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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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Villas. It contains 34 families of Indians, whocultivate and trade in grain, pulse, coal, and thebark of trees. A little more than two leagues tothe w. with a slight inclination to the s. of its headsettlement.
Agustin, San, a point or cape of the coast ofBrazil, in the province and captainship of Per-nambuco, between the port Antonio Vaz and theriver Tapado. One hundred leagues from thebay of Los Miiertos ; [300 miles n. e. from the bayof All Souls. Lat. 8° 38' s. Long. 35° 11' tc.]
Agustin, San, a river of the province andgovernment of Antioquia, in the new kingdom ofGranada. It runs from s. to n. and afterwards,with a slight inclination to the w. enters the riverS. Juan, of the province of Choco.
AHOME, a nation of Indians, who inhabit theshores of the river Zuaque, in the province ofCinaloa, and who are distant four leagues fromthe sea of California : they were converted to theCatholic faith by father Andres de Rivas, a Jesuit.Their country consists of some extensive and fer-tile plains, and they are by nature superior to theother Indians of Nueva España. Moreover, theirHeathenish customs do not partake so much of thespirit of barbarism. They abhorred polygamy,and held virginity in the highest estimation : andthus, by way of distinction, unmarried girls wore
a small shell suspended to their neck, until the dayof their nuptials, when it was taken off by the bride-groom. Their clothes were decent, composed ofwove cotton, and'they had a custom of bewailingtheir dead for a whole year, night and morning,with an apparently excessive grief. They aregentle and faithful towards the Spaniards, withwhom they have continued in peace and unityfrom the time of their first subjection. The prin-cipal settlement is of the same name, and lies atthe mouth of the river Fuerte, on the coast of thegulph of California,* having a good, convenient,and well sheltered port.
AHUACATLAN, Santa Maria de, a set-tlement of the head settlement of the district ofSan Francisco del Talle, and alcaldia mayor ofZultepec, in Nueva España. It is of a cold tem-perature, inhabited by 51 families of Indians, anddistant three leagues s. of its head settlement.
Ahuacatlan (Zochicoatlan), another settlement of’the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan inNueva España. It is of a cold temperature, si-tuate on a small level plain, surrounded by hillsand mountains. It contains 13 families of In-dians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its capital.
Ahuacatlan, with the dedicatory title of SanJuan, the head settlement of the district of thealcaldia mayor of Zacatlan in Nueva España.Its inhabitants are composed of 450 families ofIndians, and 60 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mu-lattoes, including the settlements of the district.Five leagues from its capital, and separated by amountainous and rugged road, as also by a verybroad river, whose waters, in the winter time, in-crease to such a degree as to render all communi-cation between the above places impracticable.
Ahuacatlan, another, of the head settlementof the district of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor ofTlapa, in the above kingdom. It contains 160families of Indians, who trade in chia^ (a whitemedicinal earth), and grain, with which its territoryabounds. It lies n, w. of its head settlement.
Rio Negro, on a great island formed by this riverand that of Pasimoni.
Carlos, San, a settlement (with the surnameof Real) of the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the shore of the river La Plata,near the colony of Sacramento, which belonged tothe Portuguese. In its vicinty, on the n. n. e. part,there is a lake of very good sweet water.
Carlos, San, a valley in the province and go-vernment of Tucumán, which is very fertile invines, wheat, maize, carob-trees, tar, and in birdsand animals of the chase. Its natives are thosewho most of all infested the Spaniards when theyconquered this province.
Carlos, San, another, of the province andcountry of Las Amazonas ; a reduccion of the mis-sions which were held there by the regulars of thesociety of Jesuits. It lies between the rivers Arau-caso and Shiquita, in the territory of the Cahu-maris Indians.
Carlos, San, some sierras or mountains, calledDe Don Carlos, in the province and captainship ofRey in Brazil. They run parallel to the sierra ofLos Difuntos, in the extremity of the coast formedby the mouth of the river La Plata.
CARLOSAMA, a large settlement of Indians ofthe province and corregimiento of Pastes in thekingdom of Quito, on the 5. shore of the river ofits name. Its territory is most fertile, but the cli-mate is very cold, and the streets almost always
Impassable. It is to the zo. n. zo. of the settlementof Ipialos, and e. n. e. of that of Cumbal.
