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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
THE GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES.
ABACACTIS, a settlement of Indians, of this name, in the province of the Amazonas, and in the part or territory possessed by the Portuguese. It is a reduccion of the religious order of the Carmelites of this nation, situate on the shores of a lake of the same name. It lies between this lake and a river, which is also so called, and which is a large arm of the Madeira, which, passing through this territory, afterwards returns to that from whence it flowed, forming the island of Topinambes.
[ABACO, one of the largest and most northern of the Bahama islands, situate upon the SE end of the Little Bahama bank. The Hole in the Rock, or (as it is most commonly called) the Hole in the Wall, is the most southern point of the island, and bears about 18 leagues north from the island of New Providence, about 9 or 10 leagues in a NW direction from Egg Island, and about 10 or 12 in a NW direction from the Berry Islands. About 10 leagues to the N of the Hole in the Wall, on the E side of the island, is Little Harbour, the entrance to which is between the main land of Abaco and Ledyard's Key, and within which there is good anchorage. There is also an anchorage to the W of the Hole in the Wall. The island of Abaco is at present uninhabited. In 1788 it contained about 50 settlers and 200 Negroes. The lands granted by the crown, previous to May 1803, amounted to 14,058 acres, for the purpose of cultivation; but the settlers who occupied it have since removed. It contains great quantities of the various kinds of woods which are common to almost all the Bahama islands.] To the northward of Abaco, is a long chain of small islands or keys, (including Elbow Key, Man of War Key, Great Guana Key, the Galapagos, &c. &c.) reaching, in a NW direction, almost to the Matanilla reefs on the Florida stream; from whence the Little Bahama bank extends, in a southerly direction, to the west point of the island of the Grand Bahama. [Lat. 26° 22' N Long. 77° 14' W See Bahamas.]
ACARAI, a settlement of the province and government of Paraguay, founded near the river Paraná, and rather towards the W by the missionary Jesuits, in 1624, where they also built a fort to protect it against the incursions of the infidel Indians.
ACARI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Camaná, in Perú, situate in a beautiful and extensive valley, in which there is a very lofty mountain, which they call Sahuacario, composed of misshapen stones and sand, in which, at certain times of the year, especially in the months of December and January, is heard a loud and continued murmuring, which excites universal astonishment, and which, no doubt, is to be attributed to the air in some of its cavities. On its skirts are two fortresses, which were built in the time of the gentilism of the Indians. There is a port halfway between the town of St. Juan and the city of Arequipa, which is 8 leagues distant from the latter, and 11 from the former. It is very convenient, and has an excellent bottom, but is frequented only by small vessels. It is in lat. 15° 15'. S Long. 75° 8' 30" W
another river, of the province and capitainship of Pará in the kingdom of Brasil. It is small, runs N afterwards inclines to the N N W and enters the river of Las Amazonas, just where this empties itself into the sea.
[ACASABASTIAN, a river in the province of Vera Paz in Mexico. It runs into the Golfo Dulce, and has a town situated on its banks of the same name. The source of this river is not far from the S. sea.]
[ACASATHULA, a sea-port, situated on a point of land, in the province of Guatemala Proper, in Mexico, on a bay of the S. sea, about four leagues from Trinidad. It receives the greatest part of the treasures from Perú and Mexico. In its neighbourhood are three volcanoes.]
ACATEPEC, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Thehuacan, where there is a convent or vicarage of the order of St. Francis. It contains 860 Indian families (including those of the wards of its district) in a spacious valley, which begins at the end of the settlement and extends itself above a league. In this valley are 12 cultivated estates, on which live 40 Indian families. It is four leagues S S W of its capital.
another settlement in the head settlement and district of Chinantla, of the alcaldía mayor of Cozamaloapan. It is situate in a very pleasant plain, and surrounded by three lofty mountains. The number of its inhabitants is reduced. A very rapid and broad river passes near this settlement; and as this is the direct way to the city of Oaxaca and other jurisdictions, and as the travellers, who come here in great numbers, must necessarily cross the river in barks or canoes, the Indians, who are very expert in this sort of navigation, contrive by these means to procure themselves a decent livelihood. 10 leagues W of its head settlement.
out various ways, and watering, from the place in which it rises, the extensive vallies of Curimon, Aconcagua, Quillota, and Concon; in which are cultivated large crops of wheat, flax and hemp; and it, moreover, enters the sea in as large a stream as if it had never undergone the like ramifications: its mouth is in 33° lat.
