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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ABANCAY, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the E by the large city of Cuzco, (its jurisdiction beginning at the parish of Santa Ana of that city), and on the W by the province of Andahuailas; N by that of Calcaylares, forming, in this part, an extended chain of snowcovered mountains ; S by the provinces of Cotabamba and Aimaraez; S W by Chilques and Masques. It extends 26 leagues from E to W and is 14 broad. Its most considerable river is the Apurimac, which is separated from it at the N W and bends its course, united with other streams, towards the mountains of the Andes. This river is crossed by a wooden bridge of 80 yards long and 3 broad, which is in the high road from Lima to Cuzco, and other provinces of the sierra. The toll collected here is four rials of silver for every load of goods of the produce of the country, and twelve for those of the produce of Europe. The temperature of this province is mild, and for the most part salubrious, with the exception of a few vallies, where, on account of the excessive heat and humidity, tertian agues are not uncommon. It produces wheat, maize, and other grain in great abundance, and its breed of horned cattle is by no means inconsiderable; but its principal production is sugar, which they refine so well, that it may challenge the finest European sugars for whiteness : this is carried for sale to Cuzco and other provinces, and is held in great estimation. It also produces hemp, cloth manufactures of the country ; and in its territories mines of silver are not wanting, especially in the mountain which they call Jalcanta, although the natives avail themselves not of the advantages so liberally held out to them. Its jurisdiction comprehends 17 settlements. The repartimento, quota of tribute, amounted to 108,750 dollars, and it rendered yearly 870 for the alcabala. The following are the 17 settlements : The capital, Limatambo, Huanicapa, Mollepata, Curahuasi, Pantipata, Cachora, Pibil, Antilla, Chonta, Anta, Pocquiura, Ibin, Surite, Chachaypucquio, Huaracondo. Sumata,
Abancay, the capital of the above province, founded in a spacious valley, which gives it its title: it is also so called from a river, over which has been thrown one of the largest bridges in the kingdom, being the first that was built there, and looked upon as a monument of skill. In the above valley the jurisdiction of this province, and that of Andahuailas, becomes divided. It is also memorable for the victories gained in its vicinity by the king's troops against Gonzalo Pizarro, in the years 1542 and 1548. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Dominic ; this order being the first of those which established themselves in Peru. 20 leagues distant from the city of Cuzco. Lat. 13° 31' 30" S Long. 72° 26' W.7
ABANES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the plains of San Juan, to the N of the Orinoco. They inhabit the woods on the shores of this river, as well as other small woods ; and are bounded, E by the Salivas, and W by the Caberres and Andaquies. They are docile, of good dispositions, and are easily converted to the Catholic faith.
ABANGOUI, a large settlement of the province and government of Paraguay. It is composed of Indians of the Guarani nation, and situate on the shore of the river Taquani. It was discovered by Alvar Nuñez Cabezade Vaca, in 1541.
ABBEVILLE County, in Ninetysix district, S. Carolina, bounded on the N E by the Saluda, and on the SW by the Savannah, is 35 miles in length and 21 in breadth ; contains 9197 inhabitants, including 1665 slaves.
ABEICAS, a nation of Indians of New France, bounded on the N by the Alibamis, and E by the Cheraquis. They live at a distance from the large rivers, and the only produce of their territory is some canes, which are not thicker than a finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.
ACACUNA, a mountain of Peru, in the province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru. It is very lofty, and is four leagues distant from the S. sea; is very barren, and situate between the promontory of Ilo and the river Sama. Lat. 70° 29' S [Long. 18° 35' W.]
ACADIA, a province and peninsula of N. America, on the E coast of Canada, between the island or bank of Newfoundland and New England, by which it is bounded on the w. It is more than 100 leagues in length from N W S E and nearly 80 in width, from NE to SW from the gulph of St. Lawrence to the river Santa Cruz. It was discovered in 1497 by Sebastian Cabot, sent thither from England by Henry VII. The French, under the command of Jacob Cartier, of St. Maloes, established themselves here in 1534, in order to carry on a codfishery on the bank of Newfoundland; and in 1604, Peter Guest, a gentleman of the household of Henry IV of France, was sent by that king to establish a colony, which he founded at Port Royal. The English entered it under Gilbert Humphry, in consequence of a grant which had been made to this person by Queen Elizabeth, and gave it the title of Nova Scotia. In 1621 King James I made a donation of it to the Earl of Stirling; and in 1627 the French, commanded by Kirk de la Rochelle, made themselves masters of it, destroying all the establishments of the English, who were obliged to surrender it up, in 1629, by the treaty of St. Germains. The French shortly afterwards lost it; a Governor Philip having taken possession of it; but they, however, regained it in 1691, through the conduct of Mr. De Villebon. In order to settle the pretensions of the rival courts, commissioners were, by mutual consent, appointed in the peace of Riswick, in 1697, to consider which should be the limits of Nova Scotia and New England; and in the peace of Utrecht, it was entirely ceded to the English, who afterwards returned to it. This beautiful country contains many rivers and lakes; the principal of these is the Rosignol, well stocked with fish: there are also many woods, full of excellent timber, and thronged with very singular birds; as, for instance, the Colibri, or hummingbird, and various others. The same woods abound in many kinds of fruits and medicinal herbs. It is very fertile in wheat, maize, pulse of all sorts, and also produces cattle of various kinds, animals of the chase, and abundance of fine fish. Its principal commerce is in skins and salt fish. The winter is longer and colder than in Europe. The capital is Port Royal.— [The name of Acadia was first applied to a tract from the 40th to the 46th degree of N lat. granted to De Mons, Nov. 8, 1603, by Henry IV of France. For the present state of this country, see NOVA SCOTIA.]
ACAGUATO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Tancitaro. It is so reduced as to consist of no more than 15 families of Indians, who maintain themselves by sowing some maize, and other vegetable productions. — Eight leagues S of the capital.
ACAMBARO, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Zelaya, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán. It contains 490 families of Indians, 80 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and a convent of the order of St. Francis. In its district there are other small settlements or wards.— Seven leagues S of its capital.
ACAMISTLAHUAC, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tasco, annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it is distant two leagues to the E N E. It contains 30 Indian families.
ACAMUCHITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Texopilco, and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec. It contains 60 Indian families, whose commerce is in sugar and honey. It produces also maize, and cultivates many vegetable productions. — Five leagues N of its head settlement.
ACANTEPEC, the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlapa. It is of a cold and moist temperature, contains 92 Indian families, among which are included those of another settlement in its vicinity, all of whom maintain themselves by manufacturing cotton stuffs.
ACANTI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains which lie towards the N and empties itself into the sea between Cape Tiburon and the bay of Calidonia.
ACAPALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W [It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.]
alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W. It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.
ACAPONETA, the alcaldía mayor of the kingdom of Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdiction is reduced. It enjoys various hot and cold temperatures, and has therefore the crops peculiar to both climates; and the same are sown in its district, and produce abundantly. The capital is the town of the same name, situate between the two rivers St. Pedro and de Cartas ; the latter dividing Nueva España from the provinces of Rosario and Cinaloa, as also the bishoprics of Durango and Gaudalaxara, from whence it is distant 83 leagues, W. N. W. It has a convent of the order of St. Francisco. Long. 105° 40' 30". Lat. 22° 43' 30".
ACAPULCO, the capital city of the government of Nueva España, situate on the coast of the S. sea. Its inhabitants amount to nearly 400 families of Chinese, Mulattoes, and Negroes. It has a parish church, with two vicars, and two convents, one of the order of St. Francis, and the other of St. Hyppolite de la Casidad, which is a royal hospital ; an office of public accounts, with an accountant and treasurer for the managing and keeping the accounts of the duties produced by the goods brought in the China ships. The city is small, and the churches and houses are moderately ornamented. The greater part of the city is on the seashore. The air is of an extremely hot and moist temperature ; for, independent of its being in the torrid zone, it is entirely shut oxit from the N. winds, being surrounded by lofty serranias. These circumstances render it very unhealthy, especially in the wet season, on account of the damps and seawinds blowing from the S. E. to the great detriment of the inhabitants and merchants who come to trade here ; this being the principal cause why there are scarcely more than eight Spanish families who reside here. It is equally in want of every sort of provision, owing to the reduced and barren state of the land, and is forced to seek its necessary supplies from the Indian settlements within its jurisdiction. The only commerce which it can be said to have, is afair which is held on the arrival of the ships from China ; and when these depart, there are no other means for the people of maintaining a trade, and if the above resource should happen to fail for three or four years, the place must inevitably be abandoned. At the distance of a musketshot, and on a promontory running far into the sea, is situate the castle and royal fort of San Diego, mounted with 31 pieces of artillery, the greater part of them 24 pounders, for the defence of the entrance of the port, which is safe, and so spacious, that 500 ships can lay at anchor in it with ease. It is surrounded by lofty rising grounds. Its principal mouth is on the S. side, formed by an Island of an oblong figure, and somewhat inclining to the S. W. The same Island forms also Acatlan mouth, which they call chica, or little. The canals on either side of the Island are 25 fathoms deep. The governor of the castle has the rank of castellano, with the title of lieutenant general of the coasts of the S. sea ; and for the defence of these coasts, there are three companies of militia, composed of the the whole of the inhabitants, namely, one company of Chinese, Acatlan another of Mulattoes, and the third of Negroes, who run to arms whenever they hear the cannon fired three times at short intervals. In the settlements of its neighbourhood they grow cotton, maize, and other seeds, vegetables and fruits. They have cattle of the large and small kind, and some tobacco, all of which productions are sufficient for the use of the castle and the city, which is 80 leagues distant from Mexico. — [The famous cut in the mountain, (Abra de San Nicholas), near the bay de la Langosta, for the admission of the sea winds, was recently finished. The population of this miserable town, inhabited almost exclusively by people of colour, amounts to 9000 at the time of the arrival of the Manilla galleon (nao de China). Its habitual population is only 4000. The chief trade of Acapulco continues still to be its commerce with Manilla. The Manilla ship arrives once a year at Acapulco, with a cargo of Indian goods, valued at 12 or 1300,000 dollars, and carries back silver in exchange, with a very small quantity of American produce, and some European goods. Lat. according to Humboldt, 16° 50' 29". Long, by ditto, 99° 46'. Lat. according to the Spaniards, 16° 50' 30". Long, by ditto, 160°. Both longitudes being measured from the meridian of Greenwich.] ACARAGA, a river of the province and government of Paraguay. It rises in the province of the Parana, and running n. enters the Uruguay where is the city of Asuncion. It is navigable by canoes throughout, and abounds in fish.
