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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
out various ways, and watering, from the place in which it rises, the extensive vallies of Curimon, Aconcagua, Quillota, and Concon; in which are cultivated large crops of wheat, flax and hemp; and it, moreover, enters the sea in as large a stream as if it had never undergone the like ramifications: its mouth is in 33° lat.
ACONQUIJA, the most lofty mountain of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district of the city of Catamarca, and very near it. It is perpetually covered with snow, and abounds with minerals of gold. Its jurisdiction is disputed by the province of Atacama.
ACOTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Autlan. It contains 15 Indian families, who employ themselves in breeding the larger sort of cattle, in making sugar and honey, in dressing seeds, and extracting oil of cacao, which abounds greatly, from the number of trees yielding this fruit. It is annexed to the curacy of Tecolotlan, from whence it is two leagues to the S W.
ACTOPAN, the district and alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, commonly called Octupan. Its productions and commerce are as follows: They consist in seeds, rigging, saltpetre, and the feeding of goats and sheep, chiefly prized on account of their skins and their fat. It is of a mild temperature; but the ground is infested with prickly plants, thorns, and teasels. There are some estates here of about eight or ten labouring families each. In this district, and in its environs, are many singing birds, which, in the Mexican language, are called zenzontla; and among otlicrs is the nightingale. The capital bears the same name, and in it there are no less than 2750 families of Othomies Indians, divided into two parties, and separated by the church, which is a convent of the order of St. Augustin, and a very ancient piece of architecture. It also contains 50 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees. 23 leagues N N E of Mexico. Long. 98° 49' W. Lat. 20° 19'30" N.
Were Held by the Jesuits, in the province and go-vernment of Paraguay ; situate almost to the s, ofVilla Rica.
CASA-PIEDRA, a settlement of this province andkingdom ; situate near the coast and upon the shoreof a river thus called.
Casa-Piedra, a river which runs s. s. e. in thisprovince, and joins the sea very near Cape Frio.
Casarida. This river rises near the coast, runsn. and enters the sea.
CASAUATAI, a river of the province andcountry of the Amazonas : it rises from the lake ofthe Gran Cocama, in 6 ° 48' s. hit. runs to the s. ofthe Maraiion, and following its course towards then. for more than 25 leagues, runs e. to enter theUcayale on its e. side, and afterwards to receivethe waters of the Zapofe.
CASCABELES, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito :it rises near the ruins of the city of Simancas, andenters the river Caqueta, where are also the ruinsof the city of Mocoa.
CASCAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Conturnaza ; in the district of whichthere is, at three leagues distance, a large piece ofhewn stone of 13 yards long and three quarters of ayard wide on every face, particularly rough andunpolished.
Cascas, a large swamp of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos, which isformed from different arms of the rivers Sarare andApure, and communicates itself with the lake ofArechona ; both of these lakes being near the lastriver, and at the skirt of ihe paramo or mountain de-sert of Chisgas.
(CASCO Bay, in the district of Maine, spreadsn. w. between cape Elizabeth on the s. w. and capeSmall Point on the n. e. Within these points,which are about 40 miles apart, are about 300 smallislands, some of which are inhabited, and nearlyall more or less cultivated. The land on theseislands, and on the opposite coast on the main, isthe best for agriculture of any on the sea-coast ofthis country. Casco includes several bays. Maquoitbay lays about 20 miles n. of cape Elizabeth. Thewaters of Casco extend several arms or creeks ofsalt water into the country. The waters go upMeadow’s river, where vessels of a considerablesize are carried by the tide, and where it flowswithin one mile of the waters of Kennebeck. Onthe e. side of cape Elizabeth is the arm of the seacalled Stroudwater. Farther e. is Presumpscotriver, formerly called Presumpea, or Presumpkeag,which rises in Sebago Pond. This river opens tothe waters of Casco bay on the e. of Portland ; itsextent is not great, but it has several valuable millsupon it. Rayal’s river, called by the nativesW estecustego, falls into the bay six miles from
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wreck, and amongst these many valuables of goldand silver, which had grown quite discoloured, tothe amount of 40,000 dollars. Lat. 2°2l' s.
CHANEL, some islands near the coast of thecountry of Labrador, in the gulf of St. Lawrence.They are numerous and very small, one of thembeing very long and narrow ; forming a channelwith the coast, and giving its name to the rest.
CHANESES, a barbarous nation of Indians, ofthe province and government of Paraguay ; dwell-ing to the n. of the Rio de la Plata, and boundedby the Xarayes and Xacoces. They have theirhouses near the lakes, and maintain themselves byfishing.
CHANGAME, some small islands of the S. sea,and of the bay of Panamá, in the province and go-vernment of Tierra Firme. They are two in num-ber, being situate near the coast, and having be-tween them a shallow or quicksand, by which theyare communicated. They abound in a species ofbirds, from which they take their name.
CHANQUI, or Achanqui, a promontory orcape of the province and corregimiento of Valdiviain the kingdom of Chile ; being eight leagues tothe s. of San Marcelo. It forms and covers themouth or entrance of the gulf of Los Coronados,with the other cape, which is to thes. called De laBallena.
CHANTACO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito,to the w. of Chuquri-bamba, and to the s. of SanPedro, consists entirely of Indians, and lies uponthe bank of a small river, being of an excellentclimate.
diction of the city of Cordoba ; situate near therivers Segundo and Tercero, at the foot of theMontana Nevada, or Snowy mountain.
