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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]





Presurapscot river. It has a good harbour at itsmouth for small vessels, and has several mills uponit ; two miles higher a fall obstructs the navigation.Between it and Kennebeck there are no rivers ;some creeks and harbours of Casco bay throw them-selves into the main land, affording harbours forsmall vessels, and intersecting the country in variousforms.)

CASCONA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Antioquía ; situate at the mouth ofthe river Nare, at its entrance into the Mag-dalena.

CASCUEMBEC, a small island of Nova Scotia,close to the w. point of the island of San Juan.

CASIBANI, a river of the province and countryof the Amazonas : it rises in the cordillera of theMochovos and Pichambios Indians, runs in a ser-pentine course to the n. then inclining for manyleagues to the s. e. enters the Maranon or Amazonas,near the settlement of N uestra Seilora de Guada-lupe.

CASIDI, a river of the province and governmentof Guayana : it enters the Orinoco, according toBeilin, but which is afterwards contradicted by hisown map, since it is^there represented as having itssource to the e. of the city of Pamplona, and asrunning into the river Apure.

CASIGUA, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Maracaibo ; situate on the coast, andnear the entrance or mouth of the great lake.

CASILDA, Ensenada de, a bay on the s. coastof the island of Cuba.

CASIMBUCO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chayanta or Charcas in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Pocoata.

CASIMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe city of Santiago de los Atalayas, in the govern-ment of San Juan de los Llanos, of the NuevoReyno de Granada : it is of a very hot temperature,and abounds in fruits of a similar climate. Its na-tives, who are numerous and consist of the NeolitosIndians, are very industrious, docile, and of gooddispositions, having been reduced to the faith bythe missionaries of the extinguished society of Je-suits. The settlement is at present in the charge ofthe barefooted order of St. Francis, and lies threeleagues from the settlement of Surimena, on theshore of the large river Meta.

CASIPA, a large lake of the province of NuevaAndalucía Austral or South, to the w. ofthe Vaca-ronis Indians : it is 30 leagues in length from n. to s.and 24 in width from e. to w. Four large riversflow from it, the principal of which areArous or Aroiand Caroa, the which enter the Orinoco on its e.side. Its woods are inhabited by some barbarous

nations of Caribes Indians, such as are the Canuristo the n. the Bsparagois to the e. the Aravis to thes. and the Chaguas and Lasipagotes to thezw. Inthis lake tortoises and alligators abound ; its watersare hurtful, and the climate here is unhealthy;hurricanes are frequent here, from the winds whichblow from the neighbouring mountains.

CASIPOURE, a river of the province ofGuayana, in the French possessions ; it runs fromm. to e. and enters the sea, its mouth being half aleague wide, near cape Orange, in 5° 27'.

Casipoure, a cape or point of the coast oppositethe side of cape Orange.

CASIQUIN, a river of the province and govern-ment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito, whichruns many leagues, and enters the Maranon.

CASIRI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Parinacocha in Peru ; annexed to the.curacy of its capital : in its vicinity is an elevatedmountain, in which great Indian wealth is said tobe secreted.

CASIRIAQUI, Cano de, a large and copiousarm of the river Negro, by which this communi-cates with the Orinoco, and through that with theMaranon or Las Amazonas ; which communication,however, has been frequently doubted and con-troverted since the short time of its having beendiscovered.

CASIROUGE, a small island of the e. coast ofNewfoundland, betweea Bellisle and the portGobos.

CASIRRUENTI, a large and copious riverabounding in fine fish, of the province and govern-ment of San Juan de los Llanos : it passes throughthe llanuras of Cazanare and Meta, and, near thesettlement of San Joaquin de Atanari, enters theMeta.

CASIUINDO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of thecity of Xuxuy ; annexed to the curacy of Cochino-ca ; it has two hermitages, which serve as chapelsof ease, with the dedicatory title of Rinconada andRio de San Juan. The natives fabricate powderof excellent quality, and in its district are goldmines, which are not worked.

CASMA, Alta, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Santa in Peru ; situate on thecoast of the S. sea, with a moderately good port.It was sacked in 1586 by Edward David, an Eng-lish pirate.

Casma, Alta, another settlement of this pro-vince, called, for distinction’s sake, Casma Baxa.

CASMAL, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Olleros.

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ters the sea between the river Rosa and the settle-ment and parisli of Cul de Sac.

CERICUNCUA, a bay of the coast of Brazil,in the province and captainship of Seara, betweenthe port of Tortuga and the settlement of NuestraSeilora del Rosario.

CERINZA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofTunja in tlie Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of acold temperature, and abounds in cattle and theproductions peculiar to the climate. It contains300 families, and lies in a valley, from which ittakes its name.

CERMEN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the side ofthe town of San Felipe, towards the e. betweenthis town and the settlement of Agua Culebras, onthe shore of the river Iraqui.

CERRALUO, a town and presidency of theNuevo Reyno de Leon, garrisoned by a squadronof 12 soldiers and a captain, who is governor ofthis district, for the'purpose of restraining the bor-dering infidel Indians. Between the e. and n. isthe large river of this name ; and from this begins atract of extensive country, inhabited by barba-rous nations, who impede the communication andcommerce Avith regard to this part and the pro-vinces of Tejas and Nuevas Felipinas. Is 35leagues to the e. of its capital.

