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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.

ABERCORN, a town of the province and colony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a league's distance from the city of this name. [It is about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, and 13 N W of Savannah.]

ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the province and government of Cartagena. They run from W to N E from near the large river of Magdalena to the province of Chocó, and the S. Sea. Their limits and extent are not known, but they are 20 leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. Francisco Cesar in 1536; he being the first who penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, in which time he had to undergo the most extreme privations and excessive perils ; not that these exceeded the hardships which were endured by the licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest with a fine army.

ABIGIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 30 leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito.

[Abineau Port, on the N side of lake Erie, is about 13 miles W S W from fort Erie. Lat. 42° 6' N Long. 79° 15' W. ]

[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 12 miles SW from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 NE from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 39° 27' 30" N Long. 76° 20' 35" W.]

[another, the chief town of Washington county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 145 miles from Campbell's station, near Holston; 260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and 310 as the road runs, bearing a little to the S of W Lat. 36° 41' 30" N Long. 81° 59' W.]

[ABINGTON, a township in Plymouth county, Massachusetts; 22 miles SE from Boston, and contains 1453 inhabitants. Lat. 42° 4' 30". ]

[another, a parish in the town of Pomfret in Connecticut. Lat. 42° 4' 30". Long. 70° 51' 30".]

[another, a village in Pennsylvania, 32 miles N of Philadelphia.]

Abipi, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, and canes ; it has been celebrated for its rich mines of emeralds, which are, however, at present abandoned from want of water; it is nearly three leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco.

ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and government of Tucuman, inhabiting the S shores of the river Bermejo. Their number once exceeded 100000; but they are certainly at present much reduced. They go naked, except that the women cover themselves with little skins, prettily ornamented, which they call queyapi. They are very good swimmers, of a lofty and robust stature, and well featured: but they paint their faces and the rest of their body, and are very much given to war, which they carry on chiefly against such as come either to hunt or to fish upon their territory. Their victims they have a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a landmark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. From their infancy they cut and scarify their bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their country is inundated, which happens in the five winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or upon the tops of trees: they have some slight notion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and the produce of the chase, holding in the highest estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of infusing strength and valour. They have no knowledge either of God, of law, or of policy; but they believe in the immortality of the soul, and that there is a land of consummate bliss, where they shall dance and divert themselves after their death. When a man dies, his widow observes a state of celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an abstinence from fish: this period being fulfilled, an assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that her husband has given her leave to marry. The women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing hides; the men are idlers, and the boys run about the whole day in exercising their strength. The men are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the women are accustomed to conceal their husband's weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear more than two or three children, killing all above this number.

Abisca, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, to the E of the Cordillera of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and to the S of Cuzco. It is little known, consisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes; and hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success: the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.

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hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success : the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.

ABISMES, Quartel des, that part or division of the island of Guadaloupe which looks to the NE. It takes its name from its having some creeks, or inlets, which serve as places of shelter for vessels, in case of invasion either from enemies or from hurricanes. Here they ride quite safe, for the bottom is very good ; and being made fast to the strong palm-trees which abound here, they stand in no need of being anchored, which would be inconvenient, and attended with risk, on account of the thick roots thrown out by the above trees. Further on is a small island called Des Cochons, where an engineer, of the name of Renau, endeavoured, without success, in 1700, to build a fort, for the sake of securing the harbour, which is a good one.

ABITANIS, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Lipes in Peru. In the Quechuan tongue it signifies the ore of gold, from a celebrated mine which is at present nearly abandoned, from the want of workmen. It is nearly contiguous to the settlement of Colcha.

ABITIBBI, a small lake in Upper Canada, on the S side of which is a settlement called Frederick, which last lies in N lat. 48° 35'. W long. 82°. Also the name of a river which runs N and joins Moose river near its mouth at James's bay.

ABITIBIS, a lake of the country of Hudson, in the territory of the Indians of this name. This lake is N of Nipissing lake, the NE boundary of Canada, in New South Wales: it has communication with James's bay, near Moose fort. Lat. 48° 39' N Long. 79° 2' W.

ABITIGAS, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It is very numerous and warlike ; and they live a wandering life in the woods. It is 60 leagues to the E of the mountains of the Andes; bounded on the S, by the Ipillos Indians.

ABORROEN, a port of the coast of Brasil, in the province and capitainship of Seara, between the river Escorgogive and the bay of Inobu.

ABRA, an island of the straits of Magellan, at the entrance of the third and last narrow pass, called the Passage.

[ABRAM'S CREEK, falls into Hudson's river, near the city of Hudson.]

ABREOLHOS, on the coast of Brasil, and of the province and capitainship of Espiritu Santo, between the rivers Percipe and Quororupa, in S lat. 18° 19' 30". W long. 39° 5 1° 30". Here are some hidden rocks, or sandbanks, extremely dangerous ; and although there are various navigable channels, it requires the utmost caution to avoid shipwreck, this having been the lot of an infinite number of vessels. These sandbanks are more than 20 leagues distant from the continent, and extend themselves upwards of five leagues to the E of the Island of Tuego. Their situation, taken in the the centre, is in 170° 51' 20" S lat. W long. 39° 18'.

[ABROJOS, a bank, with several small rocks and isles, E of Turk's island, in N lat. 21° 5'. W long. 70° 40'. Between this bank and Turk's Island is a deep channel, for ships of any burden, three leagues wide.]

Abrojos, a shoal of the N. sea. See the article Panuela Quadrado.

ABSECON, Beach, on the coast of New Jersey, 16 miles SW from Little Egg harbour.

ABUCARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru, in a valley of the same name. It was anciently the capital of this province, and had the same denomination. At present it is much reduced, the corregidor having left it to establish himself in Lucanas. Lat. 15° 33' S Long. 73° 28' W

ABUCEES, S. Joseph de los, a settlement of the missions of the Sucumbios Indians, who were founded by, and maintained at the expence of, the abolished order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Quixos and Macas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of a small river, which enters the Putumayo. Lat. 0° 36' N Long. 75° 22' W.

ABURRA, S. Bartolomé de, a town of the province and government of Antioquia, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, founded in 1542, by the Marshal George Robledo, in a fertile and extensive valley of the same name, which was discovered in 1540 by Captain Geronimo Luis Texelo. It abounds in all kinds of fruits, seeds, and vegetables, and is of a hot temperature. In its district are found many huacas, or sepulchres of the Indians, in which great riches are deposited. It has now so much fallen to decay, that it is no more than a miserable hamlet. In its vicinity are some streams of salt water, from which the Indians procure salt for their use. Lat. 5° 51' 30" N Long. 75° 17' W ACA, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlaxclala, in Nueva España.

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In its vicinity is a reservoir, formed of hewn stone, which serves at once to catch the waters as they come down from the sierra, and to conduct them to Tepcaca, three leagues N N W of its capital.

ACAXUCHITLAN the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tulazingo, to the N E. It contains 406 Indian families, and is a curacy of the bishopric of La Puebla de los Angeles. Distant four leagues to the E of its capital.

ACAYUCA, the alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, and of the province of Goazacoalco. Its jurisdiction is very extended, and consists, for the most part, of places of a hot and moist temperature, but so fertile is it that it gives annually four crops of maize; and as there is no demand for this production in the other provinces, it follows, of course, that the Indians here are little given to industry. Indeed the ground never requires the plough, and the whole of their labours during the seedtime consist merely in smoothing the surface of the mountains, and in scratching up the ground with a pointed stick. It is at times infested by locusts, which destroy the plants and crops ; and having never been able to find a remedy against this evil, the inhabitants had recourse to the protection of the virgin of La Conception, which is revered in the head settlement of the district of the Chichimecas ; and it is said that, owing to her mediatory influence, the plague has been thought to diminish. This province is watered by the abundant river of the Goazacoalco. The settlements of this alcaldía are, Xocoteapa, Macayapa, Menzapa, Molocan, Theimanquillo, Tinantitlan, Chinameca, Zoconusco, Olutla, Otcapa, Pochutla, Ostitan, Cozolcaque, Ixhuatla, Macatepeque.

another, the capital of the above, situate on the coast of the N. sea. Its inhabitants are composed of 30 families of Spaniards, 296 of Indians, and 70 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It lies a little more than 100 leagues S E of Mexico. Lat. 17° 53' N Long. 94° 46' 30" W.

another, settlement in the alcaldía mayor of Pachuca, in the kingdom of Nueva España, annexed to the curacy of Tezayuca, and containing 100 Indian families.

Acacingo, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepcaca, situate in a plain of a mild temperature, and watered by two streams which run close to all the houses of the settlement, to the great comfort of the inhabitants. In the middle of the above plain there is a beautiful fountain, a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, a very ancient building, and some other buildings, which have been erected since the conquest of the country. The parish church is a piece of the most ancient architecture. The inhabitants are composed of 150 families of Spaniards, 104 of Mustees, 31 of Mulattoes, and 700 of Indians; 3 1/4 leagues E to the NE of its capital.

ACAZUTLA, a port of the S sea, on the coast of the province of the alcaldía mayor of Zuchitepec, in the kingdom of Guatemala, between the point of Los Remedios, and the settlement of Guapaca. [Lat. 14° 42' N Long. 90° 3'.]

ACCHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru, situate on the skirt of a mountain, which has a prominence, seeming as though it were about to fall upon the settlement. This mountain is constantly dwindling away without any assignable cause. Lat. 13° 19 s. Long. 71° 13' W

ACCHA-AMANSAIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru.

ACCHA-URINZABA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chilques and Masque in Peru.

Aceites, a river of the province and government of Caraccas, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains, and enters the Orituco.

[ACCOCESAWS. The ancient town and principal place of residence of these Indians is on the W side of Colorado of Rio Rouge, about 200 miles S W of Nacogdoches, but they often change their place of residence for a season : being near the bay, they make great use of fish, oysters &c.; kill a great many deer, which are the largest and fattest in the province ; and their country is universally said to be inferior to no part of the province in soil, growth of timber, goodness of water, and beauty of surface; they have a language peculiar to themselves, but have a mode of communication by dumb signs, which they all understand: number about 80 men. Thirty or forty years ago, the Spaniards had a mission here, but broke it up, or moved it to Nacogdoches. They talk of resettling it, and speak in the highest terms,of the country.]

[ACCOMACK County, in Virginia, is situated on a peninsula, bounded N by Maryland, E by the ocean, and on the W by Chesapeak bay, and contains 13.959 inhabitants, including 4.262 slaves.]

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are the ruins or some well made benches in the shape of couches, which have been much injured by time, and were there before the corning of the Spaniards. Lat. 13° 16' 30" s. Long. 74° 32' 30" w.

another settlement, of the same name in the province and corregimiento of Jauja, annexed to the curaey of Cochangara.

another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma.

ACOBIMBILLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Conaica.

ACOCHALA, a very lofty mountain of the province and corregimienento of Lipes, in the arch- bishopric of Charcas, where there are some very fine silver mines, which are, however, little worked for want of hands.

ACOLA , a settlement of the province and cor- regimiento of Lucanas in Peru, annexed to the curacy of its capital.

ACOLMAN, San Agustin de , a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tez- coco, in Nueva Espana, situate in a pleasant valley of a benign temperature. There are some wards united to its district, and the number of its inhabitants, including these wards, amounts to 240 Indian families, besides a convent of monks of the order of St. Augustin.

ACOMA , a settlement of Nuevo Mexico, situ- ate on the shore of a river which enters the Grande of the N. between the settlements of San J uan and La Laguna. [It is on a high mountain, with a strong castle, and is the capital of the province. [Lat, 35° 24' «. Long. 106° 10'

ACOMACK , a county of the province and colony of Virginia, which preserves its Indian name. It is the largest county of the province, containing 200,925 acres of ground ; but not so well peopled as the others, and has only one parish, which is of the same name. Different rivers take their rise here ; among the most noted is the Clif>- sonossea,

ACOMAIO, a settlement of the province, and corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Santa Maria del Valle, situate on the confines of the infidel Panataguas Indians.

another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru.

ACOMARCA, a settlement of the province and corregimityito of Vilcas Huaman in Peru, arinexed to the curacy of Vilcas.

ACOMES, a fall of the river Amariscoggin, in the prov'ince of Continent, one of the four w hich compose the colony of New England.

ACOMULCO, a settlement of the head settle- ment and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in Nueva Espana. It contains 12 Indian families, and is two leasrues to the w. of its capital.

ACONCAGUA, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Chile ; bounded n. by a part of the province of Quillota, e, by the Cordillera, s. by the valley of Colina, of the jurisdiction of Santiago, w. by the province of Quillota. Its territory is level and well watered. It is divided into two parts by a large river of the same name, having a bridge built of stone and mortar, w ith two arches. It produces abundance of wheat and much wild marjoram, which is carried to Peru, and forms the principal branch of its commerce. In this province is the royal road, lying through the Cordillera in the way to Mendoza, which is very rough and dangerous, on account of the many slopes and steep declivities towards the river ; the path is very narrow, and in various places it is necessary to open a pass by means of a pick-axe ; so that, if at any time the mules should crowd together, they would push each other into the river, w hich has not unfrequently been the case. The royal treasures are carried by this road from the month of Novem- ber to April and part of May. A few years since, some small houses of brick and mortar have been built on one or other side of the Cordillera, which they call casuchas (miserable huts) ; in these they put, in the winter time, some coal, biscuit, and hung beef, so that the couriers, providing them- selves with the keys of the doors at Mendoza, or, on the other side, at the Guardia of Aconcagua, may have something to live upon, incase they should be stopt by a fall of snow on their journey ; and with this precaution, a courier goes every month to Santiago, carrying with him the mails brought by the ships from Europe. In the winter it is customary to walk on foot over the snow, from Paramillo, which is three leagues from the top of the Cordillera, and four from its descent to tlie place which is called Los Ojos de Agua, through the valley of Putaendo ; but towards the ??. there is another way, which they call De Los Patos, which is the road generally taken in going to the city of San Juan ; but the Cordillera being more lofty here, it is only passable in the months of February and March. The inhabitants of this province amount, on an average, to 8000 souls. The capital' is San Felipe el Real. [Lat. 32° II' s. Long. 70° 12' 30" w. j

ACONCAGUA, a large river which runs through the above province, rising in the mountains of the Cordillera, and running through it by the side of the road which leads to Buenos Ayres : hrarcliing

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name. Tlie religion of these idolaters is very sin-gular, for they acknoAvledge a supreme being, who,they imagine, manifests himself to them in thefigure of some animal which feeds in their fields ;and when this dies, tlvey substitute another, afterhaving signified very great demonstrations of re-gret for the fate of the one whicli is lost.

AKANKIA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Louisiana. It is an arm of the Mis-sissippi, which runs s. s. e. and enters the lake ofMaurepas.

AKANSA, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and government of Louisiana. It has a fortbuilt by the French, and it is near the mouth ofthe river of its name, where it enters the Missis-sippi.

Akansa, another settlement in the same pro-vince, situate also on the shore of the aforesaidriver, and distinguished by the name of PetitAkansa.

Akansa (river), a river of the above province andgovernment. It rises in the country of the Oza-ques Indians, runs many leagues s. e. as far as thetown of Satovis, Avhen, turning to the s. it entersby two mouths into the Mississippi, being through-out subject to large cataracts.

AKOUKA, a settlement of the province of LaGuayana, in the Dutch possessions, or colony ofSurinam ; situate on the shore of the river Little,just before it enters tlie Marawin.