CHAPACOTO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom ofQuito ; situate at the skirt of the Gran Cuesta, ormountain of San Antonio. Through it passes asmall river, which runs down from this mountain,and empties itself in the river of Chimbo ; is of avery cold temperature, and lies in the middle of awood. Lat. l°40's.
CHAPALA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlan inNueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the greatlake or sea of this name ; has a good convent ofthe monks of St. Francis, and in its valley, whichis very fertile, there is an abundance of all kinds ofseed, as wheat, maize, French beans, and many de-licious fruits.
Chapala, another settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Zaiula in the same kingdom ; situate ina plain of a mild temperature. It contains 42 fa-milies of Indians, who trade in seeds and otherfruits, since its district abounds in garden grounds.It has a convent of the religious of St. Francis ;lies 22 leagues between the e. and n. of its capital.
Chapala, a great lake of the kingdom ofNueva Galicia, called Mar de Chapala, on ac-count of its size, is navigated by many vessels,and is extremely well stocked with fish ; fromwhich the inhabitants of the immediate settlementsderive their source of commerce.
CHAPANCHICA. See Madrigal.
CHAPARE, or Parati, a river of the provinceand government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Itrises in the serrania of the Altos or Lofts of Inti-nuyo, from two small rivers which unite ; runs inan inclined course to the e. and enters the Mar-more Grande, forming a good port.
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20. Don Ignacio de Flores, native of Quito,who had served as captain of cavalry in the regi-ment of the volunteers of Aragon, and who was go-vernor of the province of Moxos, being of the rankof colonel ; he was nominated as president by wayof reward for his services, in having been instru-mental to the pacification of the Indians of Peru,and to the succouring of the city of La Paz, whichwas besieged by rebels : he governed until 1786,when he was removed from the presidency.
Charcas, a ferocious and barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru, to the s.w. of the lakes of Aul-laga and of Paria ; conquered by Mayta Capac,fourth monarch of the Incas. At present theyare reduced to the Christian faith in the govern-ment of Chuquisaca or La Plata.
Santa Maria Charcas, a settlement, with the dedicatory titleof Santa Maria, being the real of the mines of thekingdom of Nueva Galicia, in which are markedthe boundaries of its jurisdiction, and those ofNueva Espana, the last district of the bishopric ofMechoacan. It contains a convent of the religi-ous order of St. Francis, and 50 families of Spa-niards, ilfwstees, and Mulattoes, as also many of In-dians dispersed in the rancherias and the estatesof its district: is 130 leagues to the n. J to then. w. of Mexico, 75 from Guadalaxera, and 18 tothe n. e. of the sierra of Pinos. Lat. 22° 55'.Long. 100° 40'.
Charcas, another settlement and real of themines of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate two leagues from thecapital. In its vicinity are the estates of Panuco,in which they work with quicksilver the metals ofthe mines. To its curacy, which is adminsteredby one of the Catholic clergy, are annexed twosmall settlements of Serranos Indians, amongst whomare found some few of the Tepeguana nation.
(Charles River, in Massachusetts, called an-ciently Quinobequin, is a considerable stream,the principal branch of which rises from a pondbordering on Hopkinton. It passes through Hollis-ton and Bellingham, and divides Medway fromMed field, Wrentham, and Franklin, and thenceinto Dedham, where, by a curious bend, it forms apeninsula of 900 acres of land. A stream calledlother brook runs out of this river in this town,and falls into Neponsit river, forming a naturalcanal, uniting the two rivers, and affording a num-ber of excellent mill-seats. From Dedham thecourse of the river is n. dividing Newton fromNeedham, Weston, and Waltham, passing overromantic falls ; it then bends to the n. e. and e.through Watertown and Cambridge, and passinginto Boston harbour, mingles with the waters ofMystic river, at the point of the peninsula ofCharlestown. It is navigable for boats to Water-town, seven miles. The most remarkable bridgeson this river are those which connect Boston withCharlestown and Cambridge. SeeBosxoN. Thereareseven paper mills on this river, besides other mills.][Charles County, on the w. shore of Maryland,lies between Potowmack and Patuxent rivers. Itschief town is port Tobacco, on the river of thatname. Its extreme length is 28 miles, its breadth24, and it contains 20,613 inhabitants, including10,085 slaves. The country has few hills, is gene-rally low and sandy, and produces tobacco, Indiancorn, sweet potatoes, &c.)
CHARLES. See Carlos, San.
CHARLESTON, a capital city of S. Carolina,is one of the best of N. America, excelling inbeauty, grandeur, and commerce. It is situateupon a long strip of land between two navigablerivers, which are Ashley and Cowper, and thegreater part of it upon the latter. This forms inthe city two small bays, the one to the n. and theother to the s. The town is of a regular construc-tion, and well fortified both by nature and art,having six bastions and a line of entrenchment ; onthe side of the river Cowper it has the bastions of
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and pleasantly situated. Before the deslrnction oftil is town by the British in 1775, several brandiesof mannfadures were carried on to great advan-tage, some of which have been since revived : par-ticularly tlic manufacture of pot and pearl ashes,ship-building, rum, leather in all its branches,silver, tin, brass, and pewter. Three rope-walkshave lately been erected in this town, and tlie in-crease of its houses, population, trade, and naviga-tion, have been very great within a few' years past.This town is a port of entry in conjunction withBoston. At the head of the neck there is a bridgeover Mystic river, which connects Charlestown withMalden.)