Cerraluo, a bay of the coast and gulf of Ca-lifornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, opposite an islandwhich is also thus called ; the one and theother hav-ing been named out of compliment to the Marquis ofCerraluo, viceroy of Nueva Espana. TJie afore-said island is large, and lies between the formerbay and the coast of Nueva Espana.

CERRITO, a settlement of the island and go-vernment of Trinidad, near the n. coast, and to thee. of the capital of San Joseph de Oruna.

Cerrito Verde, an open and insecure port inthe bay of La Concepcion, of the kingdom ofChile, and Pacific sea.

Cerrito, another, with the surname of SantaAna. See Ctuayaquie.

CERRITOS, a small settlement of the jurisdic-tion of Orizava, and alcaldia mayor of Ixmiquil-pan, in Nueva España.

Cerritos, another settlement in the provinceand goverment of Popayán.

CERRO, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Angaraes in Peru.

Cerro, another, in the province and corregi-miento of Porco in the same kingdom.

Cerro, another, with the surname of Negro,in the province and corregimiento of Rede, and king-dom of Chile ; situate at the source of the river Itan.

==Cerro, another, called San Miguel de CerroGordo==, which is a garrison of the province of Te-peguana in the kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Itssituation is similar to the road which leads to it,namely, a plain level surface ; although, indeed,it is divided by a declivity, in ivhich there is apool of water, and by Avhich passengers usuallypass. This garrison is the residence of a captain,a Serjeant , and 28 soldiers, who are appointed tosuppress the sallies of the infidel Indians. In itsvicinity is a cultivated estate, having a beautifulorchard, abounding in fruit-trees and in zepas,which also produce fruit of a delicious flavour.The garrison lies 50 leagues n. w. of the capitalGuadiana.

Cerros, San Felipe de los, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Uruapa, and alcaldia mayorof Valladolid, in the province and bishopric ofMcchoacan. It contains 26 families of Indians,and lies eight leagues to the e. of its head settle-ment, and 10 from the capital.

Cerros, another, in the province and corregr-miento of Castro-Vireyna in Peru.

CESARA, a large and copious river of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, which was called bythe Indians Pompatao, meaning in their idiom,“ the lord of all rivers,” is formed of severalsmall rivers, which flow down from the snowysierras of Santa Marta. It runs s. leaving the ex-tensive llamtras of Upar until it reaches the lakeZapatosa, from whence itj issues, divided into fourarms, which afterwards unite, and so, following acourse of 70 leagues to the w, enters the Magda-lena on the <?. side, and to the s. of the little settle-ment called Banco.

CESARES, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe kingdom of Chile towards the s. Of themare told many fabulous accounts, although theyare, in fact, but little known. Some believe themto be formed of Spaniards and Indians, being thoseAvho Avere lost in the straits of Magellan, and be-longed to the armada which, at the beginning ofthe conquest of America, Avas sent by the bishop ofPlacencia to discover the Malucas. Others pre-tend that the Arucanos, after they had destroyedthe city of Osonio, in 1599, took aAvay with themthe Spanish Avomen ; and that it Avas from the pro-duction of these Avomen and the Indiatis that thisnation of the Cesares arose. Certain it is, that theyare of an agreeable colour, of a pleasing aspect,and of good dispositions. They have some lightof Christianity, live without any fixed abode ; andsome have affirmed that they have heard the soundof bells in their territorj". It Avas attempted in1638, by the governor of Tucuman, Don Geronimo

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another whose note resembles atrumpet. It aboundsin quadrupeds, as mules, horses, and cattle of thelarge and small kind, the antas, which is calledhere gran bestia^ (great beast), huanacos, vicunas,llamas, or native sheep, stags, bears, ant-eaters,wild bears, otters, tigers, mountain cats, visca-chas, (or large hares), large and small foxes, tor-toises, higuanos, and others ; all of which affordfood to tlie voracious Indians. In this provinceare also found many insects, such as scorpions,vipers, snakes of several kinds, some of two heads,and some with rattles, squirrels, mocamucas, am-palabas, or what are called in other countries owls,which are extremely deformed, and attract smallanimals to them by their screeching, quiriquinchosof various sorts, glow-worms, a great variety offlies and spiders, and of these a large kind veryvenomous, silk-worms, Avhich, if taken care of,would yield an abundance of silk, locusts, Avhichare eaten by the Indians both dry and fresh ; also ants,the beds of which are so deep as to render the roaddangerous for men and for horses to pass, theseinsects being of such an undaunted and trouble-some nature as often to attack a viper or locust inlarge bodies, and in some settlements to enter ahouse like a plundering army, devouring every in-sect and worm in their way, not leaving a singleeatable thing untouched ; scarcely shall these havefinished their operations, but they are succeeded byanother band, and indeed it is very liazardous todisturb them, since they bite very fiercely andcause much pain. This province has no mines,although it is said that formerly some were workedby the Indians ; some little time since, however,one of iron was discovered, when it was thought tohave been of gold. This extensive and pleasantcountry is inhabited by a multitude of infidel In-dians, of different nations and of various barbarouscustoms. It was casually discovered in 1586 byJuan de Banos, a native of Chuquisaca, a factorof the settlement of Yala ; he had an Indian slavewho used frequently to run away from his masterfor a time and return again, and who being askedonce whither he went, replied toChacu; this itAvas tliat led to its discovery, and to the subse-•quent attempts at several times made to conquerit; first by Martin de Ledesma, afterwards by.Tuan Manso, Don Pedro Lasarte, and lastly byD >11 Christoval de Sanabri, all of which were in-effectual. San Francisco Solano entered the coun-try, and succeeded in reducing some of the nativesto the Christian faith ; these, however, soon re-turned to their idolatry. The regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits likewise engaged themselves in thereduction of this country in 1587, the first of their


preachers here being Father Alonzo Barzana,called the apostle of Peru ; they continued herefor a number of years, and during their stayfounded seven settlements. The inhabitants ofthe whole province are computed at 100,000.Catalogue of the nations which inhabit Chaco.






































































