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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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It was conquered and united to the empire byInca Roca, the sixth Emperor.

CHALLAPATA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienlo of Paria in Peru.

CHALLAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarquilla or Pataz in Peru,in the district of which is an estate called Huasil-las, where there is a house of entertainment be-longing to the religion of St. Francis, in whichreside the missionaries who assist in the conversionof the infidel Indians of the mountains.

CHALOUPES, PUERTO DE LAS, a port inthe island of Guadalupe, and on the n. coast, issmall, and lies between the Punta Antigua (OldPoint) and the Mole bay.

CHALUANCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Amaraez in Peru ; situate onthe shore of the river Pachachaca.

CHALUANI, a settlement of the same provinceand corregimiento as the former ; annexed to thecuracy of Sirca.

CHAMA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Maracaibo. It rises at the foot of thesnowy sierra, runs, making the form of two SS, tothe e. and rt;. and passing by to the s. of the cityof Merida, returns n. and enters the great lake ofMaracaibo at the side opposite its mouth.

Chama, a large and fertile valley of the sameprovince and government, to the s. of the lake.

CHAMACA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru.

CHAMACON, a river of the province and go-vernment of Darien in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; it rises in the mountains of the e. coast,and runs from s. e. to n. w. until it enters the largeriver Atrato near its mouth.

CHAMACUERO, San Francisco de, a set-tlement and head settlement of the district of thealcaldia mayor of Zelaya in the province and bi-shopric of Meohoacan. It contains 690 families ofIndians, and more than 30 of Spaniards, Mustees,and Mulaltoes, with a convent of the order of St.Francis ; is five leagues to the n. of its capital.

CHAMAL, a settlement of Indians of the Chi-chimeca nation, in the head settlement of the dis-trict of Tamazunchale, and alcaldia mayor of Valles,in Nueva Espana ; situate in a valley of the samename. Its inhabitants having been reduced atthe beginning of the 18th century, and having re-quested a priest, one was sent them of the religionof St. Francis ; but no sooner did he arrive amongstthem than they put him to death, eating his body,and at the same time destroying the settlement.They were, however, afterwards reduced to thefaith, rather through the hostilities practised against

them by their neighbours than a desire of embrac-ing it. It is five leagues from Nuestra Senorade la Soledad.

CHAMANGUE, a river of the province andgovernment of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom ofQuito. It runs through the territory of the city ofAvila from n. w. to s. e. and enters the river Coca,on the w. side, in lat. 46° s.

CHAMARI, a small river of the province andcountry of the Amazonas, which runs s. s. e. andenters the river Madera opposite that of Guayapa-ranna.

CHAMARIAPA, a settlement of the provinceof Barcelona, and government of Curaana, in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; one of those which areunder the care of the religious observers of St.Francis, the missionaries of Piritu. It is to thew. of the mesa (table land) of Guanipa.

CHAMAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Mangas.

CHAMAYA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito ; situate on the shore of the river Ma-ranon.

CHAMBA, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, towardsthe s. It runs from e. to w. passes near the settle-uient of Vilcabamba, and then enters the river Ma-lacatos.

(CHAMBERSBURG, a post town in Pennsyl-vania, and the chief of Franklin county. Itis situated on the e. branch of Conogocheaguecreek, a water of Potow.mac river, in a rich andhighly cultivated country and healthy situation-.Here are about 200 houses, two Presbyterianchurches, a stone gaol, a handsome court-housebuUt of brick, a paper and merchant mill. It is58 miles e. by s. of Bedford, 11 w. zo. of Shippens-burg, and 157 w. of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 57'n. Long. 77° 40' a-'.)

CHAMBIRA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito ;situale at the source of the river of its name. Itrises to the e. of the settlement of Pinches, betweenthe rivers Tigre and Pastaza, and runs nearly pa-rallel to the former, where it enters, with a muchincreased body, into the Maranon.

(CHAMBLEE River, or Sorell, a water ofthe St. Lawrence, issuing from lake Champlain,300 yards wide when lowest. It is shoal in dryseasons, but of sufficient breadth for rafting lumber,&c. spring and fall. It was called both Sorcll andRichlieu when the French held Canada.)

CHAMBLI, a French fort in the province and

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(country of the Iroquees Indians. It is handsomeand well built, on the margin of the river of thesame name, about 12 or 15 miles s. w. from Mont-real, and n. of St. John’s fort. It was taken bythe Americans, Oct. 20, 1775, and retaken by theBritish, Jan. 18, 1776. Lat. 45° 26' w.)

CHAMBO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom ofQuito.

Chambo, a very large river, which rises nearthe former settlement, and runs with such rapiditythat it cannot be forded ; is consequently passedover by means of various bridges made of osiers.

CHAME, a settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Natá in the province and kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near a river, and two leagues fromthe coast of the S. sea. It produces maize, plan-tains, and other fruits ; swine, fowl, turkeys, andother birds, with which it supplies, by means ofcanoes, the markets of the city of Panama, fromwhence it is nine leagues distant.

CHAMELUCON, or Chamaleton, a river ofthe province and government of Honduras. Itruns n. and enters the sea in the gulf of this name,between La Caldera and the river Ulua.

CHAMETLA, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Guajuaha in Nueva España. It con-tains ISO families of Indians.

CHAMETLAN, a province and alcaldia mayorof Nueva España, also called Del Rosario ; bound-ed n. by the province of Culiacan, s. by that of Xa-lisco or Sentipac, e. and n. e. by that of Zacate-cas and Nueva Galicia, and w. by the S. sea ; is30 leagues long from e. to w. and 25 wide n. s. ;is of, a very hot temperature, and the greater partof it is a mountainous and rugged country, abound-ing in. noxious animals and insects, and on thisaccount uninhabitable in the summer and in therainy season. It was conquered by Don Juan deIbarra in 1554, has many mines of silver and gold,which were formerly worked, but which at presentare all abandoned, as well from their having filledwith water, as from the scantiness of the means ofthe inhabitants to work them. The royal mines,however, are productive of some emolument, andare in fafct the support of the place. It producessome maize, and much tobacco , and cotton, towhich article the soil is exactly suited, though notso to wheat, which yields here but sparingly. Onthe banks of the lakes formed by the sea, is left athick incrustation of salt in the month of April ;and although the inhabitants spare no pains to col-lect this valuable commodity, yet abundance of itis lost from the Avant of hands to collect it ere theheats come on, when it very quickly disappears.

Some large cattle are bred here. It is very badlypeopled, or, to speak more truly, it is as it weredesert, having only three settlements and someestates. It is irrigated by a river which flowsdown from the sierra Madre, and passes throughthe capital, the waters of which are made usefulfor the working of the mines. The same river entersthe sea two leagues from the settlement of Chamet-lan, and has abundance of fish, which are caughtwith ease, as well upon its shores as in marsheswhich it forms. Tlie capital, which is the resi-dence of the alcalde mayor, is the real del Ro-sario.

Chametlan, a settlement of the former alcaldíamayor ; from thence taking its name. It containsonly five or six Indians, and some Spaniards, Mus-tees, and Mulattoes, who, the greater part of theyear, live in the estates which they have for thebreeding of large cattle, and on the farms for thecultivation of maize and cotton.

CHAMESA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; annexed to the curacy of Nopsa. Itis of a cold temperature, and produces the fruitscorresponding to such a climate, particularlywheat, which is of the best quality. It contains100 Avhite inhabitants, and as many Indians, andis a little more than eight leagues from its ca-pital.

CHAMI, San Juan de, a settlement of theprovince and government of Chocó ; situate in thedistrict of Thatama, near the ruins of the city ofSan Juan de Rodas, to the w. of the city of San-tiago de Arma.

CHAMIANOS, a settlement of the provinceand government of Mainas in the kingdom ofQuito; situate on the shore of the river Gual-laga.

CHAMICUROS, S. Francisco Xavier de,a settlement of the missions which were held by theregulars of the company of Jesuits, in the provinceand government of Mainas, of the kingdom ofQuito ; founded in 1670 by the Father LorenzoLucero. '

CHAMILPA, San Lorenzo de, a settlementof the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuer-navaca in Nueva España.

CHAMPANCHIN, Sierra de, a chain ofmountains in the province and government of Tu-cumán, running s, s.e. on the shore of the riverQuarto.

(CHAMPLAIN,a township, the most n. in Clin-ton county, New York, which takes its name fromthe lake on which it lies. It was granted to someCanadian and Nova Scotia refugees, who were

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either in the service of the United States duringthe war, or fled to them for protection. The in-digence or ill habits of these people occasioned thebreaking up of the settlement, and a better sort ofinhabitants have now taken their place. The landsare fertile, and two rivers run through it, wellstored with fish. It has 575 inhabitants, and threeslaves. By the state census of 1796, 76 of the in-habitants are electors.)

CHAMPLAIN, a lake of the same province, ofmore than 20 leagues in length, and from 10 to12 in width, abounding in excellent fish. It wasdiscovered in 1609 by a French gentleman of tliename of Champlain, who gave it his name, whichit still retains. It communicates with a smallerlake called Sacrament, and the canal passing fromone side to the other of these is extremely rapidanddangerous, from the inequality of its bottom. Atthe distance of 25 leagues to the s, are some verylofty mountains, which are covered with snow, andin which are found castors and a variety 'of ani-mals of the chase; and between these mountainsand the aforesaid lake are some beautiful levelmeadows or llanuras^ which, when first discover-ed, were well peopled with Iroquees Indians ; butthese have greatly diminished in numbers, throughthe continual wars Avith the French and English.[This lake is next in size to lake Ontario, and liese. n. €. from it, forming a part of the dividing linebetween the states of New York and Vermont. Ittook its name from a French governor, who wasdrowned in it; it was before called Corlaer’s lake.Reckoning its length from Fairhaven to St.John’s,a course nearly n. it is about 200 miles ; its breadthis from one to 18 miles, being very different in diffe-rent places ; the mean width is about five miles, andit occupies about 500,000 acres ; its depth is suf-ficient for the largest vessels. There are in it abovesixty islands of different sizes : the most consider-able are North and South Hero and Motte island.North Hero, or Grand isle, is 24 miles long, andfrom two to four wide. It receives at Ticonderogathe waters of lake George from the s. s. w. whichis said to be 100 feet higher than the waters of thislake. Half the rivers and streams which rise inVermont fall into it. There are several which cometo it from New York state, and some from Cana-da ; to which last it sends its own waters a n.course, through Sorell or Chamblee river, into theSt. Lawrence. This lake is well stored with fish,particularly salmon, salmon trout, sturgeon, andpickerel, and the land on its borders, and on thebanks of its rivers, is good. The rocks in severalplaces appear to be marked and stained with theformer surface of the lake, many feet higher than

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it has been since its discovery in 160S. The wa-ters generally rise from about the 20th of April tothe 20th of June, from four to six feet ; the great-est variation is not more than eight feet. It is sel-dom entirely shut up Avith ice until the middle ofJanuary, Between the 6th and 15th of April theice generally goes off, and it is not uncomtiAon formany square miles of it to disappear in one day.]

CHAMPLE, a large unpeopled tract of theprovince of Taraumara, and kingdom of NuevaVizcaya, in which there is a mountain aboundinggreatly in silver mines. Here is also a missionAvhicli Avas established by the regulars of the com-pany for the reduction of the natives : is 12leagues n. e. of the town of Santa Eulalia.

CHAMPOTON, a river of the province andgovernment of Jucatan. It runs into the sea nearthe lake of Tenninas.

CHAMUINA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Costarica in the kingdom of Guate-mala. It empties itself into the S. sea near the li-mits of this jurisdiction, and of that of Chiriqui inthe kingdom of Tierra Firme.

CHAMULA, a settlement of the province andalcaldía mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Gua-temala.

CHANAR-PUGIO, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tucumán, in the district andjurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, andeight leagues from the same.

CHANCAILLO, a small port of the S. sea, inthe province and corregimiento of Chancay, tothe n. of Lima ; little frequented, from lying ex-posed, and being insecure. In lat. 12° 3' 5.

CHANCAY, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Peru ; bounded n. by that of San-ta ; n. e. and n. by that of Caxatambo ; e. by thatof Cauta; and s. by the corregimiento of Cercado.It is 27 leagues in length from n. to s. and thesame in width e. w. and has on its coast some portsand creeks not remarkable for their security. Itcomprehends in its district two territories, one ofa cold temperature toAvards the cordillera, calledDe los Checras; and another of a warm tempera-ture, lying in the valleys towards the sea, calledDe Chancay. It is irrigated by two rivers, oneon the s. side, called Pasamayo, and the otherHuama, on the n. The latter has an arched bridge,which was built in the time of the viceroy, theMarquis de Montes Claros, the buttresses of whichare two rocks, through which the river passes.On the e. and in the cold part of this province,are found the productions peculiar to the cli-mate, such as papas, ocas, and some wheat andmaize. Here are also cattle, ot the fleeces of which

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the natives make friezes. The low part, lookingupon the coast, enjoys a temperature equal inmildness to that of Lima. It is very fertile, andin the many estates which are in it maize grows ingreat quantities, and it, besides serving as food forthe labourers, and independent of that which is de-voured by the wild pigeons with which those fieldsare filled, serves to fatten numbers of pigs, which arecarried to supply the markets of Lima ; those ani-mals, one year with another, amounting to 22,000head, and producing an emolument of 300,000dollars to the proprietors of the estates. Here arealso some estates of sugar-cane, and others ofFrench beans and wheat, of which the crops wereformerly very great, and used, together with thevines, to be reckoned amongst the chief produc-tions of this country, though they have now maderoom for a more general cultivation of maize.What conduces much to render the soil fertile, iswhat the Indians call huano^ and which, in theirlanguage, signifies dung, this being brought fromsome small islands at a little distance from thecoast towards the n. It is thought to be the excre-ment of some birds called huanaes^ who have beenaccustomed to deposit it in the above places fromtime immemorial. Some of it has also been foundin various other islands of the coast of Canete,Arica, and others. Of this it is certain, that ahandful being put at the root of a plant of maize,it becomes so invigorated as to produce upwardsof 200 for one, and that not less than 90,000bushels of this valuable manure is used yearly.In the centre of the province, and upon the coast,are some fine salines^ which supply some of theneighbouring districts ; and amongst the rest, thoseof Canta, Tarma, Caxatambo, Huamalies, Hua-nuco, Conchuco, and Huailas, are the most noted.The salt is not only used in the workingof the me-tals, but for preserving the cattle from a venomousinsect called alicuya^ which preys upon their entrailsuntil it destroys them. The population consists of37 settlements ; the capital of which is the town ofArnedo or Chancay. Its repartimiento amountedto 122,000 dollars, and its alcavala to 976 dol-lars per annum.