CHARLESTOWN, another city of the island ofNevis, one of the Caribes, in the Antilles ; in w Inchthere are beautiful houses and shops well providedwith every thing ; is defended by a fort calledCharles. It has a market every Saturday, begin-ning at sun-rise and finishing at mid-day, whitherthe Negroes bring 'maize, names, garden-herbs,fruits, &c. In the parish of San Juan is a pieceof sulphureous land, in the upper extremity of anopening of the land, called Solfatara, or Sulphurgut, which is so hot as to be telt through the solesof the shoes when being trodden upon. At thefoot of the declivity of this same part of the city,is a small hot stream, called the Bath, which beingsupposed to rise from the aforesaid spot, loses itselfshortly in the sand. Towards the side lying nextthe sea are two fountains, one of hot water, theother of cold, and of these two are formed the lakeof Blackrock, the waters of which are of a moderatewarmth, and which lies to the n. of the city, beingnearly a quarter of a mile’s distance from the placewhere are caught eels and silver-fish, resemblingthe cod and slimgut in flavour, the latter of whichlias a head disproportioned to its body. [A prodi-gious piece ol Nevis mountain falling down in anearthquake several years ago, left a large vacuity,which is still to be seen. The altitude of thismountain, taken by a quadrant from Charlestownbay, is said to be a mile and a half perpendicular ;and from the said bay to the top, four miles. Thedeclivity from this mountain to the town is verysteep half-way, but afterwards easy of ascent.] InLat. 17° 8' u. and long. 62° 40' w.
Charlestown, another city of the island ofBarbadoes ; the situation of which is two leaguesfrom that of San Miguel. It has a good port de-fended by two castles ; the one beyoml the other,and both commanding the city and the road: inthe middle of them is a platform. Tlse inhabitantscarry on a great trade with the other islands.
county. New York, on the s. side of Mohawk river,about 32 miles w. of Schenectady. By the statecensus of 1796, 456 of the inhabitants are elec-tors.)
(Charlestown, a township in Mason county,Kentucky ; situate on the Ohio, at the mouth ofLauren’s creek. It contains but few houses, andis six miles n. of Washington, and 60 n. e. of Lex-ington. Lat. 38° 28' n.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cheshire county,New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecticutriver, 30 miles s. of Dartmouth college, upwards of70 n. of Northampton, 116 n. of w. of Boston, 120w. by 71. of Portsmouth, and 431 n. n. e. of Phila-delphia. It was incorporated in 1753, and con-tains 90 or 100 houses, a Congregational church,a court-house, and an academy. The road fromBoston to Quebec passes through this town. Lat.43° 16' n. Long. 72° 23' w. A small internaltrade is carried on here.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cecil county,Maryland, near the head of Chesapeak bay ; sixmites e. n. e. from the mouth of Susquehannahriver, 10 zo. s. w. from Elktown, and 50 s. w. by zb.from Philadelphia. Here are about 20 houses,chiefly inhabited by fishermen employed in theherring fishery. Lat. 39° 36' w.)
(Charlestown, a district in the lower countryof S. Carolina, subdivided into 14 parishes. Thislarge district, of which the city of Charleston is thechief town, lies between Santee and Combaheerivers. It pays 21,473/. 14s. 6d. sterling, taxes. Itsends to the state legislature 48 representatives and13 senators, and one member to congress. It con-tains 66,986 inhabitants, of whom only 16,352 arefree.)
(Charlestown, a township in Washingtoncounty, Rhode Island state, having the Atlanticocean on the s. and separated from Richmond on the71. by Charles river, a water of Fawcatiick. Some ofits ponds empty into Fawcatiick river, otliers intothe sea. It is 19 miles /L ti:;. of Newport, andcontains 2022 inhabitants, including 12 slaves. Afew years ago there w'ere about 500 Indians in thestate ; the greater part of them resided in tin's town-ship. They are peaceable and well disposed togovernment, and s|5cak the English language.)
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(CHATA-HATCHI, or Hatchi, is the largestriver which falls into St. Rose’s bay in W. Florida.It is also called Pea river, and runs from n. e. en-tering the bottom of the bay through severalmouths, but so shoal that only a small boat orcanoe can pass them. Mr. Hutchins ascended thisriver about 25 leagues, where there was a smallsettlement of Coussac Indians. The soil and tim-ber on the banks of the river resemble very muchthose of Escambia.)
(CHATAUCHE, or Chatahuthe, a river inGeorgia. The n. part of Apalachiola river bearsthis name. It is about SO rods wide, very rapid,and full of shoals. The lands on its banks are lightand sandy, and the clay of a bright red. Thelower creeks are settled in scattering clans and vil-lages from the head to the mouth of this river.Their huts and cabins, from the high colour of theclay, resemble clusters of new-burned brick kilns.The distance from this river to the Talapose river,is about 70 miles, by the war-path, which crossesat the falls, just above the town of the Tucka-batches.)