(Chaco, a large plain of the above province,in which Azara noticed a singular phenomenon,which he calls a large piece of pure iron, flexibleand malleable in the forge, but at the same timeso hard as not to be cut, though obedient to thefile. It contains about 468 cubic feet, and lieson the surface of the large plain of Chaco, on whichnot a single stone excepting this is to be found ;and what is still more curious, there is no volcanowithin 300 leagues, nor any iron mine to be heardof in that part of tho country.)

CHACOCHE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Sirca.

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c o c

c o c

which is above 100 leagues distant, and thatthrough a desert country.]

COBITU, a river of the province and mis-sions of the Gran Paititi. It rises in themountains of the infidel Indians, which serveas a boundary to the province of Larecaja ;runs nearly due n. collecting the waters of manyothers, and enters theMarmore w ith the name of Mato.

COBLER’S Rock, a rock or isle of the North sea,very close upon the e. coast of the island of Bar-badoes.

[COBLESKILL, a new town in the county ofSchoharie, New York, incorporated March 1797.]

COBO, a river of the province and governmentof Neiva in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Itrises in a llanura^ or plain, runs w, and enters theriver Magdalena, opposite the city of La Plata.

COBORCA, a large and capacious bay of theprovince of Pimeria in Nueva Espana.

COBOS, a fortress of the province and govern-ment of Tucuman in Peru ; of the district and ju-risdiction of the city of Salta, from whence it isnine leagues distant ; having been founded in 1693at the foot of a declivity, to serve as an outworkor defence against the Indians of Chaco, it is atpresent destroyed and abandoned, and serves as acountry-house on the estate of an individual.

COBRE, Santa Clara de, a settlement ofthe alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, in the provincennd bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 100 fa-milies of Spaniards, bO oi Mustees, 38 of Mulat-toes, and 135 of Indians ; some of whom speculatein working the mines of copper which are closeby, others in the cultivation of maize, and othersgain their livelihood as muleteers. Three leaguess. of the city of Pasquaro.

COBRE, another settlement in the island of Cuba,on the s. coast.

Same name, a river of the province and governmentof Veragua in the kingdom of Tierra Firrae. Ithas its origin in the sierras of Guanico to the s.and enters the Pacific sea.

Same name, a mountain on the coast of the provinceand corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It derives its name from some very abun-dant copper mines. Great quantities of this metalare carried from hence to Spain for founding artil-lery, and for different purposes.

COBULCO, a settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Los Zacatepeques in the king-dom of Guatemala.

COCA, a large river of the kingdom of Quito.It rises from different streams which flow downfrom the cordillera oi t\\e paramo, or mountain de-sert, of Cotopaxi. It continually follows the course


of the large river Napo, and at last becomes in-corporated with the same.

COCAGNE, a small river of NovaScotia. It runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf ofSt. Lawrence, and in the strait formed by the islandof St. John, opposite the island of its own name.

[COCALICO, a township in Lancaster county,Pennsylvania.]

COCAMA, a great lake in the midst of thethick woods which lie in the country of Las Amazonas, to the s. and w. of tlie river Ucayale. It is10 leagues long from n. to s. and six wide from w. On the e. it flows out, through a littlecanal, into the river Ucayale, and on the w. itforms the river Cassavatay, which running n. andthen e. enters also the Ucayale. Its shores areconstantly covered with alligators and tortoises.

COCAMAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe country of Las Amazonas, who inhabit thew'oods to the s. of the river Maraiion, and in thevicinities of Ucayale. It takes its name from theformer lake, called La Gran Cocama. Theyare a barbarous and cruel race, wandering over theforests in quest of birds and wild beasts for meresustenance. Their arms are the macana, and theIndian cimeter, or club of chonia, a very strongebony.

COCANIGUAS, a settlement of the provinceand government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom ofQuito.

COCAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Uuachos.

Same name, another settlement, in the province andcorregimienito of Vilcas Huaiman, of the samekingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Tofos.

COCATLAN, San Luis de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Coatlan, and alcadia mayorof Nexapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 160 fa-milies of Indians, employed in the trade in cochi-neal and cotton stuffs. It is four leagues to the n.of its head settlement.

COCAYA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito. Itunites itself with the Ibinelo, and then takes thename of Unquizia, and enters the Putumayo.

COCHA, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito.

Same name, another settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cotabambas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Llaaquas.

COCHA, another (settlement), of the province and corregimi-ento of Vilcas Huaiman in the same kingdom ; an-nexed to the curacy of Vilcas.