Arnedo or Chancay,

S. Juan de Huaral,

Huaura,

Mazo,

Vegueta,

Iluacho,

Barraste,

Auccayama,

Sayan,

Tapaya,

Cauchaz or Maráz,

Yurayaco,

Picoy,

Parquin,

Yucul,

Canin,

Mollobamba,

Panun,

Turpay,

Tongos,

Chiuchiu,

Auquimarca,

Paccho,

Yguari,

Ayaranga,

Yancay,

Huacar,

Otequet,

Muca,

Huachinga,

Yacsanga,

Yunqui,

Apache,

Santa Cruz,

Acotama,

Huaycho.

Huanangui,

Chancay, the capital of the above province,founded in a beautiful and very healthy valley, ata league and a half’s distance from the river Pasa-mayo, by order of the viceroy Count of Nieva, in1563 ; who destined it for the honour of being anuniversity, at which however it never attained. Ithas a tolerable port, frequented by trading vessels,a convent of monks of the order of St. Francis, anda good hospital. It is well peopled, and its inha-bitants consist of several noble and rich families.One league from the sea, and 15 from Lima. Lat.11° 30' 5.

(CHANCEFORD, a township in York county,Pennsylvania.)

CHANCHAMAIU, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tarma in Peru, with a fort uponthe river Tapo, in the part washed by this river,called El Balseadero de Chanchamaiu. TheChunchos Indians of this province took possessionof it in 1742, and abandoned it in 1743.

Chanchamaiu, a river of the province of Caxa-marquilla. It rises in the province of Tarraa, tothe n. of the capital, runs n. and enters the largeriver Perene, in the country of the Campas In-dians.

CHANCO, CAPILLA DE, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Itata in tbe king-dom of Chile ; situate near the coast.

CHANDUI, a settlement of the district of SantaElena in the province and government of Guaya-quil ; situate on the sea-shore, with a port whichis frequented by vessels only in stress ; it havingsome extensive shoals which lie just at its entrance.Here it was that the admiral’s ship of the Armadadel Sur foundered and was wrecked in 1654, as itwas dropping down to Panama, for the purpose ofdispatching the galleons under the charge of theMarquis de Villarubia ; although, through the op-portune assistance of the viceroy of Peru, Countde Salvatierra, and of tlm president of Quito, DonPedro Vazquez de Veljixco, the greater part of theproperty on board was saved. Likewise, in 1721.another ship was lost here, carrying the salaries tothe Plaza of Panama, without a single thing onboard being saved ; until, in 1728, a furious windfrom the s. w. blew ashore several fragments of the

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wreck, and amongst these many valuables of goldand silver, which had grown quite discoloured, tothe amount of 40,000 dollars. Lat. 2°2l' s.

CHANEL, some islands near the coast of thecountry of Labrador, in the gulf of St. Lawrence.They are numerous and very small, one of thembeing very long and narrow ; forming a channelwith the coast, and giving its name to the rest.

CHANESES, a barbarous nation of Indians, ofthe province and government of Paraguay ; dwell-ing to the n. of the Rio de la Plata, and boundedby the Xarayes and Xacoces. They have theirhouses near the lakes, and maintain themselves byfishing.

CHANGAME, some small islands of the S. sea,and of the bay of Panamá, in the province and go-vernment of Tierra Firme. They are two in num-ber, being situate near the coast, and having be-tween them a shallow or quicksand, by which theyare communicated. They abound in a species ofbirds, from which they take their name.

CHANGO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Chacayan.

CHANQUI, or Achanqui, a promontory orcape of the province and corregimiento of Valdiviain the kingdom of Chile ; being eight leagues tothe s. of San Marcelo. It forms and covers themouth or entrance of the gulf of Los Coronados,with the other cape, which is to thes. called De laBallena.

CHANTACO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito,to the w. of Chuquri-bamba, and to the s. of SanPedro, consists entirely of Indians, and lies uponthe bank of a small river, being of an excellentclimate.

CHANTALI, a settlement of the province andgovernment of aen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the river ofits name.

CHANUSSI, a river of the country of Las Ama-zonas, which runs from c. to w. through the woodslying towards the w. and enters the Guallaga onits ^ sido

CHANXEWATER, an English settlement inthe province and colony of New York ; situatenear the e. arm of the river Delaware.

CHAO, Farallones de, two small islands ofthe S. sea, near the coast of the province and cor-regimiento of Truxillo in Peru.

Chao, Morro de, a mountain of the coast ofthe same corregimiento.

CHAPA, Puerto de, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucumán, in the juris-

diction of the city of Cordoba ; situate near therivers Segundo and Tercero, at the foot of theMontana Nevada, or Snowy mountain.

CHAPACOTO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom ofQuito ; situate at the skirt of the Gran Cuesta, ormountain of San Antonio. Through it passes asmall river, which runs down from this mountain,and empties itself in the river of Chimbo ; is of avery cold temperature, and lies in the middle of awood. Lat. l°40's.

CHAPADA, Sierra, mountains of the king-dom of Brazil, in the province and captainshipof Todos Santos. They run from e. to w. untilthey reach nearly as far as the coast.

CHAPALA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlan inNueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the greatlake or sea of this name ; has a good convent ofthe monks of St. Francis, and in its valley, whichis very fertile, there is an abundance of all kinds ofseed, as wheat, maize, French beans, and many de-licious fruits.

Chapala, another settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Zaiula in the same kingdom ; situate ina plain of a mild temperature. It contains 42 fa-milies of Indians, who trade in seeds and otherfruits, since its district abounds in garden grounds.It has a convent of the religious of St. Francis ;lies 22 leagues between the e. and n. of its capital.

Chapala, a great lake of the kingdom ofNueva Galicia, called Mar de Chapala, on ac-count of its size, is navigated by many vessels,and is extremely well stocked with fish ; fromwhich the inhabitants of the immediate settlementsderive their source of commerce.

CHAPAMARCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Loxa, in the kingdom ofQuito; situate to the s. of the capital.

CHAPANCHICA. See Madrigal.

CHAPARE, or Parati, a river of the provinceand government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Itrises in the serrania of the Altos or Lofts of Inti-nuyo, from two small rivers which unite ; runs inan inclined course to the e. and enters the Mar-more Grande, forming a good port.

CHAPARIPARI, a river of the province andgovernment of Cumaná, runs e. and enters thesea in the gulf of Triste.

CHAPARRA, Valle de, a valley of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Cumaná in Peru ; inthe vicinity of which is a mine abounding in ametal called chumillo.

CHAPARRAL, a small settlement of the cor-regimiento of Coyaima in the Nuevo Reyno de

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Granada ; situate in a beautiful and delightfulcountry. Its temperature is hot, it abounds incacao, maize, yucas, and plantains, and has someneat cattle and gold mines. The inhabitantsamount to 100 families, and it is annexed to thecuracy of its capital.

(CHAPEL Hill, a post-town in Orangecounty, N. Carolina ; situated on a branch of New-hope creek, which empties into the n.w. branch ofCape Fear river. This is the spot chosen for theseat of the university of N. Carolina. Few housesare as yet erected ; but a part of the public build-ings were in such forwardness, that students Avereadmitted, and education commenced, in January1796. The beautiful and elevated site of thistown commands a pleasing and extensive view ofthe surrounding country : 12 miles s. by e. ofHillsborough, and 472 s.w. of Philadelphia.Lat. 35° 56' n. Long. 79° 2' w.)

CHAPEU, Morro del, or Del Sombero, amountain of the kingdom of Brazil, between therivers Preto and Tocantines, close to the goldmines of La Navidad.

CHAPIGANA, a fort of the province and go-vernment of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme,built upon a long strip of land, or point, formedby the great river of Tuira. There is also a smallfort of the same name in a little gulf, and nearlyclosed at the entrance, behind the fort of San Mi-guel, in the S. sea.

CHAPIMARCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Ancobamba.

CHAPUARE, a river of the province and go-vernment of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito, risesin the mountains of Cacao, which are upon theshore of the river Madera ; runs w. forming acurve, and enters the latter river, just where theYtenes and Marmore also become united.

CHAPULTENANGO, a settlement of theprovince and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques inthe kingdom of Guatemala.

CHAPULTEPEC, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Corjoacan in Nueva España ; situate onthe skirt of a mountainous eminence, on which arethe castle and palace Avhich were the residence ofthe viceroys until they made their public entriesinto Mexico. Here are beautiful saloons andcharming gardens, bedecked with all sorts of deli-cate flowers ; also a wood of branching savins,which was filled Avith stags and rabbits, and anabundant supply of water to render the soil fertile ;although, independently of a large and deep pool,it is also intersected by several streams, which,through canals, are carried to supply the s. part of

the city of Mexico. Its inhabitants amount to 40families of Indians, in the district of the parish ofa convent of St. Francis, with certain families ofSpaniards and Mustecs, embodied with the parishof Vera Cruz of Mexico ; from Avheuce this is dis-tant one league to the w. s.w.

Chapultepec, with the dedicatory title of SanJuan, another settlement of the district and headsettlement of Tlacoluca, and alcaldia mayor ofXalapa, in the same kingdom ; founded betweenfour mountains, the skirts of Avhich form a circleround it. It contains 100 families of Indians, in-cluding those of the settlement of Paztepec, closeto it. Although its population was formerlythought to amount to 500 families, no cause canbe assigned for the present diminution ; notAvith-standing the elder people affirm, that this is a judg-ment of God for their having caused so many sor-rows and anxieties to the poor curate, who hadlaboured so hard and with such zeal to convertthem from their idolatry : certain it is, they arenow extremely humble and docile. It is tAvo leaguesn. e. of its capital.

Chapultepec, another, with the same dedica-tory title of San Juan, in the head settlement of thetown of Marquesado, and alcaldia mayor of QuatroVillas. It contains 25 families of Indians, Avhooccupy themselves in the cultivation of cochineal,wheat, maize, fruits, woods, coal, lime-stone, andtimber. It is a little more than a mile to the s. u\of its capital.

Chapultepec, another, with the dedicatorytitle of San Miguel, in the head settlement andalcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca,

Chapultepec another, with the same dedica-tory title as the former, in the head settlement andalcaldia mayor of Metepéc. It contains 168 fami-lies of Indians.

CHAPULUACAN, a settlement of the jurisdic-tion and alcaldia mayor of Valles in Nueva Es-pana ; situate on the skirt of a very lofty sierra ;is of a mild temperature, and produces maize, cot-ton, bees-Avax, and honey, and large cattle. It isannexed to the curacy of Tamzunchale, contains58 families of Indians, and lies 38 leagues from itscapital.

Chapuluacan, another settlement of the headsettlement of Colotlán, and alcaldia mayor of Mex-titlan, in Nueva Espana, contains 140 families ofIndians, and is two leagues from its head settlement.

CHAQUI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacyof its capital.

Chaqui, another settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Porco in the same kingdom.

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CHAQUIMINAS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Asangaro in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Sandia in the province of Ca-rabaya.

CHARABAYE, a settlement of the provinceand government of Venezuela ; situate on the shoreof a river in the district of the city of Caracas, andto the e. of the town of Victoria.

CHARACATO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. In itschurch is a miraculous image of Nuestra Senorade la Purificacion or Candelaria, to which singulardevotion is paid.

CHARAI, a settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Cinaloa ; situate on the shore ofa river of the fort which lies between the settle-ments of Ziribijoa and Mochicauchi.

(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)

CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement ofMongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced)annexed to the curacy of the same. Its tempera-ture is mild, and abounds in pure good water, andin the productions of a hot climate.

CHARANDO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Guimeo, and alcaldia mayor of Cirandaro,in Nueva Espafia ; annexed to the curacy of Turi-cato.

CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ;situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, fromwhence its temperature is so cold that it is seldomany crops can be gathered from the seeds that aresown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 inthe wards of its district, and a convent of the reli-gious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settle-ment.

CHARAPE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito.

CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district ofPuerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in thekingdom of Quito, at a small distance from thesea-coast and bay of its name ; this title beingalso applied to the point which forms the samebay.

CHARAZANI, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina,which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. Thewhole of it abounds in cataracts, and its watersthrow up immense quantities of coal, which wasthe cause of its being thus named.

CHARCA, a settlement of the province and

corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Sacaca.

CHARCANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru.

CHARCAS, an extensive province of the king-dom of Peru, composed of various others. Its ju-risdiction comprehends the district of this royalaudience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the cor-regimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, andextends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It isbounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian servingas a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregi-miento of Atacama, which is of its district, andforms the most n. part of this province in that di-rection, and being closed in on its other sides bythe kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, in-cluding the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . :is in many parts very thinly peopled, and coveredwith large desert tracts, and rugged and impene-trable mountains, and again by the elevated cordil-leras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras orpampas, which serve to mark its size and the relativedistances of its territories. Its temperature through-out is extremely cold, although there are not want-ing parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At thetime that this province was in the possession of theIndians, and previous to the entrance of the Spa-niards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointlyunder the name of Charcas ; and the conquest ofthese was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui,fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the ter-ritory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Hereit was that his conquests terminated : nor did thesubjection of these parts extend farther than Col-laysuyo until after his death, when he was suc-ceeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor,who carried on still farther the victories which hadbeen already gained, conquering all the nations asfar on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwardsfounded the city of this name, called also La Plata.After that the Spaniards had reduced that part ofPeru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and thatthe civil wars and dissensions which existed be-tween these were at an end, they endeavoured tofollow up their enterprise by making a conquest ofthe most distant nations. To this end, in 1538,Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force,and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues,found in them such a spirited opposition, that afterseveral battles he was brought to think this objectwas nearly impracticable : this idea was strength-ened by the reception he had met with from theChuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given himconvincing proofs of their valour and warlikespirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just

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20. Don Ignacio de Flores, native of Quito,who had served as captain of cavalry in the regi-ment of the volunteers of Aragon, and who was go-vernor of the province of Moxos, being of the rankof colonel ; he was nominated as president by wayof reward for his services, in having been instru-mental to the pacification of the Indians of Peru,and to the succouring of the city of La Paz, whichwas besieged by rebels : he governed until 1786,when he was removed from the presidency.

Charcas, a ferocious and barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru, to the s.w. of the lakes of Aul-laga and of Paria ; conquered by Mayta Capac,fourth monarch of the Incas. At present theyare reduced to the Christian faith in the govern-ment of Chuquisaca or La Plata.

Santa Maria Charcas, a settlement, with the dedicatory titleof Santa Maria, being the real of the mines of thekingdom of Nueva Galicia, in which are markedthe boundaries of its jurisdiction, and those ofNueva Espana, the last district of the bishopric ofMechoacan. It contains a convent of the religi-ous order of St. Francis, and 50 families of Spa-niards, ilfwstees, and Mulattoes, as also many of In-dians dispersed in the rancherias and the estatesof its district: is 130 leagues to the n. J to then. w. of Mexico, 75 from Guadalaxera, and 18 tothe n. e. of the sierra of Pinos. Lat. 22° 55'.Long. 100° 40'.

Charcas, another settlement and real of themines of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate two leagues from thecapital. In its vicinity are the estates of Panuco,in which they work with quicksilver the metals ofthe mines. To its curacy, which is adminsteredby one of the Catholic clergy, are annexed twosmall settlements of Serranos Indians, amongst whomare found some few of the Tepeguana nation.