(CHATAUGHQUE Lake, in Ontario county.New York, is about 18 miles long, and three broad.Conewango river, which runs a s. s. e. course,connects it with Alleghany river. Tliis lake isconveniently situated fora communication betweenlake Erie and the Ohio ; there being water enoughfor boats from fort Franklin on the Alleghany tothe n. w. corner of this lake ; from thence there isa portage of nine miles to Cliatanghque harbour onlake Erie, over ground capable of being made agood waggon road. This communication was onceused by the French.)
niently for the fishery ; in which they have usuallyabout 40 vessels employed. It has 1140 inhabi-tants, and lies 95 miles s. e. of Boston. See CapeCod.)
(Chatham County, in Hillsborough district,N. Carolina, about the centre of the state. It con-tains 9221 inhabitants, of whom 1632 are slaves.Chief town, Pittsburg. The court-house is a fewmiles w. of Raleigh, on a branch of Cape Fearriver.)
(Chatham, a town of S. Carolina, in Cherawsdistrict ; situate in Chesterfield county, on the w.side of Great Pedee river. Its situation, in a highlycultivated and rich country, and at the head of anavigable river, bids fair to render it a place ofgreat importance. At present it has only about 30houses, lately built.)
(Chatham County, in the lower district ofGeorgia, lies in the n. e. corner of the state, havingthe Atlantic ocean e. and Savannah river n. e. Itcontains 10,769 inhabitants., including 8201 slaves.The chief toAvn is Savannah, tlie former capital ofthe state.)
(Chatham House, in the territory of the Hud-son bay company. Lat. 55° 28' n. Long. 97*32' w. from Greenwich.)
CHAUCHILLOS, a settlement of the province
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[Chowan County, in Edenton district, N.Carolina, on the n. side of Albemarle sound. Itcontains 5011 inhabitants, of whom 2588 are slaves.Chief town, Edenton.]
[Chowan River, in N. Carolina, falls intothe n. w. corner of Albemarle sound. It is threemiles wide at the mouth, but narrows fast as youascend it. It is formed, five miles from the Vir-ginia line, by the confluence of Meherrin, Notta-way, and Black rivers, which all rise in Vir-ginia.]
[CHRIST CnuacH, a parish in Charleston dis-trict, S. Carolina, containing 2954 inhabitants, ofwhom 566 are whites, 2377 slaves.]
[CHRISTENOES, a wandering nation of N.America, who do not cultivate, nor claim any par-ticular tract of country. They are well disposedtowards the whites, and treat their traders Avith re-spect. The country in which these Indians roveis generally open plains, but in some parts, parti-cularly about the head of the Assinniboin river, itis marshy and tolerably Avell furnished with timber,as are also the Fort Dauphin mountains, to whichthey sometimes resort. From the quantity ofbeaver in their country, they ought to furnish mofeof that article than they do at present. They arenot esteemed good beaver-hunters. They mightprobably be induced to visit an establishment onthe Missouri, at the Yellow Stone river. Theirnumber has been reduced by the small-pox sincethey Avere first known to the Canadians.]
[CHRISTIANA, a post-town in Newcastlecounty, Delaware, is situated on a navigable creekof its name, 12 miles from Elkton, nine s. w. ofWilmington, and 37 s. w. of Philadelphia. Thetown, consisting of about 50 houses, and a Presby-terian church, stands on a declivity which commandsa pleasant prospect of the country towards the De-laware. It carries on a brisk trade with Philadel-phia in flour. It is the greatest carrying place be-tween the navigable Avaters of the Delaware andChesapeak, which are 13 miles asunder at thisplace. It was built by the Swedes in 1640, andthus called after their queen.]
[Christiana Creek, on which the above townis situated, falls into Delaware river from the w.a little below Wilmington. It is proposed to cut acanal of about nine miles in length, in a s. to. direc-tion from this creek, at the toAvn of Christiana (sixmiles w. s. w. of Newcastle) to Elk river in Mary-land, about a mile below Elkton. See Delawareand Wilmington.]
[Christiana, St. one of the Marquesa isles,called by the natives Waitahu, lies under the sameparallel with St. Pedro, three or four leagues moreto the w. Resolution bay, near the middle of thew. side of the island, is in lat. 9° 58' s. long. 139'^840' w. from Greenwich ; and the w. end of Do-minica 15 71. Captain f^ook gave this bay thename of his ship. It Avas called Port Madre deDios by the Spaniards. This island produces cot-ton of a superior kind. A specimen of it is depo-sited in the museum of the Massachusetts HistoricalSociety.]
[CHRISTIANSBURG, the chief town of Mont-gomery county, Virginia. It contains A’ery fewhouses ; has a court-house and goal, situated neara branch of Little river, a water of the Kanhaway.Lat. 37° 5' ».]
[CHRISTIANSTED, the principal town in theisland of Santa Cruz, situated on the n. side of theisland, on a fine harbour. It is the residence of theDanish governor, and is defended by a stone for-tress.]
[CHRISTMAS Island, in the Pacific ocean,lies entirely solitary, nearly equally distant fromthe Sandwich islands on the n. and the Marquesason the s. It Avas so named by Captain Cook, onaccount of his first landing there, on Christmasday. Not a drop of fresh Avater was found by dig-ging. A ship touching at this desolate isle mustexpect nothing but turtle, fish, and a few birds. Itis about 15 or 20 leagues in circumference, andbounded by a reef of coral rocks, on the xc. side of
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but very little known, of Indians, of the NuevoReyno de Granada, bordering upon the riverFusagasuga. They are few, and live dispersed inthe woods, having a communication with the Faecesand Fusungaes.