ACHACACHE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Omasuyos, the capital of this province, in Peru. It contains, besides the parish chapel, another, in which is an image of Christ, with the dedicatory title of La Misericordia. [Lat. 16° 33' 30" S. Long. 79° 23' 20" W.]
ACHAGUA, a nation of Indians of the nuevo Reyno de Granada, who dwell among the plains of Gazanare and Meta, and in the woods which skirt the river Ele. They are bold in their engagements with wild beasts, but with human beings they have recourse rather to poison and stratagem; they are dexterous in the use of the dart and spear, and never miss their aim; are particularly fond of horses, of which they take the utmost care, anointing and rubbing them with oil ; and it is a great thing among them to have one of these animals of peculiar size and beauty. They go naked, but, for the sake of decency, wear a small apron made of the thread of aloes, the rest of their bodies being painted of different colours. They are accustomed, at the birth of their children, to smear them with a bituminous ointment, which hinders the hair from growing, even upon the eyebrows. The women's brows are also entirely deprived of hair, and the juice of jagua being immediately rubbed into the little holes formed by the depilatory operation, they remain bald for ever after. They are of a gentle disposisition, but much given to intoxication. The Jesuits reduced many to the catholic faith, forming them into settlements, in 1661 .
ACHIANTLAS, Miguel de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepozcolula. It contains a convent of monks of Santo Domingo, and 260 families of Indians, who occupy themselves in cultivating and improving the land. It is eight leagues to the W with an inclination to the S of its capital.
ACHINUTLAN, a very lofty mountain of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It is on the shore of the river Orinoco, and to the E of the Ciudad Real, (royal city), the river Tacuragua running between them.
ACHOMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru. In its vicinity is a volcano, called Amboto and Sahuarcuca, which vomits smoke and flames; the latter of which are seen clearly at night.
ACLA, a small city of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province of Darien, founded by Gabriel de Roxas, in 1514, on the coast of the S. sea, at the mouth of the gulph of Uraba, in front of the island of Pinos, with a good fort, then much frequented and very convenient, from having a good bottom, but somewhat incommoded by currents. Pedro Arias Davila built here a fort for its defence in 1516; but the settlement, nevertheless, did not keep long together, the Spaniards having abandoned it, on account of its unhealthiness, in 1532. [Lat. 8° 56' N. Long. 77° 40' W.]
ACOBAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru. It was the capital, but at present the town of Guancavelica bears that title, on account of its being the residence of the governor and other people of consequence. It is of a good temperature, and so abundant in grain, that its crops of wheat amount to 25,000 bushels yearly. In an estate near it, are some pyramidical stones, and in other parts
are the ruins or some well made benches in the shape of couches, which have been much injured by time, and were there before the corning of the Spaniards. Lat. 13° 16' 30" s. Long. 74° 32' 30" w.
ACOCHALA, a very lofty mountain of the province and corregimienento of Lipes, in the arch- bishopric of Charcas, where there are some very fine silver mines, which are, however, little worked for want of hands.
ACOLA , a settlement of the province and cor- regimiento of Lucanas in Peru, annexed to the curacy of its capital.
ACOLMAN, San Agustin de , a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tez- coco, in Nueva Espana, situate in a pleasant valley of a benign temperature. There are some wards united to its district, and the number of its inhabitants, including these wards, amounts to 240 Indian families, besides a convent of monks of the order of St. Augustin.
ACOMA , a settlement of Nuevo Mexico, situ- ate on the shore of a river which enters the Grande of the N. between the settlements of San J uan and La Laguna. [It is on a high mountain, with a strong castle, and is the capital of the province. [Lat, 35° 24' «. Long. 106° 10'
ACOMACK , a county of the province and colony of Virginia, which preserves its Indian name. It is the largest county of the province, containing 200,925 acres of ground ; but not so well peopled as the others, and has only one parish, which is of the same name. Different rivers take their rise here ; among the most noted is the Clif>- sonossea,
ACOMAIO, a settlement of the province, and corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Santa Maria del Valle, situate on the confines of the infidel Panataguas Indians.
another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru.
ACOMARCA, a settlement of the province and corregimityito of Vilcas Huaman in Peru, arinexed to the curacy of Vilcas.
ACOMES, a fall of the river Amariscoggin, in the prov'ince of Continent, one of the four w hich compose the colony of New England.
ACOMULCO, a settlement of the head settle- ment and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in Nueva Espana. It contains 12 Indian families, and is two leasrues to the w. of its capital.
ACONCAGUA, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Chile ; bounded n. by a part of the province of Quillota, e, by the Cordillera, s. by the valley of Colina, of the jurisdiction of Santiago, w. by the province of Quillota. Its territory is level and well watered. It is divided into two parts by a large river of the same name, having a bridge built of stone and mortar, w ith two arches. It produces abundance of wheat and much wild marjoram, which is carried to Peru, and forms the principal branch of its commerce. In this province is the royal road, lying through the Cordillera in the way to Mendoza, which is very rough and dangerous, on account of the many slopes and steep declivities towards the river ; the path is very narrow, and in various places it is necessary to open a pass by means of a pick-axe ; so that, if at any time the mules should crowd together, they would push each other into the river, w hich has not unfrequently been the case. The royal treasures are carried by this road from the month of Novem- ber to April and part of May. A few years since, some small houses of brick and mortar have been built on one or other side of the Cordillera, which they call casuchas (miserable huts) ; in these they put, in the winter time, some coal, biscuit, and hung beef, so that the couriers, providing them- selves with the keys of the doors at Mendoza, or, on the other side, at the Guardia of Aconcagua, may have something to live upon, incase they should be stopt by a fall of snow on their journey ; and with this precaution, a courier goes every month to Santiago, carrying with him the mails brought by the ships from Europe. In the winter it is customary to walk on foot over the snow, from Paramillo, which is three leagues from the top of the Cordillera, and four from its descent to tlie place which is called Los Ojos de Agua, through the valley of Putaendo ; but towards the ??. there is another way, which they call De Los Patos, which is the road generally taken in going to the city of San Juan ; but the Cordillera being more lofty here, it is only passable in the months of February and March. The inhabitants of this province amount, on an average, to 8000 souls. The capital' is San Felipe el Real. [Lat. 32° II' s. Long. 70° 12' 30" w. j
ACONCAGUA, a large river which runs through the above province, rising in the mountains of the Cordillera, and running through it by the side of the road which leads to Buenos Ayres : hrarcliing
out various ways, and watering, from the place in which it rises, the extensive vallies of Curimon, Aconcagua, Quillota, and Concon; in which are cultivated large crops of wheat, flax and hemp; and it, moreover, enters the sea in as large a stream as if it had never undergone the like ramifications: its mouth is in 33° lat.
ACONQUIJA, the most lofty mountain of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district of the city of Catamarca, and very near it. It is perpetually covered with snow, and abounds with minerals of gold. Its jurisdiction is disputed by the province of Atacama.
ACOTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Autlan. It contains 15 Indian families, who employ themselves in breeding the larger sort of cattle, in making sugar and honey, in dressing seeds, and extracting oil of cacao, which abounds greatly, from the number of trees yielding this fruit. It is annexed to the curacy of Tecolotlan, from whence it is two leagues to the S W.
ACTOPAN, the district and alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, commonly called Octupan. Its productions and commerce are as follows: They consist in seeds, rigging, saltpetre, and the feeding of goats and sheep, chiefly prized on account of their skins and their fat. It is of a mild temperature; but the ground is infested with prickly plants, thorns, and teasels. There are some estates here of about eight or ten labouring families each. In this district, and in its environs, are many singing birds, which, in the Mexican language, are called zenzontla; and among otlicrs is the nightingale. The capital bears the same name, and in it there are no less than 2750 families of Othomies Indians, divided into two parties, and separated by the church, which is a convent of the order of St. Augustin, and a very ancient piece of architecture. It also contains 50 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees. 23 leagues N N E of Mexico. Long. 98° 49' W. Lat. 20° 19'30" N.
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AGUADILLA, a river of the province andkingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the moun-tains on the s. and enters the large river Chagrevery near its mouth, and the castle of this name.Here ships take in water, on account of the conve-nience of a bay, for the defence of which there is,upon the shore, a battery belonging to the samecastle, which was built under the directions ofDon Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743.
AGUADORES, River of the, in the islandof Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast ofthis island, having at its mouth a watch-tower andguard to give notice of vessels which may enter theport of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it isseven leagues distant.
AGUAIO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico,and kingdom of Nueva España, founded in theyear 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Quere-taro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of SierraGorda.
AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of thejurisdiction of [Izatlan]] in Nueva Galicia. It hasa convent of the religious order of St. Francis, andin 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families ofIndians, including the wards of its district; 17leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20° 44' n.Long. 103° 33' w.
AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdictionof Santiago de las Atalayas, and government ofSan Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It isof a hot temperature, and produces the same fruitsas the other settlements of this province.
AGUANATO, Santa Maria de, a settlementof the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro,^.nAalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the provinceand bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold tem-perature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo,and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain theirlivelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteenleagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid.
AGUANOS, San Antonio de, a settlementof the province and government of Mainas in thekingdom of Quito ; one of those which belongedto the missions held there by the Jesuits, andthus called from the nation of Indians of whom it iscomposed. It was founded in 1670 by the fatherLorenzo Lucero.
AGUAPAI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay. It rises between the Pa-rana and the Uruguay, near the settleiment of SanCarlos, runs j. forming a curve, and returning c.enters the last of the above rivers not far from thesettlement of La Cruz.
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anti government of Darien, near the n. coast, andthus "called from an eagle Avitli two heads, whichwas caught here in 1608, and which Avas sent tothe queen, Doha Maria-Ana of Austria, motherof Philip III. At its skirt is a bay, or swampyground, which is round, and has a very narroAVinlet. Forty-five leagues from Cartagena.
Aguila (point), a point or cape of the larger island ofthe Malvinas or Falkland isles ; thus named fromhaving been discovered by the French frigate, theAguila, or Eagle. It is one of those whith formtlie great bay or port.
AGUILUSCO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Arantzan, and alcaldiamayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishop-ric of Mechoacan. It contains 32 families of In-dians, who employ themselves in sowing seed,cutting Avood, manufacturing vessels of fineearth en-Avare, and saddle-trees for riding.
AGUJA, Point of the, on the coast of TierraFirme, and of the province and government ofSanta Marta, between this city and Cape Chichi-bacoa. It is the part of land which projects far-thest into the sea.