CHARIMIZA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito.It rises in the cordillera towards the s. and entersthe Maranon.

(CHARLEMONT, a township in Hampshirecounty, Massachusets, 16 miles w. of Deerfield,having 665 inhabitants.)

(Charles, a cape on the s.w. part of the straitentering into Hudson’s bay. Lat. 62° 40' n.Long. 75° 15' w.)

Charles, a small lake of New France, to then. of the city of Quebec, which empties itself intothe river St. Lawrence.

Charles, another cape or point of the coast ofthe country of Labrador ; one of those which formthe w. entrance or mouth of the strait of Belle-isle.

(Charles River, in Massachusetts, called an-ciently Quinobequin, is a considerable stream,the principal branch of which rises from a pondbordering on Hopkinton. It passes through Hollis-ton and Bellingham, and divides Medway fromMed field, Wrentham, and Franklin, and thenceinto Dedham, where, by a curious bend, it forms apeninsula of 900 acres of land. A stream calledlother brook runs out of this river in this town,and falls into Neponsit river, forming a naturalcanal, uniting the two rivers, and affording a num-ber of excellent mill-seats. From Dedham thecourse of the river is n. dividing Newton fromNeedham, Weston, and Waltham, passing overromantic falls ; it then bends to the n. e. and e.through Watertown and Cambridge, and passinginto Boston harbour, mingles with the waters ofMystic river, at the point of the peninsula ofCharlestown. It is navigable for boats to Water-town, seven miles. The most remarkable bridgeson this river are those which connect Boston withCharlestown and Cambridge. SeeBosxoN. Thereareseven paper mills on this river, besides other mills.][Charles County, on the w. shore of Maryland,lies between Potowmack and Patuxent rivers. Itschief town is port Tobacco, on the river of thatname. Its extreme length is 28 miles, its breadth24, and it contains 20,613 inhabitants, including10,085 slaves. The country has few hills, is gene-rally low and sandy, and produces tobacco, Indiancorn, sweet potatoes, &c.)

(Charles City County, in Virginia, lies betweenChickahominy and James rivers. It containedformerly part of what now forms Prince George’scounty. It has 5588 inhabitants, including 3141slaves.)

(Charles, a cape of Virginia, in about lat. 37°15' n. It is on the n. side of the mouth of Chesa-peak bay, having cape Henry opposite to it.]

Charles, a promontory in N. America, men-tioned by the English captain Thomas James, inhis voyage published 1663, which was made forthe sake of discovering a pass to S. America.

CHARLES. See Carlos, San.

CHARLESTON, a capital city of S. Carolina,is one of the best of N. America, excelling inbeauty, grandeur, and commerce. It is situateupon a long strip of land between two navigablerivers, which are Ashley and Cowper, and thegreater part of it upon the latter. This forms inthe city two small bays, the one to the n. and theother to the s. The town is of a regular construc-tion, and well fortified both by nature and art,having six bastions and a line of entrenchment ; onthe side of the river Cowper it has the bastions of

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(the city clean and healthy ; but are too narrow forso large a place and so warm a climate. Theirgeneral breadth is from 35 to 66 feet. The houseswhich have been lately built are brick with tiledroofs. The buildings in general are elegant, andmost of them are neat, airy, and well furnished.The public buildings are, an exchange, a state-bouse, an armoury, a poor-house, and an orphan’shouse. Here are several respectable academies.Part of the old barracks has been handsomely fittedlip, and converted into a college, and there area number of students ; but it can only be called asyet a respectable academy. Here are two banks ;a branch of the national bank, and the S. Carolinabank, established in 1792. The houses for publicworship are, two Episcopal churches, two for In-dependents, one for Scotch Presbyterians, one forBaptists, one for German Lutherans, two for Me-thodists, one for French Protestants, a meeting-house for Quakers, a Roman Catholic chapel, anda Jewish synagogue. Little attention is paid tothe public markets ; a great proportion of the mostwealthy inhabitants having plantations, from whichthey receive supplies of almost every article ofliving. The country abounds with poultry andwild ducks. Their beef, mutton, and veal are notgenerally of the best kind ; and few fish are foundin the market. In 1787 it was computed that therewere 1600 houses in this city, and 15,000 inhabi-tants, including 5400 slaves ; and what evincesthe healthiness of the place, upwards of 200 of thewhite inhabitants were above 60 years of age. In1791 there were 16,359 inhabitants, of whom 7684were slaves. This city has often suffered muchby fire ; the last and most destructive happened aslate as June 1796. Charleston was incorporatedin 1783, and divided into three wards, which chooseas many wardens, from among whom the citizenselect an intendant of the city. The intendant andwardens form the city-council, who have power tomake and enforce bye-laws for the regulation ofthe city. The value of exports from this port, inthe year ending November 1787, amounted to505,279/. 19^. 5d. sterling. The number of vesselscleared from the custom-house the same year was947, measuring 62,118 tons; 735 of these, mea-suring 41,531 tons, were American ; theothers be-longed to Great Britain, Ireland, Spain, France, andthe United Netherlands. In the year 1794 the valueof exports amounted to 3,846,392 dollars. It is 60miles s. w. by s. of Georgetown, 150 e. by s. ofAugusta, 497 s. by w. of Richmond, 630 s. w. bys. of Washington city ; 763 s. w. by s. of Philadel-phia, and 1110 s. w. of Boston. Lat. 32° 48'.Long. 80° 2' w. Knoxville, the capital of the state

of Tennessee, is much nearer to this than to anysea-port town in the Atlantic ocean. A waggonroad of only 15 miles is wanted to open the com-munication ; and the plan is about to be executedby the state.)

Charleston, another capital city of the countyof Middlesex in New England; situate on thebank of the river Charles. It is well peopled andof a good construction, occupying the whole of thespace which lies between the aforesaid river andthat of Mystic, the former river dividing the cityfrom Boston, in the same manner as the Thamesdivides London from Southwark. It has a raft forthe traffic of the river instead of a bridge, the fareor produce of which belongs to the college of Nor-wood in the city of Cambridge, which is close by :this city is as it were the half of Boston, and itssituation, as being upon a peninsula, is very ad-vantageous. At certain times it has fairs, and isthe meeting place for the assembly of the county.It has a very large and handsome church, and amarketplace, ornamentally and conveniently situateon the river side, at which there are sold all kindsof flesh, fish, and other necessaries ; it has twolarge streets leading to it. The river is navigable,and runs through the country for many leagues. Isin Lat. 42° 24' n. Long. 71° 6' ay.

(CHARLESTOWN, the principal town inMiddlesex county, Massachusetts, called Misha-wun by the aboriginal inhabitants, lies n. of Boston,with which it is now connected by Charles riverbridge. The town, properly so called, is built ona peninsula formed by Mystic river on the e. anda bay setting up from Charles river on the w. Itis very advantageously situated for health, naviga-tion, trade, and manufactures of almost all the va-rious kinds. A dam across the mouth of the bay,which sets up from Charles river, would afford agreat number of mill-seats for manufactures. Bun-ker’s, Breed’s, and Cobble (now Barrell’s) hills,are celebrated in the history of the American revo-lution. The second hill has upon its summit amonument erected to the memory of Major-generalW arren, near the spot where he fell, among thefirst sacrifices to American liberty. The brow ofthe hill begins to be ornamented with eleganthouses. All these hills afford elegant and delight-ful prospects of Boston, and its charmingly varie-gated harbour, of Cambridge and its colleges, andof an extensive tract of highly cultivated country.It contains within the neck or parish about 250houses, and about 2000 inhabitants. The onlypublic buildings of consequence are, a handsomeCongregational church, with an elegant steepleand clock, and an alms-house, very commodious

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America called New South Wales. Its territoryconsists of a white dry sand, and it is covered withsmall trees and shrubs. This island has a beauti-ful appearance in the spring to those Avho discoverit after a voyage of three or four months, and afterhaving seen nothing but a multitude of mountainscovered with frost, which lie in the bay, and in thestrait of Hudson, and which are rocks petrifiedwith eternal ice. This island appears at that sea-son as though it were one heap of verdure. Theair at the bottom of the bay, although in 51“ of hit.and nearer to the sun than London, is excessivelycold for nine months, and extremely hot the remain-ing three, save when the n. w. wind prevails. Thesoil on the e. <^s well as on the w. side produces allkinds of grain and fruits of fine qualities, whichare cultivated on the shore of the river Rupert.Lat. 52“ 12' n. Long. 80“ w.

CHARNACOCHA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya inPeru,

CHARO, Matlazingo, the alcaldía mayorof the province and bishopric of Mechoacán inNueva España, of a mild and dry temperature,being the extremity of the sierra of Otzumatlan ;the heights of which are intersected with manyveins of metals, which manifest themselves veryplainly, although they have never yet been dugout ; and in the wet seasons the clay or mud pitsrender the roads impassable. It is watered by theriver which rises in the pool or lake of Valladolid,and by which the crops of wheat, maize, lentils, andthe fruits peculiar to the place, are rendered fertileand productive. This reduced jurisdiction belongsto the Marquises of Valle, and is subject to theDukes of Terranova. Its population is reduced tosome ranchos, or meetings for the purpose of labour,and to the capital, which has the same name, andwhich contains a convent of the religious order ofSt. Augustin, this being one of the first templesbuilt by the Spaniards in this kingdom, the presentdilapidated state of it bearing ample testimony toits great antiquity. It contains 430 families ofPirindas Indians, employed in labour and in thecultivation of the land, and in making bread, whichis carried for the supply' of Valladolid, the neigh-bouring ranchos and estates. It should also have45 or 50 families of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulat-toes. Is .50 leagues to the w. of Mexico, and twoto the e. of Valladolid. Long. 100° 44'. Lat.19“34'.

CHARON, a small river of Canada, which runse. and enters the lake Superior in the bay of Beau-harnois.

CHARPENTIER, Fond du, a bay of the n. e.

coast of the island of Martinique, between the townand parish of Marigot and the Pan de Azucar.

CHARPENTIER, a small river of the same islandwhich runs n. e. and enters the sea in the formerbay.

CHARQUEDA, a lake of the province andcaptainship of Rey in Brazil, near the coast whichlies between this lake and that of Los Patos.

CHARRUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofParaguay, who inhabit the parts lying between therivers Parana and Uruguay. These Indians arethe most idle of any in America, and it has beenattempted in vain to reduce them to any thing likea civilized state.

Charruas, a settlement of this province andgovernment.

Charruas, a river of the same province, whichruns s. s. w. and enters the Paraná.

CHARTIER, Bahia de, a bay on the s. coastof the straits of Magellan, between the bay of SanSimon and the point of Tunquichisgua.

Chartier, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and colony of Virginia ; situate on the shoreof a river of the same name. It runs s. and entersthe sea in the county of Hampshire.

(Chartier, a township in Washington county,Pennsylvania.)

(Chartier’s Creek. See Canonsburg andMorganza.)

(CHARTRES, a fort which was built bythe French, on the e. side of the Mississippi,three miles n. of La Prairie du Rocher, or theRock meadows, and 12 miles n. of St. Genevieve,on the w. side of that river. It was abandoned in1772, being untenable by the constant washings ofthe Mississippi in high floods. The village s. ofthe fort was very inconsiderable in 1778. A mileabove this is a village settled by 170 warriors of thePiorias and Mitchigamias tribes of Illinois Indians,who are idle and debauched.)

CHASPAIA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aricá in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of Tarata.

CHASSES, a small river of N. Carolina, whichruns n. n. e. and enters that of Cutawba.

CHAT, Trou de, a settlement of the parish andisland of Martinique ; situate near the bay of theCul de Sac Royal, and to the n. e. of the capital.

Chat, a river of the island of Guadalupe, whichrises in the mountains of the e. coast, and runninge. enters the sea between the rivers Grand Bananierand Trou au Chien, or Hole of the Dog.

Chat, a cape or point of land on the coast ofthe river St. Lawrence, on the shore opposite tothe port of San Pacracio.

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and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdictionof the city of Santiago del Estero, on the shore ofthe river Choromoros.

(CHAUDIERE River, a s. e. water of the St.Lawrence, rising in Lincoln and Hancock coun-ties, in the district of Maine. The carrying placefrom boatable waters in it, to boatable Avaters in theKetmebeck, is only five miles.)

(CHAUDIERE Falls are situate about nine milesabove Quebec, on the opposite shore, and aboutthree or four miles back from the river St. Law-rence, into which the river Chaudiere disemboguesitself. The river is seen at a distance, emergingfrom a thick wood, and gradually expandingfrom an almost imperceptible stream till it reachesdie cataract, whose breadth is upwards of 360feet. Here the disordered masses of rock, whichiippear to have been rent from their bed by someviolent convulsion of nature, break the course ofthe waters, and precipitate them from a height of120 feet into an immense chasm below. In someparts large sheets of water roll over the precipice,and fall unbroken to the bottom ; while in otherplaces the water dashes from one fragment of therock to another, with wild impetuosity, bellow-ing and foaming with rage in every hollow andcavity that obstructs its progress ; from thence itrushes down with the rapidity of lightning intothe boiling surge beneath, where it rages with in-conceivable fury, till driven from the gulf byfresh columns, it hurries away and loses itself inthe waters of the St. Lawrence. The scenerywhich accompanies the cataract of Chaudiere isbeautiful and romantic beyond description. Inthe centre, a large fragment of rock, which firstdivides the water, at the summit of the precipice,forms a small island ; and a handsome fir-tree,which grows upon it, is thus placed in a mostsingular and picturesque situation. The forest oneither side the river consists of firs, pines, birch,oak, ash, and a variety of other trees and shrubs,intermingled in the most wild and romantic man-ner. Their dark green foliage, joined with thebrown and sombre tint of the rocky fragments overwhich the water precipitates itself, form a strik-ing and pleasing contrast to the snowy white-ness of the foaming surge, and the columns ofsparkling spray which rise in clouds and minglewith the air.)

CHAUGE, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina ; situate on the shore of the riverTugelo.

CHAUICO, San Pedro de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Tlacotepec, and alcaldía

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mayor of Juxtlahuaca, in Nueva España. It con-tains 57 families of Indians.

CHAUIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Castro-Vireyna in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Chupamarca in the province ofYauyos.

Chauin, another settlement in the provinceand corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru.

CHAUINA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of Paraisancos.

CHAUINILLOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huamalies in the same king-dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pachas.

CHAUITAS, La Presentacion de, a settle-ment of the province and government of Mainas inthe kingdom of Quito.

CHAULAN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Huacar.

CHAUNAMILLA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Maule in the kingdomof Chile ; situate upon the shore and at the sourceof the river Jecudahue.

CHAUPICOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Atabillos Baxos.

CHAUPIMARCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Tapú.

CHAUTLAN, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldía mayor of Zoques in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHAUX, PUNTA DE, an extremity of the e.coast of the island of Martinique, one of the An-tilles. It runs into the sea nearly equal with thatof Carabelle.

CHAXAL, a river of the province and alcaldíamayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guatemala.It runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of Hi-gueras.