[CHYENNES, Indians of N. America, theremnant of a nation once respectable in point ofnumber. They formerly resided on a branch ofthe Red river of Lake Winnipie, which still bearstheir name. Being oppressed by the Sioux, theyremoved to the w, side of the Missouri, about15 miles below the mouth of Warricunne creek,where they built and fortified a village ; butbeing pursued by their ancient enemies the Sioux,they fled to the Black hills, about the head of theChyenne river, where they wander in quest of thebuffalo, having no fixed residence. They do notcultivate. They are well disposed towards thewhites, and might easily be induced to settle on theMissouri, if they could be assured of being pro-tected from the Sioux. Their number annuallydiminishes. Their trade may be made valuable.]
[CIACICA. See Cicasica.]
[CIBOLA, or Civola, the name of a town in,ana also the ancient name of, New Granada inTierra Firroe, S. America. The country here,though not mountainous, is very cool ; and theIndians are said to be the whitest, wittiest, mostsincere and orderly of all the aboriginal Americans.When the country was discovered, they had eachbut one wife, and were excessively jealous. Theyworshipped water, and an old woman that was amagician ; and believed she lay hid under one oftlicir
CIBOO, Minas de, some rough and craggymountains, nearly in the centre of the island of St. Domingo, where some gold mines are worked, andfrom whence great wealth was procured at the be*ginning of the conquest.
CICASICA, a province and corregimiento ofPerú ; bounded n. and n. e. by the mountains ofthe Andes, and the province of Larecaxa ; e. bythe province of Cochabamba ; s. e. by that of Pariaand coTTCgirnicnto of Oruro ; on the s . it is touchedby the river of Desaguadero ; s. w, by the provinceof Pacages ; and n. w.. and w. by the city of La Paz.It is one of the greatest in the whole kingdom,since the corregidor is obliged to place here 12lieutenants for the administration of justice, on ac-count of its extent. It is five leagues from n. to j.and 80 from e. to w. Its temperature is various ;in some parts there are some very cold serrantasyin which breed every species of cattle, in proportionto the number of estates found there. That partwhich borders upon the Andes is very hot andmoist, but at the same time fertile, and aboundingin all kinds of fruits and plantations of sugar-cane,and in cacao estates, the crops of which are verygreat, and produce a lucrative commerce ; the useof this leaf, which was before only common to theIndians, being now general amongst the Spaniardsof both sexes and all classes ; so that one basket-ful, which formerly cost no more than five dollars,will now fetch from 10 to 11 ; vines are also culti-vated, and from these is made excellent wine. Thisprovince is watered by the river La Paz, which isthe source of the Beni ; also by a river descendingfrom the branches of the cordillera, and which, inthe wet season, is tolerably large. At the riverCorico begins the navigation by means of rafts tothe settlement of Los Reyes. Amongst the pro-ductions of this province may be counted Jesuitsbark, equal to that of Loxa, according to the ex-periments made at Lima. This province begins atthe river Majaviri, which divides the suburbs ofSanta Barbara from the city of La Paz, and hereis a little valley watered by the above river, and init are a few houses or country-seats belonging tothe inhabitants of the above city. This valley,which is of a delightful temperature, extends asfar as the gold mine called Clmquiahuilla, onthe skirt of the cordillera, where was foundthat rich lump of gold which weighed 90 marks,the largest ever seen in that kingdom, with the pe-culiarity, that upon assaying it, it was found tohave six different alloys ; its degrees of perfec-tion differing from 18 to 23 j ; and that beingvalued in Spanish money, it proved to be worth11,269 dollars reals. This prize was carried tothe royal treasury, and upon this occasion theMarquis of Castelfuerte, then viceroy, receivedthe thanks of his majesty. In the territory ofCinco Curatos (or Five Curacies) of the Andes arefound in the forests excellent woods, such as cedars,corcoholos, &c. and many fine fruits, also tobacco.It had formerly very rich mines of gold and silver,which are still known to exist in other mountainsbesides that of Santiago, but the natives have no in-clination to work them. The aforementionedmountain has the peculiarity of abounding in eithersort of the said metals. In the asiento of the minesof Arica, there is a gold mine which produces butlittle. From the wo^ of the flocks are made sora«
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[CLARE, a township on St. Mary’s bay, inAnnapolis county, Nova Scotia. It has about50 families, and is composed of woodland andsalt marsh.]
CLARE, a small island of the South sea, close tothe port of Guayaquil. It is desert, and twoleagues in length. It is commonly called Amorta~jado, since, being looked upon from any part, itbears the resemblance to a dead man. Twenty-five leagues from Cape Blanco.
[Clare, a very lofty mountain of the provinceand government of Sonora in Nueva Espaila, nearthe coast of the gulf of California, and in themost interior part. It was discovered in 1698.]
[CLAREMONT, a township in Cheshire coun-ty, New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecti-cut river, opposite Ascutney mountain, in Ver-mont, and on the n. side of Sugar river ; 24; milesi. of Dartmouth college, and 121 s.w. hy w. ofPortsmouth. It was incorporated in 1764, andcontains 1435 inhabitants.]
