones. It com-prehends 15 curacies, Avithout the annexed settle-ments, all of Avhich, the former and the latter, are
as folloAVS :
Huari del Rey, the ca-pital,
San Luis de Huari,
CONCHUCOS, a river of the province and cor-regimiento of the same name in Peru, Avhich risesin the cordillera. It runs s. and enters the Ma-ranon near the settlement of Uchos in the provinceof Andahuailas.
(CONCORD, a post-toAvn of New Hampshire,very flourishing, and pleasantly situated on thew. bank of Merrimack river, in Rockinghamcounty, eight miles above Hookset falls. Thelegislature, of late, have commonly held their ses-sions here ; and from its central situation, and athriving back country, it will probably become thepermanent seat of government. Much of the tradeof the upper country centres here. A liandsoraetall bridge across the Merrimack connects thistown Avith Pembroke. It has 1747 inhabitants,and Avas incorporated in 1765. The Indian nameAvas Penacook. It was granted by Massachusetts,and called Rumford. Tlie compact part of thetown contains about 170 houses, a Congregationalchurcli, and an academy, which was incorporatedin 1790. It is 54 miles w. n. w. of Portsmouth,58 s. w. of Dartmouth college, and 70 n. fromBoston. Lat. 43” 12' n. Long. 71° 31' a?.)
(Concord, in Massachusetts, a post-town, oneof the most considerable towns in Middlesexcounty ; situated on Concord river, in a healthyand pleasant spot, nearly in the centre of thecounty, and 18 miles n. w. of Boston, and 17 e.of Lancaster. Its Indian name Avas Musquetequid;and it owes its present name to the peaceable man-ner in which it was obtained from the natives.The first settlers, among whom Avere the Rev.Messrs. Buckley and Jones, having settled- the
(is generally 5. s.zc. as likewise through Massachus-setts, and part of Connecticut, until it reaches thecity of Middleton ; after wliich it runs a s, s. e.course to its mouth. The navigation of this beau-tiful river, which, like the Nile, fertilizes tiie landsthrough which it runs, is much obstructed byfalls ; two of these are between New Hampshireand Vermont, the first are called the Fifteen-milefalls ; here the river is rapid for 20 miles : thesecond remarkable fall is at Walpole, formerlycalled the Great falls, but now called Bellows’falls. Above these the breadth of the river is insome places 22, in other places not above 16 rods;the depth of the channel is about 25 feet, and com-monly runs full of water. In September 1792,however, owing to the severe drought, the waterof the river, it is said, “ passed within (he spaceof 12 feet wide, and 2| feet deep.” A large rockdivides the stream into two channels, each about90 feet wide ; when the river is low, the e. channelis dry, being crossed by a solid rock ; and thewhole stream falls into the w. channel, where it iscontracted to the breadth of 16 feet, and flows withastonishing rapidity. There are several pitches,one above another, in the length of half a mile, thelargest of which is that where the rock divides thestream. A bridge of timber was projected over this fallby Colonel Hale, in the year 1784, 365 feet long,and supported in the middle by the island rock,and under it the highest floods pass without doingany injury; this is the only bridge on the river,but it is contemplated to erect another, SO milesabove, at the middle bar of Agar falls, where thepassage for the water, between the rocks, is 100feet wide ; this will connect the towns of Lebanonin New Hampshire, and Hartford in Vermont ; asthe former bridge connects Walpole in NewHampshire with Rockingham in Vermont. Not-withstanding the velocity of the current at Bellows’falls, above described, the salmon pass up theriver, and are taken many miles above, but the shadproceed no farther. On the steep sides of theisland rock, at the fall, hang several arm chairs,secured by a counterpoise ; in these the fishermensit to catch salmon with fishing nets. In the courseof the river, through Massachusetts, are the fallsat South Hadley, around which locks and canalswere completed in 1795, by an enterprising com-pany, incorporated for that purpose in 1792, bythe legislature of Massachusetts. In Connecticutthe river is obstructed by falls at Enfield, to ren-der which navigable in boats, a company has beenincorporated, and a sum of money raised by lot-tery, but nothing effectual is yet done. The
