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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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the same being the case with regard to the numerous rivers which intersect and fertilize the province ; all of them entering and augmenting the already abundant stream of the Mississippi. In the middle of the lake is a pyramidical mount, of above 100 yards in circumference, composed of a stone similar to crystal, and being the loftiest of any in the province. Its borders abound with cattle, called cibolas, a sort of wild cow, having the neck well covered with a long and soft wool, and affording delicious food to the natives. By the fat which they procure from the numerous anteaters, which breed here, they supply {he want of oil. There are also some castors, and other kinds of mountainanimals. Two leagues from the garrison.

Adaes, a river of the above province, which runs 5. e. in the district or country of the Indians, who give it the denomination ; and enters the river Mexicano.

[ADAIZE are Indians of N. America, who live about 40 miles from Natchitoches, below the Yattasses, on a lake called Lac Macdon, which communicates with the division of Red river that passes by Bayau Pierre. They live at or near where their ancestors have lived from time immemorial. They being the nearest nation to the old Spanish fort, or mission of Adaize, that place was named after them, being about 20 miles from them to the s. There are now but 20 men of them remaining, but more women. Their language differs from all others, and is so difficult to speak or understand, that no nation can speak ten Avoids of it; but they all speak Caddo, and most of them French, to whom they were always attached, and join them against the Natchez Indians. After the massacre of Natchez, in 1798, while the Spaniards occupied the post of Adaize, their priests took much pains to proselyte these Indians to the Roman Catholic religion, but, we are informed, were totally unsuccessful.]

[ADAMS, a township in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, containing 2040 inhabitants, is about 140 miles n. w. of Boston. In the n. part of this town is a great natural curiosity. A pretty mill stream, called Hudson's brook, which rises in Vermont, and falls into the n. branch of Hoosuck river, has, for 30 or 40 rods, formed a very deep channel, in some places 60 feet deep, through a quarry of white marble. Over this channel, where deepest, some of the rocks remain, and form a natural bridge. From the top of this bridge to the water is 62 feet ; its length is about 12 or 15, and its breadth about 10. Partly undcrthis bridge, and about 10 or 12 feet below it, is another, Which is wider, but not so long ; for at the e. end they form one body of rock, 12 or 14 feet thick, and under this the water flows. The rocks here are mostly white, and in other places clouded, like the coarse marble common at Lanesborough, and in other towns in Berkshire county.]

ADAMSTOWN, a town in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, containing about 40 houses; 20 miles n. e. of Lancaster.]

ADAUA, a river of the province and government of St. Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises between the Meta and Meteta, runs e. and enters the Orinoco in the port of San Francisco de Borja.

ADAUQUIANA, a small river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia, which rises near the sierra of Parime ; and running from to. to e. enters the sources of the Cauca.

ADA YES. See Mexicano River.]

ADDI, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of a small river, between the settlements of Uquitoa and Tibutana.

ADDIS, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, one of the Antilles ; situate in the district of the parish of Christ Church, on the s. coast.

ADDISON, a township of the district of Maine in Washington county, 10 miles s. w. of Machias, on the seaboard, between Englishmen's bay and Pleasant river. It was called No. 6. until it was incorporated in Feb. 1797.]

[Addison County], in Vermont, is on the e, side of lake Champlain, and is divided nearly int© equal parts by Otter creek ; has Chittenden county on the n. and Rutland county on the s. and contains 6449 inhabitants, dispersed in 21 townships. It is about SO miles by 27. A range of the green mountains passes through it. Chief town Middlebury, granted Nov. 1761.]

Addison, a town of the above county (Addison County), containing 401 inhabitants. It lies on lake Champlain, and is separated from Newhaven, on the e. by Otter creek. Snake mountains on the s. e. lie partly in this township, granted 1761.1

ADEQUATANGIE Creek, in New York state, is the eastern headwater of Susquehannah river.]

ADICONI, a port on the coast of the N. sea, in the province and government of Venezuela. It is e. of the peninsula of Paraguana.

[ADMIRALTY Bay, and Port Mulgrave, on the n. w. coast of America, lie in Lat. 59° 31' n. Long. 140° 18'.]

ADOLES, a settlement of Indians, of the pro-

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Olifo, and between the rivers of Great and LittleMance.]

Castors, a port on the s. coast of Nova Scotia,between the White isles and the port of Tangier.

