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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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certain seasons of tlie year it is so filled withfish, for seven leagues from its mouth, that theIndians are accustomed to harpoon them from theshores.

Cauten, a point of land, or cape, which is oneof those which form the entrance of the formerriver.

CAUTO, a settlement of the s. coast of the islandof Cuba; situate on the shore of a river whichbears the same name.

CAUX, Montanas de, mountains in the pro-vince and government of French Guinea, whichrun along the shore of a river of the same name, be-tween the rivers Orapu and Aprovaque.

(CAVALLO, as some erroneously spell it, asea-port town in the province of Venezuela, inTierra Firme. Lat. 10'’ 28'. Long. G8° 8'. SeeCabello Pderto and Cavello Puerto.)

(CAVAILLON, a town on the s. side of thes. peninsula of the island of St. Domingo, aboutthree leagues n. e. of Les Cayes, and five w. by s.of St. Louis. Lat. 18° 18' w.)

(CAVELLO, Puerto, Borburata. Oneleague e. of Puerto Cavello, was originally the onlyresort of vessels trading to this part of Venezuela.Puerto Cavello was merely frequented by smugglers,fishermen, and the outcasts of the interior. Theold town is surrounded by tlic sea, excepting aspace of a few fathoms to tlie w. ; through whichthey have now cut a canal communicating to thesea on the n. of the town to that on the s. ; thusforming an island, the egress being by a bridgewith a gate which is shut every evening, and atwhich is placed the principal guard. This islandbeing too small for the increasing population,houses were built on a tongue of land to the w. ofthe town, which was the only part free from inun-dation ; and this has now become the residence ofthe merchants, and the principal place. The totalpopulation of Puerto Cavello is 7600, of which,excepting the military and the officers of govern-ment, none are of the nobility. The whites aregenerally employed in trade and navigation ; thechief correspondence being with the ports of thecontinent or the neighbouring colonies ; for, al-though the port has been open from 1798 to thetrade of the metropolis, there is as yet but. littlecommunication with it. Of about 60 vessels trad-ing to this place, 20 at least are from Jamaica, and20 from Cura 9 oa, whilst only four or five are fromSpain. According to the custom-house books, thecargoes of these veesels are of little value ; but therevenue is defrauded, and the vessels discharge theirlading on the coast before entering the port. Thisplace supplies all the w. part of Venezuela,

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and the jurisdiction of Valencia, San Carlos, Bari-quisimeto, San Felipe, and a part of the valleys ofAragoa. About 20 Europeans engross the w holetrade. All vessels trading to the neighbourhoodresort here for repairs, and nothing but the un-wholsoraeness of the air prevents Puerto Cavellobecoming the most important port in America.This insalubrity arises from the exhalations fromthe rain water that accumulates in a clayey marshto the s. of the city. It is particularly fatal tothose who are not seasoned to the climate. In1793 a Spanish squadron anchored at Puerto Ca-vello ; but in six months of its stay, it lost one-thirdof the crew; and in 1802 a French squadron in20 days lost 16 i officers and men. It has beencomputed that 20,000 piastres fortes would be suf-ficient to drain this tatal marsh. The inhabitantsare supplied by conduits with water from a riverthat runs into the sea one- fourth of a league w. ofthe town. A military commander is also at thehead of the police, and is likewise the administra-tor of justice, his decisions being subject to an ap-peal to the royal audience. The people have de-manded the establishment of a cahildo, but withoutsuccess. They obtained in 1800 a single alcalde ywho is appointed annually ; but great inconveni-ences have been found to arise from this arrange-ment.

There is no convent, and but one church, inPuerto Cavello. The foundation of another churchwas begun, but for want of funds it has not beehcompleted. There is a military hospital, and an-other for the poor. The garrison consists of acompany of the regiment of Caracas in time ofpeace ; but daring war it is reinforced from themilitia and troops of the line. 'I'hcre arc from 300to 400 galley-slaves always employed onthepiiblicworks.

Puerto Cavello is 30 leagues from Caracas,in embarking for La Guaira, and 48 leaguesin the direction of Valencia, Maracay, Tulraero,La Victoria, atid San Pedro. Reaumur’s thermo-meter is generally in August at 26°, and in Janu-ary from 18° to 19°. Lat. 10° 20' «. Long. 70*30' w. of Paris. See Puerto Cabello.)