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of Atengo, and alcald'ia mayor of Chilapa, inNueva Espana. It contains 27 families of Indians,and is two leagues to the n. of its head settle-ment.

COMALA, another settlement, in the head settle-ment of Almololoyan, and alcald'ia mayor of Co-lima. It contains 67 families of Indians, who ex-ercise themselves in the cultivation of the lands.Two leagues to the n. e.- of its head settlement.

COMALAPA, a .settlement of the province andalcald'ia mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guate-mala.

COMALTEPEC, a settlement and head settle-ments of the mayor of Villalta, of a hottemperature, with 310 families of Indians. Nineleagues between the e. and ??. of its capital.

COMALTEPEC, another, in the alcald'ia mayorof Tecocuilco. It contains 78 families of Indians,who cultivate nothing but cochineal and maize,and these only in as much as is nece.ssary for theirsustenance.

COMANJA, a settlement of the head settlementof Tirindaro, and alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, inthe province and bishopric of Mechoacan. Itcontains 13 families of Indians, and is one leagueto the s. of its head settlement.

=COMANJA==, another settlement and real of minesin the alcald'ia mayor oi Lagos, of the kingdom andbishopric of Galicia ; the population of which con-sists of 30 families of Spaniards, Mustees, andMulattoes, and 50 of Indians, who live by thecommerce of and labour in the mines, which,although these inhabitants are little given to in-dustry, produce good emolument. This settle-ment is at the point of the boundary which dividesthe settlements of this kingdom from the king-dom of Nueva Espana. Seven leagues e. of itscapital.

COMAO, a province of the country of LasAmazonas, to the s. of this river, from the mouthof which it is 40 leagues distant, extending itselfalong the banks of the same; discovered in 1745by Francisco de Orellana. The territory is leveland fertile, and the climate moist and hot. Itabounds in maize, and has some plantations ofsugar-cane. It is watered by different rivers, allof which abound in fish, as do also its lakes ; andin these an infinite quantity of tortoises are caught.This province belongs to the Portuguese, and ispart of the province of Para.

(COMARGO, a town of New Leon in N.America ; situate on the s. side of Rio Bravo,which empties into tlie gulf of Mexico on the w.side.)

COMARU, or De los Angeles, a settle-

ment of the missions held by the Portuguese in thecountry of the Amazonas, on the shore of the riverNegro.

COMARU, another settlement in the provinceand captainship of Pará, and kingdom of Brazil ;situate on th.e s. shore of the river of Las Ama-zonas, on a point or long strip of land formed bythe mouth of the river Topayos.

COMAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regmiienio of Xauxa in Peru.

Comas, a lake of the province and governmentof Venezuela, of an oval figure, between the riverGuarico and the jurisdiction which divides thisgovernment from that of Cumana.

COMATLAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Chixila, and alcald'ia mayor of Villalti.It contains 32 families of Indians, and is fiveleagues to the n. of its capital.

COMATLAN, another settlement, the head set-tlement of the district of the alcald'ia mayor of Te-quepexpa ; of a hot temperature. It contains 20families of Indians, who live by cultivating thelands. Fifteen leagues to the s. of its capital.

COMAU, a settlement of the province and cap-tainship of Pará in Brazil ; situate at the mouth ofthe river Las Amazonas, to the n. n. e. of thetown of Macapa.

COMAUUINI, a river of the province andgovernment of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions,on the shores and at the mouth of which they haveconstructed the fort of Amsterdam. It runs n. andafterwards turning to the s. s. e. enters the Co-tica.

COMAYAGUA, or Valladolid, a city andcapital of the province of Honduras in the king-dom of Guatemala ; founded by the CaptainAlonzo de Caceres, by the order of Pedro de Al-varado. It was at first called Nuestra Senora dela Concepcion, and by this title there is still namedan hospital which is well endowed and served.Here are also some convents of the religious orderof La Merced, and a very good church, erectedinto a bishopric in 1539. One hundred and tenleagues from the capital Guatemala. Lat. 20° 58'n. Long. 87° 5 P

Bishops who have presided in Comayagua.

1. Don Fray Juan de Talavera, of the orderof St. Jerome, prior of his convent of NuestraSenora del Prado, near Valladolid : being nomi-nated first bishop, he refused the appointment.

2. Don Christoval de Pedraza, elected bishopfrom the renunciation of the former; at the sametime nominated protector of the Indies, and resi-dentiary judge to the conquerors Pedro Alvaredoand Francisco de Montejo, in 1539,

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into tlie Banos, and which, after the great cas-cade, is known by the name of Pastaza. To then. rises the Padregal, afterwards called Pita, as itpasses through the llanura of Chillo ; and at theskirt of the mountain of Guangopolo, where theplain terminates, it unites itself with the Ama-g^uaiia, and then turning w. takes the names ofTumbaco and Huallabamba, to enter the Esmeral-das, which disembogues itself into the S. sea. Atthe skirt of this great mountain are the estates ofSinipu, Pongo, Pucaguaita, and Papaurca, It isdistant from the settlement of Mula-halo half aleague, and five leagues from its capital. In lat.40° IPs. (The height of this volcano was dis-covered, in 1802, to be only 260 feet lower thanthe crater of Antisana, which is 19,130 feet abovethe level of the sea.)