CHAYANTA, or Charcas, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Co-chabamba, n. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, e.by the province of Yamparaez, s. e. and s. by thatof Porco, and w. by that of Paria ; is 36 leaguesin length from w. to e. and 44 in width, n. s. Itstemperature is various, since it contains the settle-ments of Puna and Valles ; in the former of theseare found in abundance the productions of thesierra^ and in the latter wheat, maize, and otherseeds and herbs : they have equally a traffic withthe surrounding provinces, especially in the ar-ticles of wheat and flour of maize. Here are bred

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appears to have been a settlement towards the n,of the island, from some vestiges still remaining.It is at present frequented only by some of the in-liabitants of Chepo, who cultivate and gather hereoral^ges, lemons, and plantains of an excellent fla-vour, which are found here in abundance. Inlat. 8^ 57' n.

CHEPO, San Christoval de, a settlementof the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme, andgovernment of Panama ; situate on the shore ofthe river Mamoni ; is of a kind temperature, fer-tile and agreeable, though little cultivated. Theair is however so pure that it is resorted to byinvalids, and seldom fails of affording a speedyrelief. It has a fort, which is an esfacada, or sur-rounded with palisades, having a ditch furnishedwith six small cannon, and being manned by adetachment from the garrison of Panama, for thepurpose of suppressing the encroachments of theinfidel Indians of Darien. This territory was dis-covered by Tello Guzman in 1515, who gave itthe name of Chepo, through its Cazique Chepauri,in 1679. It was invaded by the pirates Bartholo-mew Charps, John Guarlem, and Edward Bol-men, when the settlement Avas robbed and destroy-ed, and unheard-of prosecutions and tormentswere suffered by the inhabitants. Fourteen leaguesnearly due e. of Panama, [and six leaguesfrom the sea ; in lat. 9° 8' «.]

CHEQUELTI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chilcas and Tarija in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of its capital.

(CHEQUETAN, or Seguataneio, on thecoast of Mexico or New Spain, lies seven leaguesw. of of the rocks of Seguataneio. Between thisand Acapulco, to the e. is a beach of sand, of 18leagues extent, against which the sea breaks soviolently, that it is impossible for boats to land onany part of it ; but there is a good anchorage forshipping at a mile or two from the shore duringthe fair season. The harbour of Chequetan is veryhard to be traced, and of great importance tosuch vessels as cruise in these seas, being the mostsecure harbour to be met with in a vast extent ofcoast, yielding plenty of wood and water; andthe ground near it is able to be defended by a fewmen. When Lord Anson touched here, theplace was uninhabited.)

CHEQUIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Maúle in the kingdom of Chile,and in the valley or plain of Tango, near the riverColorado. In its vicinity, toAvards the s. is anestate called El Portrero del Key, at the source ofthe river Maipo.

CHERA, a river near Colan, in the province ofQuito in Peru, running to Amotage ; from AvhencePaita has its fresh Avatcr.

CHERAKEE. See Cherokee.

CHERAKIKAU, a river of the province andcolony of South Carolina. It runs e. and entersthe river Cliuvakansty. On its shore is a smallsettlement of Indians of the same name.

CHERAKILICHI, or Apalachicola, a fortof the English , in the province and colony of Georgia,on the shore of the river Apalachicola, and at the con-flux, or where this river is entered by the Caillore.

CHERAN EL Grande, S. Francisco de, asettlement of the head settlement of Siguinan, andalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in Nueva Espana,contains 100 families of Curtidores Indians, and isa little more than half a league from its head set-tlement.

CHERAPA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiernto of Piura in Peru, on the confines ofthe province of Jaen de Bracamoros, upon the riverTambarapa, is of a hot and moist temperature,and consequently unhealthy ; and is situate in theroyal road which leads from Lpxa through Aya-baca and Guancabamba to Tomependa, a port ofthe river Maranon.

(CHERAWS, a district in the upper country ofSouth Carolina, having North Carolina on then. and n. e. Georgetown district on the s. e. andLynche’s creek on the s. w. which separates itfrom Camden district. Its length is about 83miles, and its breadth 63 ; and is subdivided intothe counties of Darlington, Chesterfield, and Marl-borough. By the census of 1791, there were10,706 inhabitants, of Avhich 7618 were white in-habitants, the rest slaves. It sends to the statelegislature six representatives and two senators ;and in conjunction Avith Georgetown district, onemember to congress. This district is watered byGreat Peter river and a number of smaller streams,on the banks of vdiich the land is thickly settledand Aveli cultivated. The chief towns are Green-ville and Chatham. The court-house in this dis-trict is 52 miles from Camden, as far from Lum-berton, and 90 from Georgetown. The mail stopsat this place.]

CHERIBICHE, a port of the province andgovernment of Venezuela, to the w. of the settle-ment of Guaira.

CHERIGUANES. See Chiriguanos.

CHERILLA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of its capital.

CHERINOS, a river of the province and go-

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empties into Chesapeak bay, at Love point. It formsan island at its mouth, and by acbannel on the e. sideof Kent island, communicates with. Eastern bay.It is proposed to cut a canal, about 1 1 miles long,from Andover creek, a mile and a half fromBridgetown to Salisbury, on Upper Duck creek,which falls into Delaware at Hook island.)

(Chester, a small town in Shannandoah county,Virginia, situate on the point of land formed bythe junction of Allen’s or North river and Southriver, which form the Shannandoah ; 16 miles s.by w. of Winchester. Lat. 39° 4' n. Long.78° 25' w.)

(Chester County, in Pinckney district, SouthCarolina, lies in the s.e. corner of the district, onW ateree river, and contains 6866 inhabitants ; ofwhom 5866 are whites, and 938 slaves. It sendstwo representatives, but no senator, to the statelegislature.)

(Chester, a town in Cumberland county, Vir-ginia ; situate on the s. w. bank of James river,15 miles n. of Blandford, and six s. of Rich-mond.)

(CHESTERFIELD, a township in Hampshirecounty, Massachusetts, 14 mites w. of Northamp-ton. It contains 180 houses, and 1183 inha-bitants.)

(Chesterfield, a township in Cheshire county.New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticutriver, having Westmoreland n. and Hinsdale s.It was incorporated in 1752, and contains 1905 in-habitants. It lies about 25 miles s. by w. ofCharlestown, and about 90 or 100 w. of Ports-mouth. About the year 1730, the garrison offort Dummer was alarmed with frequent explosions,and with columns of fire and smoke, emitted fromW est River mountain in th is township , and four milesdistant from that fort. The like appearances havebeen observed at various times since ; particularly,one in 1752 was the most severe of any. Thereare two places where the rocks bear marks of hav-ing been heated and calcined.)

(Chesterfield County, in South Carolina, isin Cheraws district, on the North Carolina line. Itis about 30 mites long, and 29 broad.)

Chesterfield County, in Virginia, is betweenJames and Appamatox rivers. It is about 30miles long, and 25 broad ; and contains 14,214inhabitants, including 7487 slaves.)

(Chesterfield Inlet, on the w. side of Hud-son’s bay, in New South Wales, upwards of 200miles in length, and from 10 to 30 in breadth ; fullof islands.)

(CHESTERTOWN, a post-town and the capi-tal of Kent county, Maryland, on the w. side of

Chester river, 16 miles s.w. of Georgetown, 38e. by s. from Baltimore, and 81 s.w. of Philadel*phia. It contains about 140 houses, a church,college, court-house, and gaol. The college wasincorporated in 1782, by the name of Washing-ton. It is under the direction of 24 trustees, whoare empowered to supply vacancies and hold,estates, whose yearly value shall not exceed 6000/.currency. In 1787 it had a permanent fund of1250/. a year settled upon it by law. Lat. 39° 12'n. Long. 76° 10' cc;.)

CHETIMACHAS, a river of the province andgovernment of Louisiana. It is an arm of theMississippi, which runs s. e. and enters the sea onthe side of the bay of Asuncion or Ascension. [Onthe Chetiraachas, six leagues from the Mississippi,there is a settlement of Indians of the same name ;and thus far it is uniformly 100 yards broad, andfrom two to four fathoms cleep, vfhen the water islowest. Some drifted logs have formed a shoal atits mouth on the Mississippi ; but as the water isdeep under them they could be easily removed;and the Indians say there is nothing to impede na-vigation from their village to the gulf. The banksare more elevated than those of the Mississippi, andin some places are so high as never to be over-flowed. The natural productions are the same ason the Mississippi, but the soil, from the extraordi-nary size and compactness of the canes, is supe-rior. If measures were adopted and pursued witha view to improve this communication, there wouldsoon be on its banks the most prosperous and im-portant settlements in that colony.)

(Chetimachas, Grand Lake of, in Loui-.siana, near the mouth of the Mississippi, is 24miles long, and nine broad. Lake de Portage,which is 13 miles long, and If broad, commu-nicates with this lake at the n. end, by a straita quarter of a mile wide. The country bor-dering on these lakes is low and flat, timbered withcypress, live and other kinds of oak ; and on the€. side, the land between it and the Chafalaya riveris divided by innumerable streams, which occa-sion as many islands. Some of these streams are*navigable. A little distance from the s. e. short?of the lake Chetimachas, is an island where per-sons passing that way generally halt as a restingplace. Nearly opposite this island there is anopening which leads to the sea. It is about 150yards wide, and has 16 or 17 fathoms water.)

CHETO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; tothe curacy of which is annexed the extensive val-ley of Huaillabamba, in the province of Chncha-poyas.

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in Nueva Espana, is of a mild temperature ; si-tuate in a pleasant and fertile plain, and one whichabounds in maize, wheat, and other seeds. It con-tains S68 families of Indians, 13 of Spaniards, anda convent of the religious order of St. Francis;is one league n. of its capital,

Chiautla, with the addition of La Sal, an-other settlement, the capital of its jurisdiction, inthe same kingdom, thus called from the salt minesfound in it formerly, and from which the inhabi-tants used to derive a great commerce. At pre-sent it is in a thorough state of decay, not only asits trade has fallen off in the other provinces ; butas the Indians have applied themselves rather tothe cultivation of the soil and the planting of fruitsand pulse, from the traffic of which they derivetheir maintenance. It is inhabited by 650 familiesof Mexican Indians, and 40 of Spaniards, J\/us~iees, and Mulattoes. It contains a convent of thereligious order of St. Augustin. The jurisdictionis so much reduced that it is not more than fiveleagues in length and three in width, void of com-merce, and has but a small revenue. Its inhabi-tants, although they are somewhat given to thebreeding of small cattle, yet this must hardly beconsidered with them a branch of commerce,since they have scarcely enough of these where-with to support theiiiselves. It contains only twoother settlements, and these are,

Xicotlan, Huehetlan.

Forty-five leagues s. e. to the s. w. of Mexico.
CHIBACOA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore ofa river to the w. of the town of Nirua.

CHIBATA, a settlement of the . province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, and the head settlement of the corregi-miento of Indies, is of a very cold and fresh tem-perature, abounding in productions, and particu-larly in cattle, from the fleeces and hides of whichare made quantities of blankets, linen cloths, andother articles for garments. It may contain about200 Indians, and it is eight leagues to the n. e.of Tunja, lying between this latter place and thesettlement of Siachoque.

CHIBAI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Collahuas in Peru.

CHICA, an island of the N. sea, one of theLucayas ; situate between the islands Siguate andSt. Andrew. The English gave it the name ofLittle.

CHICACHAE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Louisiana or S. Carolina, in whichthe English have a fort and establishment to carry

on commerce with the Indians, is situated on theshore of the river Sonlahove.

CHICACHAS, a settlement of Indians of thisnation, in the territory thus called, where the Eng-lish have an establishment or factory for com-merce.

CHICAGOU, a port of Canada, on the w. sideof the lake Michigan.

Chicagou, a river of the same province andgovernment, which runs s. then ?i. e. and entersthe former port.

CHICAHOMINI, a river of the province andcolony of Virginia, runs s.e. and turning itscourse to the s. enters the Thames.

CHICAHUASCO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Huipuxtla, and alcaldia mayor of Tepe-tango, in Nueva Espana, contains 72 families ofIndians.

CHICAHUASTEPEC, San Miguel de, asettlement of the head settlement of Zoyaltepec, andalcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan. It contains 48 fa-milies of Indians, and is 10 leagues from its headsettlement.

CHICAHUAZTLA, San Andres de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor ofTepozcolula, in the province and bishopric ofOaxaca, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, is ofa cold temperature, inhabited by 332 families ofIndians, including those of the settlements or wardsof its district, and they maintain themselves bybartering cotton garments for salt on the coast ofXicayan ; 12 leagues s. w. of its capital.

Chicahuaztla, another, a small settlement orward of the alcaldia mayor of Guachinango in thesame kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of that ofTlaola.

CHICAMA, a large, fertile, and beautiful valleyof the province and corregimiento of Truxillo inPeru. It was one of the most populous in thetimes of the gentilisra of the Indians, owing to itsagreeable and benign temperature : is watered bya river of its name, which divides it from that ofChimu. In 1540, the friar Domingo de SantoTomas founded here a convent of his order, forthe instruction of the Indians, which immediatelywas turned into a priory and a house for noviciates.It is at present, however, fallen into decay, throughthe ravages of time. This valley is six leaguesfrom the capital, to the n. in the road which leadsto the provinces of Quito, Sana, and Piura.

Chicama, a river of this province and corregi-miento. It rises in the province of Guamachuco,from two very lofty mountains, called Y ulcaguancaand Yanaguanca, to the n. e . ; and waters and fer-

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tilizes the valley which gives it its name ; and runs30 leagues, collecting the waters of many otherstreams, mountain floods, and rivulets, which aug-ment it to such a degree as to render the fording ofit impracticable just where it enters the sea.

CHICAMOCHA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises in the paramo or mounlain-desert of Albarracin, between that city and thecity of Santa Fe, on the 7i. side : when it passesthrough Tunja, being then merely a rivulet, it hasthe name of the river of Gallinazos, which it after-wards changes for that of Sogamoso ; and for thatof Chia, Avhen it passes through this settlement.It is afterwards called Chicamocha, and passesthrough various provinces, until it becomes incor-porated with the Magdalena, into which it entersin one large mouth. A little before this it formsa good port, called De la Tora, where there wasformerly a settlement, but which is at present ina state of utter ruin.

CHICANAM, a small river of the province andcolony of Surinam, or the part of Guayana pos-sessed by the Dutch. It is one of those whichenter into the Cuyuni.

CHICANI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru j annexed tothe curacy of Combaya.

(CHICAPEE, or Chickabee, a smrdl river inMassachusetts, which rises from several ponds inWorcester county, and running s.zo. unites withWare river, and six miles further empties into theConnecticut at Springfield, on the e. bank of thatriver.)

CHICAQUARO, a small settlement or ward,of the district and jurisdiction of Valladolid, in theprovince and bishopric of Mcchoacan.

CHICASAWS, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina, comprising the Indians of this nation,who have here many other settlements ; in all ofwhich the English have forts, and an establish-ment for their commerce and defence.