(CAVENDISH, a township in Windsor county,Vermont, w. of Wcathersfield, on Black river,having 491 inhabitants. Upon this river, andwithin this township, the channel has been worndown 100 feet, and rocks of very large dimensionshave been undermined and thrown down one uponanother. Holes are wrought in the rocks of va-rious dimensions and forms ; some cylindrical,from one to eight feet in diameter, and from one to15 feet in depth ; others are of a spherical form.

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CHILE.

of declaring war is by sending from town to townan arrow clenched in a dead man’s hand,which they call comocatoria; and this they didin the year 1723, making terrible havoc andslaughter. This kingdom is evidently, fromwhat has been asserted, the most fertile, abun-dant, rich, and delightful region of all America ;to which Nature has granted, in profusion, allthat she has given to others, either with a sparinghand, or at too high a price. The people areliealthy and robust. The wind which generallyprevails is thes. w. and the Puelche, which comesfrom the cordillera, is somewhat troublesome. [ThePuelche wind takes its name from some Indians socalled, and from whose country it blows.] Chileis divided into two bishoprics, suffragan to thearchbishopric of Lima ; and these are of Santiagoand La Concepcion. It is governed by a president,governor, and captain-general, which title wasfirst possessed by Doii Melchor Bravo de Saravia,and its government is divided into 18 provincesor districts, which are,

Cuyo,

Copiapo,

l-a Serena or CoquimbiQuillota,

Aconcagua,

Santiago,

Melipilla,

Rancagua,

Colchagua,

And the islands of Juatal is Santiago.

Catalogue of the barbarous Nations and principalPlaces in the kingdom of Chile.

Nations. Mountains.

Chacao,

Chilian,

Concepcion.

Confines,

Copiapo,

Coquimbo or La Se-

rena,

Imperial,

Loyola,

Mendoza,

Osorno,

Santiago,

San Juan de la Fron-tera,

San Luis de Loyola,Valdivia,

Valparaiso,

Villarica.

Forts.

Arauco,

Los Angeles,

Eyou,

Guasco,

Y tata,

Labapi,

Laxa,

Lebo,

Ligua,

Liman,

Limathi,

Longatoma,

Mapocho,

Mataquito,

Maule,

Maypo,

Nubbe or Nuble,Pereroa,

Poangue,

Queule,

Ralemo,

Salado,

Teno,

Maule,

Tucapel,

Tongoy,

Ytata,

Yumbel.

Topocalma,

Chilian,

Promontories.

Turuyan,

Estancia del Rey or

Ballena,

Uten.

Rede,

Carnero,

Ports.

Puchacay,

Cauten,

Castro,

La Concepcion,

Changui,

Cauten,

Valdivia,

Feliz,

Cerrito Verde,

Chiloe,

Villiva,

Chacao,

Fernandez. The capi-

Rivers.

Andalie,

Cumberland,

Guasco,

Antallis,

Araucanos,

Cauquis,

Chauracabis,

Guarpes,

JUncos,

Pequenches,

Pevinges,

Pincus,

Poyas,

P niches,Yanacunas.

Lakes.

Aguas Calientes,Guanacache,Mallabauquen,Padaguel,

Puren.

Antojo,

Chilian, vole.

Chuapa, vole.

Estancia de Rey, gold,Larapangui, silver,Ligua, vole.

Llaon, gold,Llupangui, gold,Notuco, vole.

Payen, lead,

Peteroa, vole.

Petorca, gold,Quillacoya, gold,Sinn, vole.

Yapel, gold.

Cities.

Calbuco,

Canetej

Castro,

Arancagua,

Biobio,

Buono,

Cachapoal,

Cauquenes,

Cauren,

Cauten,

Chavin,

Civapa,

Claro,

Copiapo,

Curarahua,

De Lora,

De la Sal,

Paracas,

Quillin,

Talcaguano,

Tome,

Tongoy.

Isles.

Chiloe,

Clones,

Farallones,

Fernandez,

Guaiteca,

Moche,

Quiriquina,

Santa Maria.

Catalogue of the Presidents, Governors, and Cap-tains-general of the Kingdom of Chile.