[ALABAHA, a considerable river in E. Flo-rida. Also said to be the name of a branch of St.Mary’s river.]

[ALABAHA, a considerable river of Georgia,which pursues a s. course to thegulph of Mexico,100 miles w. of the head of St. Mary’s river. Itsbanks are low, and a trifling rain sAvells it to morethan a mile in Avidth. In a freshet the current israpid, and those Avho pass are in danger of being^entangled in vines and briars, and droAvned ; theyare also in r<'ul danger from great numbers of hun-gry alligators. The country for nearly iOO mileson each side of this river, that is to say, from thel)ead of St. Mary’s to Flint river, Avhicli is 90miles w. of the Alabaha, is a continued soft, miryAvaste, affording neither water nor food for men orbeasts ; and is so poor indeed, as that the commongame of the Avoods are not found here. Thei ountry on the of Alabaha is rather preferableto that on the e.l

[ALABAMOUS, an old French fort, in thew. part of Georgia ; situate between Coosa andTallapoose rivers, and not far from their conflu-ence.]

ALABAMA, an Indian village, delightfullysituated on the banks of the Mississippi, on severalswelling green hills, gradually ascending from theverge of the river. These Indians are the remainsof the ancient Alabama nation, who inhabited thee. arm of the Great Mobile river,. Avhich still bearstheir name, now possessed by the Creeks, or Mns-cogulges, who conquered the former.]

[Alabama River is formed by the junctionof the Coosa or Coosee, or High Town river, andTallapoosee river, at Little Tallasee, and runs ina s. w. direction, until it meets Tombigbee riverfrom the n. w. at the great island which it thereforms, 90 miles from the mouth of Mobile bay, inthegulph of Mexico. This beautiful river has agentle current, pure waters, and excellent fish.It runs about two miles an hour, is 70 or 80 rodswide at its head, and from 15 to 18 feet deep inthe driest season. The banks are about 50 feethigh, and seldom, if ever, overfloAved. Travellershave gone down in large boats, in the month ofMay, in nine days, from Little Tallasee fo Mobilebay, Avhich is about 350 miles by water. Its banksabound Avith valuable productions in the vegetableand mineral kingdoms.

[ALABASTER, or Eleutheua, one of theBahama or Lucayo islands, on which is a small fortand garrison. It is on the Great Bahama bank.The soil of this island and Harbour island, whichlies at the n. end of it, is better tlian Providenceisland, and produces the greatest part of the pine-apples that are exported ; the climate is veryhealthy. Lat. 24° 40' to 26° 30' n. Long. 76° 22'to 76° 56' W.1

[ALACHUA Savannah is a level green plain,in the country of the Indians of that name inE. Florida, situate about 75 miles w. from St.Augustine. It is about 15 miles over, and 50 incircumference ; and scarcely a tree or bush of anykind to be seen on it. It is encircled Avith highsloping hills, covered with Avaving forests, andfragrant orange groves, rising from an exube-ranfly fertile soil. The ancient Alachua townstood on the borders of this savannah ; but theIndians mnoved to Cuscowilla, two miles distant,on account of the unhealthiness of the former site,occasioned by the stench of the putrid fisli andreptile.s, in the summer and autumn, driven onshore by the alligafors, and <he noxious exhulu-tions from the marshes of ti)e savannah. Thoughthe horned cattle and horses bred in these meadowsare large, sleek, sprightly, and faf, yet they aresubject to mortal diseases; such as the water rot,or scald, occasioned by the warm Avater of the sa-vannah ; Avhile those which, range in the highforests are clear of this (lisonler.1 °

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and tonegimknio of Atacama in Peru, situate onthe coast.

ALGONQUINENSES, or Algonquins, anation of savage Indians, who inhabit a part ofCanada : they are continually at war with theIroqiiees. Their idiom may be looked upon asthe mother tongue of all the other nations of thatcountry, and differs very slightly from the rest,so that any one speaking it would be able totravel in any other nation in these parts. Theyborder o;i the north side of lake Huron; andalthough inhabiting the whole of the coast of lakeSuperior, their number, according to Mackenzie,does not exceed 150 families.

[ALGONQUINS, of Rainy Lake, Indians ofN. America, of the precise limits of whose coun-try we are not informed. They live very muchdetached in small parties. The country theyinhabit is but an indifferent one ; it has been muchhunted, and the game, of course, nearly exhaust-ed. They are well-disposed towards the whites.Their number is said to decrease. They are ex-tremely addicted to spirituous liquors, of whichlarge quantities are annually furnished them bythe n. w. traders, in return for their bark canoes.They live wretchedly poor.]

[Algonquins, of Portage de Prairie, In-dians of N. America, who inhabit a low, flat,marshy country, mostly covered with timber, andwell stocked with game. They are emigrantsfrom the lake of the Woods, and the country e. ofit ; who were introduced some years since by then, tc. traders, in order to hunt the country on thelower parts of Red river, which then aboundedin a variety of animals of the fur kind. They arean orderly, well-disposed people, but, like theirrelations on Rainy lake, addicted to spirituousliquors. Their trade is at its greatest extent.]

ALGUILGUA. See article Santa Monica;

ALllUE, a settlement of the province andcorregim'iento of Rancagua in the kingdom ofChile, annexed to the curacy of San Pedro.

Aliiue, a large lake of the same province andkingdom.

[ALIATANS, Snake Indians, ofN. America,a numerous and well disposed people, inhabitinga woody and mountainous country ; they aredivided into three large tribes, who wander ata considerable distance from each other, and arecalled by themselves So-so-na, So-s6-bubar, andI-a-kar ; these are again subdivided into smaller,though independent bands, the names of Avhich wehave not yet learnt : they raise a number of horsesand mules, with which they trade with the Crow In-dians, or which are stolen by the nations on the e. of

them. They maintain a partial trade with theSpaniards, from whom they obtain many articlesof clothing and ironmongery, but no warlike im-plements.]

[ALiATANs,of La Playes, Indians of N. Ame-rica, who inhabit the rich plains from the headof the Arkansas, embracing the heads of Redriver, and extending, with the mountains and highlands, e. as far as it is known towards the gulph ofMexico. They possess^ no fire arms, but arewarlike and brave. They are, as well as theother Aliatans, a wandering people. Their coun-try abounds in wild horses, beside great numberswhich they raise themselves. These people, andthe West Aliatans, might be induced to trade onthe upper part of the Arkansas river. The Alia-tans do not claim a country within any particularlimits.]

[Aliatans, of the West, Indians of N. Ame-rica, who inhabit a mountainous country, andsometimes venture in the plains e. of the rockymountains, about the head of the Arkansas river.They have more intercourse with the Spaniards ofNew Mexico than the Snake Indians. They aresaid to be very numerous and warlike, but arebadly armed. The Spaniards fear these people,and therefore take the precaution not to furnishthem with any warlike implements. In their pre-sent unarmed state, they frequently commit hos-tilities on the Spaniards. They raise a greatmany horses.]

ALLANTE, a volcano of the kingdom ofChile, in the province and country of Arauco ;in 1640 it burst, the mountain opening in twoplaces, and throwing out large shapeless masses oflava, with so great a noise as to be heard at manyleagues distance: the mischief it did was veryconsiderable.

ALIBAMONS, or Alibamis, a nation ofIndians of Louisiana, dwelling «. of the Apaches.It is very numerous, and is on terms of amity withthe French ; so that they never have communica-tion with the ihiglisli, but from necessity. Theformer, when they first established themselves inthis country, carried on a large trade here, but itafterwards declined, on account of the distance ofthe place. [These Indians are from West Florida,off’ the Allibami river, and came to Red riverabout the same time as the Boluxas and Appala-ches. Part of them have lived on Red river,about sixteen miles above the Bayau Rapide, tilllately, when most of this party, of about 30 men,went up Red river, and have settled themselvesnear the Caddoques, where, we are informed, theyhave lately raised good crops of corn. The Cad-

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America, having an excellent port, three leaguesin length, and in which there are many othersmall islands. On the adjoining mainland thereis a river called De Salmones, (salmon), on ac-count of its abounding with these fish, of whichindeed great quantities are taken, as they are es-teemed the finest species of fish of any in that partof the world .

Canseau, a small settlement of the sameisland, which was burnt by the French in the warof 1744.

Canseau, a cape of the same island, at the en-trance of the straits, and also a sand-bank at themouth of them.

CANTA, a province and government of Peru,bounded on the n. e. and e. by Tarma, on the w.by Chancay, partly by the corregimiento of Cer-cado, and on the s. by Huarochiri. It is 24leagues in length n. to s. and 35 in width e. to w.Its territory is generally uneven, being in the cor-dillera. It has some deep pits or canals, on thesides of which, and in small spots, they sow andcultivate vegetables, fruits, and potatoes. Thebreed of cattle is by no means inconsiderable here,and there are to be found most of the wild animalswhich are natives of the sierra, namely, vicuñas,(wild goats), and sheep peculiar to these countries,and differing from those of Europe. In this pro-vince as well as in nearly all those of the sierra,there is scarcely any wood for the purposes ofcooking, and this want is supplied by the use ofturf, which makes a lively fire, but which is veryapt to smoke. Those parts which are called que-bradas, or rugged and uneven, are very sickly,and are subject to two species of maladies com-mon to other cold climates in this country ; theone is that of warts, which not budding in duetime, often become exceedingly troublesome, andeven dangerous ; the other of corrosive sores,shewing themselves particularly upon the face,and are difficult to be cured, and which are attri-buted to the sting of an insect called uta. Somemines of silver were formerly worked here, whichwere so abundant, that they used to render 200marks each cajon, (an excavation of 20 feet square,more or less), but these, from not being regularlyworked, are filled with water. Here are also twohills of loadstone, as also some minerals of alum,copper, and red lead. The following rivers taketheir rise in this province : The Carabaya from thelakes Tacaimbaba and Lorococha, which emptythemselves into the sea on the n. of Lima ; andthe Pasamayo, which runs to the s. of Chancay,first receiving the waters of some hot medicitialsprings. Its corregidor used to receive a repar-

timiento of 125,000 dollars, and it paid yearly1000 for alcavala.

The capital is a town of the same name, in lat.11° 10' s. and its jurisdiction comprehends 62others, which are,

Carhua, Arahuay,

Obrajillo, Anaica,

Parsamaria, Quiby,

Chaqui, Pirca,

Pamacocha, Cotoc,

Carhuacayan, Chaupic,

Yanta, Pampas,

Pari, Marco,

Uchayucarpa, Rauma,

Huaillas, Huacos,

Huasichao, Biscas,

Pacaraos, Yazú,

Uschaicocha, Yanga,

Santa Cruz, Baños,

Santa Catarina, Carae,

Chauca, San Agustin,

Rivira, Huamantanga,

Chupas, Sumbirca,

Culli, San Buenaventura,

Vircay, Huaros,

Atabillos Altos, San Lorenzo,

Pasa, Mayo,

Chisque, Alpamarca,

Huanoquin, Atabillos Baxos,

Cormo, Huaicoi,

Lampian, Puruchucu,

Pallas, Ama,

San Juan, San Joseph,

Quipan, Culluay,

Guandaro, Pampacocha,

San Miguel, Quizú.

CANTANABALO, a river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in thenew kingdom of Granada. It rises between theCaviusari and the Sinaruco, and running nearlyparallel with them, enters into the Orinoco.

CANTERBURY, a fort of the province ofHampshire, one of the four composing the colonyof New England. It is built on the shore of theriver Pennycook, and at the mouth of the water-course formed by the lake Winnipisiokee.

(Canterbury, a township in Windhamcounty, Connecticut, on the w. side of Quinna-baug river, which separates it from Plainfield.It is seven miles e. by s. of Windham, and about10 or 12 n. of Norwich.)

CANTLA, a small settlement of the head set-tlement and alcaldía mayor of Cuquio in NuevaEspaña, situate on the n. of its capital.

(CANTON, a new township in Norfolk county,

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Massachusetts, incorporated in 1797, it beingformerly the n. part of Stoughton.)

CANUARI, a small river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs to the n.and enters the Rio Grande of the Portuguese, be-tween the Mbouqui and the Pobatini.

CANUEIRAS, a point of the n. extremity ofthe island of Santa Catalina, on the coast ofBrazil.

CANUERALES, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cuyo in the kingdom ofChile, situate near the river Diamante.

CANUTO, a river of the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It rises in the mountain Ta-cazuruma, runs nearly s. and enters the river ofLa Portuguesa.

CANXA, a small settlement of the head settle-ment of Orizavá, and alcaldía mayor of Yxmi-quilpan, in Nueva España.

(CANY Fork, in the state of Tennessee, is ashort navigable river, and runs n. w. into Cum-berland river, w. of the Salt lick, and oppositeSalt Lick creek, 50 miles in a straight line fromNashville.)

CANZE, a river of the colony and govern-ment of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessedby the Dutch. It rises between the Berbice andthe Corentin, and after a very round-about course,enters the former, close to its mouth, or where itruns into the sea.

CAO, Santa Maria Magdalena de, asettlement of the province and corregimiento ofTruxillo in Peru, situate in the valley of Chicama.It was the capital in the time of the Indians, andthe number of these 200 years ago was 3000 ; butnow it is reduced to a wretched state, and occu-pies a small spot on the other side of the river,being nine leagues distant from its capital.

Cao, with the dedicatory title of Santiago, todistinguish it from another settlement of the sameprovince and corregimiento, although they areboth equally poor and reduced. Its inhabitantsmaintain themselves by the cultivation of maize,wheat, rice, and vegetables, which they carryfor sale to the other provinces, so that they arefor the most part a race of carriers, and indeedpossess no inconsiderable droves of mules. It issix leagues from its capital, just by the sea.

CAOBAS, River of the, in the island of St.Domingo, in that part possessed by the French.It rises in the valley of San Juan, runs to the w.and afterwards changing its course to the n. w. en-ters the Artibonito.

CAORA, a river which runs down from themountains of Guayana to the s. of the lake

Cassipa, into which it enters ; and afterwardsrunning out at the n. side of this lake, it findsits way through a subterraneous passage, until itempties itself into the Orinoco, on its s. shore.The borders of this river are inhabited by anation of barbarous Indians, who wander con-tinually through the forests without any fixedabode. They are cannibals as well as the otherIndian tribes around them, and with whom theykeep up a continual warfare.

CAPACA, a settlement of the province of Culi-acan in Nueva España ; situate near the head set-tlement.

CAPACHICA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paucarcolla in Peru ; situate onthe w. shore of the lake Titicaca.

Capachica, a narrow strip of land formed bythe great lake Titicaca. Of these strips there arethree, and this appears, for the distance of a league,to be completely divided from any main land.

CAPACHO, a village under the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Christoval, in the new kingdom ofGranada ; of a warm temperature ; abounding insugar-cane, from which much sugar is manufac-tured, and in cacao ; but it is much infested bythe barbarian Indians, called the Motilones (short-haired), who destroy the plantations. It contains200 house- keepers, and is 24; leagues n. e. ofPamplona, in the road which leads to Mérida andLa Grita, and eight leagues from the city of SanChristoval.

CAPACMARCO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru.

CAPAIA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Aimaraez in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Soraica.

Capaia, another settlement in the province ofBarcelona, and government of Cumana; situate onthe coast, on the banks of a river of the samename.

Capaia, a river of the same province and go-vernment, which rises in the serranía, and aftermaking many turnings runs into the sea, near thecape Codera towards the e.