ACONQUIJA, the most lofty mountain of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district of the city of Catamarca, and very near it. It is perpetually covered with snow, and abounds with minerals of gold. Its jurisdiction is disputed by the province of Atacama.
ACOTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Autlan. It contains 15 Indian families, who employ themselves in breeding the larger sort of cattle, in making sugar and honey, in dressing seeds, and extracting oil of cacao, which abounds greatly, from the number of trees yielding this fruit. It is annexed to the curacy of Tecolotlan, from whence it is two leagues to the S W.
ACTOPAN, the district and alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, commonly called Octupan. Its productions and commerce are as follows: They consist in seeds, rigging, saltpetre, and the feeding of goats and sheep, chiefly prized on account of their skins and their fat. It is of a mild temperature; but the ground is infested with prickly plants, thorns, and teasels. There are some estates here of about eight or ten labouring families each. In this district, and in its environs, are many singing birds, which, in the Mexican language, are called zenzontla; and among otlicrs is the nightingale. The capital bears the same name, and in it there are no less than 2750 families of Othomies Indians, divided into two parties, and separated by the church, which is a convent of the order of St. Augustin, and a very ancient piece of architecture. It also contains 50 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees. 23 leagues N N E of Mexico. Long. 98° 49' W. Lat. 20° 19'30" N.
ACUIAPAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zultcpec in Nueva Espana, situate between two craggy steeps, and annexed to the curacy of Temascaltepec. It contains 38 Indian families, who carry on a commerce by the dressing of hides of large and small cattle. Six leagues n. of its capital.
ACUILPA, a settlement of the head settlement of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot and moist temperature, abounding in grain, chia, (a white medicinal earth), seeds, and other productions, with which its inhabitants carry on a trade* These consist of 92 Indian families. It is a little more than three leagues from its head settlement.
ACUIO, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Cinaqua in Nueva Espana; of a hot temperature, and inhabited only by nine Indian families, whose commerce consists in collecting salt and wild wax. It belongs to the curacy of Tauricato, and in its district are 11 sugar mills, and seven pastures fit for the larger cattle, and which are so extensive and considerable as to employ in them 50 families of Spaniards, and 235 of Mustees, Mulattoes, and Negroes. 30 leagues towards the s. of its capital.
ACULA, San Pedro de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, situate upon a high hill, and bounded by a large lake of salubrious water, called by the Indians Puetla; which lake empties itself into the sea by the sand bank of Alvarado, and the waters of which, in the winter time, overflow to such a degree as nearly to inundate the country. It contains 305 Indian families, and is four leagues to the e. of its capital.
ACULEO, a lake of the kingdom of Chile, which empties itself into the river Maipo, famous for good fish, highly prized in the city of Santiago. It is three leagues in length, and in some parts one in breadth. It is in the district of the settlement of Maipo, of the province and corregimiento of Rancagua.
ACURAGU, Angoras, or Camosin, a river of the province and captainship of Seara in Brazil, which rises in the province of Pernambuco, runs n. for many leagues, and enters the sea between the points of Tortuga and Palmeras.
ACUTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Tepuxilco, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 45 Indian families, who trade in sugar, honey, and maize, and many other of its natural productions. It is five leagues n. e. of its head settlement, and a quarter of a league from Acamuchitlan.
ACUTZIO, a settlement of the head settlement of Tiripitio, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 136 families of Indians, and 11 of Spaniards and Mustees. There are six large cultivated estates in its district, which produce abundance of wheat, maize, and other seeds; and these estates keep in employ eight families of Spaniards, 60 of Mulattoes, and 102 of Indians, who have also under their care many herds of large and small cattle, which breed here. It is one league and a half s. of its head settlement.