1. The Adelantado Pedro de Valdivia, conquer-or of the kingdom; he served much, and withgreat valour, in the conquest of Peru, was a colo-nel of foot under Francis Pizarro, entered in theyear 1537, founded the first towns, and governeduntil the year 1551 ; he was made prisoner, fight-

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[Araucanians maj justly claim tlie merit of not be-ing' ill this respect inferior to other nations. Theirgames are very numerous, and for the most partvery ingenious ; they are divided into the seden-tary and gymnastic. It is a curious fact, andworthy of notice, that among the first is tiie gameof chess, which they call comienn^ and which hasbeen known to them from time immeniorial. Thegame of quechu, which they esteem iiighiy, has agreat affinity to tliat of back-gammon ; but insteadof dice they make use of triangular pieces of bonemarked with points, which they throw with alittiehoop or circle, supported by two pegs, as wasprobably i\\e fritillus of the Ro.mans. The youthexercise themselves frequently in wrestling andrunning, ’i'hey are fond of playing at ball, whichis made from a species of rush, and called pilma.^All their gymnsatic games, many of which re-semble those of the European youth, requirestrength, are well suited to their genius, and forthe most part serve as an image of war. Whathas been said of the Araucanians does not altoge-ther apply to the Puelches, or inhabitants of thefourth uthal-mapu, situated in the Andes. These,although they conform to the general custom ofthe nation, always discover a great degree of rude-ness and savageness of manners. Their name sig-nifies eastern-men. They are of lofty stature,and are fond of hunting, which induces them fre-quently to change their habitations, and extendtheir settlements, not only to tiie eastern skirls ofthe Andes, but even to the borders of the lake Aa-gitelguapi, and to the extensive plains of Patago-nia, on the shores of the Atlantic. The Arauca-nians hold these mountaineers in high estimationfor the important services which they occasionallyrender them, and for the fidelity which they haveever observed in their alliance with them.

Chap. IT.

The wars of the Araucanians with the Spaniards,and concomitant events.

Sect. I. Comprising a period of nine years,from 1550 to 1559.

I. The Toqui Aillavila . — It was in the year1550, that the Araucanians, having resolved tosend succours to the inhabitants of Penco, whowere at that time invaded by the Spaniards, gaveorders to the Toqui Aillavila to march immediatelyto tiieir assistance at the head of 4000 men : heaccordingly passed the great river Biobio, whichseparates the Araucanian territory from that qf thePencones, and boldly offered battle to these ne-wenemies, who had advanced to meet him to theshores of the Andalien. After the first discharge

of musketry, which the Araucanians sustainedwithout being terrified or disconcerted, thus earlymanifesting how little they would regard it whenrendered familiar by habit, Aillavila, with a rapidmovement, fell at once upon the front and flanksof the Spanish army. Tiie Spaniards were con-sequently thrown into much disorder, and theirgeneral was exposed to imminent danger, havinghad his horse killed under him, when Aillavila,hurried forwards by a rash courage, received amortal wound. The Araucanians having lost theirgeneral,-with many of their most valiant officers,then retired, but in good order, leaving the fieldto the Spaniards, who had no disposition to pur-sue them. Valdivia, who had been in many bat-tles in Europe as well as America, declared thathe had never been exposed to such imminent ha-zard of his life as in this engagement.

2. The Toqui L.incoyan . — In the following yearthe Araucanians w('re again led on to tiie attack bya new toqui, Lincoyan ; when such was the ter-ror inspired by their approach, that the Spaniards,after confessing themselves, and partaking of thesacrament, thought proper to take shelter underthe cannon of their fortifications. The event ofthis battle was the cause of the foundation of thechapel dedicated to St. James, which chapel wasbuilt by the Spanish soldiers from sentiments ofgratitude, and from their supposition that the re-treat of Lincoyan, who was unsuccessful in hisfirst attack, was caused by the supernitui'aiagency of the apostle St. James himself, whomthey declared to have seen riding upon a whitehorse with a flaming sword, and striking terrorinto his enemies. The governor, after the elapseof nearly a year, resolved to attack them with areinforcement he had just received from Peru : heaccordinglj^, unobstructed by the tardy operationsof Lincoyan, bent his way towards the shores ofthe Cauten, which divides the Araucanian terri-tory into two nearly equal parts.

3. Imperial founded . — At the confluence of thisriver and that of Daraas, he founded the city ofImperial, so called in honour of the EmperorCharles the Fifth, or, as it is said by some, in con-sequence of finding there eagles with two headscut in wood, and placed as ornaments upon thetops of houses. This city was situated in a beau-tiful spot, abounding with every convenience oflife; and during the short period of its existencebecame the most flourishing of any in Chile. Itsposition on the shore of a large river, of sufficientdepth for vessels to lie close to the walls, renderedit a highly advantageous situation for commerce,and would enable it to obtain immediate succour!