Aguja, Point of the. See article Eguille.
AGUSTIN, San, a capital city of the pro-vince and government of E. Florida, situate on thee. coast, in a peninsula, or narrow strip of land.It has a good port, which was discovered by Ad-miral Pedro Menendes de Aviles, on St. Augus-.tin’s day in the year 1565, which was his reasonfor giving the place this title, which has, however,been tAvice changed. He also built here a goodcastle for its defence. The city has a very goodparish church, and a convent of the Franciscanorder; and, as far as relates to its spiritual con-cerns, it is subject to the bishop of Cuba, who hasat various times proposed the erection of anabbey, but has not obtained his wish, although ithad been approved by the council of the Indies.
It has two hospitals, one for the garrison troops,and another for the community ; it has also anhermitage, Avith the dedicatory title of Santa Bar-bara. It was burnt by Francis Drake in 1586;by Captain Davis, Avith the Bucaniers, in 1665 ;but it was immediately afterwards rebuilt. In1702 it Avas besieged by the English, under thecommand of Colonel Moore, who, failing in hisattempts to take the castle, which Avas defended bythe governor, Don Joseph de Zuniga, exhibitedhis revenge by burning and destroying the town.In 1744 the English returned to the siege, underthe command of General Oglethorp, who wasequally unsuccessful, in as much as it w^as mostvaliantly defended by the governor, Don Manuelde Montiano, who defied the bombardment of theenemy. This fort has a curtain of 60 toises long ;the parapet is nine feet ; and the terrace, or horizon-tal surface of the rampart, is 20 feet high, withgood bomb-proof casemates, and mounted Avith 50pieces of cannon, having also, on the exterior, anexcellent covered way. The city, although it isencompassed by a wall, is not strong, and its de-fence consists in 10 projecting angles. It was ced-ed, Avith the whole of the province, to the English,by the King ofSpain, in the peace of Versailles, in1762 ; and it remained in their possession till 1783,when it was restored by the treaty of Paris. Thebreakers at the entrance of the harbour haveformed two channels, whose bars have eight feet ofwater each. Long. 81° 40'. Lat. 29° 58'.
Agustin, San, a settlement and real of mines,of the province of Tarauraara, in the kingdotli ofNueva Vizcaya, which was formerly a populationof some consequence, and wealthy withal, fromthe richness of its mines, Avhich -have lately falleainto decay, and thereby entailed poverty upon theinhabitants. It is 26 leagues s. of the town of S,Felipe de Chiguagua.
Agustin, San, another settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Nopaluca, and alcaldiamayor of Tepcaca, in Nueva España. It contains20 families of Indians, and is distant a little morethan a league from its head settlement.
Agustin, San, another, in the head settlementof the district of Pinoteca, and alcaldia mayor ofXicayan. It contains 70 families of Indians, whotrade in grain, seeds, and tobacco. Four leaguen. of its head settlement.
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AIAPANGO, the head settlement of the districtof the akaldia mayor of Chaleo in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 100 families of Indians, and isannexed to the curacy of Amecaraeca, at twoleagues to the s. of its capital.
AIAPATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, and veryopulent, on account of its silver mines. The sandson the banks of the rivers here have been known sorichly impregnated with this metal, that lumps ofit have been at different times picked up. It is themost considerable population in the province, andthe temperature is so salutary, that it is very com-mon to meet with persons of 90 years of age, andmany also of 100.
AIAPEL, a town of the province and govern-ment of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Gra-nada, situate on the bank of a large lake or swampof the same name, and which is formed from thewaters of the rivers Cauca, San Jorge, and others.In its district are the lavaderos, or washing placesfor gold, of La Cruz, San Mateo, Thuansi, Can,Ure, Man, San Pedro, and La Soledad.
AIATASTO, a large river of the province andgovernment of Tucuman, in the district and juris-diction of the city of Salta, on the banks of whichare some pasture grounds of the same name, uponwhich are fed 40,000 head of neat cattle, and 6000of horses for breeding.
AIAUIRI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lamoa in Peru. In its vicinity aresome forts, which were built by the Indians in thetime of their gentilism, and now in a state of greatdilapidation. There is a lake of warm water here,the bottom of which has never yet been found.The water always keeps at one height, so that it ispresumed that it finds its way out through somesubterraneous channel. There is also another warm
water spring at two leagues distance, which is verynoxious, and, as it runs, has the property of petri-fying, in like manner as the spring of water inGuancavelica.
AIAUTLA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teutila inNueva España, of a warm temperature, and inha-bited by 100 Indian families, who support them-selves by cultivating and selling the vaynilla plant.Nine leagues s. of its capital.
AICAROPA, a small river Of the province andgovernment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. Itrises in the country of the Armocotos Indians, runsfrom e. to w. with a slight inclination to the s. andenters the Caura.
AIMARAEZ, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded n. w. and w. by the province ofAndahuailas, of the bishopric of Guamanga, s. byParinacocha of the same, s. e. by Ghumbivilcas,and e. by Cotabamba. It is 40 leagues in lengthfrom «. to s. and 26 in width from e. to ti). includ-ing in its figure on the w. side the last mentionedprovince. It js one of the most uneven soils in thekingdom, being full of lofty sierras and snowymountains. It is on this account that its climate isvery cold, excepting, however, in some vallies,where it is more temperate, and where, on somesmall sloping grounds, the inhabitants sow seed andgrain, and cultivate fruit trees and cane plantations,
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which the inhabitants trade. These are composed of34 Indian families. It is a little more than threeleagues from its head settlement,
AIOZINGO, a settlement of the alcaldía mayorof Chaleo in Nueva España, situate on the shoreof the lake of Mexico, with a good port, at whichare embarked the fruits of many provinces for thesupply of that capital, (Chaleo), which is withineight or ten hours sail from hence. It has a goodconvent of S. Augustin, where a most beauti-ful image of the virgin is reverenced, and sup-posed to be wonder-working. Its inhabitants con-sist of 120 Indian families and some Spanish. Itis distant one league s, s. e. from its capital.
AIRICOS, a nation of Indians who inhabit theplains of Cazanare and Meta, of the new kingdomof Granada, to the c. of the mountains of Bogota,on the borders of the river Ele. It is numerous,and feared by all its neighbours, on account of itsvalour and dexterity in the use of arms.
Airicos, with the dedicatory title of SanFrancisco Xavier, a settlement which belongedto the Jesuits, and founded in 1662 by father An-tonio de Monteverde, and composed of some ofthose Indians who were thus reduced to the Catho-lic faith.
AIRIHUANCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru.
AIRS, a small city of the province and colonyof New Jersey, in the county of Burlington.
AIUDA, Nuestra Senora be la, a villageand settlement of the Portuguese, in the provinceand captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situateupon the sea-coast, and on the shore of the riverS. Miguel.
Aiuda, another settlement in the province andcaptainship of Puerto Seguro, situate upon thecoast on the shore of the port.
AIUILA, a river of the province and alcaldiamayor of Soconusco, in the kingdom of Guate-mala: It runs into the S. sea between the settle-ment of Suchitepec and the river Coatlan.
AIUINOS, a nation of Indians of the provinceand government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana,converted to the faith by father Francisco Olinano,of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1624.They live towards the n. of the above province,and in the times of their heathenism they dwelt inthe lofty mountains, in order that they might de-fend themselves from the other nations with whomthey were at war. They are docile, well-inclined,and of good habits.
AIUN, or luMERi, a river of the province and
viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. It runs s. and entersthe Rio Negro.
AIUNCHA, Pago BE, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucuman, in the districtand jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero,from whence it is 22 leagues distant. It is situateon the shore of the river Dulce.
AIUTLA, the head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, containing 187 Indianfamilies, and a convent of the religious order of S.Domingo ; distant 13 leagues to the e. of its capi-tal.
Aiutla, another settlement in the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Autlanof the same kingdom, with 23 Indian families, whohave large stores of pulse and fruit, so rich and fer-tile is their country. It is annexed to the curacy ofTenamaztlani, from whence it lies one league s,
AlUA, a small town of the island of St. Domin-go, situate in the line which divides the Spanishterritory from the French. It was the inhabitantsof this town who chiefly contributed to ensure thevictory which was gained against the Spaniards inthe plain of Puerto Real, by the president DonFrancisco de Segura y Sandoval, in 1691.
AIX, Palmar be, a large beach on the coastof Florida, within the channel of Bahama, nearthe point of Canaveral ; memorable for the ship-wreck of 22 vessels, composing the fleet of NuevaEspana, which took place in 1715, being under thecommand of Don Antonio de Ubila ; memorablealso for the loss of two galleons from Tierra Firme,commanded by Don Antonio de Echevers ; theloss of the one and the other amounting to nearly20 million dollars.
Aix, a river of the same province, which runsinto the sea very near the Palmar.
AJOIANI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Coaza.
[AJOS, a parish situate on the foot of the moun-tains which separate the rivers Paraguay and Pa-rana, about 24 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23°26' 34" s. Long. 56° 30' w.~\
AJOUES, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and government of Louisiana, in which theFrench held a garrison and fort for its defence, onthe shore of a lake near the Missouri.
A joues, another settlement of the same provinceand government, situate on the shore of the riverMissouri.
AKANCEAS, a nation of savage Indians of N.America, who live at the conflux of the riversMississippi, and another abundant stream of its
ALACLATZALA, a branch of the head set-tlement of the district of S. Luis, of the coast andalcaldia mayor of TIapa in Nueva España. Itcontains 125 Indian families, and is one leaguefrom the settlement of Quanzoquitengo.
ALACRANES, some islands, or rather somehidden rocks, of the N. sea, in the bay of Mexico,opposite the coast of Yucatan. Those who navi-gate these parts are accustomed to pass round be-yond them for fear of venturing amongst them, al-though there are some good cliannels among them,and withgood soundings. They are for the most partbarren, producing nothing beyond a herb calledmoron, -And deficient in fresh water ; neither do theyproduce any animal except the mole, which isfound here in prodigious numbers. There are,however, a quantity of birds, of three distinct sorts,each forming a community of itself, and entirelyseparated from the other two ; and it has beenobserved, that if one party may have fixed uponany place for building their nests, the others neverthink of disturbing them, or driving them from it ;but the noise these birds make is so great, that onecannot pass near them without suffering consider-ably from their united clamours.
[ALADAS, a parish situate about 14; leaguess. e, of Corrientes, in Lat. 28° 15' 20" s. Long. 58°SO' e».]
ALAMILLOS, a settlement of the province ofTaraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; oneof the missions which belonged to the religious ofSt Francis. It is close to the town and real ofthe mines of Santa Eulalia.