Chicasaws, a river of this province, whichruns w. and enters the Mississippi 788 miles fromits mouth, or entrance into the sea.

(CHICCAMOGGA, a large creek, which runsn.w. into Tennessee river. Its rnoutli is six milesabove the Whirl, and about 27 s. w. from themouth of the Ilivvassee. The Chiccamogga Indiantowns lie on this creek, and on the bank of theTennessee. See Ciiickamages.)

CHICHAS y Tarija, a province and correg/-miertto of Peru ; bounded on the n. by that ofGinti, s. by that of Tucuman, the river called

Quiaca serving as the line of division, vo. by thatof Lipes, and n. by that of Porco. The district ofTarija belonging to this corregimiento, which is 40leagues distant from the capital of Chichas, isbounded e. by the territories of the infidel Chiri-guanos, Chanaes, and Mataguayos Indians, to thefirst settlements of which from the last habitationsof Tarija there is a narrow, craggy, and mountain-ous route of 14 leagues in length. It is alsobounded on the n. and w. by the valley of Pilaya,and on the s, by the jurisdiction of Xuxui. Thedistrict of Chichas is 140 leagues in circumference,and that of Tarija 80, being either of them inter-sected by some extensive seiTanias : in the boun-daries of the former there are many farms andestates for breeding cattle, where are also producedpotatoes, maize, wheat, barley and other grain,likewise some wine. Here are mines of gold andsilver, which were formerly very rich ; it havingbeen usual for the principal ones to yield somethousand marks in each caxon ; this being espe-cially the case in the mines of Nueva Chocaya,which still yield to this da}-- 60 or 60 marks. Manyof the metals found in these mines are worked upfor useful purposes. The mines of Chilocoa have,on the Whole, been most celebrated fortlieir riches.The rivers, which are of some note, are that ofSupacha, which flows down from the cordillera ofLipes, and running e. passes through the middle ofthe province until it enters the valley of Cinti, ofthe province of Pilaya and Paspaya ; and another,called Toropalca, which enters the province ofPorco, and passes on to the same part of Cinti.The inhabitants of this district amount to 6200.In the settlement of Tatasi both men and womenare subject to a distressing lunacy, which causesthem to run wildly and heedlessly over the moun-tains, without any regard to the precipices whichlie in their way ; since it has generally been ob-served that they dash themselves headlong down :if, however, it should happen that they are notkilled, the fall, they say, frequently restores themto a sane mind. The observation, that the animalsof this country, namely, \\ie vicunas and the nativesheep, are subject to this malady, is without founda-tion ; but it is thought to arise from the peculiareflluviasof the minerals abounding here, and whichhave a great tendency to cause convulsions. Thewomen of tlie aforesaid settlement, when about tobring forth children, like to be delivered of themin the low parts of the qiiebradas, or deep glens.The settlements of this province are,

Santiago de Cota- San Antonio de Riogaiia, Blanco,

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Cotagaitilla,Escara,Chacnacocha,Chequelti,Colnaca,Calccha,Tomola,Tumula,Estarca,

Tupisa,

Oploca,

Tatasi,

Ingenio del Oro

Nueva Cbocaya,Talina,

Verque,

Chacapa,

Clioroma,

Libilibi,

Moraya,

Moxo,

Tojo,

Sococha,

Remedios,

Chisloca,

Suipacha.

And in the district of Tarija,

Tarija de Vieja, La Concepcion,

San Bernardo de Tarija, Berraeo.

The district of Tarija is a territory full of que-hradas and craggy mountains, as far as the punasand lofty plains of Escayache and Tacsora, wherethere are two salt lakes. It is composed of fourfertile valleys lying on the skirts of hills, and inthese are found human bones of a prodigious size,petrified, shin-bones of a yard and a quarter long,and teeth larger than a fist. In the midst of one ofthese valleys is the town of San Bernardo de Tarija,which is the capital of the province. Its reparti-miento used to amount to 82,350 dollars, and itsalcavala to 558 dollars per annum. For the settle-ments of this district, see above.

Chichas, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in thesame kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Sala-manca.

Chichas, a river of the province and govern-ment of Tucumán, in the district and jurisdictionof the city of Xuxuy, which divides this city fromthat of the capital of San Miguel.

(CHICHESTER, Upper and Lower, twotownships in Delaware county, Pennsylva-nia.)

(Chichester, a small township in Rocking-ham county, New Hampshire, about 35 miles n. w.of Exeter, and 45 from Portsmouth. It lies onSuncook river, was incorporated in 1727, andcontains 491 inhabitants.)

CHICHIBACOA, Cabo de, a cape on thecoast of the province and government of SantaMarta, and kingdom of Tierra Firrae ; 80 leaguesto the w. of that city.

CHICHICAPA, a settlement and capital of thealcaldia mayor of the province and bishopric ofOaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tem-perature, and was anciently the real of the mostesteemed silver mines; but is at present muchfallen of, the working of the mines having been for

the most part abandoned from the want of hands,in as much as the natives have given themselvesup to the trade of cochineal, in which its territoryabounds : it produces also much seed and maize.Its jurisdiction includes some of the finest andrichest provinces. It consists of five head settle-ments of districts, to which are subject as manyother. Its capital contains 430 families of Indians,and some of Spaniards, Muslees, and Mulattoes.Ninety leagues s. e. of Mexico. The other settle-ments are.

Zimitlan,Tepezimatlan,La Magdalena,Atzozola.

Rio Hondo or Thequila,

San Agustin de Losi-

cha,

Tetipai,

Cozan tepee,

CHICHICATEPEC, a settlement and head set-tlement of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in NuevaEspana, is of a cold temperature, contains 26 fa-milies of Indians, and is seven leagues to the s. e.of its capital.

CHICHICOAUTLA, St. Francisco de, asettlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Metepeque in Nueva Espana. It contains 91families of Indians.

CHICHIMEQUILLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitaquaro, and alcaldiamayor Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacanand kingdom of Nueva Espana. It contains 84families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league tothe s. of its head settlement.

CHICHIQUILA, a settlement of the head set-tlement of Quinuxtlan, and alcaldia mayor of SanJuan de los Llanos, in Nueva Espana. It contains180 families of Indians.

CHICHOI, a settlement of the province andkingdom of Guatemala.

CHICHOPON, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Xuambos.

CHICIBICHE, a point of the coast of the pro-vince and government of Venezuela, opposite theisland of Aves.

(CHICKAHOMINY, a small navigable riverin Virginia. At its mouth in James river, 37miles from point Comfort, in Chesapeak bay, is abar, on which is only 12 feet water at commonflood tide. Vessels passing that may go eightmiles up the river; those of 10 feet draught 12miles ; and vessels of six tons burden may go 32miles up the river.)

(CHICKAMACOMICO Creek, in Dorchestercounty, Maryland, runs s. between the towns ofMiddletown and Vienna, and empties into Fishingbay.)

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(CHICKAMAGES, a part of the Cherokee na-tion of Indians, known by this name, inhabit fivevillages on Tennessee river. See CHICCA-MOGGA.)

CHICKAMINE, a river of the province andcolony of Virginia.

(CHICKASAW Bluff is on the e. bank of theMississippi, witiiin the territories of the UnitedStates, in lat. 35 n. The Spaniards erected herea strong stockaded fort, with cannon, and furnishedit with troops, all in the space of 24 hours, in themonth of June 1795. It has since been given up,.according to the treaty of 1796.)

(Chickasaw, a creek which falls into theWabash from the c. a little below Post St. Vin-cent.)

(Chickasaw, a river which empties into theMississippi, on the e. side, 104 miles from themouth of Margot, and 67 s. w. of Mine au Fer.Tlie lands here are of an excellent quality, andcovered with a variety of useful timber, canes, &c.This river may be ascended during high floods up-wards of SO miles with boats of several tons burden.)

(Chickasaws, a famous nation of Indians, whoinhabit the country on the e. side of the Mississippi,on the head branches of the Tombigbee, Mobile,and Yazoo rivers, in the n. zo. corner of the state ofGeorgia, and n. of the country of the Chactaws.Their country is an extensive plain, tolerably wellwatered from springs, and of a pretty good soil.They have seven towns, the central one of whichis in lat. 34° 23' «• long. 89° 30' w. The num-ber of souls in this nation has been formerlyreckoned at 1725, of which 575 were fighting men.There are some Negroes among the Chickasaws,who either were taken captive in war, or ran awayfrom their masters, and sought safety among theIndians. In 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, with 900men, besides seamen, sailed from Cuba with a de-sign to conquer Florida. He travelled n. to theChickasaw country, about lat. 35° or 36° ; and threeyears after died, and was buried on the bank ofMississipi river.)

CHICLAIO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Saña in Peru, in which there is aconvent of the religious order of St. Francis.

CHICO, Rio, a settlement and garrison of theprovince and government of Sonora ; situate onthe shore of the river Yaqui.

Chico, a river of the province and governmentof Panamá in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountains to the s. of the istmo, oristhmus, near the settlement of Chepo ; and runss. ze. and enters the sea in the bay or gulf of Pa-nama.

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Chico, another river of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru. It runs to the e.of the jurisdiction of the city ofXuxuy,

Chico, a small island, called Morro, near thecoast of the province and government of SantaMarta ; opposite this city, and not far from ano-ther island, distinguished by the name of MorroGrande.

CHICOANTEPEC, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldla mayor of Zoques in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHICOLAPA, a settlement of the head settle-ment, and alcaldla mayor of Coatepec, in NuevaEspana ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. Itcontains 187 families of Indians, who celebrateevery Friday throughout the year a teanguis orfair, at which are sold cattle and other productionsof the country. At these times it is a place of ge-neral rendezvous for the inhabitants of all the con-tiguous provinces ; and this fair has, from the greatconcourse of people usually assembling here, ob-tained the title of the famous teanguis of S. Vi-cente de Chicolapa. It is extremely fertile and plea-sant, and surrounded by several very small settle-ments or wards.

CHICOMESUCHIL, a settlement and headsettlement of tlie alcaldia mayor of Yxtepexi ofthe province and bishopric of Oaxaca in NuevaEspana, is of a hot temperature, and contains300 families of Indians, who exercise themselves inthe making scarlet cloths and cotton garments.

CHICOMI, a settlement and head settlement ofthe district of the alcaldia mayor of Tampico inNueva Espana. It contains 45 families of Indians,and lies 10 leagues to the s. of its capital.

CHICOMOCELO, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Chiapa. in the kingdom ofGuatemala ; [having a cave very narrow at theentry, but spacious within, with a stagnant lake,which is, however, clear, and is two fathoms deeptowards the banks.]

CHICONAUTA, St. Tomas de, a settlementof the alcaldia mayor of Ecatepec in NuevaEspana; annexed to the curacy of its capital;from whence it is distant one league to the n. n. e.It contains 160 families of Indians.

CHICONCUAC, S. Miguel de, a settlementof the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tez-cuco in Nueva Espana. It contains 123 familiesof Indians, and six of Spaniards. It produces agood proportion of grain, seeds, and cattte, fromthe fleeces of which they derive great emolument,as also from the coarse stuffs manufactured of thesame. It is one league to the n. of its capital.

CHICONCUASO, a settlement of the head

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settlement of Naiilingo, and alcaldm mayor ofXalapa, in Nueva Espaila, the name of which sig-nifies the place of six fountains. It is situate inthe most lofty part of a rugged and mountainoussierra, on which account its temperature is everywhere cold, and subject more than any other partof its district to continual fogs and rains. Itscommerce consists in maize, which it produces inabundance, and in the breeding of swine, both ofwhich articles are carried for sale to Vera Cruz.Its inhabitants are also engaged in the mule-droveswhich pass through these parts in tlieir way tothe windward coasts, and which proceed over aroad so rough and stony that they are under thenecessity of descending and ascending precipicesby means of steps or artificial passages hewn outof the rocks ; and however difficult this might ap-pear to some, they do not experience any gleatdelay, although the animals are very heavilyloaded, and the road be rendered still more difli-cult, if, as it often happens, the journey be per-formed in the winter season. This very stonyroute is a narrow pass or defile which shortens theway leading to the province of La Guasca. Theinhabitants of this settlement are composed of 236families of Indians. It lies three short leagues tothe n. of its capital.

CHICONCUAUTLA, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Guachinango inNueva Espana. It is of a mild temperature, andcontains 270 families of Indians, including thethree other small settlements of its district. Sixleagues to the e. of its capital.

CHICONTEPEC, a settlement of the headsettlement of Tlalixcoya, and alcaldia maijor ofMizantla, in Nueva Espaila. It contains 53 fa-milies of Indians.

CHICORATO, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the society ofJesuits, in the province and government of Ci-naloa.

CHICUAS, a nation of Indians of Peru. It isat present reduced to merely a settlement of theprovince of Condesuyos, in which is found abun-dance of cochineal, made use of by the natives indyeing of wool ; this being the branch of com-merce by which they maintain themselves.

CHIEGNETO, a settlement and fort of theEnglish, in the province and colony of NovaScotia, in the most interior part of the bay ofEundy.

Chiegneto, a small river of the above pro-vince, which rises from a lake, runs s. and entersthe Basin of the Mines.

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Chiegneto, a cape or point of the coast of thesame province, in the bay of Fundy.

CHIEN, Trou au, a river of the island ofGuadalupe. It rises in the mountains towardsthe e. runs e. and enters the sea between the pointof Petit Carbet and the river Trou or Chat.

==CHIENS, ISLA DE LOS, or Island of theDogs==, in the gulf of St. Lawrence, at the entranceof the strait of Belleisle, and on the w. coa«t of theisland of Newfoundland.

CHIETLAN, a head settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Yzucar in Nueva Espaila. It was for-merly the corregbniento, and is at present embo-died with this jurisdiction. It is of a warm andmoist temperature, but very pleasant, and coveredwith gardens full of flowers, fruits, and vegetables.The territory also abounds in wheat, maize, andother seeds, and particularly in dates, the wholeof the district being covered with palms. Its in-habitants consist of 267 families of Spaniards,Mustees, and Mulattocs, and of 356 families of In-dians, including those dwelling in the settlementswhich belong to this district. It abounds like-wise in garbanzos, or Spanish pease, anniseed, andmelons, all of which are of the best quality of anj^in the whole kingdom. It lies three leagues s. ofits capital.

The aforesaid settlements are,

Ahuehuezingo,

San Nicolas de Tenaxcalco,

Santiago de Azalan.

CHIGNAL, VOLCAN DE, a mountain of theprovince and corregimiento of Maúle in the king-dom of Chile, distinct from the other which isnear to it and of the same name.

(CHIGNECTO Channel, then. to. arm of thebay of Fundy, into which Petitcodiac river falls.The spring tides rise here 60 feet.)

CHIGUACHI, a settlement of the corregimi-ento of Ubaqué in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ;situate behind the mountains of Guadalupe andMonserrat, of the city of Santa Fe, from whence itis distant five leagues to the c. It is of a delight-ful temperature, and abounds in wheat, maize,barley, potatoes, sugar-cane, and plantains. Itsinhabitants consist of 200 families of Spaniards,and a very tew Indians.