[Claremont County, in Camden district, S.Carolina, contains 2479 white inhabitants, and2110 slaves. Statesburg is the county town.]
[Clarendon, a township near the centre ofRutland county, Vermont, watered by Ottercreek and its tributary streams; 14 or 15 miles e.of Fairbaven, and 44 «. e. of Bennington. It con-tains 1478 inhabitants. On the s. e. side of amountain in the w. part of Clarendon, or in theedge of Tinmouth, is a curious cave, the mouthof which is not more than two feet and a half indiameter ; in its descent the passage makes anangle with the horizon of 35° or 40°; but con-tinues of nearly the same diameter through itswhole length, which is 31^ feet. At that distancefrom the mouth, it opens into a spacious room, 20feet long, 12| wide, and 18 or 20 feet high ; everypart of the floor, sides, and roof of this room ap-pear to be a solid rock, but very rough and un-even. The water is continually percolating throughthe top, and has formed stalactites of variousforms ; many of which are conical, and some havethe appearance of massive columns ; from thisroom there is a communication by a narrow pas-sage to others equally curious.]
Same name, another (settlement), of the same island (Barbadoes), on the 5 ..coast.
[Clarke, a new county of Kentucky, betweenthe head waters of Kentucky and Licking rivers-Its chief town is Winchester.]
[CLARKSBURG, the chief town of Harrisoncounty, Virginia. It contains about 40 houses, acourt-house, and gaol ; and stands on the e. sideof Monongahela river, 40 miles s. w. of Morgan-town.]
[CLARKSTOWN, in Orange county. NewYork, lies on the w. side of the Tappan sea, twomiles distant, n. from Tappan township six miles,and from New York city 29 miles. By the statecensus of 1796, 224 of its inhabitants are elec-tors.]
[CLARKSVILLE, the chief town of what wastill lately called Tennessee county, in the state ofTennessee, is pleasantly situated on the e. bank ofCumberland river, and at the mouth of Red river,opposite the mouth of Muddy creek. It containsabout SO houses, a court-house, and gaol, 45,miles w. w. of Nashville, 220 n. w. by w. ofKnoxville, and 940 zso. by s. of Philadelphia.Lat. 36° 25' n. Long. 87° 23' a).]
[Clarksville, a small settlement in the n, w.territory, which contained in 1791 about 60 souks.It is situate on the n. bank of the Ohio, oppositeLouisville, a mile below the rapids, and 100miles s. e. of post Vincent. It is frequently flood-ed when the river is high, and inhabited bypeople who cannot at present find a better situa-tion.]
c o c
COCO, a river of the province and governmentof Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountains of the n. and enters the seaopposite the island of Las Palmas, and gives itsname to the territory of a Cacique, thus called.
COCOMERACHI, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara, andkingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. It is 40 leagues tothe w. s.zo. of the town 'And real of the mines ofChiguaga.
COCONUCO, See Cucunuco.
COCOS, some small islands of the Pacific orS. sea, lying close together, and divided by somenarrow channels. They abound in cocoa-trees,and from thence take their name. They are alsocalled Santa Cruz, from having been discoveredon the day of the invention of the cross. Theclimate here is pleasant, but the isles are unculti-vated and desert. Lat. 5° n.
COCUI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Tunja in the NueVo Reyno de Gra-nada ; situate at the foot of the sierra Nevada. Itis of a cold temperature, but abounds in all kindsof productions, and particularly in wheat, maize,barley, &c. It contains 700 white inhabitants,and 150 Indians. Thirty-two leagues from Tunja,and eight from the settlement of Chita.
COCUPAC, a city and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofValladolid in Nueva Espana, and of the bishopricof Mechoaean. Its situation is in a nook to the n.of the great lake. On the e. and ze. are two loftymountains, which form so many other entrances,the one to the 5. and the other to the n. Its tem-perature is rather cold than w'arm ; and althoughit does not want for fruits, it is but ill supplied withwater, the only stream it has not running morethan the distance of a stone’s throw before it entersa lake. The inhabitants are thus under the ne-cessity of supplying themselves by wells. Thepopulation of this city consists in 45 families ofSpaniards, 52 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 150of Indians. They occupy themselves in the mak-ing of tiles or flags ; and the inferior order aremuleteers. It has a convent of the religious orderof St. Francis.
COD, a cape of the coast of New England andprovince of Massachusetts. It runs for many leaguestowards the sea, forming a large semicircle, andafterwards returning, forms the bay of Barnstable.[See Cape Cod, Barnstable, &c.]
C O H
or country of Labrador. It runs s. e, and entersthe St. Lawrence.
CODEGO. See Tierra Bomba.
[CODORUS, a township in York county,Pennsylvania.]
[COEYMANS, a township in Albany county.New York, 12 miles below Albany. By the statecensus of 1796, S89 of its inhabitants are electors.]
COFANES, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe kingdom of Quito, Avhich began to be con-verted to the Catholic religion in 1602, throughthe labour and zeal of the Father Rafael Ferrer,of the extinguished company of the Jesuits, andwho was killed by the same Indians. The princi-pal settlement, founded by this martyr, with thededicatory title of San Pedro, is now almost de-stroyed, though some few inhabitants still remain.The same is situate between the river of its nasneto the n. and that of Azuela to the s. The aboveriver is large and rapid, anti takes its name fromthese Indians. It rises in the sierra Nevada, orSnowy, runs from u. to c. and enters the Azuela,in lat. 13° n.