CARMEN, a river of the province and colony ofSurinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by theDutch. It rises in the sierra of Rinocote, runsfrom w. to e. and gathering the waters of manyothers, enters in a large body into the Mazar-roni.
Carmen, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cartagena ; situate in the district ofthe mountains of Marca, between those of San Ja-cinto and San Francisco de Asis. It is one ofthose new settlements that were founded by the Go-vemor Don Juan Pimienta in 1776.
Carmen, another, in the same kingdom ; situatenear a stream and on the shore of the river Tocan-tines, on the e. side, and not far from the Arrayalof San Feliz.
merit of Venezuela ; situate upon the coast nearcape Blanco.
(CATABAW River. See Wateree.)
(Catabaw Indians, a small tribe who have onetown called Catabaw, situate on the river of thatname, hit. 44° S9' n, on the boundary line betweenN. and S. Carolina, and contains about 450 inha-bitants, of which about 150 are fighting men.They are the only tribe w hich resides in the state ;144,000 acres of land . were granted them by theproprietary government. These are the remains ofa forrnidalile nation, the bravest and most generousenemy thp Six Nations had, butthey have degenera-ted sincp they have been surrounded by the whites.)
CATACACHI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiehto of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Santa Cruz, in which there is astream of water Avhich distils from some crevices,and deposits in its bed a sort of white stone orcrystalline substance, which they call catachi^ andwhich being dissolved in water, is accounted a spe-cific in the flux.
CATACUMBO, a river of the province andgovernment of Maracaibo, which rises to the e. ofthe city of Las Palmas, and runs e. increasing itsstream by many others which flow into it, until itunites itself with the Sulia, to enter the lake ofMaracaibo; where, at its mouth, it extends itselfand forms a large pool of water called La Lagu-neta.
CATALINA, Santa, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in Nue-va Espana ; annexed to the settlement of NuestraSenora de la Purificacion. It contains 132 fami-lies of Indians.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the head set-tlement of Tantoyuca, and alcaldia mayor ofTampico, in the same kingdom : it is of a hot tem-perature, and contains 80 families of Indians, whoapply themselves to the culture of the soil ; is 10leagues to the e. of its head settlement.
CATALINA, Santa, another,' of the head set-tlement of Mistepeque, and alcaldia mayor of Ne-japa, in Nueva España: it is of a cold temperature,situate at the foot of a mountain, with 60 familiesof Indians, and is 4 leagues from its head settle-ment.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement of themissions which were held by the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits, in the province of Tepeguanaand kingdom of Nueva Viscaya, on the shore ofthe river Las Nasas ; is 30 leagues to the n. w. ofits capital.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement, withthe addition of Sera, of the province and govern-ment of Maracaibo, in the district of the city ofPedraza ; situate on the shore of the river Pariva ;is one of the missions which are held in Barinas bjthe religion of St. Domingo.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the same pro-
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ters the sea between the river Rosa and the settle-ment and parisli of Cul de Sac.
CERINZA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofTunja in tlie Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of acold temperature, and abounds in cattle and theproductions peculiar to the climate. It contains300 families, and lies in a valley, from which ittakes its name.
CERMEN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the side ofthe town of San Felipe, towards the e. betweenthis town and the settlement of Agua Culebras, onthe shore of the river Iraqui.
CERRALUO, a town and presidency of theNuevo Reyno de Leon, garrisoned by a squadronof 12 soldiers and a captain, who is governor ofthis district, for the'purpose of restraining the bor-dering infidel Indians. Between the e. and n. isthe large river of this name ; and from this begins atract of extensive country, inhabited by barba-rous nations, who impede the communication andcommerce Avith regard to this part and the pro-vinces of Tejas and Nuevas Felipinas. Is 35leagues to the e. of its capital.
Cerraluo, a bay of the coast and gulf of Ca-lifornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, opposite an islandwhich is also thus called ; the one and theother hav-ing been named out of compliment to the Marquis ofCerraluo, viceroy of Nueva Espana. TJie afore-said island is large, and lies between the formerbay and the coast of Nueva Espana.
Cerrito, another, with the surname of SantaAna. See Ctuayaquie.