CAPAIAN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction ofthe city of Rioja.

CAPAIRE, a settlement of the province of Ve-nezuela, and government of Maracaibo ; situatevery near the coast, at the point Colorada, on theshore of the river Guepe.

(CAPALITA, a large town of North America,and in the province of Oaxaca. The countryround abounds with sheep, cattle, and excellentfruit.)

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CAPANA, a river of the province and countryof the Amazonas, in the part belonging to the Por-tuguese. It rises in the territory of the YaveisIndians, between the rivers Cuchivara and theMadera ; runs to the s. and turning to the s. s. e.enters into one of the lakes which forms the latterriver.

CAPANATOIAQUE, a small settlement of thehead settlement of Acantepec, and alcaldía mayorof Tlapa, in Nueva España. Its temperature iswarm, and it contains 90 families of Mexican In-dians, who employ themselves in the cultivatingand dressing of cotton.

CAPANEMA, a settlement of the province andcaptainship of Todos Santos in Brazil ; situateon the shore of the river of its name, near the bay.

Capanema, a river of the same province,which rises near the coast, runs e. and enters thesea in the bay.

CAPANEREALTE, a river of the provinceand alcaldía mayor of Soconusco, in the king-dom of Guatemala. It runs into the S. sea be-tween the rivers Colate and Gueguetlan.

CAPARE, an island of the river Orinoco, in theprovince and government of Guayana; situate atthe entrance, and one of those forming the mouths,of that river.

CAPARRAPI, a small settlement of the ju-risdiction of the city of Palma, and corregimientoof Tunja, in the new kingdom of Granada. Itstemperature is warm ; the number of its inhabi-tants is much reduced ; they may, however, stillamount to 40 housekeepers : its only productionsare some maize, cotton, yucas, and plantains.

CAPATARIDA, a settlement of the provinceand government of Maracaibo ; situate on the coast,at the mouth of the river so called.

Capatarida, the river which rises near thecoast, runs n. and enters the sea.

(CAPATI. Within a very few years has beendiscovered in the gold mine of this place, on themountains of Copiapo, a new immalleable sort ofmetal, of a kind unknown to the miners ; but Mo-lina imagined it to be no other than platina.)

CAPAUILQUE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento ofYamparaes, and archbishopricof Charcas, in Peru.

(CAPE St. Andrew’s, on the coast of Para-guay, or La Plata, S, America. Lat. 38° 18' s.Long. 58° 2' w.)

(Cape St. Antonio, or Anthonio, is thepoint of land on the s. side of La Plata river inS. America, which, with cape St. Mary on the n.forms the mouth of that river. Lat. 36° 32' s.Long, 56° 45' w.)

(Cape St. Augustine, on the coast of Brazil,S. America, lies s. of Pernambuco. Lat. 8° 39' s.Long. 35° 8' w.)

(Cape Blow-me-down, which is the s. side ofthe entrance from the bay of Fundy into the basinof Minas, is the easternmost termination of a rangeof mountains, extending about 80 or 90 miles tothe gut of Annapolis; bounded n. by the shores ofthe bay of Fundy, and s. by the shores of Anna-polis river.)

(Cape Cod, anciently called Mallebarre bythe French, is the s. e. point of the bay of Mas-sachusetts, opposite cape Ann. Lat. 42° 4' n.Long. 70° 14' w. from Greenwich. See Barn-staple County and Province Town.)

(Cape Elizabeth, a head-land and townshipin Cumberland county, district of Maine. Thecape lies in n. lat. 43° 33' e. by s. from the centreof the town nine miles, about 20 s. w. of Cape Smallpoint, and 12 n e. from the mouth of Saco river.The town has Portland on the n. e. and Scarboroughs. w. and contains 1355 inhabitants. It was incor-porated in 1765, and lies 126 miles n. e. ofBoston.)

(Cape Fear is the s. point of Smith’s island,which forms the mouth of Cape Fear river into twochannels, on the coast of N. Carolina, s. w. of capeLook-out, and remarkable for a dangerous shoalcalled the Frying-pan, from its form. Near thiscape is Johnson’s fort, in Brunswick county, anddistrict of Wilmington. Lat. 33° 57' n. Long.77° 56' w.)

(Cape Fear River, more properly Clarendon,affords the best navigation in N. Carolina. Itopens to the Atlantic ocean by two channels.'I'he s. w. and largest channel, between the s. w.end of Smith’s island, at Bald head, where thelight-house stands, and the e. end of Oakes islands. w. from fort Johnston. The new inlet is be-tween the sea-coast and the n. e. end of Smith’sisland. It will admit vessels drawing 10 or 11feet, and is about three miles wide at its entrance,having 18 feet water at full tides over the bar.It continues its breadth to the flats, and is navi-gable for large vessels 21 miles from its mouth, and14 from Wilmington ; to which town vessels drawl-ing 10 or 12 feet can reach without any risk. Asyou ascend this river you leave Brunswick on theleft and Wilmilgton on the right. A little aboveWilmington the river divides into n. e. and n. w.branches. The former is broader than the latter,but is neither so deep nor so long. The n. w.branch rises within a few miles of the Virginialine, and is formed by the junction of Haw andDeep rivers. Its general course is s. e. Sea ves-

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CARACAS.

and it is, indeed, pretty generally believed thatthis cross was left here by the above apostle.

CARAC, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the cu-racy of Lampian.

CARACARA, an ancient and small province ofCharcas in Peru, to the s. of Cuzco, and the lastof those conquered by the sixth Emperor or Inca.

CARACARES, a large lake of the province andgovernment of Paraguay. It is 26 leagues inlength, and has many fertile islands, inhabited bybarbarian Indians, and empties itself through acanal into the river Paraná on the e. side. It isin 30° 41' s. lat.

CARACAS, Santiago de Leon de, a capitalcity of the province of Venezuela, founded byDiego Losada in the year 1566, in a beautiful andextensive valley of more than four leagues inlength. It is of a very mild temperature, beingneither troubled with excessive heat or cold. It iswatered by four rivers, which fertilize its territory,and make it abound as well in delicate waters asin exquisite fruits and flowers: the streets are wideand straight, the buildings elegant and convenient,and it is ornamented by four marts. It is the seatof the bishopric, erected in the city of Coro in1532, and translated to this spot in 1636. It hasa beautiful cathedral church, besides some parishchapels, which are Nuestra Señora de Alta Gra-cia ; San Pablo, which is also an hospital, andNuestra Señora de la Candelaria, out of the wallsof the city. There is also an hospital De la Ca-ridad (of charity) for women ; a convent of the re-ligious order of Santo Domingo, in which is heldin high respect the wonderful image of the Virginof the Rosary, presented by Philip II. There isanother convent of San Francisco, in which ispreserved a piece of the wood of the cross left bythe Governor Don Martin de Robles Villafañate ;another of our Lady of La Merced ; a monasteryof religious women of La Concepcion ; another ofthe Carmelites Descalzas (barefooted) ; a college andseminary for the education of youth, with five ca-thedrals ; four hermitages dedicated to San Mau-ricio, Santa Rosalia de Palermo, La Divina Pas-tora, and La Santisima Trinidad. Charles II.granted to this city the privilege of allowing itsalcaldes to govern the province in the vacancy ofa governor ; and Philip V. permitted a commer-cial company of Biscayans to be established, whoreaped considerable affluence, especially in the ar-tiles of cacoa and sugar, the chief source of its re-venues ; but this company was abolished in thereign of Charles III. in the year 1778 ; which cir-cumstance was considered by the city and the pro-

vince as a most considerable privilege. The num-ber of inhabitants amounts to about 1000, besidesan infinity of people of colour by whom it is in-habited. The natives have shown themselves tobe of an ingenuous disposition, clever, affable, andcourteous. Its arms are a grey lion rampant in afield of silver, having between his arms a scollop-shell of gold, with the cross of Santiago ; and thecrest is a crown with five points of gold. It wassacked in 1566 by Sir Francis Drake, who camethither in an English cruiser ; also by the Frenchin 1679. It is three leagues distant from the portof Guaira. Long. 67° w. Lat. 10° 30' n.

The bishops who have presided in this city.

1. Don Rodrigo Bastidas, dean of the holychurch of St. Domingo, the chief of the visitationof the bishopric of Puertorico; elected on the 27thOctober 1535, and who died in 1542.

2. Don Miguel Gerónimo Ballesteros, dean ofthe church of Cartagena of the Indies ; electedin 1543.

3. Don Fr. Pedro de Agreda, of the order ofSt. Domingo, collegiate of San Gregorio of Val-ladolid ; presented to this bishopric in 1558, andtaking possession of it 1560. In his time the citywas sacked by the English : he died in 1580.

4. Don Fr. Juan de Manzanillo, of the order ofSt. Domingo ; presented in the year 1582 ; he re-built the church, and died in 1593.

5. Don Fr. Diego Salinas, of the order of St.Domingo, native of Medina del Campo, colle-giate of San Gregorio de Valladolid, prior in dif-ferent convents, procurator-general in the court,and elected bishop in the year 1600 : in the fol-lowing year he died.

6. Don Fr. Pedro Martin Palomino, of the orderof St. Domingo ; elected in 1601 : he died the sameyear.

7. Don Fr. Pedro de Oña, native of Burgos, ofthe order of our Lady of La Merced ; he was even-ing lecturer in the university of Santiago, electedbishop in 1601, canonized in the convent of Val-ladolid, and before he came to his church, waspromoted to the bishopric of Gaeta, in the king-dom of Naples, in 1604.

8. Don Fr. Antonio de Alcega, of the order ofSt. Francis ; he Avas formerly married, and heldthe office of accountant to the royal estates in Yu-catán, when he became a widower, and giving allhe possessed as alms to the poor, he took to a re-ligious life, and Philip III. being charmed withhis virtues presented him to this bishopric in1664 ; he celebrated the synod in Caracas theyear following, and died in 1609.

9. Don Fr. Juan de Bohorques, native of Mex-

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[and three counts. All the wliites pretend to be noble,and nearly one third of them are acknowledged to beko. The whites are all either planters, merchants, sol-diers, priests, monks, financiers, or lawyers. ASpanish white person, especially a Creole, howeverpoor he may be, thinks it the greatest disgrace tolabour as a mechanic. The Europeans in Caracasform at least two very distinct classes ; the first com-prises those who come from Spain with apjjoint-ments : the second those actuated by industry anda spirit of enterprise, and who emigrate to acquirewealth ; the greater part of these come from Cata-lonia and Biscay ; their views are purely mercan-tile. Both Catalonians and Biscayans are dis-tinguished among their fellow-citizens by the good,faith they observe in their business, and by theirpunctuality in their payments. The former class,the European placemen, are most obnoxious to theCreoles, and these are in point of ability and edu-cation almost always the superiors. The Spa-niards from the Canary islands, who are impelledby want, rather than fired by ambition, to quittheir native soil and to establish themselves at Ca-racas, import with them tlie united industry ofthe Catalonians and Biscayans. Their geniusassimilates more to that of the latter than to that ofthe former ; but, in fine, both are useful citizens,like all who strive by honest means to gain theirlivelihood, and who are not ashamed to prove byexample, that man is born to labour. The womenof Caracas are agreeable, sensible, and engaging ;few of them are fair, but they have jet black hair,with complexions as clear as alabaster ; their eyesare large, well set, and lovely, whilst the car-nation of their lips marks a health and vigourof constitution. There are a very few, however,above the middle size, whilst there are a greatmany under ; and their feet too are rarely hand-some. As they pass a great part of their lives attheir windows, it may be said that they are soli-citous to display that in which nature has mostfavoured them. There are no female schools here ;the women therefore learn nothing but what theirparents teach them, which is confined, in manycases, to praying, reading badly, and writingAvorse ; it is diflicult for any but an inspired loverto read their scrawl. They have neither dancing,drawing, nor music masters ; all they learn ofthese accomplishments is to play a fgw airs on theguitar and pianoforte; there are but a very fewwho understand the rudiments of music. But inspite of this want of education, the ladies of Ca-racas know very avcU Jiow to unite social mannerswith politeness, and the art of coquetry with ferni-ainc modesty. 'I'his is, however, a picture only

of those women whose husbands or fathers possesslarge fortunes or lucrative places ; for that part ofthe female sex who are doomed to procure theirown livelihood, seldom know of any other meansof existence than the public prostitution of theirvirtue : about 200 of these poor creatures passtheir days in rags and tatters in the ground-floorsof houses, and stroll out only at night to procurethe pittance for their next day’s fare ; their dressis a white petticoat and cloak, with a pasteboardbonnet covered with lustring, to which they at-tach a bunch of artificial flowers and tinsel. Thesame dress often serves in one evening for two orthree of these unhappy beings. The class of do-mestic slaves is considerable at Caracas, since aperson believes himself rich only in proportion tothe number of slaves he has in his house. In ge-neral, four times more servants are kept than are ne-cessary, for this is thought an etfectual method ofconcealing poverty. Thus a white Avouian goes tomass with two Negro or Mulatto women in hertrain, without having an equal value in any otherspecies of property. Those who are reputedlyrich, are followed by four or five servants, whilstas many attend every white person of the samefamily going to another church. Some houses atCaracas contain 12 or 15 servants, Aritliout count-ing the footmen in attendance on the men.