CASTRO, a capital city of the province andgovernment of Chiloé in the kingdom of Chile;peopled by the order of Don Lope Garcia de Cas-tro, governor of Peru, who gave it his name in1560 : it lies, between two small livers, and has agood port; is inhabited by some good and opu-lent families, and enjoys a pleasant ,and healthytemperature. It is also called Chjloe, and is of aregular and beautiful form ; has, besides the pa-rish church, a convent of monks of St. Francis,and a bishop auxiliary to that of Santiago. It was.sacked by the Dutch in 1643 ; is 42 leagues s. ofthe city of Osorno, in lat. 42° 40' s.

Castro, another capital city of the province andgovernment of Esmeraldas or Atacames in the king-dom of Quito ; founded. in the valley of Fili byFrancisco Quintero, in 1586.

Castro, another settlement of the province andcvrregimknto of Chillan in the kingdom of Chile ;situate in the island of Maule, on the shore of theriver Longomilla.

Castro-Vireyna, a province and corregimientoof Peru, bounded n. w. by the province ofCanete,«. by that of Yauyos, n. e. by that of Angaraes,and partly by the jurisdiction of Huamanga andHuanta, m. by that of Vilcas Huaman, s. w. bythat of Lucanas, and s. s. w. and w. by that of\^ca. It is uneven and barren, and its inhabi-tants, on this account, amount scarcely to 6900,although it is 22 leagues in length from e. to as,and 25 in width n. to s. No mines have been dis-covered here, nor are there any other roads to itthan merely such as are opened through passes inthe snow, or where no obstruction is ofered bythe copious streams which every where precipi-tate themselves down from the mountains, andwhich are particularly large in the rainy season,which is from October to Slarch. Its productionsare wheat, maize, and potatoes; and in someglens, where the cold is not so great, fruits andcattle are extremely plentiful. Here are also lla~mas, vicunas, and huanacos, the wool of whichthey turn to some profit. This province is wa-tered by rivers, some of which descend from theprovinces of the coast of the S. sea, and othersfrom the further side of the cordillera, runningtowards the e. and entering the Maranon ; it isalso watered by the Canete, which rises from theChicha, and collects other streams in this province ;by the Pisco, which rises from a lake called.firacocha ; by the Yea, from the lake Choclo-

cocha ; and by the Calcamayo, which enters theprovince of Vilcas Huaman. In all the waters ofthis province, notwithstanding they are very abun-dant, there is a great scarcity of fish, and withoutdoubt this arises from the cold which prevailshere. This province is but thinly peopled, and itsinhabitants are poor : they do not, we have heard,amount to more than 7000 souls. It consists of sixcuracies, to which there are 29 other settlementsannexed. Its yearly reparlimiento amounted to86,400 dollars, and it paid an alcavala equal to691 dollars. The capital is of the same name ; thisis a small and poor town, situate on a lofty spot,where the cold is most intense : close to it runs ariver, which is made use of for working the millsof the silver mines ; which, although they pro-duce this metal of a good quality, they are by nomeans well stocked with it. The town has a con-vent of monks of St. Francis, and two large estatescalled Huallanto and Huallanga, in which theraare churches annexed to this curacy ; is 14 leaguesfrom Huancablica, 26 from Pisco, and 60 from

la. Long. 74° 44'. Lat. 13° 49' s. The

ements of the province

are.

Saesaquero,

Tambillo,

•Cinto,

Azavi,

Huacahuaca,

Tambo,

Pilpichaca,

Capillas,

Cargonacho,

Sangaiaico,

Santa Ana,

Andaimarca,

Acostambo,

Santiago,

Cordova,

Huachos,

Ocobamba,

Claris,

Ayamarca,

Cotas,

Ocozo,

Cocas,

Larnari,

Arma,

Pacomarca,

Huanactarabo,

Querco,

lluanac.

Laramanca,

Cadrillo,

Quisahuara,

Y anac.

Huaifara,

Tancara.

CASUHATI, a mountam of the province andgovernmemt of Buenos Ayres, on the shore of theriver Hueque Lenori.

CASURO, a river of the province and coun-try of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese pos-sessions: it runs s. s. e. and enters the Trom-betas.

(CASWELL County, in Hillsborough district,N. Carolina, borders on Virginia, n : it contains10,096 inhabitants, of whom 2736 are slaves.Leesburg is the chief town.)

(CAT Island, or Guanahani, one of the Ba-hama islands. See St. Salvador.)