COGUA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofZipaguira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Itis of a very cold temperature, and abounds in theproductions peculiar to its climate, particularlyin fire-wood, with which it supplies, for the ma-nufacturing of salt, the settlements of Nemoconand Zipaquira. To this last settlement it is verycontiguous ; and it lies nine leagues n, of SantaFe. Its population is reduced to 70 housekeepers,and as many other Indians.
[CoHANZY, or Casaria, a small river,which rises in Salem county. New Jersey, andrunning through Cumberland county, empties intoDelaware river, opposite the upper end of Bombayhook. It is about SO miles in length, and is na-vigable for vessels of 100 tons to Bridgetown, 20miles from its mouth.]
[COHASSET, a township in Norfolk county,Massachusetts, which was incorporated in 1770,and contains 817 inhabitants. It has a Congrega-tional church, and 126 houses, scattered on dif-ferent farms. Cohasset rocks, which have been sofatal to many vessels, lie oft' this town, about aleague from the shore. It lies 25 miles s. e. ofBoston, but in a straight line not above half thedistance.]
[COHGNAWAGA, a parish in the townshipof Johnstown, Montgomery county. New York,on the ay. side of Mohawk river, 26 miles w. ofSchenectady. This place, which had been settlednear SO years, and which was the seat of Sir Wil-liam Johnson, was mostly destroyed by the Bri-tish and Indians, under the command of Sir Wil-liam in the year 1780; in this action Johnsonevinced a want of feeling which would have dis-graced a savage. The people destroyed in thisex[)cdition were his old neighbours, with whomhe had formerly lived in the habits of friendship ;his estate was among them, and the inhabitantshad always considered him as their friend andneighbour. These unfortunate people, after see-ing their houses and property consumed to ashes,were hurried, such as could walk, into cruel cap-tivity ; those who could not Avalk fell victims tothe toraaliawk and scalping knife. See Caghna-w aga.]
[COllOEZ, or the Falls, in Mohawk river, be-tween two and three miles from its mouth, and 10miles n. of Albany, are a very great natural curio-sity. The river above the falls is about 300 yardswide, and approaches them from the n. w. in a
C O U
into tlie Banos, and which, after the great cas-cade, is known by the name of Pastaza. To then. rises the Padregal, afterwards called Pita, as itpasses through the llanura of Chillo ; and at theskirt of the mountain of Guangopolo, where theplain terminates, it unites itself with the Ama-g^uaiia, and then turning w. takes the names ofTumbaco and Huallabamba, to enter the Esmeral-das, which disembogues itself into the S. sea. Atthe skirt of this great mountain are the estates ofSinipu, Pongo, Pucaguaita, and Papaurca, It isdistant from the settlement of Mula-halo half aleague, and five leagues from its capital. In lat.40° IPs. (The height of this volcano was dis-covered, in 1802, to be only 260 feet lower thanthe crater of Antisana, which is 19,130 feet abovethe level of the sea.)
COTOPAXI. See Cotopacsi.
COTUI, a town of St. Domingo ; founded, in1504, by Rodrigo Mexia deTruxillo, by the orderof the cometidador mayor of Alca.ntara, Nicolasde Obando, 16 leagues to the n. of the capital, St.Domingo, on the skirt of some mountains whichare 12 leagues in height, and at the distance oftwo leagues from the river Yauna. It is a smalland poor town. Its commerce depends upon thesalting of meats, and in preparing tallow and hidesto carry to St. Domingo, and in the chase of wildgoats, which are sold to the French. In its moun-tains is a copper mine, two leagues to the s. e. ofthe town. The Bucaniers, a French people of theisland of Tortuga, commanded by Mr. Pouancy,their governor, took and sacked it in 1676. (In
1505, the gold mines were worked here. Thecopper mine above alluded to is in the mountain ofMeymon, whence comes the river of the samename, and is so rich, that the metal, when refined,will produce eight per cent, of gold. Here are alsofound excellent lapis lazuli, a streaked chalk, thatsome painters prefer to bole for gilding, load-stone, emeralds, and iron. The iron is of the bestquality, and might be conveyed from the chain ofSevico by means of the river Yuna. The soilhere is excellent, and the plantains produced hereare of such superior quality, that this manna of the
Antilles is called, at St. Domingo, Sunday plan-tains. The people cultivate tobacco, but arechiefly employed in breeding swine. The inhabi-tants are called clownish, and of an unsociablecharacter. The town is situated half a leaguefrom the s. w. bank of the Yuna, which becomesunnavigable near this place, about 13 leagues fromits mouth, in the bay of Samana. It contains 160scattered houses, in the middle of a little savana,and surrounded Avith woods, SO leagues n. of St.Domingo, and 15 s.e. of St. Yago.)
CORUCO. Sec Cabo.