22. Freed persons , — Probably there is not acity throughout all the West Indies that has sogreat a proportion, Avith respect to other classes,of enfranchised persons and their descendants, asCaracas ; they carry on all the trades which thewhites disdain. Every carpenter, joiner, mason,blacksmith, locksmith, tailor, shoemaker, andgoldsmith, &c. is or has been an enfranchisedslave ; they do not excel in any of these trades,because in learning them mechanically they al-ways err in the principle : moreover, indolence,which is so natural to them, extinguishes thatemulation to Avhich tlie arts owe all their progress.However, their masonry and their carpentry aresutiiciently correct, but the joiner’s art is yet inits infancy. They Avork very little; and Avhatappears rather contradictory is, that they workmuch cheaper than the European artists ; in .ge-neral, burdened with families, they live heaped uptogether in poor houses, and in the midst of priva-'tions : In this state of poverty, to employ them,you must aflbrd an immediate advance of money.The blacksmith never has coals nor fire. Thecarpenter is always Avithout Avood even for a table ;even the wants of their families must be administer-ed to by the employer. In fine, the predominantpassion among this class of people is to consume]

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SOT

[Of the population two tenths are whites, tlireeslaves, four freedmen and their descendants, andthe remainder Indians. There is scarcely any emi-gration from Spain to Tierra Firme. The govern-ment of Caracas, like tliat of other parts of SpanishAmerica, is so constituted as to keep it dependenton the parent country. The governor or captain-general represents the monarch, and commands themilitary force. There are delegated governors,who have each an assessor : the royal audience ofCaracas consists of a president, who is tlie captain-general, a regent, three judges, two fiscals, onefor criminal afi’airs, the other for the finances, witha reporter and other necessary officers. It adminis-ters justice, regulates the finances, and has othergreat prerogatives. The naval force of TierraFirme is trifling, and could not resist a single frigate.Several sea-ports have fortresses. Maracaibo has25,000 inhabitants, is defended by three forts andfour companies of troops of tlie line, and a propor-tion of militia. The haven or port of Coro, calledLa Vela de Coro, sixteen leagues e. of Maracaibo,had at the time of General Miranda’s expedition in1S06, two batteries with 15 or 18 pieces of cannonof various calibres from six to 18 pounders. PuertoCabello, 58 leagues to the e. of Coro, has a strongfort with a large and numerous artillery. In timeof war it is supplied with two companies of regulartroops. In case of attack, says Depons, 3000militia might be collected here in eight days. LaGuaira, the haven of Caracas, 25 leagues to the e.of Puerto Cabello, is very strongly fortified. Cu-mana, 100 leagues e. of La Guaira, is of difficultaccess, has a fort, and might collect a force of 5000men. The island of Margareta, four leagues n. ofCurnana, has trifling batteries, one company of re-gular troops, one of artillery, and several of militia.Thus it appears tlie strong places are distant fromeach other (30 or 100 leagues ; hence it is observed,a debarkation on the coast might easily be efl'ectedin various places, and the troops proceed into thecountry, whilst the ships, by attacking the forts,would distract the military operations. The mili-tary force, as stated by Depons, is a regiment of re-gular troops of 918 fnen, distributed at Caracas,La Guaira, and Puerto Cabello: 400 troops of theline are at Maracaibo, at Curnana 150, at Guiana150, and at Barpias 77. The artillery at the re-spective {jlaces is served by separate companiesbesides militia ; the whole armed force of the cap-tainship-genera^regulartroopsand militia, is statedat 13,059. There is no religion but the HomanCatholic. To be suspected of heresy is dangerous ;to be convicted, fatal. The tribunals of the in-quisition are erected at Mexico, Lima, and Carta-

gena, and are very powefful. They prohibit badbooks to the number of 5420. Spanish Americaabounds in priests, who are held in great respect ;the missionaries are numerous ; the churciies aredecent and often elegant. The tithes are paid, onetenth part to the king, one fourth to the bisliop, onefourth to the chapter, and remainder to the parishpriests and to other pious uses. The income of thebishop of Caracas is 40,000 dollars. The produc-tions of this region are cacao, coffee, sugar, indigo,and tobacco. Besides the present products, thereis a great variety 'of others which the soil offers tothe inhabitants, without requiring any advance, orsubjecting them to any trouble, but that of collect-ing and bestowing on them a light a?id easy pre-paration. Among these Depons mentionswild cochineal, dyeing woods and barks, gums,rosin, and medical oils, herbs, roots and bark formedicine. From this country half Europe mightbe supplied with wood for its furniture and cabinet-work. Commerce might draw much from the ani-mal kingdom. The neat cattle are calculated at1,200,0(X) ; horses and mares 180,000 ; and mulesat 90,000 ; sheep are innumerable, and deer abun-dant : notwithstanding this abundance, agricultureis at a low ebb in this country. La Guaira,Puerto Cabello, Maracaibo, Curnana, Barcelona,and Margareta, havearight to trade with the mothercountry. In 1796 the imports from Spain to Ca-racas were estimated at 3,1 18,8117^^ dollars, andthe exports at 283,316 dollars. There is a limitedtrade to the other colonies, which brings about400,000 dollars into the country. It exports toforeign West India islands articles of its own pro-duce, except cacao, in neutral bottoms ; part of thereturns must be in Negroes or in farming or house-hold utensils, and the remainder in specie. Butthis remainder is principally smuggled in manu-factured goods. The contraband trade, dividedchiefly between Jamaica, Curasao, and Trinidad,was estimated at 750,000 dollars annually beforethe war of 1796. It has increased greatly sincethat period. The whole regular exports of Ca-racas from 1793 to 1796 are stated at 12,252,415dollars ; from 1797 to 1800, 6,442,318 dollars.The finances of Caracas are under the direc-tion of an intendant. The revenue arises prin-cipally from the customs, a duty of five per cent,on sales from stamps, licences, and tithes, andfrom the produce of the cruzada and of the sale oftobacco. T’he two last are destined for the treasuryat home. There is usually a deficit, even in timeof peace ; in 1797 the receipt was 1, 147,788 dol-lars ; expenditure, 1,886,363. According toHumboldt, the dollars imported into Caracas in j

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It was formerly a very rich tract of land, si-tuate on the shore of the river Cazanare, a streamwhich crosses and stops the pass into the coun-try and for this reason there was a consider-able establishment formed here by persons whobelonged to tlie curacy of Santa Rosa de Chire.Its temperature is hot, but it is very fertile, andabounds in productions, which serve to provide forthe other settlements belonging to the same mis-sions : at present it is under the care of the reli-gious order of St. Domingo.

CARIBANA, a large country, at the presentday called Guayana Maritania, or Nueva Anda-iucia Austral. It extends from the mouth of theriver Orinoco to the mouth of the Marahon ; com-prehends the Dutch colonies of Esquibo, Surinam,and Berbice, and the French colony of Cayenne.It takes its name from the Caribes Indians, whoinhabit it, and who are very fierce and cruel,although upon amicable terms with the Dutch.Nearly the whole of this province is uncultivated,full of woods and mountains, but watered bymany rivers, all of which run for the most partfrom s. to e. and empty themselves into the sea ;although some flow from s. ton. and enter the Ori-noco. The climate, though warm and humid, ishealthy ; the productions, and the source of itscommerce, are sugar-cane, some cacao, wild wax,and incense. The coast, inhabited by Europeans,forms the greater part of this tract of country, ofwhich an account will be found under the respec-tive articles.

Caribana, a port on the coast of Tierra Firme,in the province and government of Darien, at theentrance of the gulf of Uraba.

CARIBE, a small port of the coast of TierraFirme, in the province and government of Vene-zuela, to the w. of cape Codera.

Caribe, Caribbee, or Charaibes, someislands close upon the shore of the province andgovernment of Cumana, near the cape of TresPuntas. [The Caribbee islands in the West In-dies extend in a semicircular form from the islandof Porto Rico, the easternmost of the Antilles, tothe coast of S. America. The sea, thus inclosedby the main land and the isles, is called the Ca-ribbean sea; and its great channel leads n. zo. tothe head of the gulf of Mexico through the sea ofHonduras. The chief of these islands are, SantaCruz, Sombuca, Anguilla, St. Martin, St. Bar-tholomew, Barbuda, Saba, St. Eustatia, St. Chris-topher, Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat, Guadalupe,Dcseada, Mariagalante, Dominica, Martinica,St. Vincent, Barbadoes, and Grenada. These areagain classed into Windward and Leeward isles bv

seamen, with regard to the usual courses of shipsfrom Old Spain or the Canaries to Cartagenaor New Spain and Porto Bello. The geographi-caltablesand maps class them into Great and LittleAntilles ; and authors vary much concerning thislast distinction. See Antilles. The Charaibesor Caribbecs were the ancient natives of the Wind-ward islands ; hence many geographers confine theterm to these isles only. Most of these were an-ciently possessed by a nation of cannibals, the ter-ror of the mild anti inotfensive inhabitants of His-paniola, who frequently expressed to Columbustheir dread of these fierce invaders. Thus, whenthese islands were afterwards discovered by thatgreat man, they were denominated Charibbeanisles. The insular Charaibs are supposed to beimmediately descended from the Galibis Indians,or Charaibes of S. America. An ingenious andlearned attempt to trace back the origin of the Ca-ribes to some emigrants from the ancient hemis-phere may be found in Bryan Edwards ; and itis to the valuable work of this author that we areindebted for the following illustrations of the man-ners and customs of this people. — The Caribesare avowedly of a fierce spirit and warlike dispo-sition. Historians have not failed to notice theseamong the most distinguishable of their qualities.Dr. Robertson, in Note X Cl II. to the first vol. ofhisHistory of America, quotes from a MS. Historyof Ferdinand and Isabella, Avrittenby Andrew Ber-naldes, the cotemporary and friend of Columbus,the folloAving instance of the bravery of the Caribes :A canoe with four men, two Avomen, and a boy, un-expectedly fell in with Columbus’s fleet. A Spanish,bark with 25 men was sent to take them; and the fleet,in the mean time, cut off their communication withthe shore. Instead of giving way to despair, theCaribes seized their arms with imdauntcd resolu-tion, and began the attack, wounding several ofthe Spaniards, although they had targets as wellas other defensive armour ; and even after thecanoe was overset, it was with no little difficultyand danger that some of them Avere secured, asthey continued to defend themselves, and to usetheir bows with great dexterity while swimmingin the sea. Herrera has recorded the same anec-dote. Restless, enterprising, and ardent, it wouldseem they considered war as the chief end of theircreation, and the rest of the human race as theirnatural prey ; for they devoured, without re-morse, the bodies of such of their enemies (themen at least) as fell into their hands. Indeed,there is no circumstance in the history of mankindbetter attested than the universal prevalence ofthese practices among them. Columbus was not]

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[boyes. or pretended magicians, sacrifices and wor-ship ; wounding themselves on such solemnitieswith an instrument made of the teeth of the agouti,which inflicted horrible gashes ; conceiving, per-haps, that the malignant powers delighted ingroans and misery, and were to be appeased onlyby human blood,]

Caribe, a settlement of the same province andgovernment ; situate on the windward coast of thecape of Tres Puntas. In its district are 26 plan-tations, 15 of cacao, and the rest of vines andmaize, which yield but indifferently, from a wantof water; although they find means of supplyingthis in some degree by the rain. The communityconsists of 1070 souls ; and is five leagues dis-tant from the settlement of Carupano.

(CARIBEANA, now called Paria or NewAndalucia, which see.)

CARIBES, a barbarous and ferocious nation ofIndians, who are cannibals, inhabiting the pro-vince which by them is called Caribana. Theyare divided under the titles of the Maritiraos andMediterraneos : the former live in plains and uponthe coast of the Atlantic, are contiguous to theDutch and French colonies, and follow the lawsand customs of the former, with whom they carryon a commerce. They are the most cruel of anythat infest the settlements of the missions of theriver Orinoco, and are the same as those calledGalibis. The Mediterraneos, who inhabit thes. side of the source of the river Caroni, are of amore pacific nature, and began to be reduced tothe faith by the regular order of the abolished so-ciety of the Jesuits in 1738, The name of Caribesis given not only to these and other Indians of theAntilles, but to all such as are cannibals. See Ca-ribe.

(CARIBOU, an island towards the e. end oflake Superior in N. America, n. w. of Cross cape,and s. w. of Montreal bay.)

CARICARI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paria in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Toledo.

Caricari, also called Laguacina, a point ofland on the coast of the province and governmentof the Rio del Hacha.

CARICHANA, a settlement of the province ofGuayana, and government of Cumana ; one of themissions of the Rio Meta, which was under thecare of the society of Jesuits, of the province ofSanta Fe. It is situate on the shore of the Ori-noco, by the torrent of its name ; and is at presentunder the care of the religious order of Capuchins.

Carichana, Torrent of, a strait of the river

Orinoco, formed by different islands, some coveredby, and some standing out of, the water, so thatthe navigation is very difficult and dangerous. Itis near the mouth of the river Meta.

CARIJANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Camata.

=CARILLON==, a fort belonging to the French,in New France.

(CARIMBATAY, a parish of the province andgovernment of Paraguay ; situate a little to then. w. of the town of Curuguaty. Lat. 24° 33' 35".Long. 55° 57' w.)

Carimbatay, a river of the above provinceand government, which runs w. and enters theXexuy near the town of Curuguato.

CARIMU, a small river of the province andcolony of the Dutch, in Surinam ; one of thosewhich enter the Cuium on the s. side.

CARINIS, a small river of the province andcaptainship of Para in Brazil. It rises in the coun-try of the Aritus Indians, runs e. and enters theGuiriri.

CARIOCOS, a lake of the country of the Ama-zonas, in the Portuguese territories, on the shoreof the river. It is formed by the Topinamba-ranas, which, according to Mr. Bellin, makes thissheet of water before it enters the former river.

CARIPE, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme, situate in the middle of a serranía; one ofthe missions in that province belonging to theAragonese Capuchin fathers.

CARIPORES, a settlement of S. America, tothe n. of Brazil and of the river of Las Amazo-nas : although of barbarian Indians, it deservesparticular mention, on account of its virtuous andpacific customs, so different from the brutality andsloth of the surrounding nations. These Indiansare handsome, lively, bold, valorous, liberal, ho-nest, and affable, and in short the most polishednation of Indians in all America ; they esteem ho-nour, justice, and truth; are enemies to deceit, eatbread made of cazave, which they have a methodof preserving good for three or four years. Theydo not scruple to eat the flesh of some ugly snakesfound in their woods, but are not cannibals ; nei-ther do they revenge upon their prisoners takenin war the cruelties they experience from theirenemies.

CARIUITOS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela in the kingdom of TierraFirrae.

(CARIY, a parish of the province and govern-

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close to those of Perlas and Mosquitos ; they arethree in number, small and desert.

CARNERO, Punta del, a point on the coastof the S. sea, and of the province and governmentof Guayaquil ; one of the two which form thegreat bay of Tumbez. It is close to the point ofSanta Elena.

Carnero, Punta del, another, on the coastof the kingdom of Chile ; it is very low, extend-ing itself with a gentle slope towards the sea. Thee. winds are prevalent here, rendering it dangerousto be passed.

Carnero, Punta del, another point of landon the coast of the same kingdom.

Carnero, Punta del, a port of the coast ofthe kingdom of Chile, between tlie mouth of theriver Lebo and the point of Rumena.

(CARNESVILLE, the chief town of Franklincounty, Georgia, 100 miles n. w. of Augusta. Itcontains a court-house, and about 20 dwelling-houses.)