CATA, a settlement of the province and govern-

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either in the service of the United States duringthe war, or fled to them for protection. The in-digence or ill habits of these people occasioned thebreaking up of the settlement, and a better sort ofinhabitants have now taken their place. The landsare fertile, and two rivers run through it, wellstored with fish. It has 575 inhabitants, and threeslaves. By the state census of 1796, 76 of the in-habitants are electors.)

CHAMPLAIN, a lake of the same province, ofmore than 20 leagues in length, and from 10 to12 in width, abounding in excellent fish. It wasdiscovered in 1609 by a French gentleman of tliename of Champlain, who gave it his name, whichit still retains. It communicates with a smallerlake called Sacrament, and the canal passing fromone side to the other of these is extremely rapidanddangerous, from the inequality of its bottom. Atthe distance of 25 leagues to the s, are some verylofty mountains, which are covered with snow, andin which are found castors and a variety 'of ani-mals of the chase; and between these mountainsand the aforesaid lake are some beautiful levelmeadows or llanuras^ which, when first discover-ed, were well peopled with Iroquees Indians ; butthese have greatly diminished in numbers, throughthe continual wars Avith the French and English.[This lake is next in size to lake Ontario, and liese. n. €. from it, forming a part of the dividing linebetween the states of New York and Vermont. Ittook its name from a French governor, who wasdrowned in it; it was before called Corlaer’s lake.Reckoning its length from Fairhaven to St.John’s,a course nearly n. it is about 200 miles ; its breadthis from one to 18 miles, being very different in diffe-rent places ; the mean width is about five miles, andit occupies about 500,000 acres ; its depth is suf-ficient for the largest vessels. There are in it abovesixty islands of different sizes : the most consider-able are North and South Hero and Motte island.North Hero, or Grand isle, is 24 miles long, andfrom two to four wide. It receives at Ticonderogathe waters of lake George from the s. s. w. whichis said to be 100 feet higher than the waters of thislake. Half the rivers and streams which rise inVermont fall into it. There are several which cometo it from New York state, and some from Cana-da ; to which last it sends its own waters a n.course, through Sorell or Chamblee river, into theSt. Lawrence. This lake is well stored with fish,particularly salmon, salmon trout, sturgeon, andpickerel, and the land on its borders, and on thebanks of its rivers, is good. The rocks in severalplaces appear to be marked and stained with theformer surface of the lake, many feet higher than

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it has been since its discovery in 160S. The wa-ters generally rise from about the 20th of April tothe 20th of June, from four to six feet ; the great-est variation is not more than eight feet. It is sel-dom entirely shut up Avith ice until the middle ofJanuary, Between the 6th and 15th of April theice generally goes off, and it is not uncomtiAon formany square miles of it to disappear in one day.]

CHAMPLE, a large unpeopled tract of theprovince of Taraumara, and kingdom of NuevaVizcaya, in which there is a mountain aboundinggreatly in silver mines. Here is also a missionAvhicli Avas established by the regulars of the com-pany for the reduction of the natives : is 12leagues n. e. of the town of Santa Eulalia.

CHAMPOTON, a river of the province andgovernment of Jucatan. It runs into the sea nearthe lake of Tenninas.

CHAMUINA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Costarica in the kingdom of Guate-mala. It empties itself into the S. sea near the li-mits of this jurisdiction, and of that of Chiriqui inthe kingdom of Tierra Firme.

CHAMULA, a settlement of the province andalcaldía mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Gua-temala.

CHANAR-PUGIO, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tucumán, in the district andjurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, andeight leagues from the same.

CHANCAILLO, a small port of the S. sea, inthe province and corregimiento of Chancay, tothe n. of Lima ; little frequented, from lying ex-posed, and being insecure. In lat. 12° 3' 5.

CHANCAY, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Peru ; bounded n. by that of San-ta ; n. e. and n. by that of Caxatambo ; e. by thatof Cauta; and s. by the corregimiento of Cercado.It is 27 leagues in length from n. to s. and thesame in width e. w. and has on its coast some portsand creeks not remarkable for their security. Itcomprehends in its district two territories, one ofa cold temperature toAvards the cordillera, calledDe los Checras; and another of a warm tempera-ture, lying in the valleys towards the sea, calledDe Chancay. It is irrigated by two rivers, oneon the s. side, called Pasamayo, and the otherHuama, on the n. The latter has an arched bridge,which was built in the time of the viceroy, theMarquis de Montes Claros, the buttresses of whichare two rocks, through which the river passes.On the e. and in the cold part of this province,are found the productions peculiar to the cli-mate, such as papas, ocas, and some wheat andmaize. Here are also cattle, ot the fleeces of which

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C H Y

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ment of the province and corre^innenlo of Hiia-machuco in Peru ; one of the lour divisions of thecuracy of Estancias.