ALAMOS, Real de Los, Real de Los, a settlement andreal of the mines of the province of Sinaloa inNueva España. It is situate s. e. of the SierraMadre, and surrounded by rich silver mines,which would produce abundantly but for want oflabourers. There are in its district five estatesthat are fertile in maize, French beans, and sugar-cane. The spiritual concerns of all these parts
are under the direction of a curate, whose jurisdic-tion extends as far as the river Mayo, which flowsdown from the sierra. It is 20 leagues distantfrom the town of Tuerte, and between these liesthe valley of Maquipo. [Population 7900 souls]
Alamos, with the dedicatory title of S. Jorge,a town of the province and captainship of Para inBrazil, founded by Jorge del Alamo, who gaveit his name, in a place called La Vigia. It has amagnificent parish church, with the title of NuestraSenora de Nazareth, with a large and good fort,and well furnished with artillery. Also, at the dis-tance of a league and an half from the settlement,is a house of charity belonging to the religiousorder of the Capuchins of La Piedad.
Alamos, another of the missions belonging tothe abolished society of Jesuits, in the provinceof Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.It is 27 leagues s. w. and a quarter of a league s.of the real of the mines and town of S. Felipe deChiguaga.
Alangasi, a river of the above corregimiento,and rising in the desert mountain of Sincholagua ;over it there is a large bridge, composed of a singlearch, but so strong, that when, in 1660, a partof the mountain fell upon it, and precipitated onehalf of it into the stream, the other half still re-mained firm and immoveable. This bridge isbuilt of mud and stone.
ALANGI, Santiago de, a city and headsettlement of the district of the province of Chi-riqui and government of Santiago de Veragua,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It is small, butabounding in fruits and cattle ; in which a regulartrade is carried on for supplying the city of Pa-nama. This trade consists principally in pigs.
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state to maintain itself. Thus the colonists lived for some years, and in time the productions in which their commerce consisted, increased to such a degree as to have caused them to excel all the other English colonies,
ALUEMAur.E, another county or part of Vir- ginia, washed by the river Fluvana on the s. which divides itself into several branches, and adds much to the fertility of the country. It is bounded e. by the county of Goochland, w. divided by a chain of mountains of Augusta, and by that of Louisa on the «. [It contains 12,585 inha- bitants, including 5579 slaves. Its extent, about S5 miles square.]
Albemarle, a strait, which is the mouth or entrance into the sea of the river Roanoke.
[ALBION, New, the name given by Sir Francis Drake to California, and part of the n. w. coast of America, when he took possession of it. A large uncertain tract of the n. w, coast is thus called. Its limits, according to Mr. Arrow- smith’s chart, are between 27° 12' and 41° 15' 71. lat. Humboldt asserts, that, agreeably to sure historical data, the denomination of New Albion ought to be limited to that part of the coast which extends from the 43° to the 48°, or from Cape White of Martin de x\guilar, to the entrance of Juan de Fuea. Besides, he adds, from the mis- sions of the Catholic priests to those of the Greek priests, that is to say, from the Spanish village of San Francisco, in New California, to the Russian establishments on Cook river at Prince William’s bay', and to the islands of Kodiac and Unalaska, there are more than a thousand leagues of coast inhabited by' free men, and stocked with otters and Phocre! Consequently, the discussions on the extent of the New Albion of Drake, and the pre- tended rights acquired by certain European na- tions, from planting small crosses, and leaving inscriptions fastened to trunks of trees, or the burying of bottles, may be considered as futile. The part of the coast on which Capt. Cook landed on the 7th of March 1778, and which some desig- nate as Nezo Albion, is in n. lat. 44° 33'. e. long. 235° 10', which he thus describes : “ The land is lull of mountains, the tops of w hich are covered with snow, while the vallies between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, are covered with trees, which form a beautiful prospect, as of one vast forest. At first the natives seemed to prefer iron to every other article of
commerce; at last they preferred brass. They were more tenacious of their property than any of the savage nations that had hitherto been met with ; so that they would not part with wood, water, grass, nor the most trifling article without a compensation, and were sometimes very unrea- sonable in their demands.” See Calii^ornia, New.]
ALBOR, a small island of the N. or Atlantic sea, one of the Bahamas, between those of Neque and 8. Salvador.
ALBUQUERQUE, Santa Rosa de, a settle- ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espana. It is 19 leagues s. w. of the head settlement of the district of Tlaltcnango.
Albuquehque, a townof New Mexico, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande (large river) of the N. [opposite the village of Atrisco, to the w. of tlie Sierra Obseqra. Population 0000 souls.]
Albuquerque, a small island, or low rocks, of the N. sea, near that of 8. Andres.
ALCA, a settlement of the province and corre- gimienlo of Condensuyos of Arequipa in Peru.
ALCALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Gua- temala, in the division and district of that city.
ALCAMANI, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa in Neuva Espana, and two leagues to the n. of the same.
ALCANTARA, S. Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Maranam' in the kingdom of Brazil. It luis been frequently invaded by the infidel Indians, who destroyed its work- shops, so that its inhabitants have been much reduced.
Alcantara, S. Antonio de, another settle- ment in the province and district of Chanco, in the kingdom of Chile, near the shore of the rivec Mataquino.
ALCARAI, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the river La Plata between those of Lay- man and Gomez.
ALCATRACES, Ishmd of the, one of those which lie n. of St. Domingo, between the s. point of the Caico Grande, and the Panuelo Quadrado, (square handkerchief).
ALCIIICHlCd, 8 . Martin de, a ward of the head settlement erf the district and alcaldia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana, belonging to that of Santa Maria de la Asuncion.
ALCHIDOMAS, a settlement of the province of the Apaches in Nuevo Mexico, situate on the
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shore of the Rio Grande Colorado, (large colouredriver), or of the North.
ALCOHOLADES, a nation of Indians of theprovince of Venezuela. They are of a docile andaffable disposition, and live upon the borders ofthe lake Maracaibo. Their numbers are muchdiminished, from the treatment they received fromthe German Weltzers, who, through a covetous-ness to possess the gold of these people, killed thegreater part of them.
ALCOZAUCA, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains104 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees;not a single Indian dwells in it. It is of a mildtemperature, and in its district were the once cele-brated mines of Cayro, which were crushed in anddestroyed, having been almost unparalleled for thequantity of silver that they produced. Eight lea-gues from its capital.
ALEXANDRIA, a city of Virginia, [formerlycalled Belhaven, and situated on the southernbank of the Patowmac river, in Fairfax county,about five miles s. w. from the Federal city, 60L from Baltimore, 60 n, from Fredericks-burgh, 168 n. of Williamsburgh, and 290 fromthe. sea; 38° 54' n. lat. and 77° 10' w. long.Its situation is elevated and pleasant. The soilis clayey. The original settlers, anticipating itsfuture growth and importance, laid out the streets
on the plan of Philadelphia. It contains about400 houses, many of which are handsomely built,and 2748 inhabitants. This city, upon openingthe navigation of Patowmac river, and in conse-quence of its vicinity to the future seat of thefederal government, bids fair to be one of the mostthriving commercial places on the continent. Ninemiles from hence is Mount Vernon, the celebratedseat of the late General Washington.]
[Alexandria, a township in Grafton county.New Hampshire, containing 298 inhabitants, in-corporoted in 1782.]
[Alexandria, a township in Hunterdon coun-ty. New Jersey, containing 1503 inhabitants, inclu-sive of 40 slaves.]
[Alexandria, a small town in Huntingdoncounty, Pennsylvania, on the Frankstown branchof Janiatta river, 192 miles n. w. of Philadel-phia.]
ALEXO, S. an island of the N. sea, near thecoast of Brazil, in the province and captainshipof Pernambuco, between the river Formoso andCape S. Agustin.
ALFARO, S. Miguel de, a settlement of theprovince and government of the Chiquitos Indians;situate on the shore of the river Ubay. It has agood port, from whence it is also known by thename of Port of the Chiquitos. It is, however,at present destroyed, and the ruins alone remain.
ALFAXAIUCA, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Kilotepec in Nueva Espana. It con-tains 171 Indian families, and is seven leaguese. n. e. of its capital.
ALFEREZ, Valley of the, in the provinceand correscimienlo of Bogota in the new kingdomof Granada.
Alfeuez, a river of the province and captain-ship Rey in Brazil; it runs w. and enters thelake of Mini.
[ALFORD, a township in Berkshire county,Massachusetts, containing 577 inhabitants ; 145miles w. from Boston.]
[ALFORDSTOWN, a small town in Moorcounty, North Carolina.]
ALfjrARROBO, a settlement of the provinceand government of Antioquia in the new kingdomof Granada ; situate on the bank of an arm of theriver Perico, in an island which it forms in th«serranias of Guamoca.
ALGODON, Island of the, one of thosewhich are in the N. sea, between the s. point ofthe Cayco Grande and the Panuelo Quadrado.
Algodon, a settlement of the same name. SeeBiezmet.
ALGODONALES, a .settlement of the province
nardo. On the shore at its mouth the French,under Robert la Sale, made their first establish-ment in the year 1683.
CANELOS, a large province of the kingdomof Quito, discovered by Gonzalo Pizarro in theyear 1540, who gave it this name on account ofthe quantity of cinnamon trees found in it, whichgrow very strong, shedding an odour somethinglike camphor, and very pungent. This cinnamon,which is called raspado, is carried to Quito, andsold at six reals a pound, being made use of in-stead of the fine cinnamon. A small viper is fre-quently met with in it of the same colour as thecinnamon, and extremely venomous. This pro-vince is uncultivated, full of impenetrable forestsand rivers, and contains only one settlement of thesame name, on the n. shore of the river Bobonaza,in which is the port of Canoas, and the residenceof a religious Dominican, who is the curate ofthose few miserable Indians. In lat. 1° 32' 20" s.
CANES AND Canches, a province and cor-regiminto of Peru, bounded on the e. by Cara-baya, towards the town of Mauclani, on the s. e.by Lampa in the cordillera of Villacanota, onthe s. by Cailloma, s. e. by a part of the provinceof Condesuios of Arequipa, w. by Chumbivilca,being divided by the river Apurimac, and n. w.by Quispicanchi. It is in length from n. to s.30 leagues, and 15 in width : Its climate is, forthe greater part, extremely cold, on account ofits being nearly covered with mountains of snow ;nevertheless they cultivate here barley, maize,potatoes, cavi, and quinoa; and in the warm parts,which consist of uneven and broken grounds nearthe rivers, some kinds of fruit, though in no abun-dance. Here also are great quantities of animalswhich breed upon the mountains from the luxu-riance of the pastures ; and of these are the vigog-nes, huanacos, and viscachas, which latter are aspecies of hare or rabbit ; deer also, and par-tridges, abound here. In the rivers are foundbagres a foot in length. The principal riverswhich water this province, are the Vilcamayo,which runs from the province of Quispicanchi,into which runs another flowing down from thesnowy sierras on the e. part called Combapata.