==Cerro, another, called San Miguel de CerroGordo==, which is a garrison of the province of Te-peguana in the kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Itssituation is similar to the road which leads to it,namely, a plain level surface ; although, indeed,it is divided by a declivity, in ivhich there is apool of water, and by Avhich passengers usuallypass. This garrison is the residence of a captain,a Serjeant , and 28 soldiers, who are appointed tosuppress the sallies of the infidel Indians. In itsvicinity is a cultivated estate, having a beautifulorchard, abounding in fruit-trees and in zepas,which also produce fruit of a delicious flavour.The garrison lies 50 leagues n. w. of the capitalGuadiana.
Cerros, San Felipe de los, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Uruapa, and alcaldia mayorof Valladolid, in the province and bishopric ofMcchoacan. It contains 26 families of Indians,and lies eight leagues to the e. of its head settle-ment, and 10 from the capital.
CESARA, a large and copious river of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, which was called bythe Indians Pompatao, meaning in their idiom,“ the lord of all rivers,” is formed of severalsmall rivers, which flow down from the snowysierras of Santa Marta. It runs s. leaving the ex-tensive llamtras of Upar until it reaches the lakeZapatosa, from whence itj issues, divided into fourarms, which afterwards unite, and so, following acourse of 70 leagues to the w, enters the Magda-lena on the <?. side, and to the s. of the little settle-ment called Banco.
CESARES, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe kingdom of Chile towards the s. Of themare told many fabulous accounts, although theyare, in fact, but little known. Some believe themto be formed of Spaniards and Indians, being thoseAvho Avere lost in the straits of Magellan, and be-longed to the armada which, at the beginning ofthe conquest of America, Avas sent by the bishop ofPlacencia to discover the Malucas. Others pre-tend that the Arucanos, after they had destroyedthe city of Osonio, in 1599, took aAvay with themthe Spanish Avomen ; and that it Avas from the pro-duction of these Avomen and the Indiatis that thisnation of the Cesares arose. Certain it is, that theyare of an agreeable colour, of a pleasing aspect,and of good dispositions. They have some lightof Christianity, live without any fixed abode ; andsome have affirmed that they have heard the soundof bells in their territorj". It Avas attempted in1638, by the governor of Tucuman, Don Geronimo
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[CLARE, a township on St. Mary’s bay, inAnnapolis county, Nova Scotia. It has about50 families, and is composed of woodland andsalt marsh.]
CLARE, a small island of the South sea, close tothe port of Guayaquil. It is desert, and twoleagues in length. It is commonly called Amorta~jado, since, being looked upon from any part, itbears the resemblance to a dead man. Twenty-five leagues from Cape Blanco.
[Clare, a very lofty mountain of the provinceand government of Sonora in Nueva Espaila, nearthe coast of the gulf of California, and in themost interior part. It was discovered in 1698.]
[CLAREMONT, a township in Cheshire coun-ty, New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecti-cut river, opposite Ascutney mountain, in Ver-mont, and on the n. side of Sugar river ; 24; milesi. of Dartmouth college, and 121 s.w. hy w. ofPortsmouth. It was incorporated in 1764, andcontains 1435 inhabitants.]
[Claremont County, in Camden district, S.Carolina, contains 2479 white inhabitants, and2110 slaves. Statesburg is the county town.]
[Clarendon, a township near the centre ofRutland county, Vermont, watered by Ottercreek and its tributary streams; 14 or 15 miles e.of Fairbaven, and 44 «. e. of Bennington. It con-tains 1478 inhabitants. On the s. e. side of amountain in the w. part of Clarendon, or in theedge of Tinmouth, is a curious cave, the mouthof which is not more than two feet and a half indiameter ; in its descent the passage makes anangle with the horizon of 35° or 40°; but con-tinues of nearly the same diameter through itswhole length, which is 31^ feet. At that distancefrom the mouth, it opens into a spacious room, 20feet long, 12| wide, and 18 or 20 feet high ; everypart of the floor, sides, and roof of this room ap-pear to be a solid rock, but very rough and un-even. The water is continually percolating throughthe top, and has formed stalactites of variousforms ; many of which are conical, and some havethe appearance of massive columns ; from thisroom there is a communication by a narrow pas-sage to others equally curious.]
Same name, another (settlement), of the same island (Barbadoes), on the 5 ..coast.