CHIGUAGUA, San Felipe de, a town ofthe province of Taraumara, and kingdom ofNueva Viscaya ; situate near the river San Pedro.Its population consists of 2000 families of Spa-niards, and some of Mustees and Mulattoes. Thetown is large and well built, and the liouses arehandsome ; amongst otlier buildings, the most con-

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raent and head settlenient of the district of the al-caldia mayor of Tepozcolula in the same kingdom.It is of a mild temperature, and contains a conventof the religious order of St. Domingo, and 128 fa-milies of Indians, who occupy themselves in thetrade of cochineal, as likewise of certain seedswhich they sow in ihe ranchos. Four leagues tothe n. by s. of its capital.

Chilapa, San Pedro de, another, of the headsettlement of the district of Huitepec, and alcaldiamayor of Ixquintepec, in the same kingdom. Itcontains 30 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto the n. with a slight inclination to the e. of itscapital.

CHILAQUE, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Olintla, and alcaldia mayorof Zacatlan, in Nueva España. It is situate in adelightful glen surrounded by rocks, and is water-ed by various streams, being distant five leaguesfrom its head settlement.

CHILATECA, S. JUAN DE, a settlement ofthe head settlement of the district of Cuilapa, andalcaldia mayor of Quatro Villas, in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 52 families of Indians, whotrade in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, and collectcoal and timber, all of which form branches oftheir commerce. Five leagues to the s.e. of itshead settlement.

CHILCA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Canete in Peru, with a small butsafe and convenient port. It abounds in saltpetre,which its natives carry to Lima for the purpose ofmaking gunpowder, on which account they arefor the most part muleteers or carriers. In itsvicinity are the remains of some magnificent build-ings which belonged to the Incas of Peru. Thename of Chilca is given by the Indians of the samekingdom, as also by those of the kingdom of Quito,to a small tree or shrub which is a native of hotclimates, and which, when burnt to ashes, isoften used as lye for the use of the sugar en-gines.

Chi DC A, a beautiful and extensive valley ofthis province, which, although it be not irrigatedby any river, stream, or fountain, by which itmight be fertilized, produces an abundant harvest ofmaize. The seed of this is accustomed to beburied in the ground with heads of pilchards, anabundance of which fish is found upon the coast;and thus, by the moisture arising from this prac-tice, and by the morning dews, the soil becomessuflaciently moistened to produce a very fair crop.The same method is observed, and the same effectproduced, with regard to other fruits and herbs ;but for drinking and culinary uses, the little

water that is procured is drawn from wells. Lat.12° 3P 5. Long. 76° 35' w.

CHILCAIMARCA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Condesuyos de Are-quipa in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of An-dahua.

CHILCAIO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Lucimas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Querobamba.

CHILCAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Hacas.

Chilcas, another settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huanta in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of Tambos.

CHILCHAIOTLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district and alcaldia mayor ofZochicoatlan in Nueva España; situate on theside of a hill. It is of a hot temperature, contains26 families of Indians, and is 11 leagues to the n.of its capital.

CHILCHOIAQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of TIacolula, and alcaldia mayor ofXalapa, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a very ex-tensive glen, surrounded by heights which beginin the neighbourhood of Xilotepec, and run some-what more than a league in length. The popula-tion is very scanty, and the temperature bad ;indeed, out of the many families which formerlyinhabited it, 19 only are remaining ; these employthemselves in the rancherias^ agriculture beingindispensably necessary to their maintenance,owing to the barrenness of the territory of the dis-trict. At the distance of a league to the n. of Xa-lapa, and on the side of the royal road leading to^^exico, is the great mill of Lucas Martin. Herethe lands are fertilized by the large river Cerdeilo ;by the waters of which also other settlements arcsupplied, as likewise some of ihe ranchos^ whereinemployment is found for upwards of SO familiesof Spaniards, some Mustees^ and many Indians.Four leagues to the s. w. of its head settlement.

GHILCHOTA, the alcaldia mayor and juris-diction of the province and bishopric of Mecho-aedn. It is very mean, and reduced to a few smallsettlements, which lie so nigh together, that theirsituations are pointed out to tlie traveller by crossesstuck up in the roads. Its population consists of470 families of Tarascos Indians, and about 300 ofSpaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees\ who are,for the most part, scattered in the agriculturalestates of its district, where, from the fertility of thesoil, wheat, maize, and other seeds, are cultivatedin abundance. The country is agreeable, and wellstocked with every kind of fruit trees. The capi-

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at the most, of 360 houses : for having been des-troyed by tlie Araucanians, in 1599, it as neversine e been able to reach its former degree of splen-dour. Jt lies between the river Nuble to the n.and the Itala to the s. in lat. 35° 56' s.

another, a mountain or volcano of the sameprovince and corregimiento (Chillan), at a little distancefrom the former city. On its skirts are the Indiannations of the Puclches, Pehuenches, and Chiquillanes, who have an outlet by the navigation ot theriver Demante.

another, a small river of the same province (Chillan).

CHILLAOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of this name in Peru. It is of ahot temperature, and produces some tobacco andalmonds.

CHILLOA, a llanura of the kingdom of Quito, near this capital, between twochains of mountains, one very lofty towards thee. and the other lower towards the s. It is wateredby two principal rivers, the Pita and the Amaguana,which at the end of the llanura unitethemselves at the foot of the mountain calledGuangapolo, in the territory of the settlement ofAlangasi, and at the spot called Las Juntas. In thisplain lie the settlements of Amaguana, Sangolqui,Alangasi, and Conocoto, all of which are curacies ofthe jurisdiction of Quito. It is of a mild and pleasanttemperature, although sometimes rather cold, fromits proximity to the mountains or paramos of Pintac, Antisana, Rurainavi, and Sincholagua. Herewas formerly celebrated the cavalgata, by the col-legians of the head- college and seminary of SanLuis dc Quito, during the vacations. The soilproduces abundance of wheat and maize. It ismuch resorted to by the gentlemen of Quito as aplace of recreation, it is eight or nine leagues inlength, and six in width.

CHILLOGALLO, a settlement of the kingdomof Quito, in the district of Las Cinco Leguasde su Capital.

[CHILMARK, a township on Martha’s Vineyard island, Duke’s county, Massachusetts, con-taining 771 inhabitants. It lies 99 miles s. by e.of Boston. See Maktha’s Vineyard.]

CHILOE, a large island of the Archipelago orAncud of the kingdom of Chile, being one of the18 provinces or corregimientos which compose it.It is 58 leagues in length, and nine in width at thebroadest part ; and varies until it reaches onlytwo leagues across, which is its narrowest part. Itis of a cold temperature, being very subject toheavy rains and fresh winds ; notwithstanding '

which its climate is healthy. Around it are fourother islands ; and the number of settlements inthese are 25, which are,

Achau,

Quehuy,

Lin-lin,

Chelin,

Llinua,

Limuy,

Qnenac,

Tanqui,

Meulin,

Chiduapi,

Cahuac,

Abtau,

Alau,

Tabor,

Apiau,

Quenu,

Chanlinec,

Llaycha,

Anihue,

Huar,

Chegniau,

Calbuco,

VAita-Chauquis,

Caucahue,

Isla Grande.

All of these are mountainous, little cultivatad,and produce only a small proportion of wheat,barley, flax, and papas ^ esteemed the best of anyin America ; besides some swine, of which hamsare made, which they cure by frost, and are of sodelicate a flavour as not only to be highly esteemedhere, but in all other parts, both in and out of thekingdom, and are in fact a very large branch ofcommerce. The principal trade, however, con-sists in planks of several exquisite woods, the treesof which are so thick, that from each of them arscut in general 600 planks, of 20 feet in length,and of 1| foot in width. Some of these treeshave measured 24 yards in circumference. Thenatives make various kinds of woollen garments,such as ponchos f quilts, coverlids, baizes, and bor~dillos. The whole of this province is for the mostpart poor ; its natives live very frugally, and withlittle communication with any other part of theworld, save with those who are accustomed to comehither in the fleet once a-year. Altliough it hassome small settlements on the continent, in Val-divia, yet these are more than 20 or 30 leagues dis-tant from this place, and are inhabited by infidelIndians. These islands abound in delicate shell-fish of various kinds, and in a variety of otherfish ; in the taking of which the inhabitants aremuch occupied, and on which they chiefly sub-sist. This jurisdiction is bounded on the n. bythe territory of the ancient city of Osorno, whichwas destroyed by the Araucanian Indians, bythe extensive Archipelagoes of Huayaneco andHuaytecas, and others which reach as far as thestraits of Magellan and the Terra del Fuego, e.by the cordilleras and the Patagonian country, andw. by the Pacific or S. sea. On its mountains arefound amber, and something resembling gold dust,which is washed up by the rains, although no

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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]

CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.

CHILOSTUTA, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Zedales in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHILPANSINGO, a settlement of the intendancy of Mexico, surroundedwith fertile fields of wheat. Elevation 1080 me-tres, or 3542 feet.

CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.

to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,

Araipalpa,

San Lorenzo,Parapacucho,

Ceapa,

Cuchirihuay,

Tucuyachi,

Coron,

Pacopata,

Aicha-Urinzaba,

Pilpinto,

Huayaconga,

Accha-Amansaia,

Parco,

Pocoray,

Hanoquite,

Corea,

Paucartarnbo,

Amacha,

Antapalpa,

Quilli,

Acca,

Vilque,

Capi,

Cavabamba,

Huancahuanca,

Yaurisque.

Same name, another settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in the same king-dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pucquin.

CHILTAL, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Atacames or Esmeraldas in thekingdom of Quito ; situate in the valley of Chota,on the shore of the river Mira.

CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.

Same name, a river of the province and alcal-diamayor of Tabasco, which runs into the sea.

CHILUA, San Marcos de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru ;annexed to the Curacy of Huamanguilla.

CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.

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CHIMALAPA, Santa Maria de a settlement of the head settlement of the district andalcaldia mayor of Tehuantepec in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, and the whole of itsdistrict is covered with very large trees, especiallyfirs fit for ship-building. Twenty-five leaguesn.w. of its capital,

CHIAMLHUACAN, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Coatepec inNueva Espana. It contains a good convent of thereligious order of St. Domingo, 300 families ofSpaniards, il/wsfees, and Mulattoes, who employthemselves in labour, and in the commerce of seedsand large and small cattle, which are bred in theestates contiguous ; but the latter in no great de-gree, owing to the scarcity of water and pasturewhich prevails here.

Same name, another settlement and headsettlement of the district in the alcaldia mayor ofChaleo, of the same kingdom. It contains 166families of Indians, and a convent of the religiousorder of St. Domingo. Five leagues n. of itscapital.

CHIMALTENANGO, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Guatemala ; situatein the valley of this capital. It is very pleasantand fertile, and peopled with Indians.

CHIMALTEPEC, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 29families of Indians, and is two leagues from thereal of the mines of Cairo.

Same name, another small settlement of thehead settlement of Malcatepec, and alcaldia mayorof Nexapa, very near its head settlement.

CHIMAN, a settlement of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near the coast of the S. sea, and onthe shore of the river of its name, having a smallport, which is garrisoned by a detachment fromPanama, for the purpose of restraining the inva-sions which are continually made by the Indians.

Same name, a river of this province, and govern-ment, which rises in the mountains on the s. coast,and runs into the sea opposite the island of Nar-ranjal,

CHIMBA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It has the celebrated talc gold-mine whichwas discovered 36 years ago by a fisherman, whopulling up a plant of large and prickly leaves,called cordon, or fuller’s thistle, for the purpose offuel for his fire, observed that particles of golddropped from its roots; and having more narrowlyinspected it, found pieces amidst the mould ofconsiderable size and of very fine quality. Thus

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a mine became established here, and when it wasfirst dug it yielded from 300 to 500 dollars eachcaxon.

Same name, another settlement of the province andcorregimienio of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Andajes.

CHIMBACALLEa settlement of the kingdom of Quito, inthe corregimienio of the district of Las CincoLeguasde la Capital, (ofthe Five Leagues from theCapital), of which this is looked upon as a suburbfrom its proximity.

CHIMBARONGO, a river of the kingdom ofChile. It rises in the mountains of its cordillera^and unites itself with that of Tinguiragua to enterthe Napel. This river waters and fertilizes somevery pleasant and delightful valleys, abounding inpastures, whereon breed and fatten an infinite num-ber of cattle. On its shores are two convents, oneofthe religious order of Nuestra Senora de la Mer-ced, for the instruction of the Indians in the Chris-tian faith ; and another a house for novices, whichbelonged to the regulars of the society of Jesuits ;and also within a league’s distance from the latter,is a convent of the order of St. Domingo.

Same name, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienio of Colchagua in the same king-dom ; situate in the Former valley, between therivers Tinguiririca and Teno. There is alsoanother small settlement annexed, with a chapelof ease. In its district is a convent of the religiousorder of La Merced.

[CHIMBO, a jurisdiction in the province ofZinto in South America, in the torrid zone. Thecapital is also called by the same name.]

CHIMBO Y ALAUSI, a province and corregimientoof the kingdom of Quito ; bounded n. oythe serrania of the asiento of Ambato ; s, by thegovernment and jurisdiction of Guayaquil ; e. bythe district of the point of Santa Elena of this govern-ment; and ro. by the province of Riobamba. Its dis-trict is barren and poor, and the country beingmountainous, the inhabitants have no resource forgetting their livelihood other than by acting ascarriers between the provinces of Riobamba andTacunga on the one hand, and the warehouses ofBabahoyo on the other, where also are the royalmagazines ; and thus they bring back goods fromthe provinces of Peru, having for this traffic anumber of requas, or droves of mules, amountingin the whole to 1500 head. This commerce canonly be carried on in the summer, the roads beingimpassable in the winter through the mountains,when they say that these are shut up : at the sameseason the rivers become swollen to such a degree

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CHIMOR, a settlement of the province andforregimiento of Paucartambo in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Challabamba.

CHINA, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; one of those which enter the greatcienega, or quagmire, on the e.

Same name, a point of land of the coast of Peru, inthe province and corregimienlo of Cañete.

Same name, a settlement of Indians of the provinceand colony of Georgia ; situate on the shore of theriver Apalachicola.

CHINACATES, a settlement of the provinceof Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.

CHINACOTA, a small settlement of the jurisdiction and government of Pamplona in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot tempe-rature, produces sugar-cane, plantains, maize, andis extremely fertile in wheat ; but this not withoutcultivation. The natives amount to about 90 poorfamilies, and as many Indians. It is situate in anextensive valley, from whence it derives its title,and which is also called. Of Meer Ambrosio, fromthe Indians having killed here the GermanGeneral Ambrosio de Alfinger, by whom it w^as dis-covered in 1531. Four leagues n. e. of Pam-plona.

CHINANTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espaha. It contains 40 fami-lies of Chinantecas Indians, and is very fertile,and abounding in maize and cotton. Eightyleagues s. of Mexico.