This river has a stone bridge, and descends fromthe heights of Cailloma. This province has manylakes, which are filled with water-fowl, such asducks, widgeons, and others ; these birds arefound more particularly in lake Lanchug, which isthree leagues long and one and a half broad, andin it there is also found the load-stone. Linencloth is fabricated here. In the district of SanPedro de Cacha, in a place called Rache, there isan ancient and grand edifice with nine gates, halfof the walls of which, as high as the first stories,are made of carved stone ; the rest of the edificebeing of earth upon five galleries of stone, formingas it were so many other walls. This building issaid to have served as a temple in Viracocha in thetime of the gentilism of the Indians. At a smalldistance there is an artificial lake with aqueductswhich keep it always at a proper height ; thislake is situate upon a black mountain, which maybe about two leagues in circumference ; also inthe same vicinity are vestiges of a considerablepopulation, and here is found a mineral earthfrom which they fabricate jars, large pitchers, and other vessels, which are carried to be sold in theneighbouring provinces. In this province aremany mines of silver, but they are not worked, onaccount of their being some of them filled withwater, and some of them broken in, with the ex-ception, however, of those of Condoroma, which,although they have experienced the former ca-lamity, do not fail to render yearly many marksof gold, a pretty good testimony of their riches.Great indeed have been the labour and expence inthe attempts to empty them of the water, but inthis they have not as yet succeeded. Here are alsofour good sugar-mills ; and in the jurisdiction ofthe town of Yauri, are two mines of copper, whichare worked : Some gold mines also are not wanting,although they be of little note. In the establish-ment of Condoroma it is not unusual to expe-rience, in the tempests of thunder and lightning,a sort of prickly sensation on the hands and feetand other parts of the body, which they call mos-cas, or flies, without, however, being able todiscover any of these insects ; and it should seemthat the effect is to be attributed to the state of theatmosphere, since the heads' of canes, buckles,and silver or gold galloons, though during suchtimes highly affected by the electric matter, ceaseto be so on the cessation of the tempest. The in-habitants of this province amount to 18,000 souls, dwelling in 24 settlements, which are,
San Pablo, Yanacoa,
and it is, indeed, pretty generally believed thatthis cross was left here by the above apostle.
CARACARES, a large lake of the province andgovernment of Paraguay. It is 26 leagues inlength, and has many fertile islands, inhabited bybarbarian Indians, and empties itself through acanal into the river Paraná on the e. side. It isin 30° 41' s. lat.
CARACAS, Santiago de Leon de, a capitalcity of the province of Venezuela, founded byDiego Losada in the year 1566, in a beautiful andextensive valley of more than four leagues inlength. It is of a very mild temperature, beingneither troubled with excessive heat or cold. It iswatered by four rivers, which fertilize its territory,and make it abound as well in delicate waters asin exquisite fruits and flowers: the streets are wideand straight, the buildings elegant and convenient,and it is ornamented by four marts. It is the seatof the bishopric, erected in the city of Coro in1532, and translated to this spot in 1636. It hasa beautiful cathedral church, besides some parishchapels, which are Nuestra Señora de Alta Gra-cia ; San Pablo, which is also an hospital, andNuestra Señora de la Candelaria, out of the wallsof the city. There is also an hospital De la Ca-ridad (of charity) for women ; a convent of the re-ligious order of Santo Domingo, in which is heldin high respect the wonderful image of the Virginof the Rosary, presented by Philip II. There isanother convent of San Francisco, in which ispreserved a piece of the wood of the cross left bythe Governor Don Martin de Robles Villafañate ;another of our Lady of La Merced ; a monasteryof religious women of La Concepcion ; another ofthe Carmelites Descalzas (barefooted) ; a college andseminary for the education of youth, with five ca-thedrals ; four hermitages dedicated to San Mau-ricio, Santa Rosalia de Palermo, La Divina Pas-tora, and La Santisima Trinidad. Charles II.granted to this city the privilege of allowing itsalcaldes to govern the province in the vacancy ofa governor ; and Philip V. permitted a commer-cial company of Biscayans to be established, whoreaped considerable affluence, especially in the ar-tiles of cacoa and sugar, the chief source of its re-venues ; but this company was abolished in thereign of Charles III. in the year 1778 ; which cir-cumstance was considered by the city and the pro-
vince as a most considerable privilege. The num-ber of inhabitants amounts to about 1000, besidesan infinity of people of colour by whom it is in-habited. The natives have shown themselves tobe of an ingenuous disposition, clever, affable, andcourteous. Its arms are a grey lion rampant in afield of silver, having between his arms a scollop-shell of gold, with the cross of Santiago ; and thecrest is a crown with five points of gold. It wassacked in 1566 by Sir Francis Drake, who camethither in an English cruiser ; also by the Frenchin 1679. It is three leagues distant from the portof Guaira. Long. 67° w. Lat. 10° 30' n.
The bishops who have presided in this city.
1. Don Rodrigo Bastidas, dean of the holychurch of St. Domingo, the chief of the visitationof the bishopric of Puertorico; elected on the 27thOctober 1535, and who died in 1542.
2. Don Miguel Gerónimo Ballesteros, dean ofthe church of Cartagena of the Indies ; electedin 1543.
3. Don Fr. Pedro de Agreda, of the order ofSt. Domingo, collegiate of San Gregorio of Val-ladolid ; presented to this bishopric in 1558, andtaking possession of it 1560. In his time the citywas sacked by the English : he died in 1580.
4. Don Fr. Juan de Manzanillo, of the order ofSt. Domingo ; presented in the year 1582 ; he re-built the church, and died in 1593.
5. Don Fr. Diego Salinas, of the order of St.Domingo, native of Medina del Campo, colle-giate of San Gregorio de Valladolid, prior in dif-ferent convents, procurator-general in the court,and elected bishop in the year 1600 : in the fol-lowing year he died.
6. Don Fr. Pedro Martin Palomino, of the orderof St. Domingo ; elected in 1601 : he died the sameyear.
7. Don Fr. Pedro de Oña, native of Burgos, ofthe order of our Lady of La Merced ; he was even-ing lecturer in the university of Santiago, electedbishop in 1601, canonized in the convent of Val-ladolid, and before he came to his church, waspromoted to the bishopric of Gaeta, in the king-dom of Naples, in 1604.
8. Don Fr. Antonio de Alcega, of the order ofSt. Francis ; he Avas formerly married, and heldthe office of accountant to the royal estates in Yu-catán, when he became a widower, and giving allhe possessed as alms to the poor, he took to a re-ligious life, and Philip III. being charmed withhis virtues presented him to this bishopric in1664 ; he celebrated the synod in Caracas theyear following, and died in 1609.
9. Don Fr. Juan de Bohorques, native of Mex-
3. George of Spira, a German knight, nomi-nated by the Weltzers in 1533 : he died in 1540,leaving the title of provisional governor to,
4. Captain Juan de Villegas, a title which wasenjoyed but a few days, inasmuch as the audienceof St. Domingo, immediately upon their hearing oftlie death of Spira, appointed,
5. Don Rodrigo do Bastidas, bishop of that -holy church ; he governed till the year 1541, andbeing promoted to the bishopric of Puertorico,the government in the mean time devolved upon,
6. Diego Boica, a Portuguese gentleman, aknight of the order of Christ ; he was confirmedin the government by the audience of St. Domingo ;but in a very few days after he was superseded by,
7. Enrique Rembolt, a German ; who also go-verned a very short time, inasmuch as the excessesthat he committed, and the clamours of the inha-bitants of Toro, obliged the above tribunal tosend out,
8. The Licentiate Frias, fiscal of that royalaudience ; he entered upon his functions in 1642,until the royal nomination of,
9. The Licentiate Juan Perez de Tolosa, nativeof Segovia ; a very learned and prudent man : hewas chosen by the Emperor to settle the distur-bances which had arisen from the administration ofthe Weltzers; for which reason he deprived themof it ; he entered Coro in 1546 ; and although hehad not fulfilled the three years of his appointment,he was, on account of his tried abilities, confirmedin his office for another three years, and diedin 1548.
10. Juan de Villegas, nominated as intermediategovernor by his antecedent, until the arrival of theproprietor,
11. The Licentiate Villacinda, nominated bythe Princess Doña Juana, who, in the absence ofher father, the Emperor, held the reins of govern-ment in Castilla ; this governor took the reins in1554, and died in 1557, leaving the governmentin charge of the alcaldes.
12. Gutierrez de la Peña, nominated provision-ally bythe audience of St. Domingo ; he enteredupon his functions in 1557, until the year 1559,when arrived,
13. The Licentiate Pablo Collado, who governeduntil the year 1562, when, on account of the ap-peals made against him to the audience of St. Do-mingo, this court sent out an inquisitorial judge,who might call him to account, and order himback to Spain : this was the Licentiate Bernaldes,whom they called “ Ojo de Plata,” (Eye of Silver),he having the defect of one of his eyes supplied by
this artificial means. He having, therefore, dis-placed the former governor, took the managementof affairs upon himself, until the arrival of theproper person, who was nominated by the king in1563.
14. Don Alonzo de Manzanedo, who governed avery short time since ; being of a very advancedage, he soon fell sick, and died in 1564.
15. The Licentiate Bernaldes; who havinggained a certain reputation for the strictness, affa-bility, and justice, with which he conducted him-self in his provisional government, was nominaleda second time by the audience of St. Domingo,with the general acclamation of the province ;he governed until the year following, 1565, whenarrived,
16. Don Pedro Ponce de Leon, a branch of theillustrious house of the Dukes of Arcos ; he hadbeen alcalde of Conil, came to the government inthe aforesaid year, and died in 1569.
17. Don Juan de Chaves, a native of Truxilloin Estremadura ; who was living as a citizen atSt. Domingo at tiie time that he was appointedas provisional governor by the audience, as soon asthe death of the former was known to them : heentered upon the government the same year, andheld it until the year 1572.