average descent of this river from Weathersfield inVermont, 150 miles from its mouth, is two feet toa mile, according to the barometrical observationsof J. Winthrop, Esq. made in 1786. The riversor streams which fall into Connecticut river arenumerous; such of them as are worthy of noticewill be seen under their respective names. At itsmouth is a bar of sand, which considerably ob-structs the navigation ; it has 10 feet water on itat full tides, and the depth is the same to Middle-ton, from which the bar is 36 miles distant. AboveMiddleton there are some shoals which have onlysix feet water at high tide, and here the tide ebbsand flows about eight inches ; three miles abovethat city the river is contracted to about 40 rodsin breadth, by two high mountains ; on almostevery other part of the river the banks are low,and spread into fine extensive meadows. In thespring floods, which generally happen in May,these meadows are covered with water. At Hart-ford, the water sometimes rises 20 feet above thecommon surface of the river, and the water hav-ing no other outlet but the above mentioned strait,it is sometimes tw o or three weeks before it returnsto its usual bed ; these floods add nothing to-thedepth of water on the bar at the mouth of theriver, as the bar lies too far off in the sound to beaffected by them. This river is navigable toHartford city upwards of 50 miles from its mouth,and the produce of the country for 200 miles aboveit, is brought thither in boats. The boats whichare used in this business are flat-bottomed, long,and narrow, and of so light a make as to be port-able in carts : before the construction of locks andcanals on (his river, they were taken out at threedifferent carrying places, all of which made 15miles : it is expected that in a few years the ob-structions will be all removed. Sturgeon, salmon,and shad, are caught in plenty in their season, fromthe mouth of the river upwards, excepting stur-geon, which do not ascend the upper falls; be-sides a variety of small fish, such as pike, carp,perch, &c. There is yet a strong expectation ofopening a communication between this river andthe Merrimack, through Sugar river, which runsinto the Connecticut at Claremont in New Mamp-shire, and the Contoocook, which falls into tlieMerrimack at Boscawen. From this river wereemployed, in 1789, three brigs of 180 tons each,in the European trade ; and about 60 sail, from60 to 150 tons, in the VV. India trade, besidesa few fishermen, and 40 or 50 coasting vessels.The number has considerably increased since.)
[■soms. Their limbs were finely proportioned, andtheir complexions, though brown, were smooth,shining, and lovely. Tlic Spaniards were struckwith admiration, believing that they beheld thedryads of the woods, and the nymphs of the foun-tains, realizing ancient fable. The branches whichthey bore in their hands, they now delivered ivithlowly obeisance to the lieutenant, who, enteringthe palace, found a plentiful, and, according tothe Indian mode of living, a splendid repast al-ready provided. As niglA approached, the Spa-niards were conducted to separate cottages, whereineach of them was accommodated with a cottonhammoc ; and the next morning they were againentertained with dancing and singing. This wasfollowedliy matches of w restling, and running forprizes ; after which two great bodies of armed In-dians unexpectedly appeared, and a mock engage-ment ensued ; exhibiting their modes of attack anddefence in their wars with the Caribes. Forthree days were the Spaniards thus royally enter-tained, and on the fourth the affectionate Indiansregretted their departure.”