CHINANTEPEC, Santa Catalina, asettlement and head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Guayacocotla in NuevaEspana. Its territory is somewhat extensive, andthe settlements or wards belonging to it are far re-moved from each other, the greater part of thembeing situate within the deep glens, or on theheights, so that the roads to them are very diffi-cult. It contains, in all, 1340 families of In-dians.

CHINAPA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of La Sonora ; situate on the shore ofthe river of its name, between the settlements ofArispo and Bacuachi.

CHINAS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Popayan.

CHINATAGUAS, a barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru ; situate to the n. of the city of Gua-nuco. They are descendants of the Panataguas,of whom few remain at the present day, and ofwhom but little is known.

CHINATECA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reynode Granada ; situate on the skirt of a mountain.

CHINATOS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, who inhabit theforests to the n. e. 1 to the e. of the city of Pam-plona. They are relics of the Chitareros, whohave been always found very troublesome, fromtheir proximity to the aforesaid city.

CHINAUTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teuzitlan in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy ofthis capital. It contains 108 families of Indians,and lies a league and an halPs distance from thesame capital.

CHINCHA, Santo Domingo, el Real de asettlement of the province and corregimiento ofCanete in Peru ; situate on the sea-coast.

Same name, an island of the S. sea, near the coast,in the same province and corregimiento, oppositethe port of Sangallo.

Same name, formerly the name of the provinceor district now called Chunchasuyu in Peru, tothe is. of Cuzco. Its natives were valorous, andresisted for eight months the Emperor Pachacutec,who subjected it to his controul. The country ispleasant, fertile, and abounding in cattle. Hereare to be seen vestiges and ruins of some magnifi-cent fabrics, which belonged to the Incas, andwhich strike the imagination with wonder and sur-prise, at viewing the immense stones used in theirarchitecture, and when it is considered that theIndians knew not the use of engines, whereby theymight raise them.

CHINCHAIPUCQUIO, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Abancay in Peru.

CHINCHAN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Huariaca.

CHINCHAO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Santa Maria del Valle; situate onthe confines of the infidel Pataguas Indians.

CHINCHAYCOCHA, a large lake of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It ismore than nine leagues in length and three inwidth ; and from it rises the river Pari or Paria,also called Xauxa, towards the n. side. Thisriver runs s. dividing the province of Xauxa, andgiving it its name, both in Xauxa Alta, or High,and Baxa, or Low ; it then turns e. and after run-ning for more than 40 leagues, flows back to the n.until it enters the Maranon on the s. side. M. Dela Martiniere, with his accustomed error, says that

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the river Marailon has its rise in tins lake ; its realorigin being in the lake Lauricociia, as may beseen under that article.

CHINCHERO, a settlement of the provinceand correghniado of Calca y Lares in Perú. Thecemetery of its church is composed of some large,thick Avails of Avrouglit stone, well fitted together,and having in them certain niches similar to sentryboxes ; so that they appear as having formerly be-longed to some fortress.

Same name, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Andahuailas in the same king-dom.

Same name, a lake in the province of Cuzco,five leagues distant from this city.

CHINCHILCA, as otherswill have it, a river of the district of Guadalabquien and kingdom of Chile ; it runs n. n. w. andenters the river Callacalla.

CHINCHIPE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito.

Same name, a river of this province, whichrises from the mountain desert or paramo of La Sabanilla. It Avashes the city and territory of Val-ladolid, and on its c. side receives the rivers Nnm-balla, Vergel, Patacones, Sangalla, San Francisco,and Nambacasa ; and on its zs. side those of Pa-landa, Simanchi, Namballe, and Guancabamba ;when, being sAA'^elled to a considerable size by all ofthese, it enters the Maranon on the n. shore, to thew. w. of the settlement of Tompenda.

CHINCHIRU, a large lake of the province andcorregimiento of Cuzco in Peru, from whence it liestwo leagues to the n.

CHINCHULAGUA, a very lofty desert mountainor paramo, covered with eternal snow, in theprovince and corregimiento of Tacunga in thekingdom of Quito. It lies five leagues to the n. ofTacunga, Avith a slight inclination to the n. c.

CHINCONTLA, a settlement of the head set-tlement of Olintla, and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan,in Nueva Espana ; situate in a delightful defile ornarroAV tract, watered by various rivers. Eightleagues from its head settlement.

CHINCOTEAG, a small island near the coastof the N. sea, in the province and colony of Maryland,between the Cedar isle and the river Si-wanscut.

CHINGA, a fortress of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; one of the six Avhich were held by the%ipas or kings of Bogota, against the Punches na-tion, who border upon their country ; 10 leaguesto the s. w. of Bogota.

CHINGOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Gongor.

CHINI, a small island of the S. sea; situateclose to the coast of the province and governmentof Costarica in the kingdom of Guatemala, withinthe gulf ofNicoya, and in the innermost part of it.

CHINIJO, a settlement of the missions whichAvere held by the religious order of St. Augustin,in the country of the Gran Paititi, of the provinceand corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHINIPAS, a settlement of the missions of theprovince and government of Cinaloa.

Same name, some sierras of this province.

CHINGUINTILEA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Aneo.

CHINU, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cartagena in the kingdom ofTierraFirme ; founded in the sahanas, and formed by are-union of other settlements, in 1776, by the G'o-A^ernor Uon Juan Piraiento.

CHIPACO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huamalies in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Chavin de Pariarca.

CHIPALO, a river of the province and governmentof Neiva in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ;one of those Avhich enter the great river Mag-dalena.

CHIPALZINGO, a settlement and head ettlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tixtlanin Nueva Espana. It contains 353 families ofIndians, and of Spaniards, Mustces, and Mn-lattoes, and lies three leagues from the sett lemcn!,of Zurnpango.

CHIPAN, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lucanas in Peru.

CHIPANGA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom oiQuito. It rises in the sierra, Avhich divides thedistrict of Macas from the province of Mainas, runsfrom n. to s. and enters the Morona.

CHIPAQUE, a settlement of the corregimientoof Ubaque in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Itis of a mild temperature, and abounds in fruits andseeds peculiar to a warm climate. It consists of150 housekeepers, and of as many Indians. It isso infested with snakes, that it is impossible to findany part of it clear of them. Eight leagues .9. .of Santa Fe, in the road which leads to San Juande los Llanos.

CHIPASAQUE, a settlement of the corregimiento of Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of an hot temperature, lying 24 leagues to thes. e. of Santa Fe, and close to the settlement ofChaqueta, in the road Avhich leads to San Juan dc

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dried flesh, hung up to preserve them from corrup-tion. Their garments are a shirt without sleeves,reaching down to the middle of their legs. Themarried people wear drawers of baize with colouredpuckers for festival days, and those who enjoyoffices of state wear a baize jacket : they neitheruse hatnorshoes, and no one of them ever goes outwithout slinging round his neck some medals and arosary. The hair is worn short until they marry,and when they become old they suffer it to growlong. The women wear close gowns which reachdown to the ground, and which they call tapoyes:they never swathe or bind themselves round thewaist, but carry on their necks, on gala-days, somethreads strung with glass intermixed with beadsmade of cacao nuts, and coloured beans ; thesethreads usually amount to 20 or SO rows ; on en-tering the church they always loosen their hair.The regulars of the company of the Jesuits taughtthem offices, in which they assisted most dexte-rously ; and it really excites admiration that In-dians, acquainted only with their own barbariandialect, should be able to manage the compass ofthe notes, understand their proportions and num-bers, and apply the rules of music to its execution.At certain times of the year they go a mdear, orto hunt for honey among the woods : from thencethey bring back wax of two sorts, one which iswhite and odoriferous, Jhe other of less substance,as the wax of Europe, manufactured by a speciesof bees without stings, called opernus; also an-other kind of wax, made by a still different sort ofbees, but which are all properly denominated wildwax. This wax is delivered to the curate, whopreserves it in his house to send to the provinces ofPeru ; and from the product of this article, andfrom that of the cotton, which is made into woofs,to the amount of two pounds weight yearly byeach Indian, he procures in 3xchange whatever isnecessary for the settlement, such as baizes, colouredwools, bags, iron and steel articles, choppingknives, wedges, hatchets, scissars, pocket-knives,needles, medals, bugles, and other articles of hard-ware and little necessaries, which, being stored upby him, is distributed amongst the natives accord-ing to their necessities, and in a manner that theymay want for nothing, but live happy and con-tented. The settlements are as follows :

San Xavier, San Joseph,

La Concepcion, Santiago,

San Miguel, San Juan,

San Ignacio, El Santo,

Santa Ana, Corazon.

San Rafael,

CHIQUIZA, a settlement of the corregimientoof Sachica in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Itis of a cold temperature, and produces wheat,maize, barley, papaSy and the other fruits peculiarto its climate. Its ijihabitants are so few as scarcelyto amount to 30 housekeepers, and about the samenumber of Indians. Four leagues to the n. w. ofTunja, and somewhat less from Velez.

CHIRA, a settlement and seat of the silver minesof the province and corregimiento of Piura in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Paita.

Same name, another settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Nicoya in the kingdomof Guate-mala.

[CHIRAGOW. See Plein River.]

CHIRAMBIRA, an island situate in the largebay of St. Juan, on the coast of the province andgovernment of Choco in the S. sea, which gives itsname to a small creek formed by this island and thecontinent.

CHIRCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Sicasica in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Chulumani.

CHIRE, Santa Rosa de a city of the govern-ment and province of Los Llanos in the NuevoReyno de Granada ; founded by the GovernorFrancisco Anciso. It is of a very hot and un-healthy temperature, but affords the same vegetableproductions as the rest of the province. It is somean and reduced as to contain hardly 100 house-keepers, and scarcely deserves the name of a city.This settlement lies the furthest to the n. w. extre-mity of any in this kingdom, and is bounded inthat quarter by the province and bishopric of Ca-racas.

Same name a river of the aboveprovince and government. It rises at the foot ofthe lomas del Viento, runs e. and enters the Meta,traversing the country of the Betoyes Indians.

CHIRGUA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It rises in the mountain of Ta-cazuruma on the s. runs s. and enters the Gamalo-tal, after having collected the waters of many otherrivers.

CHIRIBIQUI, Santa Fe de a settlement ofthe province and government of Cumana in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the coast,between the rivers Mosina and Marecapana.

CHIRICOAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, to the e. of themountains of Bogota, and at the entrance of thellanos or plains of Cazanare and Meta. Theylead a wandering life through the woods in com-pany with the Guaibas ; they are crafty and verydexterous thieves, but of a docile and pacific dis-position. In 16.64; some of them were reduced into

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a settlement founded seven leag'ues from the placecalled the Puerto, but in 16GS they tied, all ofthem, to the mountains, although in the same yearthey returned back again to the settlement.

CHIRIGUANA, a large settlement of the pro-vince and government of Santa Marta in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature,and the territory is level, fertile, and beautiful.It has besides the parish church a convent or houseof entertainment of the religious order of St.Francis.

CHIRIGUANOS, a country and nation of theinfidel Indians of the province and government ofSanta Cruz de la Sierra in Peru, from whence itlies 20 leagues to thes. It is bounded on the e.by the province of Tomina, and s. e. by that ofChuquisaca ; is composed of different settlements,each governed by its captain or cazique, subject,in a certain degree, to the above government.These people, though they refuse to adopt the Ca-tholic religion, are in perfect amity with the Spa-niards, trading with them in wax, cotton, andmaize. This nation, by the incursions which tlieymade, used at first to give frequent alarm to theprovince, and once had the address to capture thecity of Chiquisaca. The Inca Yupanqui en-deavoured in vain to subdue them, and neither henor the Spaniards could avail aught with them■until they were reduced by the missionaries, theregulars of the extinguished company of the Je-suits ; since that time they have been stedfast insupporting the Spaniards against the other infidels,serving them as a barrier, and having for their ownline of defence the river Guapay. They are veryvalorous, but inconstant and faithless ; they aredescended from the nations which are found to thee. of Paraguay ; and fled from thence, to the num-ber of 4000, ^hen avoiding the threatened chastise-ment of the Portuguese, who were about to inflictcondign punishment on them for having treache-rously murdered the Captain Alexo Garcia in thetime of the King Don Juan 111. of Portugal.They were foi'merly cannibals, and used to fattentheir prisoners that these might become better fare ;but their intercourse and trade with the Spaniardshas caused them by degrees to forget this barbarouspractice, and even to give them a disgust at theirsavage neighbours, who still continue in the samepractices. They are at the present day so greatlyincreased in numbers, that they are one of themost numerous nations of America ; are besidesvery neat and clean ; and it is not uncommon forthem to rush out of their dwellings in the middleof the night to plunge and wash themselves in ariver in the most severe seasons ; their wives too.

immediately after parturition, invariably do thesame, and on their return lay themselves on a heapof sand, which they have for this purpose in thehouse; but the husband immediately takes to hisbed, and being covered all over with very largeleaves, refuses to take any other nourishment thana little broth made of maize ; it being an incorri-gible error of belief amongst them that these cere-monies will be the cause of making their childrenbold and warlike. They have shewn great powerand address in their combats with our troops whenthese first endeavoured to enter their territories,and they threw themselves in such an agile and un-daunted manner upon our fire-arms that it wasfound necessary, on our part, to insert in the rantsa lance-man between every two fusileers : the vare, moreover, so extremely nimble that it isimpossible to take them prisoners but by sur-prise.

CHIRIMICHATE, a river of the provinceand government of Venezuela. It rises in thesierra opposite the point of Hicacos, and entersthe sea in this point.

CHIRINOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito.

CHIRIQUI, a district of the province and go-vernment of Santiago de Veragua in the kingdomof Tierra Firme, the last district of this province ;dividing the government from that of Guatemala,and touching upon the province of Costarica.It is of limited extent ; the country is mountainous,and its climate hot and unhealthy, surrounded onall sides by infidel Indians. Here are bred num-bers of mules, which are carried to be sold at Pa-nama and Guatemala ; upon the coast of the S.sea are found crabs which distil a purple colourused for dyeing cotton, which, although it mayfade a little, can never be entirely eradicated.They have plenty of swine, and some vegetable pro-ductions ; with which they carry on a trade, nowfallen much to decay, with the city of Panama.The capital is Santiago de Alanje.

Same name, a river of the above province (Santiago de Veragua), whichrises in the mountains on the s. and enters the sea,serving as limits to that province, and dividing itfrom that of Costarica in the kingdom of Gua-temala.

CHIRIS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru; annexedto the curacy of Huachos.

CHIRISU, a settlement of the province andcorregimieto of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a rather cold temperature, andabounds in wheat, maize, barley, a/berjas, andS M 2

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papas; likewise in cattle, from the fleeces of whichgreat quantities of woven clotlis are made. Its'population amounts to 150 house-keepers and 100Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its capital,and near to the settlement of Turmeque.

CHIROBIO, a river of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela. It runs e. and enters thesea opposite the island Tarata.

CHIRTA, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chachapoyas in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Yambrasbamba.