18. Diego Mazariego ; who entered Coro in theabove year, and governed until 1576, when hissuccessor arrived, who was,
19. Don Juan Pimentel, a branch of the houseof the Counts of Benavente, knight of the order ofSantiago ; also the first governor who establishedhis residence in the city of Santiago. He wascalled from thence to take the charge of the go-vernment, which he exercised until the year 1582,when his successor arrived.
20. Don Luis de Roxas, native of Madrid ; heentered Caracas in 1583, reigned until 1587, whenhe was succeeded by,
21. Don Domingo de Osorio, commander of thegalleys, and chief officer of the customs of the islandof St. Domingo ; at which place he was residingwhen he received advices relative to his succeed-ing the former governor : he filled his office withmuch diligence, and obtained considerable renown,and in the year 1597 was promoted to the presi-dency of St. Domingo.
22. Gonzalo de Piña Lidueña, who governeduntil 1600, when he died of an apoplectic fit ; andin the interval the audience of St. Domingo ap-pointed,
23. Alonzo Arias Baca, citizen of Coro, and sonof the renowned Dr. Bernaldes, who liad governed
twice with so much credit ; he entered upon thegovernment in the same year.
24. Sancho de Alquiza, a captain of infantry ;who began to govern in the year 1601, and con-tinued until the year 1610, when he was succeededby,
25. Don Martin de Robles Villafañate, who go- ,verned the province with great credit and prudenceuntil his death.
26. Don Francisco de la Hoz Berrio, native ofSanta Fe. He entered upon the government in1616, and governed until the year 1622. He wasdrowned returning to Spain in the fleet which waslost in the falls of Metacumbe, close to the Ha-vannah.
27. Don Francisco Nuñez Melian, who suc-ceeded the former, and governed until the year 1632.
28. Don Rui Fernandez de Fuenmayor, fromthe last-mentioned year to 1638,
29. Don Marcos Gelder de Calatayud, a knightof the order of Calatrava ; he was promoted herefrom the government of Santa Marta in 1639, andgoverned until the year 1644, when he died.
32. Don Pedro de Porras y Toledo, who beganto govern in 1660, and remained in office untilthe year 1665.
37. Don Joseph Francisco de Cañas, colonel ofinfantry, and knight of the order of St. Jago ; hecame over to Caracas under a particular commis-sion in 1716, and became provisional successor onaccount of the death of the proper governor.
38. Don Francisco de Portales.
39. Don Lope Carrillo.
40. Don Sebastian Garcia de la Torre, colonelof infantry ; from the year 1730 to 1733
41. Don Martin de Lardizábal, alcalde del cri-men of the royal audience of Aragon; who wassent out with a commission to consider the griev-ances of the province preferred against the com-pany of Guipuzcoana.
42. The Brigadier-general Don Gabriel de Zu-loaga. Count of Torre-alta, captain of the grena-diers of the regiment of the royal Spanish guards ;he governed from 1737 to 1742.
43. The Brigadier-general Don Luis de Castel-lanos, also captain of the regiment of guards ; to1749.
44. Don Fray Julian de Arriaga y Rigera Bai
lio, of the order of St. Juan ; vice-admiral of theroyal armada : he governed to 1752, when he waspromoted to the office of president of trade.
45. Don Felipe Ricardos, lieutenant-general ofthe royal armies.
46. Don Felipe Ramirez de Esteñoz, a briga-dier-general.
47. Don Joseph Solano y Bote, captain in theroyal armada ; to the year 1771, when he was pro-moted to the presidency of St. Domingo.
48. The Brigadier-general the Marquis of LaTorre, knight of the order of Santiago ; he enteredCaracas in the aforesaid year, and governed untilthe year 1772, when he was promoted to be go-vernor of the Havannah.
49. Don Joseph Carlos de Aquiero, knight ofthe order of St. Jago ; who had served in the warof Italy as captain of the provincial grenadiers,and afterwards in the regiment of Spanish guards :he then held the government of Nueva Vizcaya,and afterwards, on account of his singular disinte-restedness, nominated to this in 1777 ; but he re-turned to Spain.
50. Don Luis de Unzaga y Amezaga, colonelof infantry : in the aforesaid year he left the go-vernment of Louisiana for this, and exercised ittill the year 1784, when lie was promoted to theHavannah, being succeeded by,
51. Don Manuel Gonzales, knight of the orderof St. Jago, brigadier of the royal armies ; he wasnominated as provisional successor.
52. The Colonel Don Juan Guillelmi, who hadserved in the corps of artillery ; he was promotedto the government in 1785.
[INDEX TO ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CON-CERNING THE City of Caracas.
1. Foundation. --- 2. Privileges. --- 3. Temperalure.--- 4. Meteorology. --- 5. Cyanometrical observa-tion. --- 6. Oxigen and nitrogen gas. --- 7. Va-riation of the needle. --- 8. Inclination of the dip-ping needle. --- 9. Situation. --- 10. Its waters. ---11. Streets. --- 12. Public squares. --- 13. Houses.--- 14. Public buildings. --- 15. Archbishopric. ---16. Cathedral. --- 17. Religious customs. --- 18.Religious costumes of the women. --- 19. Festi-vals. --- 20. The stage, & c. --- 21. Inhabitants. ---22. Freed persons or tradesmen. --- 23. The uni-versity. --- 24. Police. --- 25. Communications withthe interior. --- 26. With Spain. --- 27. Geogra-phical and statistical notices of the captainship-general of Caracas, and present history.
1. Foundation. --- This city, situate in 10° 31'n. lat. and 69° 3' w. long, from the meridian ofParis, was founded by Diego Losada in 1567, 47]
[sermons and processions ; but it is worthy of re-mark, that they do not admit vespers in the num-ber of religious exercises, ag'reeably to the cus-tom of Old Spain and other Catholic countries.It is necessary that the men going to churchshould wear a cloak or great coat, or that theybe dressed in a long coat ; one of these habits isindispensable, neither rank nor colour affordingan exemption.
18. Religious costumes of the women . — Thedress of the women, whether rich or poor, espe-cially of the whites, ought to be altogether black.This dress consists of a petticoat and veil bothblack ; the slaves alone are obliged to have a Avhiteveil. The object of this attire was, that by im-posing on the sex a veil, every kind of gallantry andcoquetry might be banished from the place ofworship, and that by establishing uniformity indress and colour, the pious might be reminded ofthe equality of all in the eyes of God. But thisdress, which was intended to be the same for everywoman, and of a very common stuff, has becomemost rare and costly, and the gauze veils whichthe ladies wear, expose all their features and com-plexion as far as the eyes. This dress, worn onlyin sacred duties, is now made of silk or velvet,enriched with handsome lace, which often costsfrom 400 to 800 dollars. Such as have no meansof procuring the customary church dress, areobliged to go to the masses that are said beforeday-break, and which are called missasde madru-gada, and are performed at these hours only forthe convenience of those who are destitute ofclothes sufficiently decent to appear at churchduring the day.
19. Festivals . — The Spaniards have no otherfestivals blit those contained in the Roman calen-dar. They are so multiplied at Caracas that thereare very few days in the year on which they donot celebrate the festival of some saint or virginin one of the churches of the city. What greatlymultiplies the number is, that each festival is pre-ceded bj' nine days of devotion consecrated en-tirely to prayers, and followed by eight days, inwhich the faithful of the neighbourhood, and evenof the whole city, join to prayers, public amuse-ments, such as fire-works, music, balls, &c. ; butthe pleasures of tliese festivals never extend to thetable. Public feasts, so common among all otherpeople, are unknown on such occasions amongthe Spaniards. These people are sober even inthe delirium of pleasure. The most striking partof their festivals is the procession of the saint theycelebrate; they perform this always in the after-noon ; the saint, represented by an effigy of human
stature, is richly dressed ; it is borne on a tablehandsomely decorated, and followed or precededby some other saint of the same church, dressedless sumptuously ; a great number of banners andcrosses open the cavalcade ; the men walk in twolines ; each of the principal persons holds a waxtaper, then follow' the music, the clergj', thecivil officers, and at last the women and a file ofbayonets. The followers are always very numer-ous. All the windows in the streets tliroughAvhich the procession passes, are ornamented withfloating streamers, which give the whole neigh-bourhood an air of festivity and rejoicing. Thewindows of the French, in particular, are filledwith ladies, who repair from all parts of the cityto view the agreeable spectacle. But the princi-pal and almost exclusive devotion of the Spaniardsis to the holy Virgin ; they have Irer in everychurch under different denominations, and inevery case she has established herself in a man-ner more or less miraculous.
20. The Stage . — The sum of the public amuse-ments at Caracas is the play-house, at which theyperform only on festivals, the price of admissionbeing a real, nearly sixpence English, a sumsufficiently indicating the talents of the actors,and the beauty and convenience of the theatre.All the plays, bad enough in themselves, are yetmore miserably performed. The performers ofCaracas may be compared to strolling players wholive by moving pity rather than by affordingamusement; every body must suppose from thisdescription, that an exliibition of this sort is alto-gether deserted, but the reader may be assuredthat the rich and poor, the young and the old, thenobleman and plebeian, the governor and the go-verned, all assiduously frequent the theatre. In-dependently of three tennis-courts, a few billiard-tables in a bad condition, scattered through thecity, and which are but rarely frequented, com-plete the catalogue of amusements at Caracas,indeed ttie Sjuviiiards appear averse to all placesof amusement ; they live in their houses as if theyAvere prisons, they never quit them but to go tochurch, or to lultil the offices imposed on themby their stations in society.
21. Inhabitants . — The city of Caracas contain-ed, according to the clerical census of 1802, 31,234souls, and in 1806 they exceeded 40,000. Thispopulation is classed into whites, slaves, freedpeople, and a very fcAV Indians. The first formalmost a fourth part of the amount, the slaves athird part, the Indians a twentieth part, and thefreed men the remainder. In the Avliite popula-tion there are six Castillian titles, three marquisses,]
[their Ures in the exercises of devotion, and they arctondof forming themselves into religious societies;indeed there are few churclies that have not one ortwo of these fraternities, composed entirely of en-franchised slaves. Every one has its uniform,differing from the other only in colour.