3. Political institutions . — Their kings, as we haveseen, were called caciques and their power washereditary. But there were also subordinatechieftains, or princes, who were tributaries to thesoverei<rn of each district. Thus the territory in11 ispaniola, anciently called Xaraguay, extendingfrom the plain of Leogane to the westernmost part ofthe island, was the kingdom of the cfle^ 5 '^/e Behechio;but it appears from Martyr, that no less than 32inferior chieftains or nobles had jurisdiction withinthat space of country, who were accountable to thesupreme authority of Behechio, They seem tohave somewhat resembled the ancient barons orfeudatories of Europe : holding their possessionsby the tenure of service. Oviedo relates, that theywere under the obligation of personally attendingthe sovereign, both in peace and Avar, whenevercommanded so to do. The whole island of His-paniola was divided into five great kingdoms.The islands of Cuba and Jamaica rvere divided,like Hispaniola, into many principalities or king-doms ; but we are told that the Avhole extent ofPuerto Rico was subject to one cacique onljr. Ithas been remarked, that the dignity of these chief-tians was hercditaiy ; but if Martyr is to becredited, the laAv of succession among them wasdifferent from that of all other people ; for he ob-serves, that the caciques bequeathed the supremeauthority to the children of their sisters, accordingto seniority, disinheriting their owm offspring ;“ being certain,” adds Martyr, “ that, by thispolicy, they preferred the blood royal ; which
might not happen to be the case in advancing anyof the children of their numerous wives.” Therelation of Oviedo is somewhat different, and seemsmore probable : he remarks, that one of tlie wivesof each cacique was particularly distinguishedabove the rest, and appears to have been consideredby the people at large as the reigning queen ; thatthe children of this lady, according to priority ofbirth, succeeded to the father’s honours; but, indefault of issue by the favourite princess, the sistersof the cacique, if there were no surviving brothers,took place of the cacique’s own children by hisother wives. The principal cacique was distin-guished by regal ornaments and numerous attend-ants. In travelling through his dominions, he wascommonly borne on men’s shoulders, after a man-ner very much resembling the use of the palanquinin the E. Indies. According to Martyr, he wasregarded by all his subjects with such reverence,as even exceeded the bounds of nature and reason ;for if he ordered any of them to east themselvesheadlong from a high rock, or to drown themselvesin the sea, alleging no cause but his sovereignpleasure, he was obeyed without a murmur ; op-position to the supreme authority being consi-dered not only as unavailing, but impious. Nordid their veneration terminate with the life of theprince ; it was extended to his memory afterdeath; a proof that his authority, however extra-vagant, was seldom abused. When a caciquedied, his body was cmbowelled, and dried in anoven moderately heated ; so that the bones andeven the skin Avere preserved entire. The corpseW'as then placed in a cave with those of his ances-tors, this being (observes Oviedo) among thesesimple people the only system of heraldry ; Avhere-by they intended to render, not the name alone,but the persons also, of their worthies immortal.If a cacique Avas slain in battle, and the bodycould not be recovered, they composed songs inhis praise, Avhich they taught their children. Itis related by Martyr, that on the death of a cacique,the most beloved of his wives Avas immolated at hisfuneral. Thus he observes that Anacaona, on thedeath of her brother. King Behechio, ordered a verybeautiful Avoraan, Avhose name Avas GuanahataBenechina, to be buried alive in the cave Avlicrehis body (after being dried as above mentioned)Avas deposited. But Oviedo, though by no meanspartial towards the Indian character, denies thatthis custom Avas general among them. Anacaona,Avho had been married to a Caribe, probablyadopted the practice from the account she had re-ceived from her husband of his national customs;and it is not impossible, under a female adrninis-]
[tration, (among savages), but that the extraordi-nary beauty of the unfortunate victim contributedto her destruction. These heroic effusions con-stituted a branch of solemnities, called arietoes ;consisting of hymns and public dances, accom-panied with musical instruments made of shells,and a sort of drum, the sound of which was heardat a vast distance. It is pretended that among thetraditions publicly recited, there was one of a pro-phetic nature, denouncing ruin and desolation bythe arrival of strangers completely clad, and armedwith the lightning of heaven.