CAROLINA, a province of N. America, andpart of that extensive country anciently calledFlorida, bounded n. by Virginia, s. by the trueFlorida, w. by Louisiana, and e. by the Atlantic.It is divided into N. and S. Carolina. Its ex-tent is 135 leagues in length, nearly from s. w. ton. e. and 75 in width from e. to w. from 30®to 36° 30' of lat. It was discovered by JuanPonce de Leon in 1512, though it was not settledby the Spaniards then, but abandoned until thereign of Charles IX. king of France, when theFrench established themselves in it, under thecommand of admiral Chatilon, protector of theProtestants. He founded a colony and a fort call-ed Charles fort, and gave the name of Carolina tothe country, in lionour to his monarch. This es-tablishment, however, lasted but a short time, forit was destroyed by the Spaniards, who put tothe sword the new colonists, and went away underthe impression that they had now left the countryin a perfectly abandoned state. But the English,at this time, were maintaining a footing here, un-der the command of Sir Walter Raleigh, thoughthey were not under any formal establishmentuntil the reign of Charles II. in 1663, when thecountry was granted as a property to the followingnobility, viz. the Count of Clarendon, Duke ofAlbemarle, Count of Craven, John Berkley, JohnAshley, afterwards Count of Shaftsbury, GeorgeCarteret, John Colleton, and William Berkley;by these it was divided into as many counties,and by them names were given to the rivers, settle-ments, &c. Their privilege of proprietorship and

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jurisdiction extended from lat. 31° to 36° «. andthey had an absolute authority to form establish-ments and governments, according to the laws andstatutes laid down by that famous and renownedphilosopher John Locke ; accordingly the govern-ment partook largely of the despotic, and therulers had the power of acknowledging or renounc-ing laws, of conferring titles, employments, pro-motions, and dignities, according to their owncaprice. They divided the population into threeclasses: The first was composed of those entitledthe Barons, and to these were given 120,000 acresof land; the second were two lordships, with thetitle of Counts, to whom were given 240,000 acres ;and the third, who were called Landgraves, a titlecorresponding to Dukes, had a portion of 480,000acres. This last body formed the high council-chamber, and the lower was composed of the re-presentatives of the counties and cities, both ofthese together forming the parliament, this beingthe real title, and not assembly, as in the othercolonies. The first establishment was the city ofCharlestown, between two navigable rivers calledAshley and Cowper ; the same offered an asylumto the Europeans, who on account of religiousdisturbances fled from Europe, and who havingsuffered great distresses there, had afterwards toencounter a very unfriendly reception from theIndians. Such was the state of affairs until 1728,when this city was taken under the protection ofthe English crown ; a corresponding recompencehaving been paid to the lords, the proprietors, whoyielding it up, thus made a virtue of necessity ;the Count Grenville, however, persisted in keep-ing his eighth share. From that time it was divid-ed into two parts, called North and South. The cli-mate differs but little from that of Virginia, al-though the heat in the summer is rather morepowerful here ; the winter, however, is shorterand milder ; the temperature is serene and theair healthy ; tempests and thunder storms are fre-quent, and this is the only part of this continentwherein have been experienced hurricanes; althoughthey are but rare here, and never so violent as in theislands. The half of March, the whole of April,May, and the greater part of June, the season ismild and agreable ; in July, August, and nearlyall September, the heat is intense ; but the winteris so mild, especially when the w.tw. wind prevails,that the water is seldom frozen. It is extremely fer-tile, and abounds in wheat, barley, rice, and allkinds of pulse, flowers, and fruits of an exquisiteflavour; and the soil, which is uncultivated, iscovered with all kinds of trees. The principal

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emolument which used to be derived to the Eng-lish froPA the skins of the castor, is at presentgreatly abridged from the circumstance of the In-dians invariably destroying this animal; but theloss is in a great measure made up from the greatgain acquired in the sale of turpentine, fish, andpitch. Here they cultivate quantities of indigoof three sorts, much maize, and in the low landsexcellent rice. All this province is a plain 80miles in length, carrying on a great commerce inthe above productions, and formerly that of ricewas very considerable; it being computed to haveyielded that article to the value of 150,000/. ster-ling per annum. In its woods are many exquisitekinds of timber, and the country abounds withrabbits, hares, dantas, deer, pheasants, partridges,cranes, pigeons, and other birds, and with num-bers of ravenous and fierce wolves, against theattacks of which it is difficult to preserve thecattle. The European animals have also multi-plied here astonishingly, so that it is not unusualfor persons, who at first had not more than three orfour cows, now to possess as many thousands.These two provinces forming Carolina have 10navigable rivers, with an infinite number of smallernote, all abounding in fish ; but they hare fewgood ports, and the best of these is Cape Fear.N. Carolina is not so rich as is S. Carolina, andDenton was formerly the capital of the former,but it is at present reduced to a miserable village ;the capital of both is Charlestown, which since thelast w^r is independent of the jEnglish, togetherwith all the country, which now forms one of the 13provinces composing the United States of America.[See North Carolina and South Carolina.]

(CAROLINE County, in Virginia, is on the s.side of Rappahannock river, which separates itfrom King George’s county. It is about 40 milessquare, and contains 17,489 inhabitants, including10,292 slaves.)

(Caroline County, on the e. shore in Mary-land, borders on Delaware state to the e. and con-tains 9506 inhabitants, including 2057 slaves. Itschief town Danton.)

CARONI, a settlement of the province ofGuayana, and government of Cumana ; one ofthose of the missions held in that province by theCatalanian Capuchin fathers.

Caroni, another, in the government of Mara-caibo, and jurisdiction of Varinas. It is very poorand of a hot temperature, but abounding in fruitsof maize, yucas, plaintains, and sugar-canes.

Caroni, another, in the government of the NuevoReyno de Granada ; situate on a lofty spot, andone of the most pleasant and delightful of any in the

whole province. It abounds in gold mines, andis fertile in all the fruits peculiar to the climate,but it is much reduced.

Caroni, a large and abundant river of the pro-vince of Guayana. It rises in the mountains in-habited by the Mediterranean Caribes Indians,runs many leagues, laving the territory of the Ca-puchin missionaries of Guayana. Its shores arevery delightful, from the variety of trees and birdsfound upon them. It enters the Orinoco on the s.side, eight leagues from the garrison of Guayana,and 72 leagues before this river enters the sea, be-ing divided into two arms, which form a smallisland. It is very abundant and wide, but it isnot navigable, on account of the rapidity of its cur-rent, and from its being filled with little islands andshoals, as likewise on account of a great waterfallor cataract, which causes a prodigious noise, and isclose to the mission and settlement of Aguacagua.Its waters are very clear, although at first sightthey appear dark and muddy, which effect is pro-duced from the bed of the river being of a sand ofthis colour. Its source, though not accuratelyknown, is affirmed by the Caribes Indians to bein the snowy sierra to the n. of the lake of Parime,that also being the source by which this lake issupplied. At its entrance into the Orinoco, itgushes with &uch impetuosity as to repel the watersof this river the distance of a gun’s shot, [or, as'Depons observes, half a league. Its course is di-rectly from s. to n. and its source is more than100 leagues from its mouth.]

CAROPI, a river of the island and governmentof Trinidad. It runs from e. to w. and enters thesea in the gulf Triste.

==CARORA, S. Juan Bautista del Por-tillo DE==, a city of the province and governmentof Venezuela, founded by Captain John Salamancain 1572, and not in 1566, as is asserted by FatherColeti, in the Siege of Baraquiga. It is situate inthe savanas or Uanuras ; is of a hot temperature,but very healthy, although deficient in water,since the river Morere, which passes in its vicinity,affords but a trifling stream in tlie summer, and isat times entirely dry. In its district are bred allkinds of cattle, but particularly thegoat, as the quan-tities of thorns and thistles found in this countryrender it peculiarly adapted for the nourishmentof this animal. It abounds in very fine grains,also in aromatic balsams and gums, noted for thecure of w'ounds. At present it is reduced to amiserable population, unworthy of the name of acity, consisting of Mustees, Mulattoes, and some In-dians.; but it still preserves a very good parishchurch, a convent of monks of St. hhancisco, and

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Presurapscot river. It has a good harbour at itsmouth for small vessels, and has several mills uponit ; two miles higher a fall obstructs the navigation.Between it and Kennebeck there are no rivers ;some creeks and harbours of Casco bay throw them-selves into the main land, affording harbours forsmall vessels, and intersecting the country in variousforms.)

CASCONA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Antioquía ; situate at the mouth ofthe river Nare, at its entrance into the Mag-dalena.

CASCUEMBEC, a small island of Nova Scotia,close to the w. point of the island of San Juan.

CASIBANI, a river of the province and countryof the Amazonas : it rises in the cordillera of theMochovos and Pichambios Indians, runs in a ser-pentine course to the n. then inclining for manyleagues to the s. e. enters the Maranon or Amazonas,near the settlement of N uestra Seilora de Guada-lupe.

CASIDI, a river of the province and governmentof Guayana : it enters the Orinoco, according toBeilin, but which is afterwards contradicted by hisown map, since it is^there represented as having itssource to the e. of the city of Pamplona, and asrunning into the river Apure.

CASIGUA, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Maracaibo ; situate on the coast, andnear the entrance or mouth of the great lake.

CASILDA, Ensenada de, a bay on the s. coastof the island of Cuba.

CASIMBUCO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chayanta or Charcas in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Pocoata.

CASIMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe city of Santiago de los Atalayas, in the govern-ment of San Juan de los Llanos, of the NuevoReyno de Granada : it is of a very hot temperature,and abounds in fruits of a similar climate. Its na-tives, who are numerous and consist of the NeolitosIndians, are very industrious, docile, and of gooddispositions, having been reduced to the faith bythe missionaries of the extinguished society of Je-suits. The settlement is at present in the charge ofthe barefooted order of St. Francis, and lies threeleagues from the settlement of Surimena, on theshore of the large river Meta.

CASIPA, a large lake of the province of NuevaAndalucía Austral or South, to the w. ofthe Vaca-ronis Indians : it is 30 leagues in length from n. to s.and 24 in width from e. to w. Four large riversflow from it, the principal of which areArous or Aroiand Caroa, the which enter the Orinoco on its e.side. Its woods are inhabited by some barbarous

nations of Caribes Indians, such as are the Canuristo the n. the Bsparagois to the e. the Aravis to thes. and the Chaguas and Lasipagotes to thezw. Inthis lake tortoises and alligators abound ; its watersare hurtful, and the climate here is unhealthy;hurricanes are frequent here, from the winds whichblow from the neighbouring mountains.

CASIPOURE, a river of the province ofGuayana, in the French possessions ; it runs fromm. to e. and enters the sea, its mouth being half aleague wide, near cape Orange, in 5° 27'.

Casipoure, a cape or point of the coast oppositethe side of cape Orange.

CASIQUIN, a river of the province and govern-ment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito, whichruns many leagues, and enters the Maranon.

CASIRI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Parinacocha in Peru ; annexed to the.curacy of its capital : in its vicinity is an elevatedmountain, in which great Indian wealth is said tobe secreted.

CASIRIAQUI, Cano de, a large and copiousarm of the river Negro, by which this communi-cates with the Orinoco, and through that with theMaranon or Las Amazonas ; which communication,however, has been frequently doubted and con-troverted since the short time of its having beendiscovered.

CASIROUGE, a small island of the e. coast ofNewfoundland, betweea Bellisle and the portGobos.

CASIRRUENTI, a large and copious riverabounding in fine fish, of the province and govern-ment of San Juan de los Llanos : it passes throughthe llanuras of Cazanare and Meta, and, near thesettlement of San Joaquin de Atanari, enters theMeta.

CASIUINDO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of thecity of Xuxuy ; annexed to the curacy of Cochino-ca ; it has two hermitages, which serve as chapelsof ease, with the dedicatory title of Rinconada andRio de San Juan. The natives fabricate powderof excellent quality, and in its district are goldmines, which are not worked.

CASMA, Alta, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Santa in Peru ; situate on thecoast of the S. sea, with a moderately good port.It was sacked in 1586 by Edward David, an Eng-lish pirate.

Casma, Alta, another settlement of this pro-vince, called, for distinction’s sake, Casma Baxa.

CASMAL, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Olleros.

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(Catherine’s Isle, a pleasant island on theharbour of Sunburj, in the state of Georgia.)

(Cathehine’s Isle, a small productive islandon the s. coast of St. Domingo, 20 leagues e. ofthe town of St. Domingo.)

(CATHERINE's Town, in Ontario county, NewYork, lies three miles s. of the 5 . end of Senecaake.)

Catilina, a bay of tlie e. coast of the island ofNewfoundland, between the capes Santos andNuevo.

(CATO, a military township in New York state,12 miles s. e. of lake Ontario, and about 20 s. ofOswego fort.)

CATOA, a river of the province and country ofLas Amazonas. It rises in tlie mountains of theAndes, runs n. and enters the Marailon on the s.side, between the rivers Coari and Coyame.

(==CATORCE, or La Purissima ConcepcionDe Alamos de Catorce==, one of the richest minesof New Spain, and in the intendancy of San LuisPotosi. The real de Catorce, however, has onlybeen in existence since 1773, when Don SebastianCoronado and Don Bernarbe Antonio de Zepedadiscovered these celebrated seams, which yield an-nually the value of more than from 18 to ^20 mil-lions of francs, or from 730,460/. to 833,500/.sterling.)

(CATTAHUNK, one of the Elizabeth isles, inthe state of Massachusetts. See Buzzard’sBay.)

CATUARO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near to and s. of the city of Ca-riaco.

CAUACUAN, a river of the province and cap-tainship of Rey in Brazil. It runs e. and entersthe Uruguay, between the rivers Ipau and Pi-ricaya.

CAUAIAMA, a small river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and en-ters the Uruguay, between the rivers Guarey andBracuaenda.

CAUAILLON, a settlement and parish of theFrench, in their possessions in St. Domingo ; situ-ate on the coast and at the w. head, near the bayof its name, between the settlements of Torbec andLos Cayos.

CAUAIU, a small river of the same provinceand government as the former. It runs w. andenters the Parana, between the rivers Verde andYocare-mini.

Cauaiu, a bay of the same island, opposite theIsla Vaca or Cow island.

CAUALA, a settlement of the province and cap-iainship of Espiritu Santo in Brazil ; situate > 1 . ofVillarica.

CAU-ALLERIZAS, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Yaguarsongo in the king-dom of Quito.

CAUANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Conchucos in Peru.

CAUASAN, San Francisco Xavier de, atown of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate in the midst of the sierraof Topia, on the coast of the S. sea, on the shoreof the river Plastin. It has a small port for lesservessels, which has oftentimes been invaded byenemies. It is a curacy administered by the cler-gy, and to which two small settlements of MexicaaIndians are annexed.

CAUCA, a large and copious river of the pro-vince and government of Popayán, which risesin the mountains of the government of Mariquita,and running 160 leagues from s. to?i. in whichcourse it collects the ’waters of many other rivers,it passes near the cities of Popaj'iin, Buga, Cali,and Anserma ; from whence it is navigable until itenters the large river of the Magdalena. It is verynarrow where it passes through the cities of Po-payan and Antioquia, and forms the letter S, tak-ing its course through rocks, which render its na-vigation very dangerous. The Indians, however,are so dexterous in guarding their canoes fromrunning against the rocks by paddles, that it isvery seldom indeed that any accident occurs tothem. They call this strait Las Mamas de Cara-manta, from a city which was here of this name.Many make this navigation for the purpose ofavoiding a round-about journey of many days, andin a bad road through the mountains ; and it issaid that some have had the good fortune to dis-cover a route by water free from all difficulties,and that this was actually made by the pontificateof the bishop of Popayan, Don Diego de Mon-toy.

Cauca, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela. It runs n. and entersthe sea at the mouth of the Golfete or Littlegulf.

CAUCAQUA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate near the riverTuy, opposite the cape of Codera.

CAUCHUPIL, a river of the kingdom of Chile;it runs to the s. s. e. and then turning s. enters theLebo.

CAUIAN, a settlement of the province andcaptainship of Para in Brazil ; situate on the

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shore of the river Maranon, near the port of Cu-rupa.

CAUIANA, an island of the N. sea; situate inthe middle of the mouth of the large river Ma-rañon.

CAUIJA, a lake of the province and govern-ment of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia. It is n.of that of Ipava, from whence, according to some,the river Orinoco takes its rise.

CAUINAS, an ancient and barbarous nation ofthe province of Charcas in Peru, which wasbounded by the nation of the Canches ; here wasa superb palace belonging to the Incas, builtupon the top of an high mountain, the remains ofwhich are yet to be seen near the settlement ofUrcos, and those of Querquesana and Quiquijana,these being about nine miles distant from the afore-said palace.

CAUIUSARI, a river of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It rises in the mountains ofthe country of the Guames Indians, runs e. formany leagues, and enters the Apure,

CAUJUL, a settlement of the province and cor-regimienio of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Andajes.

CAUMARES, a barbarous nation inhabitingthewoods which lie upon the banks of the river Ma-ranon towards the n. Some of them were reducedto the faith by the missionaries of the extinguishedcompany of Jesuits of the province of Mainas, andformed part of the population of the settlement ofSan Ignacio de Pevas.

CAUN, a settlement of the missions which wereheld by the regulars of the company of the Jesuits,in the province of Cinaloa.