COUPEE, a point of the coast and shore of theMississippi in Canada, [it is also called CutPoint, and is a short turn in the river Mississippi,about 35 miles above Mantchac fort, at the gut ofIbberville, and 259 from the mouth of the river.Charlevoix relates that the river formerly made agreat turn here, and some Canadians, by deepen-ing the channel of a small brook, diverted thewaters of the river into if, in the year 1722. Theimpetuosity of the stream was such, and the soilof so rich and loose a quality, that in a short timethe point was entirely cut through, and the oldchannel left dry, except in inundations ; by whichtravellers save 14 feagues of their voyage. Thenew channel has been sounded Avith a line of SOfathoms, without finding bottom. The Spanishsettlements of Point Coupee extend 20 miles on thew. side of the Mississippi, and there are some plan-tations back on the side of La Fause Riviere,through Avhich the Mississippi passed about 70years ago. The fort at Point Coupee is a square
known by the name of Carenas. It is of a kind,warm, and dry temperature, and more mild thanthe island of St. Domingo, owing to the refreshinggales which it experiences from the n. and e. Itsrivers, which are in number 15S, abound in richfish ; its mountains in choice and vast timber ;namely cedars, caobas^ oaks, ('ranadillos, guaya-canes^ and ebony-trees ; the fields in singing birds,and others of the chase, in flourishing trees andodoriferous plants. The territory is most fertile,so that the fields are never without flowers, and thetrees are never stripped of their foliage. Some ofthe seeds produce two crops a year, the one ofthem ripening in the depth of winter. At the be-ginning of its conquest, much gold was taken fromhence, and principally in the parts called, at thepresent day, lagua, and the city of Trinidad ; andthe chronicler Antonio de Herera affirms that thismetal was found of greater purity here than in theisland of St. Domingo. Some of it is procured atthe present day at Holguin. Here are sorne veryabundant mines of copper and load-stone; andartillery was formerly cast here, similar to thatwhich was in the fortified places of the Havana,Cuba, and the castle of the Morro. Here was es-tablished an asiento of the mines, under the reign ofthe King Don J uan de Eguiluz, when no h ss aquan-tity than lOOG quintals of gold were sent yearly toSpain. In the jurisdiction of the Havana, an ironmine has been discovered some little time since, ofan excellent quality, and the rock crystal foundhere is, when wrought, more brilliant than thefinest stones. In the road from Bayamo to Cuba,are found pebbles of various sizes, and so perfectlyround that they might be well used for cannon-balls. The baths of medical warm waters are ex-tremely numerous in this island. It contains 1 1large and convenient bays, very secure ports, andabundant salt ponds, also 480 sugar engines, fromwhich upwards of a million of arrobas are em-barked every year for Europe, and of such anesteemed and excellent quality, as without beingrefined, to equal the sugar of Holland or France ;not to mention the infinite quantity of this articleemployed in the manufacturing of delicious sweet-meats ; these being also sent over to Spain andvarious parts of America. It contains also 982herds of large cattle, 617 inclosures for swine, 350folds for fattening animals, 1881 manufactories, and5933 cultivated estates ; and but for the want ofhands, it might be said to abound in every neces-sary of life, since it produces in profusion yiicas,sweet and bitter, and of which the cazave bread ismade, coffee, maize, indigo, cotton, some cacaoand much tobacco of excellent quality ; this being
one of the principal sources of its commerce, anrJthat which forms the chief branch of the royalrevenue. This article is exported to Europe inevery fashion, in leaf, snuff, and cigars, and is heldsuperior to the tobacco of all the other parts ofAmerica. The great peculiarity of this climateis, that we find in it, the whole year round, themost Belicate herbs and fruits, in full season, nativeeither to Europe or these regions ; and amongstthe rest, the pine is most delicious. The fields areso delightful and so salutary, that invalids go to-reside in them to establish their health. Throughoutthe Avhole island there is neither wild beast or ve-nomous animal to be found. Its first inhabitantswere a pacific and modest people, and unacquaintedwith the barbarous custom of eating human flesh,and abhorring theft and impurity. These haveb-3corne nearly extinct, arid the greater part ofthem hung themselves at the beginning of the con-quest, through vexation at the hardships inflictedupon them by the first settlers. At the presentday, the natives are the most active and industriousof any belonging to the Antilles islands. Thewomen, although they have not the complexion ofEuropeans, are beautiful, lively, affable, of acutediscernment, lovers of virtue, and extremely hos-pitable and generous. The first town of this islandwas Baracoa, built by Diego Velazquez in 1512.,It is divided into two governments, which are thatof Cuba and that of the Havana : these are sub-div'ided into jurisdictions and districts. The go-vernor of the Havana is the captain-general ofthe whole island, and his command extends as faras the provinces of Louisiana and Movila ; and hisappointment has ever been looked upon as a si-tuation of the liighest importance and confidence.He is assisted by general officers of the greatestabilities and merits in the discharge of his office.When the appointment becomes vacant, the vice-roy of the Havana, thfbugh a privilege, becomesinvested with the title of Captain-General in thegovernment. The whole of the island is onediocese; its jurisdiction comprehending the pro-vinces of Louisiana, and having the title of thoseof Florida and the island of Jamaica. It is suf-fraganto the archbishopric of St. Domingo, erectedin Baracoa in 1518, and translated to Cuba bybull of Pope Andrian VI. in 1522. It numbers21 parishes, 90 churches, 52 curacies, 23 convents,3 colleges, and 22 hospitals. In 1763 some swarmsof bees were brouglit from San Agnstin de LaFlorida, which have increased to such a degree,that the wax procured from them, after reservingenough for the consumption of all the superiorclass, and independently of that used in the