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CHOCOPE, San Pedro y San Pablo de,a small settlement of the province and corregi-miento of Truxillo in Peru ; situate in the valleyof Chicama, watered and fertilized by the river ofthis name. It produces in abundance grapes,sugar-canes, olives, and every kind of Europeanfruit of the most excellent flavour. It was formerlya large population, since that the few inhabitantswho had been lel't at Concepcion, and those ofLicapa in the same valley, have incorporatedthemselves here. It has a very large and handsomechurch, although this underwent some damagefrom an earthquake experienced in this provincein 1759; the settlement suffered much also in 17S6,as did all the other towns of the coast, as, verycontrary to the custom of the climate here, it rainedwithout cessation for a period of 40 days, fromfive o’clock in the evening to the same hour in thefollowing morning, so that the houses were almostall entirely destroyed. Itis 10 leagues from the capi-tal, in the royal road which leads to Lima, andwhich is called De Valles. Lat. 7° 52' s.

[CHOCORUA, a mountain in Grafton county,New Hampshire, on the n. line of Strafford county,n. of Tamworth.]

[CHOCUITO. See Chucuito.]

CHOGUY. See Laches.

[CHOISEUL Bay, on the n. w. coast of theislands of the Arsacides, w. of port Praslin. Theinhabitants of this bay, like those at port Praslin,have a custom of powdering their hair with lime,which burns it and gives it a red appearance.]

CHOIX, a port of the w. coast of the island ofNewfoundland.

CHOLCHOL, a settlement of the district ofRepocura in the kingdom of Chile ; situate at themouth of the river Rumulhue before it enters theCauten.

CHOLCO-COCHA, a great lake of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru,upon the heights of the mountains of the Andes.It is navigated by rafts made by the Indians;fish it has none, from the excesisve cold of itswaters ; from it springs the river Caica-mayu.Mr. De la Martiniere confounds this lake, whichis called Chocolo-cocha, with the city of CastroVireyna, maintaining that the Indians call it bythe latter name, but which is erroneous.

CHOLI, a settlement and establishment of theEnglish in S. Carolina, and country of the Che-rokees Indians; situate at the source of the riverApalachicola.

CHOLIQUE, San Pablo de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxaraarca la Grande in Peru.

CHOLOAPA, San Bartolome de, a settlement of the head settlement of Huitepec, andalcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espana.It contains 84 families of Indians.

CHOLOSCOPO, San Mateo de, a settlementof the district, and alcaldia mayor of Mexilcaltzingo,in Nueva Espana, somewhat more thanhalf a league’s distance to the m. of ^his place.It contains 102 families of Indians, and has ahandsome convent of the strict observers of St.Francis, which is also a college for studies.

CHOLULA, a district and jurisdiction of analcaldia mayor in Nueva España. Its extent isvery limited, being only three leagues in length atthe widest part ; but it is nevertheless well filled withinhabitants ; its territory is level, and very fertilein wheat, maize, and pepper, which is here calledchile^ as also in other seeds, of which abundant cropsare gathered ; it formerly acquired agreat emolumentfrom the sale of cochineal, but this is laid asideand entirely abandoned. The Spaniards, Mustees^and Mulattoes, busy themselves in making clothsand woven stuffs of cotton, and they have manyworkshops, by which they supply with these articlesthe other provinces. Its population consists of 43settlements of Indians, which are,

San Juan Quantlazingo, Sta. Maria Quescomate,Santiago de Momospan, San Bernardino,

Santa Barbara, Sta. Clara Ocovica,

Todos Santos, Sta. Maria Malacatepe»

San Luis, que,

San Gregorio de Saca- Sta. Maria Coronango,pecpan, S. Miguel Coztla,

S. Francisco de Quapan, San Francisco Ocotlan

S. Diego Cuaucotla, San Antonio, ^

S. Sebastian, San Francisco,

S. Juan Cuautla, San Mateo,

Tonanchin, San Gabriel,

Santa MariaZacatepeque, San Lucas,

San Geronimo, San Martin,

San Pablo Zochimehua, San Lorenzo,

San Andres de Oiolula, TIantenango,

San Francisco Acate- Santa Isabel,peque, Los Santos Reyes,

San Bernardo Tlaxcal- S. Pablo Ahuatempa,zingo, S. Mateo, distinct from

S.AntonioCacalotepeque, the other,

Santa Ana, S. Miguel Papalotla,

San Martin TIanapa, S. Andres de Cholula.