CAUO, or Couvo, a river of the province andgovernment of Guayana. It runs towards the e.and enters the sea, at the distance of leaguesfrom the mouth of the river Aprovaca : its bankson the e. side are inhabited by some barbarous In-dians of the Yaus nation.

CAUOS, a barbarous nation of Indians who in--habit the woods to the w. of the river Putumayo.They are thought to be a branch or tribe of theAbives, and are but little known.

CAUQUE, a settlement of the kingdom andpresidency of Guatemala.

CAUQUENES, a river of the kingdom andgovernment of Chile. It rises in the mountains ofits cordillera, and enters the Maule.

CAUQUICURA, an ancient and large provinceof the kingdom of Peru, to the s. of Cuzco. Itwas conquered and united to the monarchy byMayta Capac, fourth Emperor.

CAUQUIS, a nation of Indians of the kingdomof Chile, and one of the most warlike and valorous,who resisted and put a check to the conquests ofYupanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, obligingliim to retreat with his army to Coqnimbo.

CAURA, a large and copious river of the pro-vince of Guayana, and government of Cumana.It rises in some very lofty sierras, and its shoresare inhabited by many Indiatis, wlio retreat hitherwhen pursued by the Caribes, who are accustonicdto kill the adults, and to ko('p as prisoners tliewomen and children, iit order to sell them to theDutch. This river is the largest of the kingdomof Tierra Firme ever discovered since that of theOrinoco. It runs 60 leagues before it enters into thislatter river, through chains of rocks, which so im-pede its navigation as to render it unsafe for anybut very small craft. On its shores are two forts,one at tlie mouth, where it enters the Orinoco ; andthe other at its mid-course. The Maranon andthe Orinoco also communicate with it by an armwhich is very considerable, and is called the RioNegro.

Caura, a settlement of the jurisdiction of thetown of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra.-nada.

CAURANTA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cumaná ; situate on the coast and atthe point of Paria.

CAURE, a small river of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It rises opposite that city, to-wards the s. and then enters the Ariari.

CAURI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimienlo of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the cu-racy of Cayna.

CAURIMPO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cinaloa ; situate between the fortsRio and Mayo. It is n reduccion of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the company ofJesuits.

CAUSAN, a river of the ])rovince and colonyof Georgia, is the same as that of the name ofCombahi. It runs till it enters the sea.

CAUTE, a small river of the island of Cuba,Which runs rw. and enters the sea.

CAUTEN, a large river of the kingdom ofChile, in the district and province of Repocura.It rises in the district of Maquegua, runs continu-ally from e. to vs. collecting the waiters of manyother rivers, in such a gentle and mild course, thatit has also acquired the name of Las Damns. Itpasses before the Ciudad Imperial, and enters theS. sea. It is 500 toises broad at its mouth, and ofsufficient depth to admit of a ship of the line ; at

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caldia mayor of Zacattan, in Nueva España, fiveleagues from its head settlement.

CAXIBARI, a settlement of the province andcaptainship of Itamaraca in Brazil, situate near thes. side of the town of La Concepcion.

CAXICA, or Busongote, a settlement of thecorregimiento of Zipaquira in the Nuevo Reynode Granada, is of a moderately cold temperature,being agreeable and healthy, and producing muchwheat, maize, barley, and other productions inci-dental to a cold climate. Its population amountsto 150 families, and as many families of Indians,who had in it a capital fortress, in which the Zipaor king of Bogota shut himself up in order to de-fend the entrance into his kingdom against theSpaniards: he was, however, routed and taken byGonzalo Ximenez de Quesada in 1537. Is fiveleagues to the n. of Santa Fe.

CAXITITLAN, the alcaldia mayor and dis-trict or jurisdiction of the kingdom of Nueva Ga-licia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara : in its districtis a large, fertile valley, abounding in every kind ofseed, as maize, wheat, French beans, and varioussorts of pulse : is of a mild temperature, and thedistrict of its jurisdiction consists of six settlements :in it is the great lake or sea of Chapala : it is sevenleagues s, e. of Guadalaxara. Long. 102° 43'. Lat.20° 35'.

San Luis, Istahuacan,

Cuyatan, Santa Cruz,

Coscomatitlan, Axixiqui.

CAXITLAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Almololoyan, and alcaldia mayor of Colina,in Nueva España : it contains 30 families of Spa-niards, 20 of Mustees, and five of Mulattoes : inits district are various estates of palms of Cocos,(palmasde Qocos)^ and some herds of large cattle :is seven leagues to the w. of its head settlement.

(CAYAHAGA, or Cayuga, sometimes calledthe Great River, empties in at the s. bank of lakeErie, 40 miles e. of the mouth of Huron ; havingan Indian town of the same name on its banks. Itis navigable for boats ; and its mouth is wide, anddeep enough to receive large sloops from the lake.Near this are the celebrated rocks which projectover the lake. They are several miles in lengtl),and rise 40 or 50 feet perpendicular out of thewater. Some parts of them consist of several strataof different colours, lying in a horizontal direction,and so exactly parallel, that they resemble thework of art. The view from the land is grand,but the water presents the most magnificent pros-pect of this sublime work of nature ; it is attended,however, with great danger ; for if the least stormArises, the force of the surf is such that no vessel

can escape being dashed to pieces against the rocks .Colonel Broadshead suffered shipwreck here in thelate war, and lost a number of his men, when astrong wind arose, so that the last canoe narrowlyescaped. The heathen Indians, when they passthis impending danger, offer a sacrifice of tobaccoto the water. Part of the boundary line betweenthe United States of America and the Indiansbegins at the mouth of Cayahaga, and run‘< up thesame to the portage between that and the Tuscarawabranch of the Muskingum. The Cayuga nation,consisting of 500 Indians, 40 of whom reside in theUnited States, the rest in Canada, receive of thestate of New York an annuity of 2300 dollars, be-sides 50 dollars granted to one of their chiefs, as aconsideration for lands sold by them to the state,and 500 dollars from the United States, agreeablyto the treaty of 1794. See Six Nations.)

CAYENNE, a large island of the province andgovernment of Guayana : it is six leagues in lengthfrom n. to s. and three quarters of a league in itsbroadest part. On the n. side it has the sea, onthe VO . the river Cayenne, on thee, the Ou>ti, andon the s. an arm which is formed by this and theOrapii. The soil is excellent, fertile, and irrigatedby many streams. That part whicli looks to then. is the most pleasant and healthy ; and in it aremany mountains well cultivated and covered withcountry seats. The part facing the s. is muchlower, and abounds in meadows, called salanas,and which arc inundated in the rainy seasons.The point of the island formed by the mouth ofthe river Cayenne, is called Caperoux, where thereis a fortress with a French garrison, and below thisa convenient and large port, capable of containingin security 100 ships. The French establishedthemselves in this island in the year 1625, andabandoned it in 1654, when the English enteredit, and were routed by Mr. de la Barre, in the year1664. The Dutch had their revenge in 1676 : butthe year following it was recovered by the French,under the command of D’Estrees, on whom the ce-lebrated Jesuit Carlos de la Rue made the followinginscription :

Joanni

Comiti Eslrceo

Vice AmeralioCayana. TabacoVI. CaptisBatavorumAmericana classedeleta

Colonii. excisis.

[The capitulation of Cayenne to the Englisharms, in conjunction with the Portuguese, took

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another whose note resembles atrumpet. It aboundsin quadrupeds, as mules, horses, and cattle of thelarge and small kind, the antas, which is calledhere gran bestia^ (great beast), huanacos, vicunas,llamas, or native sheep, stags, bears, ant-eaters,wild bears, otters, tigers, mountain cats, visca-chas, (or large hares), large and small foxes, tor-toises, higuanos, and others ; all of which affordfood to tlie voracious Indians. In this provinceare also found many insects, such as scorpions,vipers, snakes of several kinds, some of two heads,and some with rattles, squirrels, mocamucas, am-palabas, or what are called in other countries owls,which are extremely deformed, and attract smallanimals to them by their screeching, quiriquinchosof various sorts, glow-worms, a great variety offlies and spiders, and of these a large kind veryvenomous, silk-worms, Avhich, if taken care of,would yield an abundance of silk, locusts, Avhichare eaten by the Indians both dry and fresh ; also ants,the beds of which are so deep as to render the roaddangerous for men and for horses to pass, theseinsects being of such an undaunted and trouble-some nature as often to attack a viper or locust inlarge bodies, and in some settlements to enter ahouse like a plundering army, devouring every in-sect and worm in their way, not leaving a singleeatable thing untouched ; scarcely shall these havefinished their operations, but they are succeeded byanother band, and indeed it is very liazardous todisturb them, since they bite very fiercely andcause much pain. This province has no mines,although it is said that formerly some were workedby the Indians ; some little time since, however,one of iron was discovered, when it was thought tohave been of gold. This extensive and pleasantcountry is inhabited by a multitude of infidel In-dians, of different nations and of various barbarouscustoms. It was casually discovered in 1586 byJuan de Banos, a native of Chuquisaca, a factorof the settlement of Yala ; he had an Indian slavewho used frequently to run away from his masterfor a time and return again, and who being askedonce whither he went, replied toChacu; this itAvas tliat led to its discovery, and to the subse-•quent attempts at several times made to conquerit; first by Martin de Ledesma, afterwards by.Tuan Manso, Don Pedro Lasarte, and lastly byD >11 Christoval de Sanabri, all of which were in-effectual. San Francisco Solano entered the coun-try, and succeeded in reducing some of the nativesto the Christian faith ; these, however, soon re-turned to their idolatry. The regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits likewise engaged themselves in thereduction of this country in 1587, the first of their

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preachers here being Father Alonzo Barzana,called the apostle of Peru ; they continued herefor a number of years, and during their stayfounded seven settlements. The inhabitants ofthe whole province are computed at 100,000.Catalogue of the nations which inhabit Chaco.

Chiriguanas,

Abayas,

Churumutas,

Yapayaes,

Mataguayos,

Niguaraas,

Tobas,

Ivirayaras,

Macobies,

Socondues,

Aquilotes,

Marapanos,

Malbalaes,

Cipores,

Agoyas,

Ayusequeteres,

Amulalaes,

Cororaetes,

Palomos,

Taparunas,

Lules,

Bayatuis,

Toconotes,

Layanos,

Toquistineses,

Payaguas,

Tanuyes,

Poreromos,

Chunipies,

ChilacutiquieSj

Bilelas,

Chiquinos,

Yxistineses,

Gortonos,

Oristineses,

Humayonos,

Guamalcas,

Tainuyes,

Zapitalaguas,

Tracanos,

Ojotaes,

Tobotionos,

Chiebas,

Pildoris

Orejones,

Caramais,

Guaicurues,

Perequanos,

Callagaes,

Cucroyenos,

Calchaquies,

Bocaracanas,

Abipones,

Xolotas,

Teutas,

Curetes,

Palalis,

Upionos,

Huarpas,

Morionos,

Tanos,

Bocoos,

Mogosnas,

Motitis,

Choroties,

Corotonos,

Naparus,

Guanas,

Chiribionos.

(Chaco, a large plain of the above province,in which Azara noticed a singular phenomenon,which he calls a large piece of pure iron, flexibleand malleable in the forge, but at the same timeso hard as not to be cut, though obedient to thefile. It contains about 468 cubic feet, and lieson the surface of the large plain of Chaco, on whichnot a single stone excepting this is to be found ;and what is still more curious, there is no volcanowithin 300 leagues, nor any iron mine to be heardof in that part of tho country.)

CHACOCHE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Sirca.

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CHACOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Huariaca.

CHACOTA,a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aricá in Peru ; situate close to theQuebada de Victor.

CHACRALLA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Abucara.

CHACRAPAMPA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; annex-ed to the curacy of Huayama.

CHACTAHATCHE, a river of S. Carolina,which runs s. and enters the Chicachas.

CHACTAW, a settlement and capital of theIndian district of this name in Louisiana, in whichthe French had a fort and establishment. (TheChactaws, or Flat-heads, are a powerful, hardy,subtle, and intrepid race of Indians, "vpho inhabita very fine and extensive tract of hilly country,with large and fertile plains intervening, betweenthe Alabama and Mississippi rivers, and in the w.part of the state of Georgia. This natioti had,not many years ago, 43 towns and villages, inthree divisions, containing 12,123 souls, of which4041 were fighting men. They are called by thetraders Flat-heads, all the males having the foreand hind part of their skulls artificially flattenedwhen young. These men, unlike the Muscogul-ges, are slovenly and negligent in every part oftheir dress, but otherwise are said to be ingenious,sensible, and virtuous men, bold and intrepid, yetquiet and peaceable. Some late travellers, how-ever, have observed that they pay little attentionto the most necessary rules of moral conduct, atleast that unnatural crimes were too frequent amongthem. Dift'erent from most of the Indian nationsbordering on the United States, they have largeplantations or country farms, where they employmuch of their time in agricultural improvements,after the manner of the Avhite people. Althoughtheir territories are not one-fburth so large as thoseof the Muscogulge confedraey, the number of in-habitants is greater. The Chactaws and Creeksare inveterate enemies* to each other. There area considerable number of these Indians on the w.side of the Mississippi, who have not been homefor several years. A bout 12 miles above the postat Oachcta on that river, there is a small villageof them of about 30 men, who have lived there forseveral years, and made corn ; and likewise onBayau Chico, in the n. part of the district ofAppalousa, there is another village of them ofabout fifty men, who have been there for aboutnine years, and say they have the governor of

Louisiana’s permission to settle there. Besidesthese, there are rambling hunting parties of themto be met with all over Lower Louisiana. Theyare at war with the Caddoques, and liked by. neither red nor white people.)

(Chactaw Hills, in the n. w. corner of Georgiariver.)

(CHACTOOS, Indians of N. America, wholive on Bayau Boeuf, about 10 miles to the s. ofBayau Rapide, on Red river, towards Appalousa ;a small, honest people ; are aborigines of thecountry where they live; of men about 30 ; di-minishing; have their own peculiar tongue;speak Mobilian. The lands they claim on BayauBceuf are inferior to no part of Louisiana in depthand richness of soil, growth of timber, pleasant-ness of surface, and goodness of water.. TheBayau Bceuf falls into the Chaffeli, and dischargesthrough Appalousa and Attakapa into Vermilionbay.)

CHACURIES, a settlement of the jurisdictionof the city of Pedraga, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, is of the missions which were held thereof the order of St. Domingo. It is but small, andits climate is hot.

(CHADBOURNE’S River, district of Maine,called by some Great Works river, about 30 milesfrom the mouth of the Bonnebeag pond, fromwhich it flows. It is said to have taken its lattername from a mill with 18 saws, moved by onewheel, erected by one Lodors. But the projectwas soon laid aside. The former name is derivedfrom Mr. Chadbourne, one of the first settlers,,who purchased the land on the mouth of it, of thenatives, and whose posterity possess it at this day.)

CHAGONAMIGON, a point on the s. coastof lake Superior, in New France.