CHIRU, a settlement of the alcaldia mayorand jurisdiction of Penonome in the kingdom andgovernment of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shoreof the S. sea, upon an extensive plain.

Same name, a river of this jurisdiction, which risesin the mountains of Penonome, and enters the S.sea near the settlement of Anton.

Same name, a very small island of the same juris-diction, close upon the coast, and called El Fa-rallon.

CHISAHALO, a settlement of theprovince and corregimienlo of Tacunga in thekingdom of Quito.

==CHISCAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate at the foot of the Snowy sierra^and therefore of a cold and unpleasant temperature.Its productions correspond with those of a similarclimate ; it contains about 80 Indians, with a veryfew whites. Thirty-two leagues n. e. of Tunja.

CHISGAS, Paramo de, a very lofty mountain covered with eternal snow, in the provinceand government of San Juan de los Llanos of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, between the riversApure and Sinaruco.

CHISLOCA, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chichas and Tarija in Peru ; be-longing to the district of the former. It is annexedto the curacy of Tupisa.

CHISME, a settlement of the head settlementof Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor of Villalta.It contains 71 families of Indians, and lies 18leagues from its capital.

CHISPAS, Punta de las, a point on the s.coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo,in the territory possessed by the French ; lyingbetween the settlement and parish of the English,and the point of Burgados.

CHISQUE, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Canta in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Atabillos Altos.

CHISQUILLA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienlo of Chachapoyas in Peru.

[CHISSEL, a fort in the state of Tennessee,two miles and a half from English ferry, on Newriver, 43 from Abingdon, and 107 from Longisland, on Holston.]

CHITA, a province and corregimienlo of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, and vice-royalty ofSanta Fe. It was formerly called Chisca. It isbounded w. by the province of Bogota, and n. bythe country bt the Laches Indians, or province ofCochuy, and e. and s. by the llanuras of theOrinoco. It was discovered by George Spira, aGerman, and he was the first who entered it withhis companions in 1535. This territory is fertile,abounds in wheat and maize, the grain of which isextremely large, as also in other seeds, and hasgoats and neat cattle in plenty. It is of an hotand unhealthy temperature, and has palms similarto those of Palestine and Barbary, producing ex-cellent dates. The capital is of the same name.This is situate at the foot of the mountains of Bo-gota ; it is a large settlement, and was formerly en-titled a city. Its inhabitants consist of upwardsof 700 whites and about 200 Indians. Twenty-four leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.

Same name, another settlement, which is the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofVillalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tempe-rature, contains 90 families of Indians, and is threeleagues and a half to the s. of its capital.

CHITAGA, Punta de, a bridge in the province and government of Merida, to the s. ofthe city of Pamplona, and upon the river of thisname.

CHITANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians;bounded by that of the Chiscas, but distinct fromit, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. They in-habit the woods to the n. e. of the mountains ofBogota and the shores of the rivers Ele, Cuiloto,and Arauca ; are an intractable and. cruel people,and dreaded by all their neighbours. In 1535,having joined company with the Jiraras, theytook and destroyed the city of Las Palmas.

CHITARAQUE, a settlement of the corregi-mienlo and jurisdiction of Velez in the NuevoReyno de Granada, it is of an hot but healtliytemperature, produces yucas, maize, plantains,cotton, and great quantities of sugar, from whichare made fine and much esteemed conserves.

CHITAREROS, a barbarous and brutal nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada,who inhabit the mountains in the vicinity of Pam-plona ; they are mixed with some families of theLaches. This nation is extremely numerous, andpass a wandering life without any fixed abode ;they go entirely naked, and are much given to sen-sual gratifications ; some of them have embraced2

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Spaniards, and the rest having fled, and thuspenetrating n. have confounded themselves withother nations. It abounds in maize, plantains,and cacao of an excellent quality ; its gold minesrender it rich and well peopled ; it also carries on,through this branch of revenue, a great commercewith the province of Popayan, the nativ'es of thatplace coming here to purchase gold, and leavingin exchange whatever is necessary for the comfortand convenience of life. There is no inconsider-able number of Negro slaves employed in work-ing the mines, and in 1750 they amounted to20,000, without mentioning the men of colour,such as the Mustees and Mulattoes, and even Whiteswho are engaged in this lucrative concern. Theclimate is warm, but moist from the continualrains, and consequently unhealthy. This countryabounds in tigers, wild boars, alligators, parrots,monkeys of various sorts, and a multitude of rep-tiles and insects, especially in vipers and ve-nomous snakes ; such as corales, exis, and rattle-snakes. Here are also an infinite variety of beau-tiful sorts of wood, curious balsams, herbs, fruits,and flowers. It was subject to the government ofPopayan, until it became divided in the time ofDon Fernando Guerrero. All the gold which istaken out of the mines here, and which is the cur-rent money, was formerly carried to be coined atthe mint of Santa Fe, until that the house ofValencia established another, at its own cost, in thecity of Popayan ; this privilege having been firstgranted that house by the mayoralty, though itwas afterwards taken away and added by the kingto the crown, upon the payment of a compensationof 100,000 reals per annum to the original pro-prietors. This province extends 48 leagues froms. to n. and is 39 in width from e. to w. Thecapital is the city of Nevita.

[Choco, Canal of. In the interior of the pro-vince of Choco, the small ravine (quebrada) Dela Raspadura unites the neighbouring sources ofthe Rio de Noanama, called also Rio San Juan,and the small river Quito : the latter, the RioAndageda, and the Rio Zitasa, form the Riod’Atrata, which discharges itself into the Atlanticocean, while the Rio San Juan flows into the S.sea. A monk of great activity, cure of the villageof Novita, employed his parishioners to dig asmall canal in the ravine De la Raspadura, bymeans of which, when the rains are abundant,canoes loaded with cacao pass from sea to sea.Th is interior communication has existed since1788, unknown in Europe. The small canal ofRaspadura unites, on the coasts of the two oceans,

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two points 75 leagues distant from one ano-ther.]

CHOCO, San Juan Chrisostomo de , anothersettlement of the province and corregimiento ofCondesuyos de Arequipa in Peru.

[CHOCOLATE Creek, a head-water of Tiogariver in New York, whose mouth lies 10 miless. w. of the Painted post.]

[CHOCOLOCO-CA, which the Spaniards callCastro Vireyna, a town of Peru, 60 leagues s. e.of Lima, is very famous for its silver mines,which are at the top of a great mountain alwayscovered with snow, and but two leagues from thetown. The stones of the mine are, of a dark bluecolour ; these being calcined and powdered, thensteeped in water and quicksilver, the filth is sepa-rated, and the silver melted and formed into bars.These veins are not very rich, but the metal is veryfine. They make plenty of wine here, where itattains a greater degree of perfection, owing to thepureness of the air, than it is observed to have else-where.]

CHOCONA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paria in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of Toledo.

CHOCONTA, a settlement of the corregimientoof Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of a cold but healthy temperature, beingsituate upon a llanura. It produces abundanceof wheat, maize, papas, barley, and garlic, of thewhole of which an abundant crop is gathered ;these indeed form the principal branches of itscommerce, as they supply all the neighbouringprovinces. It was , in the time of the Indians alarge, rich, and populous city, and the barrierof the province of Tunja; also the place wherethe zipas held a garrison of their best troops.This city was entered by Gonzalo Ximinez deQuesada in 1537, when he gave it the name ofEspiritu Santo, from this festival having beencelebrated here. After the conquest of the Spa-niards it became a became a curacy of the relio-ionof St. Domingo, and was one of those which wasconsidered the first step to the advantages to bederived from these missions. It was close to thissettlement that the sanguinary conflict took placewhich was fought between Michua, king of Tunja,and Saguanmachica, zipa or king of Bogota, inwhich both princes fell dead upon the field ; atpresent it is a small village of Indians, who amountto the number of 200, besides 400 other inhabi-tants, who consist of whites. Ten leagues n. ofSanta Fe, and as many from Tunja, just midwaybetweeen these two jurisdictions.

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constitution left the lower people little more free-dom than they would have possessed under thegovernment of the Aztec kings.]

The capital is the city of the same name, foundedas far back as the time ofthegentilism of the Mexi-can empire, when this nation was at enmity withthat of Chichimeca ; it was then one of the mostpopulous cities, and contained 30,000 inhabitantsand 300 temples, and served as a barrier to Moc-tezuma, in the attack against the republic ofTlaxclala ; the latter place never having been sub-jected to the Mexican yoke. This was the citywhich of all others most thwarted the designs ofHernan Cortes, but the inhabitants were discoveredin the conspiracy they had laid against him, whenthey pretended to receive him with open arrhs anda peaceable and friendly disposition, and weremade by him to suffer severely for their hypocrisy ;after which he and his whole army escaped un-injured. This city has many monuments denotingits antiquity ; and although in ancient times idolatrywas here carried to its highest pitch, yet the lightof the gospel has spread widely around its enliven-ing rays. It is of a mild and healthy temperature,rather inclined to cold than heat, being situate ona level, fertile, and beautiful plain. It has a goodconvent of the order of St. Francis, which is alsoa house of studies. Its inhabitants are composedof 50 families of Spaniards, 458 of Mustees, Mu-lattoes and Negroes, and 606 of Indians. On alofty spot which lies close to the entrance, on thec. side of the city, is a handsome chapel, in whichis venerated the image of the blessed virgin,which also bears the dedicatory title of Los Rente-dios. It is a little more than 20 leagues to the e.of Mexico, and four from Tlaxclala. Long. 98°14'. Lat. 19° 4'. [Its population is at presentestimated at about 16,000 souls.]

CHONE, a settlement which in former timeswas considerable, but now much impoverished, inthe ancient province of Cara, which is at presentunited to that of Esmeraldas. It lies upon theshore of the river Chones to the n. and is of anhot and moist climate, in lat. 33° s.

CHONES, a large river of the province ofCara in the kingdom of Quito. It runs to the w.and collects the waters of the Sanchez and theTos-sagua on the n. and on the s. those of the Cama-ron and the Platanal. At its entrance on the n.stood the city of Cara, of which the vestiges stillremain. Where it runs into the sea it forms thebay of Cara, between the s. point of Bellaca andthe n. point of laca. Its mouth is nearly twomiles and an half wide.

CHONGO, San Miguel de, a settlement ofthe alcaldíta mayor of Huamelula. It is of a verycold temperature, from its being situate in the vi-cinity of the sierra Nevada (or Snowy) of the Chon-tales, which lies on the n. side of it. Its inhabi-tants amount to 24 families of Indians, who tradein cochineal, seeds, and fruits, of which the coun-try, being naturally luxuriant, produces great quan-tities. It is watered by rivers which pass at alittle distance, and is annexed to the curacy ofTepaltepec of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayorof Nexapa, from whence it lies 20 leagues. It is-,on account of this great distance, combined withthe badness of the roads, that the natives so sel-dom can avail themselves of any instruction in theholy faith ; dying, as they often do, without theadministration of the sacraments. Indeed, there isonly one day in the year, which is the 29th ofSeptember, and on which the Indians celebrate thefestival of their titular saint Michael, when theyare visited by their curate, who then hears theirconfessions and says mass. At this time this settle-ment has somewhat the appearance of a Catholicpeople ; but being all the rest of the year left tothemselves, it is not to be wondered that many re-lapse into their pristine state of gentilisra and idola-try. Three leagues w. of its capital.

CHONGON, a settlement of Indians of theprovince and government of Guayaquil in the kingdomof Quito; situate near a small torrent, re-nowned for the stones which it washes down, of acertain crystallized matter, which being polished,resemble brilliants, and are used as buttons, rings,and other trinkets.

CHONGOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Xauxa in Peru.

CHONTA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Abancay in Peru.

Other, another settlement in the province andcorregimiento of Guamalies of the same kingdom,famous for its mine of quicksilver.

CHONTAI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Chorrillo.

CHONTALES, a district of the corregimientoor alcaldia mayor of Matagulpa, in the kingdom ofGuatemala and province of Nicaragua. It is butsmall, and its natives have this name from the Spa-niards, who would by it express their natural un-couthness and stupidity.

CHOPADA, a settlement of the Portuguese, inthe kingdom of Brazil and country of the GuayazasIndians ; situate on the bank and at the sourceof the river Tocantines.

CHOPARE, a river of the province and government of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito. It flows

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down from the mountains to the jy. of the RachcsIndians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. untilit enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix,opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto,which lies to the s.

CHOPO, a settlement of the government andjurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a very mild climate, andabounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and manysorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branchof its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them forsale to the capital, which lies at a small distancefrom hence, in the road leading to M6rida andGibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost asmany indigent settlers.

[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are threemiles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]

CHOPTANK, a large navigable river of theprovince and colony of Maryland, [emptying it-self into Chesapeak bay.]

CHOPTANK, Little, another (river) of the same pro-vince Maryland. It runs w. and enters the sea in the bay ofChesapeak.

CHOQUE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Acros.

CHOQUECAMATA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregtmiento of Cochabamba in Peru.

CHOQUELIMPE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Arica in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Copia.

CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians,of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwellingimmediately upon the mountains and forests ofFosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitchtheir huts near the river Bermejo. But little isknown of their customs and of their country.

CHORAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huamalies in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Jesus.

CHOROMA, a settlement of the province andcorrregimiento of Chichas and Tarija, in the dis-trict of the former, and annexed to the curacy ofTupisa.

CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plainsor llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touchingtoAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogo-les, and extending n. as far as the mountains ofthe Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They areat present reduced to the Catholic religion, and aremixed with those of other nations ; but some fewof them still persist in their idolatry, and livedispersed upon the mountains.

CHORONI, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Tierra Firme, in the province and governmentof Venezuela, between the mountain of Ocumaraand the port of Chuapo.

CHOROS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It has the hard lot of being scantily sup-plied Avith Avater, even as much as is necessary lordrinking.

Same name, a point of the coast of this provinceand kingdom (Chile).

Same name, an island near the coast and point ofits name (Choros),

CHORRERA, a settlement of the jurisdictionand akaldia mayor of Nata in the kingdom ofTierra Firme; situate near the coast of the S.sea.

Same name, a creek of the island of Cuba, onthe 71. coast, having a fort for its protection, witha detacliment of troops from the Havana.

CHORILLO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru.

Same name, another (settlement), in the province and corregimento of Cercado in the same kingdom ; an-nexed to the curacy of Surco.

CHORRILLOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cañete in Peru; situate onthe coast, close to the point of China.

CHORROS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

CHORROU, Chike du, a rivulet and establishmentof the French, in their possessions inGuayana.

CHORUNGA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Andaray ; situate in thevalley of its name.

CHOSAPACK, a large andbeautiful bay on the coast of the province and colony of Virginia]]. [See Chesapeak.]

CHOSCHAMA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Huacaiia.

[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres, near a small lakeabout 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35°33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]

CHOTA, Todos Santos de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxamarca inPeru.

[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, thoughonly two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth.It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions,in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they foundits temperature to be intensely sultry.]

3 N

Last edit almost 2 years ago by LLILAS Benson
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