ADAES, Nuestra Senora del Pilar de Los, a town and garrison of the province of Los Texas, or Nuevas Felipinas, and the last of these settlements, being upon the confines of the French colonies. It is of a mild temperature, very fertile,. and abounding in seeds and fruits, which the earth produces without any cultivation ; such as chesnuts, grapes, and walnuts. The garrison consisis of a captain and 57 men, for the defence of the Indian settlements lately converted by the missions belonging to the religious order of St, Francis. It is 215 leagues from its capital, and 576 from Mexico. Long. 93° 35'. Lat, 32° 9'.
ADAES, a lake of the above province, about five leagues broad, and 10 in circumference, forming a gulph, in which large ships can sail with ease. It is more than 180 fathoms deep, as was once proved, when it was found that aline of that length did not reach the bottom. It abounds in a variety offish, which are caught in vast quantities without nets ;
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vince of Orinoco, and part of the Saliva nation, forming a separate district, and situate in the plains of San Juan, of the new kingdom of Granada, near the river Sinaruco. It was destroyed by the Caribee indians in 1684.
AERIUCTUQUEN, a mountain of the province and colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions. It is the beginning of the great sierra of Binocote, between the rivers Cutini and Caroni.
AFUERA, one of the islands of Juan Fernandes, on the S. sea coast, in the kingdom of Chile. About 400 leagues to the n. of Cape Horn. This coast swarms with sea lions and wolves. Lat. 33° 47' s. Long. 80° 41' w.
[Aga|AGA]], a mountain of the province and captainship oi Rio Janeiro in Brazil. It is between the rivers Irutiba and Tapoana, on the sea-coast.
AGACES, a nation of Indians, of the province of Paraguay, on the shore of the river of this name, towards the e. The people are numerous, valiant, and of a lofty stature. In ancient times they were masters of that river, cruising about in it, and being the enemies of the Guaranies ; but after several conflicts, they were at last subjected by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, governor of the province, in 1642.
AGAMENTIGUS, a river of the province and colony of New England, of York county, district of Maine. It is indebted to the ocean for its waters, through Pascataqua bay ; having no considerable aid from streams of fresh water. Its mouth is about four miles s. from Cape Neddie river. Small vessels can enter here.]
43' w. from Greenwich. It is a nofed land-mark for seamen, and is a good directory for the entry of Pascataqua harbour, as it lies very nearly in the same meridian with it and with Pigeon hill, on Cape Ann. The mountain is covered witli wood and shrubs, and affords pasture up to its summit, where there is an enchanting prospect. The cultivated parts of the country, especially on the s. and s. w. appear as a beautiful garden, intersected by the majestic river Pascataqua, its bays and branches. The immense ranges of mountains on the «. and n. w. afford a sublime spectacle ; and on the sea side the various indentings of the coast, from Cape Ann to Cape Elizabeth, are plainly in view in a clear day ; and the Atlantic stretches to the e. as far as the power of vision extends. At this spot the bearing of the following objects were taken, with a good surveying instrument, October 11, 1780.
Summit of the White mountains, n. 15° w.
Cape Porpoise, n. 63° e.
Rochester hill, n. 64° w,
Tuckaway South peak, s. 80° w.
Frost’s hill, Kittery, s. 57° w.
Saddle of Bonabeag, w. 14° w.
Isle of Shoals Meeting-house, s. 6° r.
Varney’s hill, in Dover, distant 10| miles by mensuration, «. 89° zo. Variation of the needle, 6° te).]
AGENAGATENINGA, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese territory. It rises in the country of the Anamaris Indians, runs n. and enters the abundant stream of the Madera.
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from s. to e. between 'the rivers Mechicor and St. John, and entering the sea at the mouth of the bay of Fundy.
AGREDA, or NUEVA MA'LAGA, a city of the province and government of Popayan, in the kingdom of Quito, founded by Geronimo Aguado in 1541. It is small, and of a hot temperature, but abounds in gold mines. Forty-five leagues s. w. of its capital, 42 from Quito, and 37 to the e. of the S, sea.