[The district of Cholula contained in 1793 apopulation of 22,423 souls. The villages amount-ed to 42, and the farms to 45. Cholula, Tlax-clala, and Huetxocingo, are the three republicswhich resisted the Mexican yoke for so many cen-turies, although the pernicious aristocracy of theiff

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CURAHUARI an ancient province of Peru, tothe n. of Cuzco. The Inca Capac Yupanqui,fifth Emperor, conquered and united it to the em-pire.

CURAHUASI, a settlement of tlie provinceand con eginiietito of Abancay in Peru, S3 leaguesdistant from the city of Cuzco.

CURAI, a settlement of the province and cor~regimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Churin.

CURAL, a settlement of the province and cap-tainship of Rio Janeyro in Brazil ; situate on thecoast, opposite the Isla Grande.

CURAMA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Guayana. It enters the Meta, and losesits name.

CURAMPA, an ancient settlement of the pro-vince of Chinchasuyu in Peru. The Prince Ya-huar Huacar, eldest, son of the first Emperor, theInca Roca, took it by force of arms, and subjectedit to the crown. It was then one of the strongplaces of the province.

CURANARIS, a barbarous and numerous nationof Indians, divided into bodies of militia, who in-habit the woods near the river Bayari to the s. ofthe Maranon.

CURANTA, an islet or rocky shoal of thecoast of the kingdom of Chile, close to the point ofXosH umos.

CURAPO, a settlement of the missions whichare held by the religious Capuchins, in the pro-vince and government of Guayana.

CURAUAUA, a river of the kingdom of Chile,in the district and jurisdiction which belonged tothe city Imperial. It runs w. and forms Avith theEyou the great lake of Puren, out of which it runson the 5. w. side, uniting itself with the Cauten,or the Imperial.

CURASAY a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Maynas in the king-dom of Quito. It rises in the paramos of 'i'a-cunga, and after running e. for more than 90leagues, enters the Napo ; first collecting the wa-ters of the Soetuno, Noesino, and Turibuno, onthen, and on the s. the Villano. The woods onthe s. are inhabited by some barbarous nations ofIquitos, Ayacores, and Scimugaes Indians, and the«. parts by the Yates and Zaparas.

CURARICARU, a river of the province andgovernment of Guayana. It rises in the countryof the Maraucotos Indians, runs e. and turning itscourse enters the Parime or Puruma.

CURASANA, a river of the province of Barcelona, and government of Cumana. It rises neartlie settlement of Cari, towards the c. runs s. and

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enters the Orinoco, near the Angostura, or narrowpart.

CURASCO, a settlement of the province andcorregimieyito of Cochabamba in Peru ; annexed tothe coracy of Ayruhanca.

CURASENI, a small river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. It runs e. and entersthe Orinoco between the settlements of the missionsAvhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, called Santa Teresa, and San Ignacio.

CURASIRI, a small river of the province andgovernment of Cumana. It rises in the serraniaof Ymataca, runs s. and enters the Cuyuni on then. side.

CURATAQUICHE, a settlement of the pro-vince of Barcelona and government of Cumana ;situate on the shore of the river Nevery, to the s.of the city of Barcelona.

CURAZAICILLO, a small river of the pro-vince and government of Mainas in the kingdomof Quito. It rises in the country of the AbijirasIndians, runs e. and turning afterwards to the n.enters the Napo, close to the settlement of Oravia.

CURAZILLO, or Curaza Chico, or Little,a small island of the N. sea, near the coast ofTierra Firme, and close upon the e. side of Cu-ra^oa.

CURBA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimknio of Larecaxa in Peruj annexed to thecuracy of Charazani.

CURBATI, a small settlement of Indians ofthe province and government of Maracaibo; an-nexed to the curacy of the city of Pedraza. Itsnatives, although few, are docile and well in-clined.

CURE River of, in the island of Guadalupe,one of the Antilles or Windward isles. It rises inthe mountains to the e. and enters the sea betweenthe bay of La Barque and the port of Las Gpa-yabas.

CURECA, a river of the province and captain-ship of Para in Brazil. It runs nearly due n.and enters that of Las Amazonas.

[CURIACO, a bay in Tierra Firme, S. Ame-rica, on the N. sea.]

CURIANCHE, an habitation or palace, builtby the first Emperor of the Incas, Manco Capac,of very large stones, and covered with straAv; fromAvhence the city of Cuzco has its origin. Thispalace was afterwards dedicated to the sun, andbecame converted into a temple, being the mostbeautiful and rich structure of any in Peru, in thetime of the Indians; the inside of it being casedAvitb gold, and the outside with silver, these metals

Last edit almost 2 years ago by JoshuaOB
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