CHUQUIYAPU, an ancient province of Peru,which was conquered and united to the empire byMayta Capac, fourth Emperor of the Incas, afterthe famous battle and victory of Huallu againstthe Collas Indians. It is tolerably well j, copied,and of a cold climate. Its territory abounds inexcellent pastures, iti which there are great quan-tities of cattle. In some parts, where the tempera-ture is hot, there is found maize, cacao, and sugar-cane. This country abountls in woods, and inthese are found tigers, leopards, stags, and mon-keys of many dilFerent species.

CHURCAMPA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huanta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Mayor.

[CHURCH Creek Town, in Dorchestercounty, Maryland, lies at the head of Churchcreek, a branch of Hudson river, seven miles $.w.from Cambridge.]

[Church Hill, a village in Queen Ann’s county,Maryland, at tlie head of S. E. Creek, a branch ofChester river, n. w. of Bridgetown, and n. e. ofCentreville eight miles, and 85 s. w. from Phila-delphia. Lat. 39° 6' n. Long. 76° 10' a?.]

CHURCHILL, a great river of New S. Wales,one of tlie provinces of N. America, at the mouthof which the English Hudson bay company have afort and establishment; situate in lat. 59° w. andlong. 94° 12' w. The commerce of this place isgreat and lucrative, and on account of its greatdistance entirely secure from any disturbance fromthe French. In 1747 the number of castor-skins,which were brought by 100 Indians to this spot intheir canoes, amounted to 20,000. Several otherkinds of skins were also brought from the n, by200 other Indians ; some of whom came hither bythe river Seals, or Marine Wolves, 15 leagues tothe s. of the fort. To the n. of this fort there areno castors, since there arc no woods where theseanimals are found, though there are many otherwoods Avhich abound in wolves, bears, foxes, buf-faloes, and other animals whose skins are valuable.Here are great quantities of shrubs or small trees,planted by the factory, supplying timber ; but theopposite side, of the river is most favourable to theirgrowth ; and at a still greater distance are foundlarge trees of various kinds. The company re-siding in the fort is exposed to many risks, andobliged to inhabit a rock surrounded by frosts andsnows for eight months in the year, being exposedto all the winds and tempests. On account of thedeficiency of pasture, they maintain near the fac-tory no more than four or five horses, and a bullw ith two cows ; for the maintenance of which du-ring the winter, fodder is brought from a fennybottom some miles distant from the river. Thosewho have been hero allirm, that between this riverand the river Nelson there is, at a great distanceup the country, a communication or narrow passof land, by which these rivers are divided; and theIndians who carry on this traffic, have dealingswith the English navigating the river Nelson orAlbany. [See New Britain.]

[CHURCHTOWN, a village so called, in then. e. part of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, about20 miles e.n.e. of Lancaster, and 50w.n.w.oi'Philadelphia. It has 12 houses, and an episcopalchurch ; and m the environs are two forges, which

manufacture about 450 tons of bar iron annually.
reghnienlo of Caxatambo in Peru. Its jurisdictioacomprehends the settlements of

Huacho,

Pal pas,

Curay,

Naba,

Taucir,

Oyon,

Rapas,

Tinta,

Pachangara,

Mallay.

It has some celebrated fountains of mineral waters,

CHURUBAMBA, settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Santa Maria del Valle.

CHURUMACO, a settlement of the head settle-ment and dlealdia mayor of Cinagua in NuevaEspaña ; situate in a dry and warm country ; onwhich account the seeds scarcely ever come to ma-turity, save those of maize ; melons indeed growin abundance, owing to the cultivation they find,and from water being brought to them from a riverwhich runs at least a league’s distance from thethe settlement. In its district are several herds oflarge cattle, which form the principal branch ofthe commerce of the inhabitants : these consist of80 families of Indians. In its limits are also foundsome ranchos, in which reside 22 families of Spa-niards, and 34 of Mustees and Mulattoes. At ashort distance is the mountain called Ynguaran, inwhich copper mines are found, though this metalhas not been observed much to abound. Fourleagues to the e. of its capital.

CHURUMATAS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Yamparaes in Peru, and ofthe archbishopric of Charcas.

CHUSCOS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe ancient province of Panataguas, to the n. ofthe city of Huanuco ; of which little more than itsname is known.

CHYAIZAQUES, a barbarous nation, and

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