[Clarke, a new county of Kentucky, betweenthe head waters of Kentucky and Licking rivers-Its chief town is Winchester.]
[CLARKSBURG, the chief town of Harrisoncounty, Virginia. It contains about 40 houses, acourt-house, and gaol ; and stands on the e. sideof Monongahela river, 40 miles s. w. of Morgan-town.]
[CLARKSTOWN, in Orange county. NewYork, lies on the w. side of the Tappan sea, twomiles distant, n. from Tappan township six miles,and from New York city 29 miles. By the statecensus of 1796, 224 of its inhabitants are elec-tors.]
[CLARKSVILLE, the chief town of what wastill lately called Tennessee county, in the state ofTennessee, is pleasantly situated on the e. bank ofCumberland river, and at the mouth of Red river,opposite the mouth of Muddy creek. It containsabout SO houses, a court-house, and gaol, 45,miles w. w. of Nashville, 220 n. w. by w. ofKnoxville, and 940 zso. by s. of Philadelphia.Lat. 36° 25' n. Long. 87° 23' a).]
[Clarksville, a small settlement in the n, w.territory, which contained in 1791 about 60 souks.It is situate on the n. bank of the Ohio, oppositeLouisville, a mile below the rapids, and 100miles s. e. of post Vincent. It is frequently flood-ed when the river is high, and inhabited bypeople who cannot at present find a better situa-tion.]
mills. The whole of the district of its territory iscovered with estates and country-seats, whichabound in all kinds of fruits, at once rendering ita place pleasing and advantageous for residence.
Concepcion, anotlier, of the province and go-vernment of the Chiquitos Indians, in the samekingdom ; a reduccion of the missions which wereheld in this province by the regulars of the com-pany of the Jesuits ; situate between the source ofthe river Verde and the river Ubay.
Concepcion, another, of the province andcountry of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese pos-sessions ; a reduccion of the missions which are heldby the Carmelite fathers of this nation ; situate onthe shore of a pool or lake formed by the riverUrubu. . .
Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru, and district ofChaco ; being a reduccion of the Abipones Indians,of the mission held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, and to-day under the charge of the reli-gious order of S. Francisco.
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-
suits, in the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the w. shore of the river Uru-guay. (Lat. 27° 58' 43". Long. 53° 27' 13" re.)
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the country of the Chiquitos Indians, inthe kingdom of Peru ; situate to the e. of that ofSan Francisco Xavier.
Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom ofQuito, which produces nothing but maize, yucas^plantains, and quantities of aloes, with the whichthe natives pay their tribute, and which are muchesteemed in Peru.
Concepcion, a town of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru, in the jurisdictionof the city of Santiago del Estero, between therivers Bermejo and Salado. It was destroyed bythe infidel Indians.
(Concepcion, a large bay on the c. side ofNewfoundland island, whose entrance is betweencape St. Francis on the s. and Flamborough headon the n. It runs a great way into the land in a s.direction, having numerous bays on the w. side,on which are two settlements, Carboniere andHavre de Grace. Settlements were made here in1610, by about 40 planters, under Governor JohnGuy, to whom King James had granted a patentof incorporation.)
and lies seven leagues to the n. of its head settle-ment.
COSANGA, a large river of the province ofQuixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs s. e.then turns its course e. and as it were imperceptiblyto the n. and afterwards, in order to receive on thew. the river Bermejo, enters the s. side of the riverCoca.
COSCOMATEPEC, San Juan de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Yxhuatlan, andalcaldia mayor of Cordoba, in NuevaEspana. Itcontains 10 families of Spaniards, 35 of Mustees,75 of Mulattoes, and 196 of Indians. Seven leaguesto the n. n. w. of its head settlement ; but the roadshere are so rugged and full of steeps and precipicesthat the sight grows dizzy at looking down them.
COSIGUIRACHI, a town of the province ofTaraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; oneof the most wealthy towns in the kingdom, and ofa mild and healthy temperature. Its populationis composed of many families of Spaniards andMustees^ no small number of Mulattoes, and verymany Indians. It is 24 leagues to the s. k?. \ to
the s. of the real of the mines and town of SanFelipe de Chiguagua.
Cosiguirachi, a settlement and real of thesilver mines of the intendancy of Durango inNueva Espana; of a cdld temperature ; situate ina rough and uneven territory, but being fertile, andabounding in fruits and seeds. (By a very recentmemoir of the intendantof Durango, the populationof this real was made to amount to 10,700.)