COTOPASSA, a river of the province of Ca-nela in the kingdom of Quito, towards the s. e. Itruns s. e. and enters the n. side of the river Pastaza,which, from that point, begins to be navigable.

COTOPAXI. See Cotopacsi.

COTUA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cumaná ; situate on the shore ofa river near the coast of the gulf of Cariaco, be-tween the city of this name and thatof Cumanagoto.

COTUE, a small island of the N. sea; siPiatenear the n. coast of the island of Cuba.

COTUI, a town of St. Domingo ; founded, in1504, by Rodrigo Mexia deTruxillo, by the orderof the cometidador mayor of Alca.ntara, Nicolasde Obando, 16 leagues to the n. of the capital, St.Domingo, on the skirt of some mountains whichare 12 leagues in height, and at the distance oftwo leagues from the river Yauna. It is a smalland poor town. Its commerce depends upon thesalting of meats, and in preparing tallow and hidesto carry to St. Domingo, and in the chase of wildgoats, which are sold to the French. In its moun-tains is a copper mine, two leagues to the s. e. ofthe town. The Bucaniers, a French people of theisland of Tortuga, commanded by Mr. Pouancy,their governor, took and sacked it in 1676. (In

1505, the gold mines were worked here. Thecopper mine above alluded to is in the mountain ofMeymon, whence comes the river of the samename, and is so rich, that the metal, when refined,will produce eight per cent, of gold. Here are alsofound excellent lapis lazuli, a streaked chalk, thatsome painters prefer to bole for gilding, load-stone, emeralds, and iron. The iron is of the bestquality, and might be conveyed from the chain ofSevico by means of the river Yuna. The soilhere is excellent, and the plantains produced hereare of such superior quality, that this manna of the

Antilles is called, at St. Domingo, Sunday plan-tains. The people cultivate tobacco, but arechiefly employed in breeding swine. The inhabi-tants are called clownish, and of an unsociablecharacter. The town is situated half a leaguefrom the s. w. bank of the Yuna, which becomesunnavigable near this place, about 13 leagues fromits mouth, in the bay of Samana. It contains 160scattered houses, in the middle of a little savana,and surrounded Avith woods, SO leagues n. of St.Domingo, and 15 s.e. of St. Yago.)

COUCHSAGE, a settlement of Indians of theprovince and colony of New York ; situate on theshore of the river Hudson.

(COUDRAS, a small island in St. Lawrenceriver, about 45 miles n. e. of Quebec.)

COUECHI, a settlement of Indians of N. Ca-rolina, in the territory of the Cheroquees.

COUICAN, a settlement of the head settlementof Guiméo, and alcald'ia mayor of Cirindaro, inNueva Espafia. It contains 93 families of In-dians.

COUL, Bay of, on the e. coast of the capeBreton, in Spanish bay, and at the entrance of thelake Labrador.

COULEURE, a bay of the island of Marti-nique, one of the Antilles, on the n. w. coast, nearPearl island.

Couleure, a small river of this island, whichruns «. w. and enters the sea in the bay of itsname.

CORUCO. Sec Cabo.

(COUNTRY Harbour, so called, is about 20leagues to the e. of Halifax, in Nova Scotia.)

COUPEE, a point of the coast and shore of theMississippi in Canada, [it is also called CutPoint, and is a short turn in the river Mississippi,about 35 miles above Mantchac fort, at the gut ofIbberville, and 259 from the mouth of the river.Charlevoix relates that the river formerly made agreat turn here, and some Canadians, by deepen-ing the channel of a small brook, diverted thewaters of the river into if, in the year 1722. Theimpetuosity of the stream was such, and the soilof so rich and loose a quality, that in a short timethe point was entirely cut through, and the oldchannel left dry, except in inundations ; by whichtravellers save 14 feagues of their voyage. Thenew channel has been sounded Avith a line of SOfathoms, without finding bottom. The Spanishsettlements of Point Coupee extend 20 miles on thew. side of the Mississippi, and there are some plan-tations back on the side of La Fause Riviere,through Avhich the Mississippi passed about 70years ago. The fort at Point Coupee is a square

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datorj parties against the settlements in their vici-nity. The Creeks are very badly armed, havingfew rifles, and are mostly armed with muskets.For near 40 years past, the Creek Indians havehad little intercourse with any other foreigners butthose of the English nation. Their prejudice infavour of every thing English, has been carefullykept alive by tories and others to this day. Mostof their towns have now in their possession Britishdrums, with the arms of the nation and other em-blems painted on them, and some of their squawspreserve the remnants of British flags. They stillbelieve that “ the great king over the water” isable to keep the whole world in subjection. Theland of the country is a common stock ; and anyindividual may remove from one part of it to an-other, and occupy vacant ground where he canfind it. The country is naturally divided intothree districts, viz. the Upper Creeks, Lower andMiddle Creeks, and Seminoles. The upper dis-trict includes all the waters of the Tallapoosee,Coosahatchee, and Alabama rivers, and is calledthe Abbacoes. The lower or middle district in-cludes all the waters of the Chattahoosee and Flintrivers, down to their junction ; and although oc-cupied by a great number of different tribes, thewhole are called Cowetaulgas or Coweta people,from the Cowetan town and tribe, the most warlikeand ancient of any in the whole nation. Thelower or s. district takes in the river Appala-chicola, and extends to the point of E. Florida,and is called the Country of the Seminoles. Agri-culture is as far advanced with the Indians as itcan well be, without the proper implements of hus-bandry. A very large majority of the nationbeing devoted to hunting in the winter, and to waror idleness in summer, cultivate but small parcelsof ground, barely sufficient for subsistence. Butmany individuals, (particularly on Flint river,among the Chehaws, who possess numbers of Ne-groes) have fenced fields, tolerably well cultivated.Having no ploughs, they break up the groundwith hoes, and scatter the seed promiscuously overthe ground in hills, but not in rows. Theyraise horses, cattle, fowls, and hogs. The onlyarticles they manufacture are eartlien pots andpans, baskets, horse-ropes or halters, smokedleather, black marble pipes, wooden spoons, andoil from acorns, hickery nuts, and chesnuts.)