CHAGRE, a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Panamá in the king-dom of Tierra Firme, has its origin and sourcein the mountains near the valley of Pacora, andtakes its course in various directions, makingmany windings, which are called randa/es, until itenters the N. sea. It is navigated by large vesselscalled chatas, (having no keels), up as far as thesettlement of Cruces, where is the wharf for un-lading, and the royal custom-houses ; the greaterpart of the commerce being conducted by thismeans, to avoid the obstacles occurring from a badand rocky road from Portobeloto Panama. It hasdifferent forts for the defence of its entrance ; thefirst is the castle of its name, at the entrance ormouth ; the second is that of Gatun, situate upona long strip of land formed by a river of this name ;and the third is that of Trinidad, situate in a simb

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lar way by a river of its name. It abounds inlarge alligators and mosquitoes, which render itsnavigation very troublesome. Its shores are co-vered with beautiful trees, which are inhabited bya variety of birds and apes of several species, whichmake an incredible chattering and noise. It wasby this river that the pirate John Morgan camewhen he took and sacked Panama in 1670. Itwas discovered by Hernando de la Serma in 1527,when he called it the river of Lagartos, but itsmouth was before discovered by Lope de Olanoin 1510. Here are found, at certain seasons, avery small fish of the size of a pin, called titles,and these are so abundant, that putting into thewater a large basket, it is certain to be drawn outfull ; they are fried, and make very savouryfritters.

CHAGRE, with the dedicatory title of San Lo-renzo, a settlement of the same province and king-dom ; situate upon the top of a mountain at theentrance or mouth of the former river. It has forits defence a strong castle, which was built by theorder of Philip 11. by the famous engineer J uanBautista Antoneli. This was taken by the pirateJohn Morgan, after having made a glorious de-fence, in 1668, when the settlement was burnt andsacked ; and in 1740 it was taken by the English,commanded by Admiral Vernon, who entirelydestroyed it ; its loss in that war being supplied bytwo strong batteries, which hindered the Englishfrom making a breach, for the third time, whenthey came with three frigates of war : but theywere driven back by Captain Don Juan de Her-mida, who was formerly captain of the regimentof Granada. In 1752 this castle was rebuilt, in themost perfect manner, by the lieutenant-generaland engineer Don Ignatio de Sala, governor ofCartagena, who came hither for this purpose byorder of the king. In this fortress several per-sonages of distinction' have been held prisoners,ami amongst others the Marquis of La Mina,])resiilent, governor, and captain-general of thekingiUmi in 1694. Is 13 leagues from Porto-belo.

CHAGUANES, an island of the river Orinoco,formed at its entrance into the sea by variouscanals or arms, is large and inhabited by Indiansof the Mariussa nation.

CHAGUARAMA, a settlement of the provinceand government of Venezuela, situate on the con-fines of the province of Cumana, near the riverManapire.

CHAGUARAMA, a bay on the coast of the pro-vince of Cumaná, on the n. e. side ; being formedby the island of Trinidad, and by the mouths of

the channels of the Orinoco as far as the gulfTriste.

CHAGUAREM, a small river of the provinceand government of Venezuela, which runs s. andenters that of Los Aceytes.

CHAHUALTEPEQUE, Santiago de, a set-tlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Mex-ilcaltzingo in Nueva España. It contains 138families of Indians, and is three leagues from itscapital.

CHAHUANTLA, a small settlement or wardof the alcaldía mayor of Guauchinango in NuevaEspaña ; annexed to the curacy of Naupan.

CHAIALA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chayanta or Charcas in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Pocoata.

CHAILLON, Cabo de, a cape on the e. coastof lake Superior, in New France.

CHAINAR, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán ; situate on the shore ofthe river San Miguel.

CHAIPI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Parinacochas in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of the corregimiento of Pullo ; in whichwas venerated, ever since the time of the conquest,a beautiful image of the Virgen del Rosario, which,with the temple, was burnt a few years since, andthe parishioners being much afflicted at their loss,the Marquis of Selva Alegre, president of Quito,sent them another equal to the first : at the cele-bration of the festival people assemble from all theneighbouring districts.

CHAIUIN, a river of the province and govern-ment of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile, whichruns s. e. and enters Valdivia near its entrance intothe sea.

CHALA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Cumaná in Peru.

Chala, with the distinction of Alta, anothersettlement of the province and corregimiento ofSaña in the same kingdom , situate on the shore ofthe river Chicama.

CHALA, another, with the addition of Baxa,in the same kingdom and province; situate nearthe former.

CHALA, a large and beautiful valley on the seashore, in the province and corregimiento of Cu-maná.

CHALA, a small port, frequented only by fisher-men, in the same province and corregimiento.

CHALACOS, a settlement and asiento of thesilver mines of the province and corregimiento ofPiura in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huan-cabamba.

==CHALALA, a large river of the Nuevo Reyno

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the natives make friezes. The low part, lookingupon the coast, enjoys a temperature equal inmildness to that of Lima. It is very fertile, andin the many estates which are in it maize grows ingreat quantities, and it, besides serving as food forthe labourers, and independent of that which is de-voured by the wild pigeons with which those fieldsare filled, serves to fatten numbers of pigs, which arecarried to supply the markets of Lima ; those ani-mals, one year with another, amounting to 22,000head, and producing an emolument of 300,000dollars to the proprietors of the estates. Here arealso some estates of sugar-cane, and others ofFrench beans and wheat, of which the crops wereformerly very great, and used, together with thevines, to be reckoned amongst the chief produc-tions of this country, though they have now maderoom for a more general cultivation of maize.What conduces much to render the soil fertile, iswhat the Indians call huano^ and which, in theirlanguage, signifies dung, this being brought fromsome small islands at a little distance from thecoast towards the n. It is thought to be the excre-ment of some birds called huanaes^ who have beenaccustomed to deposit it in the above places fromtime immemorial. Some of it has also been foundin various other islands of the coast of Canete,Arica, and others. Of this it is certain, that ahandful being put at the root of a plant of maize,it becomes so invigorated as to produce upwardsof 200 for one, and that not less than 90,000bushels of this valuable manure is used yearly.In the centre of the province, and upon the coast,are some fine salines^ which supply some of theneighbouring districts ; and amongst the rest, thoseof Canta, Tarma, Caxatambo, Huamalies, Hua-nuco, Conchuco, and Huailas, are the most noted.The salt is not only used in the workingof the me-tals, but for preserving the cattle from a venomousinsect called alicuya^ which preys upon their entrailsuntil it destroys them. The population consists of37 settlements ; the capital of which is the town ofArnedo or Chancay. Its repartimiento amountedto 122,000 dollars, and its alcavala to 976 dol-lars per annum.

Arnedo or Chancay,

S. Juan de Huaral,

Huaura,

Mazo,

Vegueta,

Iluacho,

Barraste,

Auccayama,

Sayan,

Tapaya,

Cauchaz or Maráz,

Yurayaco,

Picoy,

Parquin,

Yucul,

Canin,

Mollobamba,

Panun,

Turpay,

Tongos,

Chiuchiu,

Auquimarca,

Paccho,

Yguari,

Ayaranga,

Yancay,

Huacar,

Otequet,

Muca,

Huachinga,

Yacsanga,

Yunqui,

Apache,

Santa Cruz,

Acotama,

Huaycho.

Huanangui,

Chancay, the capital of the above province,founded in a beautiful and very healthy valley, ata league and a half’s distance from the river Pasa-mayo, by order of the viceroy Count of Nieva, in1563 ; who destined it for the honour of being anuniversity, at which however it never attained. Ithas a tolerable port, frequented by trading vessels,a convent of monks of the order of St. Francis, anda good hospital. It is well peopled, and its inha-bitants consist of several noble and rich families.One league from the sea, and 15 from Lima. Lat.11° 30' 5.

(CHANCEFORD, a township in York county,Pennsylvania.)

CHANCHAMAIU, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tarma in Peru, with a fort uponthe river Tapo, in the part washed by this river,called El Balseadero de Chanchamaiu. TheChunchos Indians of this province took possessionof it in 1742, and abandoned it in 1743.

Chanchamaiu, a river of the province of Caxa-marquilla. It rises in the province of Tarraa, tothe n. of the capital, runs n. and enters the largeriver Perene, in the country of the Campas In-dians.

CHANCO, CAPILLA DE, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Itata in tbe king-dom of Chile ; situate near the coast.

CHANDUI, a settlement of the district of SantaElena in the province and government of Guaya-quil ; situate on the sea-shore, with a port whichis frequented by vessels only in stress ; it havingsome extensive shoals which lie just at its entrance.Here it was that the admiral’s ship of the Armadadel Sur foundered and was wrecked in 1654, as itwas dropping down to Panama, for the purpose ofdispatching the galleons under the charge of theMarquis de Villarubia ; although, through the op-portune assistance of the viceroy of Peru, Countde Salvatierra, and of tlm president of Quito, DonPedro Vazquez de Veljixco, the greater part of theproperty on board was saved. Likewise, in 1721.another ship was lost here, carrying the salaries tothe Plaza of Panama, without a single thing onboard being saved ; until, in 1728, a furious windfrom the s. w. blew ashore several fragments of the

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[tlieir country was peopled from the w. Howeverdiis may be, that it was originally peopled by onenation appears possible, as all the Aborigines in-habiting it, however independent of each other,speak the same language, and have a similar ap-pearance.

1. Language. — Their language is copious, fullof harmony and richness. Each verb, either de-rivatively or conjunctively, becomes the root ofnumerous other verbs and nouns, as well adjectivesas substantives, which in their turn reproduceothers, which are secondary, modifying themselvesin an hundred different ways. There is no part ofspeech from which an appropriate verb cannot beformed by the addition of a final en. Even fromthe most simple particles vmrious verbs are derived,that giv'e great precision and strength to conversa-tion : but what is truly surprising in this languageis, that it contains no irregular verb or noun.Every thing in it may be said to be regulated witha geometrical precision, and displays much artwith great simplicity : it contains words, appa-rently of Greek and Latin derivation, and of asimilar signification in both languages. But whatis most remarkable, it differs from every other Ame-rican language, not less in its w'ords than in itsconstruction ; and with all its richness and har-mony, its theory is so easy that it may be readilylearned in a few days. Several grammars of thislanguage are to be met with, but that of Febres,printed at Lima in 1765, is particularly to be re-commended for its method and clearness. One ar-gument further in favour of the simplicity of thistongue, is the circumstance of its having main-tained itself in its pure state, and of its not liavingsunk into an unintelligible unconnected jargon,■when it is considered that the Chilians, to the afore-mentioned period, had no ideas of writing, and thattheir traditionary accounts were so crude and im-perfect, as to afford not the least degree of informa-tion to the inquisitive mind. Hence it follows thatthe first accounts of them are contained in the Peru-vian annals ; that nation, as it was more civilized,being more careful to preserve the memory of re-markable events.

2. Original state . — When the Inca Yupanquibegan to attempt the conquest of Chile, its inhabi-tants were supposed to be numerous. They weredivided into 15 tribes or communities, independentof each other, but subject to certain chiets calledulmenes. These tribes, beginning at the n. andproceeding to the s. were called Copiapins, Co-quimbanes, Quillotanes, Mapochiniaus, Promau-cians. Cures, Cauques, Penconcs, Aruucanians,Clinches, Chilotes, Chiquilanians, Pehuenches, Pu-

elches, and Huilliches. Of these were subjugatedto the Peruvian government, more by persuasionthan force, the Copiapins, Coquimbanes, Quillo-tanes, and Mapochinians ; but the valour of thePromaucians put a stop to the success of the armsof the Inca, or rather to Sinchiruca, (a prince ofthe blood royal), to whom was entrusted the com-mand of the expedition : for these brave people,naturally addicted to pleasures and diversions, andAvhose very name signifies the free dancers.^ op-posed the Peruvian army with the most heroicvalour, and entirely defeated it in a battle which,according to Garcilasso the historian, was conti-nued for three days in succession.

S. Divided into free and subjugated. — ThusChile became divided into two parts, the one free,and the other subject to foreign domination. Thetribes who had so readily submitted to the Peru-vians Avere subjected to an annual tribute in gold,an imposition which they had never before expe-rienced ; but the conquerors, Avhether they darednot hazard the attempt, or were not able to effectit, never introduced their form of government intothese provinces. Of course, the subjected Chilians,as well as the free, preserved until the arrival ofthe Spaniards their original manners, which wereby no means so rude as many are led to imagine.

4. Agriculture . — Agriculture was already knoAvn

to them ; but being in Avant of animals to till theground, they were accustomed to turn it up witha spade made of hard wood. Tiie plants whicheither necessity or accident made known to them,Avere the maize, the the guegen, the tweer,

the quinoa, pulse of various kinds, the potato, theoxalis tuberosa, the common and the yellow pump-kin or gourd, the Guinea pepper, the madi, andthe great straAvberry. To these provisions of thevegetable kind, may be added the following of theanimal, the little rabbit, and the Chiliheuque orAraucaniau camel, Avhose flesh furnished excellentfood, and Avhose avooI, clothing for these people.If tradition may be credited, they had also the hogand the domestic fowl. With these productions,Avhich required a very moderate degree of indus-try, they subsisted comfortably, and even Avith adegree of abundance, considering the few thingsAvhich their situation rendered necessary. Subsist-ence, the source of population, being thus secured,the country became rapidly peopled under the in-fluence of so mild a climate ; Avhence it appears,that the first Avriters Avho treated of Chile, cannotliave greatly exaggerated in saying, that the Spa-niards found it filled Avith inhabitants.

5. Civilized state. — It is a fact that there was butone language spoken throughout the country ; a]

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[waters into the Majpo. The mountains of Caren,which terminate it on the n. abound witli veins ofgold ; and in that part of tlie Andes whicli boundsit at the e, arc found several rich mines of silver.Valdivia, who liad endeavoured to penetrate as faras possible into the country, in order to render itditlicnlt for Ids soldiers to return to Peru, deter-mined to make a settlement in this province,which, from its natural advantages, and its remote-ness, appeared to him more suitable than any otherfor the centre of his conquests.

9. Capital founded.—Wiih. this view, havingselected a convenient situation on the left shore ofthe Mapocho, on the 24th February 1541, helaid the foundations of the capital of the kingdom,to which, in honour of that apostle, he gave thename of St. Jago. In laying out the city, he di-vided the ground into plats or squares, each con-taining 4096 toises, a fourth of Avhich he allowedto every citizen, a plan which has been pursuedin the foundation of all the other cities ; one of theseplats, lying upon the great square, he destined forthe cathedral and the bishop’s palace, Avhich heintended to build there, and the one opposite forthat of the government. He likewise appointed amagistracy, according to the forms of Spain, fromsuch of his army as were the best qualified ; andto protect the settlement in case of an attack, heconstructed a fort upon a hill in the centre of tliecity, Avhich has since received the name of St.Lucia. Many have applauded the discernmentof Valdivia, in having made choice of this situa-tion for the seat of the capital of the colony. Butconsidering the wants of a great city, it would havebeen better placed 15 miles farther to the s. uponthe Maypo, a large river, Avhich has a direct com-munication with the sea, and might easily be ren-dered navigable for ships of the largest size. Thiscity, however, contained in 1807 more than 40,000inhabitants, and is rapidly increasing in popula-tion, from its being the seat of government, andfrom its great commerce, supported by the luxuryof the Avealthy inhabitants. Meanwhile the na-tives saw Avith a jealous eye this new establishment,and concerted measures, although late, for freeingthemselves of these unAvelcome intruders, Valdiviahaving discovered their intentions in season, con-fifiedthe chiefs of the conspiracy in the fortress ;and suspecting some secret intelligence betAveenthem and the neighbouring Promaucians, repairedwith 60 horse to the river Cachapoal to Avatchtheir movements. But this measure was unneces-sary ; that fearless people had not the policy tothink of uniting Avith their neighbours in order tosecure themselves from the impending danger.