COSME, San, a settlement of the head settle-ment and alcaldia mayor of Fresnillo in NuevaEspana. It contains a very large number ofSpaniards, Indians, Mustees, and Mulattoes, beingvery close to the city of Zacatecas, lying fromthence only seven leagues to the n. and being 10 tothe e. of its capital.
COSME, San, another settlement, of the provinceand government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ;situate in the country of the Sobaipuris Indians, onthe shore of a river between the settlements of SantaCatalina and San Francisco Xavier.
COSME, San, another, with the surname of Viejo,(Old), a reduccion of the missions which were heldby the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in theprovince and government of Paraguay ; situate onthe shore of the river Parana, between the settle-ments of Santa Ana and La Candelaria.
COSME, San, another, with the addition ofNuevo, (New), to distinguish it from the former inthe same province : also a reduccion of the regularsof the company of Jesuits, on the shore of theParana, and to the w. of the settlement ofJesus.
COSME, San, a small island of the gulf of Cali-fornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes ; situate very nearthe coast, in the middle of the canal which isformed by this coast and the island of Carmen,and close to another island called San Damian.
COSTA-BAXA, a part of the coast of Brazil, in
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vince and government of Buenos Ayres, foundedin ]629, in lat. 29° 29' 1" 5.]t])Cruz, Santa, an island oftheN. sea,^one of theAntilles, 22 leagues long and five wide. Its terri-tory is fertile, but the air unhealthy at certain sea-sons, from the low situation. It has many rivers,streams, and fountains, with three very good andconvenient ports. It was for a long while desert,until some English settled themselves in it, andbegan to cultivate it; afterwards the French pos-sessed themselves of it, in 1650, and sold it thefollowing year to the knights of Malta, from whomit was bought, in 1664, by the West India com-pany. In 1674, it was incorporated with the pos-sessions of the crown by the king of France. Itsinhabitants afterwards removed to the island of St.Domingo, demolished the forts, and sold it to acompany of Danes, of Copenhagen, who nowpossess it. It was the first of the Antilles whichwas occupied by the Spaniards ; is SO leagues
from the island of St. Christopher’s, eight fromPuertorico, six from that of Boriquen, and fivefrom that of St. Thomas. It abounds in sugarscane and tobacco, as also in fruits, which renderit very delightful. [It is said to produce SO, 000or 40,000 hhds. of sugar annually, and other W.India commodities, in tolerable plenty. It is ina high state of cultivation, and has about 3000white inhabitants and 30,000 slaves. A greatproportion of the Negroes of this island have em-braced Christianity, under the Moravian mission-aries, whose influence has been greatly promotiveof its prosperity.
The official value of the Imports and Exportsof Santa Cruz were, in
1809, imports ^^435,378, exports ^ig84,964.
1810, 422,033, 89,949.
And the quantities of the principal articles im--
ported into Great Britain were, in
Santa Cruz is in lat. 70° 44' n. Long. 64° 43' w.See West Indies.]
Cruz, Santa, a small island in the straits©f Magellan, opposite cape Monday. The Ad-miral Pedro Sarmiento took possession of it for thecrown of Spain, that making the tenth time of itsbeing captured.
Cruz, Santa, a sand -bank or islet near the n.coast of the island of Cuba, and close to the sand-bank of Cumplido.
Cruz, Santa, a point of the coast of the provinceand government of Honduras, called Triunfo dela Cruz, (Triumph of the Cross), between theport of La Sal and the river Tian, SO leagues fromthe gulf, in lat. 15° 40'.
Cruz, Santa, a port of the coast which lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan.On one side it has the Ensenada Grande, or LargeBay, and on the other the mountain of Santa Ines.Lat. 50° 10' s.
==Cruz, Santa, a river of the coastwhich lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magel-lan. It runs into the sea.
Cruz, Santa, a small river of the provinceand captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. Itrises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea be-tween the Grande and the Dulce, opposite theshoals ofS. Antonio.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcaptainship of Seara in the same kingdom. It risesnear the coast, runs n. and enters the sea betweenthe point of Palmeras and that of Tortuga,
Cruz, Santa, a cape or point of the coast of thx