(Creeks, confederated nations of Indians. SeeMuscogulge.)

(Creeks Crossing Place, on Tennessee river, isabout 40 miles e. s. e. of the mouth of Elk river, atthe Muscle shoals, and 36 s.w. of Nickajack, inthe Georgia w. territory.)

(CREGER’S Town, in Frederick county,Maryland, lies on the w. side of Monococy river,between Owing’s and Hunting creeks, which fallinto that river ; nine miles s. of Ermmtsburg, nearthe Pennsylvania line, and about 11 n. of Frede-rick town.)

CREUSE, or River Hondo, a river of Canada,which runs s.w. and enters the St. Lawrence, inthe country of the Acones Indians.

CRIPPLE, Bay of, on the s. coast of the islandof Newfoundland, on the side of Race cape.

CRISIN, a small island of the N. sea, near the71. coast of the island of St. Domingo, between theislands of Molino and Madera, opposite to portBelfin.

CRISTO. See Manta.

(CROCHE, a lake of N. America, in New SouthWales, terminated by the portage La Loche, 400paces long, and derives its name from the appear-ance of the water falling over a rock of upwardsof 30 feet. It is about 12 miles long. Lat. 36°40'. Long, 109° 25' w.)

CROIX, or Cross, a river of the province andgovernment of Louisiana, the same as that which,with the name of the Ovadeba, incorporates itselfwith the Ynsovavudela, and takes this name, till itenters the Mississippi.

Croix, another river of Nova Scotia or Acadia.It rises in the lake Konsaki, runs s. and enters thesea in the port of Portages.

Croix, another, of the same province and colony,which rises near the coast of the city of Halifax,runs 7^. and enters the basin of the Mines of the bayof Fundy.

Croix, an island near the coast of the sameprovince and colony, between that of Canes andthe bay of Mirligueche.

Croix, a bay of the island of Guadalupe, on thes. w. coast, between the river Sence, and the portof the Petite Fontaine, or Little Fountain.

Croix, a port of the n. coast of the island ofNewfoundland, in the strait of Bellisle.

Croix, a lake of Canada, in the country andterritor}'’ of the Algonquins Indians, between thatof St. 'I'homas and the river Bastican.

Croix, a small settlement in the island of Mar-tinique.

(Croix, St. See Cruz, Santa.)

CRON, a small river of the province and cap-tainship of Seara in Brazil. It rises near tliecoast, runs n. and enters the sea at the point ofTortuga.

(CROOKED Island, one of the Bahama islands,or rather a cluster of islands, of which NorthCrooked island, South Crooked island, (com-


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vince and government of Buenos Ayres, foundedin ]629, in lat. 29° 29' 1" 5.]t])Cruz, Santa, an island oftheN. sea,^one of theAntilles, 22 leagues long and five wide. Its terri-tory is fertile, but the air unhealthy at certain sea-sons, from the low situation. It has many rivers,streams, and fountains, with three very good andconvenient ports. It was for a long while desert,until some English settled themselves in it, andbegan to cultivate it; afterwards the French pos-sessed themselves of it, in 1650, and sold it thefollowing year to the knights of Malta, from whomit was bought, in 1664, by the West India com-pany. In 1674, it was incorporated with the pos-sessions of the crown by the king of France. Itsinhabitants afterwards removed to the island of St.Domingo, demolished the forts, and sold it to acompany of Danes, of Copenhagen, who nowpossess it. It was the first of the Antilles whichwas occupied by the Spaniards ; is SO leagues

from the island of St. Christopher’s, eight fromPuertorico, six from that of Boriquen, and fivefrom that of St. Thomas. It abounds in sugarscane and tobacco, as also in fruits, which renderit very delightful. [It is said to produce SO, 000or 40,000 hhds. of sugar annually, and other W.India commodities, in tolerable plenty. It is ina high state of cultivation, and has about 3000white inhabitants and 30,000 slaves. A greatproportion of the Negroes of this island have em-braced Christianity, under the Moravian mission-aries, whose influence has been greatly promotiveof its prosperity.

The official value of the Imports and Exportsof Santa Cruz were, in

1809, imports ^^435,378, exports ^ig84,964.

1810, 422,033, 89,949.

And the quantities of the principal articles im--

ported into Great Britain were, in




Cotton Wool.

Brit. Plant.

For. Plant.

Brit. Plant.

For. Plant.







1809, 297






1810, 31




Santa Cruz is in lat. 70° 44' n. Long. 64° 43' w.See West Indies.]