10. Steady unanimity of the Mapochinians . —The Mapochinians, taking advantage of the de-parture of the general, fell upon the colony withinconceivable furj^, burned the half-built houses,and assailed the citadel, wherein the inhabitants hadtaken refuge, oh all sides. Notwithstanding theultimate defeat Avhich the Mapochinians expe-rienced in this battle, and others of not less import-ance Avhich they afterwards experienced, the}-never ceased, for the space of six years, until theirutter ruin, to keep the Spaniards closely besieged,attacking them upon every occasion that offered,and cutting off their provisions, in such a mannerthat they Avere compelled to subsist upon unwhole-some and loathsome viands, and upon the littlegrain that they could raise beneath the cannon ofthe place. The fertile plains of the neighbour-hood had become desert and uncultivated, as theinhabitants had destroyed their crops and retiredto the mountains. This mode of life did not fail todisgust the soldiers of Valdivia, but he contriAmdAvith much prudence and address to sooth theirturbulent spirits, painting to them in seducingcolours the happy prospect that aAvaited them.

11. The mine of Valdivia had often

heard in Peru that the valley of Quillota abounded inmines of gold, and imagined that he might obtainfrom thence a sufficient quantity to satisfy his sol-diers ; in consequence, notwithstanding the diffi-culties Avith which he was surrounded, he sentthither a detachment of troops, with orders tosuperintend the digging of this precious metal.The mine that Avas opened Avas so rich that itsproduct surpassed their most sanguine hopes ;their present and past sufferings were all buried inoblivion, nor Avas there one among them who hadthe remotest wish of quitting the country. Thegovernor, (for Valdivia had persuaded the magis-tracy of the city to give him this title), Avho Avasnaturally enterprising, encouraged by this success,had a frigate built in the mouth of the river Chile,Avhich traverses the valley, in order more readilyto obtain succours from Peru, without which hewas fully sensible he could not succeed in accom-plishing his vast undertakings. In the mean time,as the state of affairs was urgent, Valdivia wasresolved to send to Peru by land two of his cap-tains, Alonzo Monroy and Pedro Miranda, withsix companions, whose spurs, bits, and stirrups hedirected to be made of gold, hoping to entice, bythis proof of the opulence of the country, his fel-loAV-citizens to come to his assistance. These mes-sengers, though escorted by 30 men on horseback,who were ordered to accompany them to the bor-ders of Chile, Avere attacked and defeated by 100]

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[double their precautions, and sirengthen the poststhey occupy with strong entrenchments. Everysoldier during night is obliged, in order to provehis vigilance, to keep up a fire before his tent :the great number of tliese fires serves to deceivethe enemy, and have at a distance a very singularappearance. They are, besides, well acquaintedwith the art of constructing military works, andof protecting themselves with deep ditches, whichthey guard with branches of thorn, and strew cal-trops in the environs to repress the incursions ofthe enemy’s horse. In short, there are few mili-tary stratagems that they do not employ at a pro-per time and place. The celebrated Spani.di poetErcilla, who fought against them under Don Gar-cia, expresses his admiration at meeting with troopsso well disciplined, and possessing such perfec-tion in tactics, which, to use his expressions, themost celebrated nations in the W'orld have not beenable to attain without great trouble, and after along course of years. When an action becomesnecessary, they separate the cavalry into twowings, and place the infantry in the centre, di-vided into .several battalions, the files being com-posed alternately of pikemen and soldiers armedwith clubs, in such a manner, that between everytwo pikes a club is always to be found. The vice-toqui has the command of the right wing, and thatof the left is committed to an experienced officer.The toqui is present every where, as occasion mayrequire, and exhorts his men with much eloquenceto fight valiantly for their liberties. But of thisthere appears little need, as the soldiers manifestsuch ardour, that their officers have much moredifficulty in restraining their impetuosity than inexciting them to action. Fully impressed withthe opinion, that to die in battle is the greatest ho-nour that a man can acquire in this life, on thesignal for combat being given, they advance des-perately, shouting in a terrific manner ; and not-withstanding the slaughter made among them bythe cannon, endeavour to penetrate the centre ofthe enemy. Though they know full well that thefirst ranks will be exposed to almost certain de-struction, they eagerly contend with each otherfor these posts of honour, or to serve as leaders oftte files. As soon as the first line is cut down,the second occupies its place, and then the third,until they finally succeed in breaking the frontranks of the enemy. In the midst of their furythey nevertheless preserve the strictest order, andperform all the evolutions directed by their officers.The most terrible of them are the club-bearers,who, like so many Hercules, destroy with their

iron-pointed maces all whom they meet in theirway.

10. Division of the spoil . — The spoils of w'ar aredivided among those who have had the good for-tune, to' take them. But when the capture has beengeneral, they are distributed among the whole inequal p arts, called ?eg, so that no preference isshown to ai;y of the officers, nor even to the toqui.The prisoners, according (o tiie custom of all bar-barous nations, are made slaves, until they are ex-changed or ransomed. According to the admapu,one of tliese unfoilunate men must be sacrificed tothe manes of the soldiers killed in the war. Thiscruel law", traces of which are to be found in theannals of almost all nations, is nevertheless veryrarely put in practice, but one or two instanceshaving occurred in tlie space of nearly 200 years.The Araucanians are sensible to the dictates ofcompassion, altliough the contrary is alleged bycertain writers, who having assumed as an incon-trovertible principle, that they never give quarterto their enemies, afterwards contradict themselvesin mentioning the great number of prisoners whohave either been exchanged or ransomed after thewar.

11. Sacrifice after the war . — The sacrifice abovementioned, called pruloneon., or the dance of thehead, is performed in the following manner ; Theofficers, surrounded by the soldiers, form a circle,in the centre of which, in the midst of four poniards,representing the four uthal-mapus, is placed theofficial axe of the toqui. The unfortunate pri-soner, as a mark of ignominy, is then led in upon ahorse deprived of his ears and tail, and placed nearthe axe, with his face turned towards his country.They afterwards give him a handful of small sticksand a sharp stake, with which they oblige him todig a hole in the ground ; and in this they orderhim to cast the sticks one by one, repeating thenames of the principal warriors of his country,while at the same time the surrounding soldiersload these abhorred names with the bitterest exe-crations. He is then ordered to cover the hole, asif to bury therein the reputation and valour oftheir enemies, whom he has named. After thisceremony the toqui, or one of his bravest compa-nions, to whom he relinquishes the honour of theexecution, dashes out the brains of the prisonerwith a club. The heart is immediately taken outby two attendants, and presented palpitating to thegeneral, who sucks a little of the blood, and passesit to his officers, who repeat in succession the sameceremony ; in the mean time he fumigates withtobacco smoke from his pipe the four cardinal]

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[to chastise or correct them, as they hold it as anestablished truth, that chastisement only rendersmen base and cowardly.

27. Food , — The usual diet of'the Araucanians isvery simple ; their principal subsistence is severalkinds of grain and pulse, which they prepare in avariety of different modes. They are particularlyfond of maize, or Indian corn, and potatoes; of thelast they have cultivated more than SO differentkinds from time immemorial, esteeming them a veryhealthy nutriment. Although they have large andsmall animals and birds in plenty, yet they eat butliUle flesh, and that is simply boiled or roasted.They have the same abstemiousness in the use ofpork, from which they know very well how to pre-pare black puddings and sausages. Their seas andrivers abound with excellent fish, but they do notmuch esteem this kind of aliment. Instead ofbread, which they are not accustomed to eat, ex-cept at their entertainments, they make use of smallcakes of maize ,or roasted potatoes with a littlesalt. Their usual drinks consist of various kindsof beer, and of cider made from Indian corn, fromapples, and other fruits of the country. Theynevertheless are extremely fond of wine, whichthey purchase from the Spaniards, but hitherto,either for political reasons, or more probably fromcarelessness, they have paid no attention to theraising of vines, -n^hich, as has been proved by ex-periment, produce very well in all their provinces.The master of the house eats at the same table withthe rest of his family. The plates are earthen, oftheir own manufactory, and the spoons and cupsare made of horn or wood. The ulmenes have ingeneral wrought plate for the service of theirtables, but they only make use of it when they en-tertain some stranger of rank ; upon such occa-sions they ostentatiously display it, being naturallyfond of show, and of being considered rich. Theirseasonings are made of Guinea-pepper, of modi,and salt. In summer they are fond of dining inthe shade of trees, which for this purpose are al-ways planted around their houses. They do notuse the flint for the purpose of obtaining fire, butemploy, like the Kamschatdales, two pieces of drywood, one of which they place upon another, andturn it in their hands until it takes fire, which isvery soon. Besides dinner, supper, and breakfast,they have every day without fail their luncheon,which consists of a little flour of parched corn,steeped in hot water in the morning, and in coldin the evening. But they often deviate from thissimple mode of living when at their public enter-tainments, which they give each other on occasionof funerals, marriages, or any other important

event. At such times no expence is spared, andthey are profuse of every thing that can promotefestivity. In one of these banquets, at which it iscommon for 300 persons to be present, more meat,grain, and liquor is consumed, than would be suf-ficient to support a whole family for two years. Itis usual for one of these feasts to continue two orthree days : they are called cahu'm^ or circles,from the company seating themselves in a circlearound a large branch of cinnamon. Such enter-tainments are made gratuitously, and any personwhatever is permitted to partake of them withoutthe least expence. But this is not the case withthe mingacos, or those dinners which they are ac-customed to make on occasion of cultivating theirland, threshing their grain, building a house, orany other Avork Avhich requires the combined aidof several. At such times all those who wish topartake in the feast, must labour until the work iscompleted. But as these people have abundantleisure, the labourers collect in such numbers, thatin a very few hours the work is finished, and therest of the day is devoted to feasting and drinking.The Spaniards who live in the country have alsoadopted a similar plan, availing themselves of thesame kind of industry to complete their rural la-bours. Fermented liquors, in the opinion of theAraucanians, form the principal requisites of anentertainment; for Avhenever they are not in plenty,Avhatever may be the quantity of provisions, theymanifest great dissatisfaction, exclaiming go/in-gelai, “ it is a wretched feast, there is no drink.”These bacchanalian revels succeed each other al-most without ititerruption throughout the year, asevery man of property is ambitious of the honourof giving them ; so that it may be said, that theAraucanians, when not engaged in war, pass thegreater part of their lives in revelry and amuse-ment.

28. Music and other diversions. — Music, danc-• ing, and play, form their customary diversions.As to the first, it scarcely deserves the name ; notso much from the imperfection of the instruments,which are the same they make use of in war, butfrom their manner of singing, which has some-thing in it harsh and disagreeable to the ear, untilone has been accustomed to it for a long time.They have several kinds of dances, which arelively and pleasing, and possess considerable va-riety. The women are rarely permitted to dancewith the. men, but form their companies apart,and dance to the sound of the same instruments.If what the celebrated Leibnitz asserts is true, thatmen have never dicovered greater talents than inthe invention of the different kinds of games, thej

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m

[Araucanians maj justly claim tlie merit of not be-ing' ill this respect inferior to other nations. Theirgames are very numerous, and for the most partvery ingenious ; they are divided into the seden-tary and gymnastic. It is a curious fact, andworthy of notice, that among the first is tiie gameof chess, which they call comienn^ and which hasbeen known to them from time immeniorial. Thegame of quechu, which they esteem iiighiy, has agreat affinity to tliat of back-gammon ; but insteadof dice they make use of triangular pieces of bonemarked with points, which they throw with alittiehoop or circle, supported by two pegs, as wasprobably i\\e fritillus of the Ro.mans. The youthexercise themselves frequently in wrestling andrunning, ’i'hey are fond of playing at ball, whichis made from a species of rush, and called pilma.^All their gymnsatic games, many of which re-semble those of the European youth, requirestrength, are well suited to their genius, and forthe most part serve as an image of war. Whathas been said of the Araucanians does not altoge-ther apply to the Puelches, or inhabitants of thefourth uthal-mapu, situated in the Andes. These,although they conform to the general custom ofthe nation, always discover a great degree of rude-ness and savageness of manners. Their name sig-nifies eastern-men. They are of lofty stature,and are fond of hunting, which induces them fre-quently to change their habitations, and extendtheir settlements, not only to tiie eastern skirls ofthe Andes, but even to the borders of the lake Aa-gitelguapi, and to the extensive plains of Patago-nia, on the shores of the Atlantic. The Arauca-nians hold these mountaineers in high estimationfor the important services which they occasionallyrender them, and for the fidelity which they haveever observed in their alliance with them.

Chap. IT.

The wars of the Araucanians with the Spaniards,and concomitant events.

Sect. I. Comprising a period of nine years,from 1550 to 1559.

I. The Toqui Aillavila . — It was in the year1550, that the Araucanians, having resolved tosend succours to the inhabitants of Penco, whowere at that time invaded by the Spaniards, gaveorders to the Toqui Aillavila to march immediatelyto tiieir assistance at the head of 4000 men : heaccordingly passed the great river Biobio, whichseparates the Araucanian territory from that qf thePencones, and boldly offered battle to these ne-wenemies, who had advanced to meet him to theshores of the Andalien. After the first discharge

of musketry, which the Araucanians sustainedwithout being terrified or disconcerted, thus earlymanifesting how little they would regard it whenrendered familiar by habit, Aillavila, with a rapidmovement, fell at once upon the front and flanksof the Spanish army. Tiie Spaniards were con-sequently thrown into much disorder, and theirgeneral was exposed to imminent danger, havinghad his horse killed under him, when Aillavila,hurried forwards by a rash courage, received amortal wound. The Araucanians having lost theirgeneral,-with many of their most valiant officers,then retired, but in good order, leaving the fieldto the Spaniards, who had no disposition to pur-sue them. Valdivia, who had been in many bat-tles in Europe as well as America, declared thathe had never been exposed to such imminent ha-zard of his life as in this engagement.

2. The Toqui L.incoyan . — In the following yearthe Araucanians w('re again led on to tiie attack bya new toqui, Lincoyan ; when such was the ter-ror inspired by their approach, that the Spaniards,after confessing themselves, and partaking of thesacrament, thought proper to take shelter underthe cannon of their fortifications. The event ofthis battle was the cause of the foundation of thechapel dedicated to St. James, which chapel wasbuilt by the Spanish soldiers from sentiments ofgratitude, and from their supposition that the re-treat of Lincoyan, who was unsuccessful in hisfirst attack, was caused by the supernitui'aiagency of the apostle St. James himself, whomthey declared to have seen riding upon a whitehorse with a flaming sword, and striking terrorinto his enemies. The governor, after the elapseof nearly a year, resolved to attack them with areinforcement he had just received from Peru : heaccordinglj^, unobstructed by the tardy operationsof Lincoyan, bent his way towards the shores ofthe Cauten, which divides the Araucanian terri-tory into two nearly equal parts.

3. Imperial founded . — At the confluence of thisriver and that of Daraas, he founded the city ofImperial, so called in honour of the EmperorCharles the Fifth, or, as it is said by some, in con-sequence of finding there eagles with two headscut in wood, and placed as ornaments upon thetops of houses. This city was situated in a beau-tiful spot, abounding with every convenience oflife; and during the short period of its existencebecame the most flourishing of any in Chile. Itsposition on the shore of a large river, of sufficientdepth for vessels to lie close to the walls, renderedit a highly advantageous situation for commerce,and would enable it to obtain immediate succour!

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