23. University. — The education of the youth ofCaracas and ot the whole archbishopric is entirelyin a college and an university united together.The foundation of the college preceded that of theuniversity by more than 60 years. This institu-tion originated in the piety and care of bishop A.Gonzales de Acuna, who died in 16S2. At firstnothing was taught here but Latin, with the ad-dition of scholastic philosophy and theology. Ithas now a reading and a writing school ; three Latinschools, in one of which they profess rhetoric ;two professors of philosophy, one of which is a layor secular priest, and the other a Dominican ; fourprofessors of theology, two for school divinity, onefor ethics, and another for positive divinity, thelast of which ought always to be a Dominican ; aprofessor of civil law ; a professor of canon law ; aprofessor of medicine. The university and col-lege of Caracas have only a capital of 47,748 dol-lars and 6\ reals, put out at interest, and produc-ing annually 2.387 dollars, 3| reals: this sumpays the 12 professors. All the ranks of bachelor,licentiate, and doctor, are granted at the univer-sity. The first is given by the rector, the twoothers by the chancellor, who is also endowed withthe quality of schoolmaster. The oath of eachrank is to maintain the immaculate conception, notto teach nor practise regicide or tyrannicide, andto defend the doctrine of St. Thomas. In this col-lege and university there were, in 1802, 64 boarders,and 402 students not boarders, viz.
In the lower classes, comprising rhetoric, 202
Philosophy - - . 140
Theology - - - 36
Canon and civil law - - 55
Physic - - - 11
la the school of sacred music - 22
24. Police . — The Spaniards of Caracas, of allpeople in the world, stand least in need of a policeto preserve public tranquillity. Their natural so-briety, and more especially their phlegmatic dis-position, render quarrels and tumults very rareamong them. Here there is never any noise in thestreets ; every body in them is silent, dull, andgrave ; 300 or 400 people coming out of a
church make no more noise than a tortoise movingalong the sand. But if the magistrate has nothing
to fear from open crimes, he has so much the moreto apprehend from assassinations, thefts, frauds,and treachery. The Spaniard is far from exemptfrom that vindictive spirit, which is the moredangerous as it seeks its revenge only in thedark ; and from that rancour which veils itselfwith the mask of friendship to procure an oppor-tunity of gratifying its vengeance. A person whofrom his station and condition has no chance ofrevenging himself, save by his own hands, exhi-bits very little or no passion when he receives theoffence ; but from that instant he watches the op-portunity, which he seldom suffers to escape him,of plunging a poniard in the heart of his enemy.The Spaniards from the province of Andalucia areparticularly branded with this criminal habit. Weare assured that these unfortunate events were un-known here before the year 1778, at which timethe liberty of trading with the province ofYene-zuela, which was belbre exclusively granted to thecompany of Guipuscoa, was extended to all theports of Spain, and drew a number of Spaniards toCaracas Irom every province, and particularlyfrom that of Andalucia. It is true that almost allassassinations that happen at Caracas are perpe-trate by the Europeans : those that can be laid tothe charge of the Creoles are most rare. But allthe thefts are committed by the whites or pre-tended whites of the country, and the enfranchisedpersons. False measures, false weights, changingof commodities and provisions, are likewise fre-quent practices ; because they are looked uponless as acts of dishonesty than as proofs of an ad-dress of which they are proud. HoAvever greatmay be the occupation of the police, it is certainmany things call loudly upon their attention. Itwill hardly be believed that the city of Caracas,the capital of the province, and able to supplyhorned cattle to all the foreign possessions inAmerica, is many days in the year itself in wantof butcher’s meat. The residence of a captain-general, the seat of an archbishop, of a royal audi-ence, and of the principal tribunals of appeal, witha population of more than 40,000 souls, and, inshort, with a garrison of 1000 men, experiencefamine in the midst of abundance. If filth doesnot accumulate in the streets, it is owing t6 thefrequency of the rains, and not to the care of thepolice ; for they are never washed but in honourof some procession. Such streets as procession*do not pass through are covered with an herblike the weed on ponds, the pnnicum dactylum ofLinnaeus. Mendicity, which is in almost everyother country the province of the police, appearsto be unnoticed by it in Caracas. The streets arc]
Of Guadalupe, between the Three Rive*‘s and theAgujero del Ferro.
CARCAI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Soras. It has a hot spring of water ofvery medicinal properties, and its heat is so greatthat an egg may be boiled in it in an instant.
CARCARANAL, a river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It rises in the pro-vince of Tucuman, in the mountains of the cityof Cordoba, runs nearly from e. torw. with thename of Tercero, and changing it into Carcara-iial, after it becomes united Avith the Saladillo, joinsthe Plata, and enters the Salado and the Tres Hec-manas.
CARCAZI, a settlement of the government andJurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, situate betAveen two mountains, whichcause its temperature to be very moderate. It pro-duces much Avheatand maize ; in its cold parts suchfruits as are peculiar to that climate, and in themilder parts sugar-cane. Its neighbourhoodabounds Avith flocks of goats ; and the number ofinhabitants may amount to about 200 Spaniardsand 30 Indians. It is situate on the confines Avhichdivide the jurisdictions of Tunja and Pamplona.
(CARDIGAN, about 20 miles e. of Dartmouthcollege, New Hampshire. The township ofOrange once bore this name, which see.)
CARDINALES, Sombreros de. See articlePitangoas.
CARDOSO, Real de, a settlement and realof gold mines in the province and captainship ofTodos Santos in Brazil; situate on the shore ofthe large river of San Francisco, to the n. of thevillage of Tapuyas.
CAREN, a valley or meadow-land of the king-dom of Chile, renowned for its pleasantness, beauty,and extent, being five leagues in length; also fora fountain of very delicate and salutary water,which, penetrating to the soil in these parts, ren-ders them so exceedingly porous, that a person tread-ing somewhat heavily seems to shake the groundunder him. There is an herb found here that keepsgreen all the year round: it is small, resemblingtrefoil, and the natives call it caren: it is of a veryagreeable taste, and gives its name to the valley.
CARENERO, a bay of the coast of the king-dom of Tierra Firme in the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It is extremely convenientfor careening and repairing ships, and from thiscircumstance it takes its name. It lies behind capeCodera towards the e.
CARET, Anse be, a bay of the island of St.Christopher, one of the Antilles, on the n. e. coast,and in the part possessed by the French beforethey ceded the island to the Englissh. It is be-tween the bays of Fontaine and Morne, or Fuenteand Morro.
CARGUAIRASO, a lofty mountain and vol-cano of the province and corregimiento of Rio-bamba in the kingdom of Quito. It is in the dis-trict of the asiento of Ambato, covered with snowthe whole year round. Its skirts are covered withfine crops of excellent barley. In 1698 this pro-vince was visited by a terrible earthquake, whichopened the mountain and let in a river of mud,formed by the snows which were melted by thefire of the volcano, and by the ashes it threw up.So dreadful were the effects of this revolution thatthe whole of the crops were completely spoiled ;and it was in vain that the cattle endeavoured to-
ment of Paraguay ; situate on a small river aboutl5 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23° 30' 27"Long. 56° 52' w.)
(Carlisle, the chief town of Cumberlandcounty, Pennsylvania, on the post-road from Phi-ladelphia to Pittsburg ; is 125 miles w. by n. fromthe former, and 178 e. from the latter, and 18 s. w.from Harrisburgh. Its situation is pleasant andhealthy, on a plain near the s. bank of Conedog-winet creek, a water of the Susquehannah. Thetown contains about 400 houses, chiefly of stoneand brick, and about 1500 inhabitants. The streetsintersect each other at right angles, and the publicbuildings are a college, court-house, and gaol, andfour edifices for public worship. Of these thePresbyterians, Germans, Episcopalians, and RomanCatholics, have each one. Dickinson college,named after the celebrated John Dickinson, esq.author of several valuable tracts, has a principal,three professors, a philosophical apparatus, and alibrary containing near SOOO volumes. Its re-venue arises from 4000/. in funded certificates, and10,000 acres of land. In 1787 there were 80 stu-dents, and its reputation is daily increasing.About 50 years ago this spot was inhabited by In-dians and wild beasts.)
Carlos, San, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the shore of a small river nearthe river Pargua, about five leagues s. w. of Can-delaria. Lat. 27° 44' 36" s. Long. 55° 57' 12" w.
Carlos, San, a city of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of theriver Aguirre, to the n. of the city of Nirua. [Itowes its existence to the first missionaries of Vene-zuela, and its increase and beauty to the activityof its inhabitants. The greatest part of its popu-lation is composed of Spaniards from the Canaryislands ; and as these leave their native country
but to meliorate their condition, they arrive with awillingness to work, and a courage to undertakeany thing that they think the most proper to an-swer their views. Their example even inspires asort oT emulation among the Creoles, productiveof public prosperity. Cattle forms the great massof the wealth of the inhabitants. Oxen, horses,and mules, are very numerous. Agriculture, al-though not much followed, is yet not neglected.Indigo and coffee are almost the only things theygrow. The quality of the soil gives the fruits anexquisite flavour, but particularly the oranges,which are famed throughout the province. Thecity is large, handsome, and well divided ; theycompute the inhabitants at 9300. The parishchurch, by its construction and neatness, answersto the industry and piety of the people. The heatat San Carlos is extreme ; it would be excessive ifthe n. wind did not moderate the effects of the sun.It lies in 9° 20' lat. 60 leagues s. w. of Caracas,24 s. s.e. of St. Valencia, and 20 from St. Philip’s.
(San Carlos de Monterey|Carlos, San, de Monterey]]==, the capital ofNew California, founded in 1770, at the foot of thecordillera of Santa Lucia, which is covered withoiiks, pines, (foliis lernis J, and rose bushes. Thevillage is two leagues distant from the presidio ofthe same name. It appears that the bay of Mon-terey had already been discovered by Cabrillo onthe 13th November 1542, and that he gave it thename of Bahia rle los Pinos, on account of thebeautiful pines with which the neighbouring moun-tains are covered. It received its present nameabout 60 years afterwards from Viscaino, in ho-nour of the viceroy of Mexico, Gaspar deZunega,Count de Monterey, an active man, to whom weare indebted for considerable maritime expedi-tions, and who engaged Juan de Onate in the con-quest of New Mexico. The coasts in the vicinityof San Carlos produce the famous aurum merum(ormier) of Monterey, in request by the inhabi-tants of Nootka, and which is employed in thetrade of otter-skins. The population of San Carlosis 700.)
Rio Negro, on a great island formed by this riverand that of Pasimoni.
Carlos, San, a settlement (with the surnameof Real) of the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the shore of the river La Plata,near the colony of Sacramento, which belonged tothe Portuguese. In its vicinty, on the n. n. e. part,there is a lake of very good sweet water.
Carlos, San, a valley in the province and go-vernment of Tucumán, which is very fertile invines, wheat, maize, carob-trees, tar, and in birdsand animals of the chase. Its natives are thosewho most of all infested the Spaniards when theyconquered this province.