Cruz, Santa, a small island in the straits©f Magellan, opposite cape Monday. The Ad-miral Pedro Sarmiento took possession of it for thecrown of Spain, that making the tenth time of itsbeing captured.

Cruz, Santa, a small island of the coast ofBrazil, in the province and captainship of Rey,between that coast and the island of Santa Catalina.

Cruz, Santa, a sand -bank or islet near the n.coast of the island of Cuba, and close to the sand-bank of Cumplido.

Cruz, Santa, a point of the coast of the provinceand government of Honduras, called Triunfo dela Cruz, (Triumph of the Cross), between theport of La Sal and the river Tian, SO leagues fromthe gulf, in lat. 15° 40'.

Cruz, Santa, a port of the coast which lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan.On one side it has the Ensenada Grande, or LargeBay, and on the other the mountain of Santa Ines.Lat. 50° 10' s.

==Cruz, Santa, a river of the coastwhich lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magel-lan. It runs into the sea.


Cruz, Santa, a small river of the provinceand captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. Itrises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea be-tween the Grande and the Dulce, opposite theshoals ofS. Antonio.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcaptainship of Seara in the same kingdom. It risesnear the coast, runs n. and enters the sea betweenthe point of Palmeras and that of Tortuga,

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andgovernment of Maracaybo. It rises in the sierraof Perija, runs e. and enters the great lake on thew. side.

Cruz, Santa, a lake of the province and countryof the Chiquitos Indians in Peru, formed from adrain issuing from the side of the river Para-guay, opposite the cordillera of San Fernando.

Cruz, Santa, a small island of the gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes; situate near thecoast, between the two islands of Catalana and SanJoseph.

Cruz, Santa, a small port of the island of Curacao, in the w. part, opposite the island of Oruba.

Cruz, Santa, a mountain on the coast of theMalvine or Falkland isles.

Cruz, Santa, a cape or point of the coast of thx

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residences here, it has fallen into decay ; and al-though it is now reduced to a small town, the-4itleof Capital has not been taken from it. Its onlyinhabitants are those who own some estates in itsdistrict, and this forms a government subordinateto that of the Havana. [The damage done by theearthquake of October 1810, to the shipping at tlieHavana, was computed at 600,000 dollars.; theinjury at St. Jago could not be correctly estimated,but the loss of the lives at both places was believedto be not fewer than 350. In long. 76° 3', andlat. 20° r.l

CUBAGUA, an island of the N. sea, near thecoast of Tierra Firme, discovered by tiie AdmiralChristopher Columbus. It is three leagues incircumference, and is barren, but has been, -informer times, celebrated for the almost incredibleabundance of beautiful pearls found upon thecoast, the riches of which caused its commerce tobe very great, and promoted the building in itthe city of New Cadiz; but at present, since thefishery is abandoned, this town has fallen entirelyinto decay, and the island has become desert. Itis a little more than a league’s distance from theisland of Margareta, in lat. 10° 42' n.

CUBAZ, a settlement of the province and cap-tainship of San Vincente in Brazil ; situate betweenthe rivers Pedroza and Recisto.

CUBIGIES, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom of Quito.

CUBILLI, a lake of the kingdom of Quito,in the province and corregimiento of Alausi, nearthe paramo or mountain desert of Tioloma.

CUBZIO, a settlement of the corregimientoof Bogota in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada;situate ort the shore of the river Bogota, near thefamous waterfal of Tequendama. Its climate isagreeable and fertile, and it abounds in gardensand orchards, in which are particularly cultivatedwhite lilies, these meeting with a ready sale forornamenting the churches of Santa Fe and theother neighbouring settlements.

CUCAITA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate in a valley which is pleasant,and of a cold and healthy temperature. It pro-duces in abundance very good wheat, maize,truffles, and other fruits of a cold climate ; hereare some fiocks of sheep, and of their wool aremade various woven articles. It is small, but never-theless contains 23 families and 50 Indians. Itis a league and an half to the s. w. of Tunja, inthe road which leads from Leiba to Chiquinquiraand Velez, between the settlements of Samaca andSora.

CUCHERO, San Antonio de, a settlementof the province and government of Guanuco inPeru ; situate at the source and head of the riverGuallaga.

CUCHIGAROS, a barbarous nation of In-dians, little known, who inhabit the shores of theriver Cuchigara, which enters the Maranon, andis one of the largest of those which are tributaryto the same. The natives call it Purus ; it is na-vigable, although in some parts abounding withlarge rocky shoals, and is filled with fish of dif-ferent kinds, as also with tortoises ; on its shoresgrow maize and other fruits : besides the nationaforesaid, it has on its borders those of the Gti-maiaris, Guaquiaris, Cuyaeiyayanes, Curucurus,Quatausis, Mutuanis, and Curigueres ; these lastare of a gigantic stature, being 16 palms high.They are very valorous, go naked, have largepieces of gold in their nostrils and ears ; their set-tlements lie two long months’ voyage from themouth of the river.

CUCHILLO, San Pedro del, a settlementof the mission which is held by the religious orderof St. Francis, in the precinct of New Mexico.

CUCHILLO, with the addition of Parado, ano-ther settlement of the missions of the province ofTaraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ;situate on the shore of the river Conchos.