6. Religious rites. — Like all other unenlightenednations, these poor Indians were indeed the slavesof superstition. Their general theology (for theyhad an established system, and a priesthood tosupport it), was a medley of gross folly and childishtraditions, the progeny of ignorance and terror.Historians have preserved a remarkable speech ofa venerable old man, a native of Cuba, who, ap-proaching Christopher Columbus with great reve-rence, and presenting a basket of fruit, addressedhim as follows. “ Whether you are divinities,”observed he, or mortal men, we know not. Y ouare come into these countries with a force, againstwhich, were we inclined to resist it, resistancewould be folly. We are all therefore at yourmercy ; but if you are men, subject to mortalitylike ourselves, you cannot be unapprised, that afterthis life there is another, wherein a very differentportion is allotted to good and bad men. If there-fore you expect to die, and believe with us, thatevery one is to be rewarded in a future state, ac-cording to his conduct in the present, you will do nohurt to those who do none to you.” This remark-able circumstance happened on the 7th of July1494, and is attested by Pet. Martyr, Dccad. i. lib.iii. and by Herrera, lib. ii. c. 14. If it be askedhow Columbus understood the cacique, the answeris, that he had carried with him to Spain, in hisformer voyage, several of the Indians ; one ofwhom, a native of Guanahani, who had remainedwith him from October 1492, had acquired the.Spanish language. This man, whose name wasDidacus, served him, on this and other occasions,both as a guide and interpreter. Their notions offuture happiness seem however to have been nar-row and sensual. They supposed that the spiritsof good men were conveyed to a pleasant valley,which they called coycha ; a place of indolenttranquillity, abounding with delicious fruits, coolshades, and murmuring rivulets ; in a countrywhere drought never rages, and the hurricane isnever felt. In this si at of bliss (the Elysium ofantiquity), they believed that their greatest enjoy-
ment would arise from the company of their de-parted ancestors, and those persons w'ho weredear to them in life. Although, like the Caribes,our islanders acknowledged a plurality of gods,like them too they believed in the existence of onesupreme, invisible, immortal, and omnipotentCreator, whom they named Jocahuna. But un-happily, with these important truths, these poorpeople blended the most puerile and extravagantfancies, which were neither founded in rationalpiety, nor productive of moral obligation. Theyassigned to the supreme Being a father and mo-ther, whom they distinguished by a variety ofnames, and they supposed the sun and moon to bethe chief seats of their residence. Their system ofidol-worship was, at the same time, more lament-able than even tliat of the Caribes ; tor it wouldseem that they paid divine honours to stocks andstones converted into images, which they calledzemi ; not regarding these idols as symbolical re-presentations only of their subordinate divinities,and useful as sensible objects, to awaken the me-mory and animate devotion, but ascribing divinityto the material itself, and actually worshippingthe rude stone or block which their own hands hadfashioned. Their idols were universally hideousand frightful, sometimes respresenting toads andother odious reptiles ; but more frequently the hu-man face horribly distorted ; a proof that they con-sidered them, not as benevolent, but evil powers ;as objects of terror, not of admiration and love.To keep alive this sacred and awful prejudice inthe minds of the multitude, and heighten its in-fluence, their bohitos or priests appropriated aconsecrated house in each village, wherein the zemiwas invoked and worshipped. Nor was it per-mitted to the people at large, at all times to enter,and on unimportant occasions approach the dreadobject of their adoration. The bohitos undertookto be their messengers and interpreters, and by theefficacy of their prayers to avert the dangers whichthey dreaded. The ceremonies exhibited on thesesolemnities were well calculated to extend thepriestly dominion, and confirm the popular sub-jection. In the same view, the bohitos added totheir holy profession the practice of physic, andthey claimed likewise the privilege of educatingthe children of the first rank of people ; a combi-nation of influence which, extending to the nearestand dearest concerns both of this life- and the next,rendered their authority irresistible. Religion washere made the instrument of civil despotism, andthe will of the cacique, if confirmed by the priest,was impiously pronounced the decree of heaven.Columbus relates, that some of his people enteringj