Carlos, San, another, of the province andcountry of Las Amazonas ; a reduccion of the mis-sions which were held there by the regulars of thesociety of Jesuits. It lies between the rivers Arau-caso and Shiquita, in the territory of the Cahu-maris Indians.
Carlos, San, some sierras or mountains, calledDe Don Carlos, in the province and captainship ofRey in Brazil. They run parallel to the sierra ofLos Difuntos, in the extremity of the coast formedby the mouth of the river La Plata.
CARLOSAMA, a large settlement of Indians ofthe province and corregimiento of Pastes in thekingdom of Quito, on the 5. shore of the river ofits name. Its territory is most fertile, but the cli-mate is very cold, and the streets almost always
Impassable. It is to the zo. n. zo. of the settlementof Ipialos, and e. n. e. of that of Cumbal.
CARMEN, a river of the province and colony ofSurinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by theDutch. It rises in the sierra of Rinocote, runsfrom w. to e. and gathering the waters of manyothers, enters in a large body into the Mazar-roni.
Carmen, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cartagena ; situate in the district ofthe mountains of Marca, between those of San Ja-cinto and San Francisco de Asis. It is one ofthose new settlements that were founded by the Go-vemor Don Juan Pimienta in 1776.
Carmen, another, in the same kingdom ; situatenear a stream and on the shore of the river Tocan-tines, on the e. side, and not far from the Arrayalof San Feliz.
close to those of Perlas and Mosquitos ; they arethree in number, small and desert.
Carnero, Punta del, another, on the coastof the kingdom of Chile ; it is very low, extend-ing itself with a gentle slope towards the sea. Thee. winds are prevalent here, rendering it dangerousto be passed.
Carnero, Punta del, another point of landon the coast of the same kingdom.
CAROLINA, a province of N. America, andpart of that extensive country anciently calledFlorida, bounded n. by Virginia, s. by the trueFlorida, w. by Louisiana, and e. by the Atlantic.It is divided into N. and S. Carolina. Its ex-tent is 135 leagues in length, nearly from s. w. ton. e. and 75 in width from e. to w. from 30®to 36° 30' of lat. It was discovered by JuanPonce de Leon in 1512, though it was not settledby the Spaniards then, but abandoned until thereign of Charles IX. king of France, when theFrench established themselves in it, under thecommand of admiral Chatilon, protector of theProtestants. He founded a colony and a fort call-ed Charles fort, and gave the name of Carolina tothe country, in lionour to his monarch. This es-tablishment, however, lasted but a short time, forit was destroyed by the Spaniards, who put tothe sword the new colonists, and went away underthe impression that they had now left the countryin a perfectly abandoned state. But the English,at this time, were maintaining a footing here, un-der the command of Sir Walter Raleigh, thoughthey were not under any formal establishmentuntil the reign of Charles II. in 1663, when thecountry was granted as a property to the followingnobility, viz. the Count of Clarendon, Duke ofAlbemarle, Count of Craven, John Berkley, JohnAshley, afterwards Count of Shaftsbury, GeorgeCarteret, John Colleton, and William Berkley;by these it was divided into as many counties,and by them names were given to the rivers, settle-ments, &c. Their privilege of proprietorship and
jurisdiction extended from lat. 31° to 36° «. andthey had an absolute authority to form establish-ments and governments, according to the laws andstatutes laid down by that famous and renownedphilosopher John Locke ; accordingly the govern-ment partook largely of the despotic, and therulers had the power of acknowledging or renounc-ing laws, of conferring titles, employments, pro-motions, and dignities, according to their owncaprice. They divided the population into threeclasses: The first was composed of those entitledthe Barons, and to these were given 120,000 acresof land; the second were two lordships, with thetitle of Counts, to whom were given 240,000 acres ;and the third, who were called Landgraves, a titlecorresponding to Dukes, had a portion of 480,000acres. This last body formed the high council-chamber, and the lower was composed of the re-presentatives of the counties and cities, both ofthese together forming the parliament, this beingthe real title, and not assembly, as in the othercolonies. The first establishment was the city ofCharlestown, between two navigable rivers calledAshley and Cowper ; the same offered an asylumto the Europeans, who on account of religiousdisturbances fled from Europe, and who havingsuffered great distresses there, had afterwards toencounter a very unfriendly reception from theIndians. Such was the state of affairs until 1728,when this city was taken under the protection ofthe English crown ; a corresponding recompencehaving been paid to the lords, the proprietors, whoyielding it up, thus made a virtue of necessity ;the Count Grenville, however, persisted in keep-ing his eighth share. From that time it was divid-ed into two parts, called North and South. The cli-mate differs but little from that of Virginia, al-though the heat in the summer is rather morepowerful here ; the winter, however, is shorterand milder ; the temperature is serene and theair healthy ; tempests and thunder storms are fre-quent, and this is the only part of this continentwherein have been experienced hurricanes; althoughthey are but rare here, and never so violent as in theislands. The half of March, the whole of April,May, and the greater part of June, the season ismild and agreable ; in July, August, and nearlyall September, the heat is intense ; but the winteris so mild, especially when the w.tw. wind prevails,that the water is seldom frozen. It is extremely fer-tile, and abounds in wheat, barley, rice, and allkinds of pulse, flowers, and fruits of an exquisiteflavour; and the soil, which is uncultivated, iscovered with all kinds of trees. The principal
an hermitage dedicated to St. Denis the Areopa-gite. It lies to the s. of the city of Barquisimeto,Between that of Tucuyo and the lake of Maracaibo.(Carora is 30 leagues to the s. of Coro. Its situa-tion owes nothing to nature but a salubrious air.Its soil, dry and covered with thorny plants, givesno other productions but such as owe almost en-tirely their existence to the principle of heat. Theyremark there a sort of cochineal silvestre as fine asthe misleca, which they suffer to perish. Theland is covered with prolific animals, such asoxen, mules, horses, sheep, goats, &c. ; and theactivity evinced by the inhabitants to make theseadvantageous to them, supports the opinion thatthere are but few cities in the Spanish West In-dies where there is so much industry as at Carora.The principal inhabitants live by the produce oftheir flocks, whilst the rest gain their livelihoodby tanning and selling the hides and skins. Al-though their tanning be bad, the consumer cannotreproach the manufacturer, for it is impossible toconceive how they can sell the article, whatevermay be its quality, at the moderate price it fetches.The skins and leather prepared at Carora are usedin a great degree by the inhabitants themselvesfor boots, shoes, saddles, bridles, and strops.The surplus of the consumption of the place isused throughout the province, or is sent to Ma-racaibo, Cartagena, and Cuba. They also manu-facture at Carora, from a sort of aloe disthica, veryexcellent hammocs, which form another article oftheir trade. These employments occupy andsupport a population of 6200 souls, who, with asterile soil, have been able to acquire that ease andcompetency which it appears to have been theintention of nature to deny them. The city is wellbuilt ; the streets are wide, running in straightparallel lines. The police and the administrationof justice are in the hands of a lieutenant of the go-vernor and a cabildo. There is no military au-thority. Carora lies in lat. 9° 50' n. and is 15leagues e. of the lake of Maracaibo, 12 n. ofTocuyo, IS n. w. of Barquisimeto, and 90 w. ofCaracas.)
Carora, a great llanura of the same province,which extends 16 leagues from e. to w, and sixfrom n. to s. It was discovered by George Spirain 1534, abounds greatly in every kind of grainand fruit, but is of a very hot temperature. Itspopulation is not larger than that of the former city,to which it gives its name.
(CAROUGE Point, the northernmost extremity
of the island of St. Domingo in the W. Indies ;25 miles n. from the town of St. Jago.)
CARRION DE Velazco, a small but beauti-ful and well peopled city of the kingdom of Peru,in the pleasant llanura of Guaura ; it is of a mild,pleasant, and healthy climate, of a fertile and de-lightful soil, and inhabited by a no small numberof distinguished and rich families.
Carrizal, sierra or chain of mountains ofthe same province and government, which runsfrom e. to w. from the shore of the river Guaricoto the shore of the Guaya.
hind the cape of La Vela, which is at presentdestroyed.
CARTAGENA, a province and governmentof the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the jurisdictionof the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, bounded n. bythe sea, s. by the province of Antioquia, e. bythe province and government of Santa Marta, fromwhich it is divided by the Rio Grande de la Mag-dalena, and w. by the province of Darien, beingseparated by the river San J uan ; it is 100 leagueslong, running nearly from n. e. to s. w. and 80wide, e. w. It was discovered by Rodrigo Bas-tidas in 1520, and subdued by the addantado orgovernor Pedro de Heredia, at the expence ofmany battles, owing to the valour and warlike dis-position of the natives. This country is of a veryhot and moist temperature, full of mountains andwoods, and towards the n. part swampy, sandy,and full of pools of sea-water, from the lowness ofthe territory ; but it is at the same time fertile, andabounds in maize, pulse, and fruits, as also incattle, of the hides and fat of which this provincemakes a great traffic. Its mountains produce ex-cellent woods, and the famous dyeing wood, equalto that of Campeche, with an abundance of excel-lent gums, medicinal balsams, and herbs. Hereare many kinds of rare birds, animals, and snakesof different species ; amongst the former the mostremarkable are the penco, of the figure of a cat,and so heavy that it takes a full hour to moveitself 20 paces ; the mapurito^ of the size of a smalllap-dog, whose arms and means of defending him-self from other animals and his pursuers consistsimply in discharging some wind with such forceand noise as to stupify his enemies, whilst hequietly makes his retreat to some neighbouringthicket. This province produces also indigo,tortoise-shell, and cotton, and some cacao of anexcellent quality in the Rio de la Magdalena. Itwas well peopled with Indians in the time of itsgentilism, but its inhabitants are now reduced toa very trifling number. It is watered by variousrivers, but those of the most consideration are ElGrande de la Magdalena, and thatof San Juan, orAtracto, both of which are navigable and wellstocked with alligators, tortoises, and a multitudeof fishes. Its district contains 83 setttleraents, of
which there are two cities, seven towns, and 96settlements or villages, inhabited by 59,233 whites,13,993 Indians, and 7770 Negro and Mulattoslaves, according to the numeration of the fiscal ofthe royal audience of Santa Fe, Don FranciscoMoreno y Escandon, in the year 1770. The ca-pital has the same name, and the other settlementsare.
Nuestra Senora del
S. Benito Abad,
San Augustin de
San Francisco de
Palmar de la Can-
San Juan de Saha-
Sto. Tomas Cantu-
Cerro de S. Anto-
Real de la Cruz,
S. Antonio Abad,
San Juan Nepomu-