CUCHIN, a small river of the territory ofCuyaba in Brazil. It runs n. and enters theCamapoa; on its shore is a part called La Es-tancia, through which the Portuguese are accus-tomed to carry their canoes on their shoulders, inorder to pass from the navigation of this latter riverto that of the Matogroso.

CUCHIPIN, a small river of the same kingdom (Brazil)and territory as the two former. It rises in themountains of the Caypos Indians, runs n. n» w. andenters the Taquari.

CUCHIPO, a river of the kingdom of Brazil,in the same territory as the former. It rises in themountains, and runs w.

CUCHIRIHUAY, a settlementof the provinceand corregimiento of Chilques and Masques inPeru ; annexed to the curacy of Pampachucho.

CUCHIUARA, or Cuckiguara, an island ofthe province and country of Las Amazonas, in thepart possessed by the Portuguese. It is in the riverof its name, at the sama mouth by which itenters the Maranon.

CICHIUERO, a river of the province andgovernment of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia. Itrises in the sierra of Mataguaida, runs n. andenters the Ytari.

CUCHUMATLAN, a settlement of the king-

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CUTI, a river of the province and captainship of Maranan in Brazil. CUTIGUBAGUBA, a settlement of the Portuguese, in the province and captainship of Para in Brazil; situate on the shore of the river of Las Amazonas ; to the n. of the city of Para. Cutiguba, an island of the river of Las Amazonas, opposite the city of Para.

CUTIMERIN, a river of the province and cap- . tainship of Maranan in Brazil.

CUTINANAS, Santo Tome de los, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province of Mainas and kingdom of Quito.

CUTQUISCANAS, a barbarous and ferocious nation of Indians, who inhabit the n. e. of the ancient province of Los Panataguas. They are few, and little more is known of them than their name.

CUTTS Island, a small island on the coast of York county, Maine. See Neddock River.]

CUTUBUS, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the river Besani. CUTUCUCHE, a river of the province and government of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito. It flows down on the s. side of the skirt of the mountain and volcano of Cotopacsi, and united with the Alaques, forms the San Miguel, which laves part of the llanura of Callo, runs near the settlement of Mulahalo, and by a country seat and estate of the Marquisses of Maenza, who have here some very good cloth manufactories. This river runs very rapid, and in 1766, owing to an eruption of the volcano, it inundated the country, doing infinite mischief; again it was, a second time, thrown out of its bed, though the damage it then did was nothing like what it was on the former occasion.

CUTUN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. COTUNLAQUE, a pass of the road which leads from the city of Quito to Machache, almost impracticable in the winter time, and only noted for being a place of infinite difficulty and vexation to such as are obliged to travel it. CUTUPITE, Cano de, an arm of the river Orinoco, in the province and government of Guayana, one of those which form ifs different mouths or entrances; it is that which lies most close to the coast of Tierra Firme, aud which, with the coast, forms part of the canal of Manao.

CUXUTEPEC, a settlement of the province and akaldia mayor of San Salvador in the kingdom of Guatemala. vol. i.

CUYO, Cotio, or Cujo, a large province of the kingdom of Chile, and part of that which is called Chile Oriental or Tramontano, from its being on the other side of the cordiUera of the Andes; bounded e. by the country called Pampas ; n. by the district of Rioxa, in the province and government of Tucuman ; *. by the lands of Magellan, or of the Patagonians; and®, by the cordillera of the Andes, which is here called the Western, Cismontana, part of those mountains. It is of a benign and healthy climate ; and although in the summer, the heat on the llanuras is rather oppressive, extremely fertile, and abounding, independently of the fruits peculiar to the country, in wheat, all kinds of pulse, wine, and brandies, which were formerly carried to the provinces of Tucuman aud Buenos Ayres, although this traffic has of late fallen into decay, from the frequent arrivals of vessels from Spain. It abounds in all kinds of cattle, and in the cordiUera, and even ia the pampas, are large breeds of vicunas, huanacos, vizcachas, turtles, two kinds of squirrels, ostriches, tigers, leopards, and an infinite quantity of partridges, pigeons, and turtledoves. The flesh of the swine and mules is esteemed the best in all America; and, generally speaking, victuals areso cheap that it may be procured at little or no expence. The skirts of the mountains are covered with beautiful woods, and their tops are overspread with snow. Throughout nearly the whole province is found a great quantity of glasswort, and in the cordiUera are some mines of silver, especially in the valley of Iluspallata, which were formerly worked by fusion, to the great detriment of the metal, but which are to this day worked in the same manner as those of Peru, and consequently afford greater emolument. Here are also some gold mines, and others of very good copper. The rivers which water this province all rise in the cordiUera, and the most considerable of them are the Tunuyan, which is the first to the s. those of Mendoza, San Juan, Jachal, and the Colorado to the n. e. In the cordiUera, near the high road leading from Santiago to Mendoza, is the great lake of the Inca, wherein are said to be great treasures deposited by the Incas at the beginning of the conquest, to keep them from the Spaniards. This lake is bottomless, and it is thought to be formed of the snows melted and flowing down from the mountainous parts of the district. On the side towards Chile the lake has a vent by six or seven small branches, forming the river of Aconcagua ; and from the opposite side issue some other streams in a contrary direction, and form the Mendoza. In the very heat of summer this

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