Agua, a small island, situate near the k. coast of the island of Vaca, in the channel formed by the island of St. Domingo, in front of the bay of Mesle.
==Agua de Culebra, SAN FRANCISCO XAVIER DE LA==, 'a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela, a reduccionof Indians of the Capuchin fathers ; but the place is also inhabited by some Spanish families. It belongs to the
district and jurisdiction of the city of San Felipe ; and in its vicinity dwell a great number of people in the estates belonging to it, and which produce abundance of cacao, plantains, yucas, and other vegetable productions.
AGUACAGUA, a settlement of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana, one of those belonging to the missions of the Catalanian Capuchin fathers. It is on the shore of the river Caroni, near the mouth, through which this enters the Orinoco. Lat. 8° 22' n. Long. 62^ 42' w.
AGUACATLAN, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Xala in N ueva Espana. In 1745 it contained 80 families of Indians, who employed themselves in the culture of maize and French beans. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and lies two leagues s. e. of its capital.
AGUADA, a settlement of the island of Portorico ; situate in the bay of its name (Aguda), between the capes Boriquen and St. Francis. It serves as an inlet for ships going to Tierra Firme and Nueva Espana to take in water. [Lat. 18° 23' «. Long. 67° 6' a;.]
Aguada (Small river), a small river of the province and
(CANNARES, Indians of the province of Quito in Peru. They are very well made, and very active ; they wear their hair long, which they weave and bind about their heads in form of a crown. Their clothes are made of wool or cotton, and they wear fine fashioned boots. Their women are handsome and fond of the Spaniards ; they generally till and manure the ground, whilst their husbands at home card, spin, and weave wool and cotton. Their country had many rich gold mines, now drained by the Spaniards. The land bears good wheat and barley, and has fine vineyards. The magnificent palace of Theomabamba was in the country of the Cannares. See CANARIS.)
(CANNAVERAL Cape, the extreme point of rocks on the e. side of the peninsula of E. Florida. It has Mosquitos inlet n. by w. and a large shoal s. by e. This was the bounds of Carolina by charter from Charles II. Lat. 28° 17' n. Long. 80° 20' w.')
CANOGANDl, a river of the province and
government of Chocó in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the sierras of Abide, runs to the w. and enters the Paganagandi.
CANOMA or Guarihuma, or Guarihuma, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese. It rises in the territory of the Andirases Indians, and enters a kind of lake formed by different branches of the river Madera.
CANONA, a lake of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese, and in one of those numerous islands which form the arms of the river Madera, on the side of the island of Topinambas.
(CANONNICUT Island, in Newport county, Rhode island, lies about three miles w. of Newport, the s. end of which, (called Beaver Tail, on which stands the light-house), extends about as far s. as the s. end of Rhode island. It extends n. about seven miles, its average breadth being about one mile ; the e. shore forming the w. part of Newport harbour, and the w. shore being about three miles from the Narraganset shore. On this point is Jamestown. It was purchased of the Indians in 1657, and in 1678 was incorporated by the name of Jamestown. The soil is luxuriant, producing grain and grass in abundance. Jamestown contains 507 inhabitants, including 16 sIaves.)
(CANONSBURGH, a town in Washington county, Pennsylvania, on the n. side of the w. branch of Chartier’s creek, which runs n. by e. into Ohio river, about five miles below Pittsburg. In its environs are several valuable mills. Here are about 50 houses and an academy, seven miles n. e. by e. of Washington, and 15 s. w. of Pittsburg.)
CANOTS, or Canoas, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, in the province and captainship of San Pablo. It rises near the coast opposite the island of Santa Catalina, runs to the w. in a serpentine course, and serves as the source of the large river Uruguay.
CAPANA, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the part belonging to the Portuguese. It rises in the territory of the Yaveis Indians, between the rivers Cuchivara and the Madera ; runs to the s. and turning to the s. s. e. enters into one of the lakes which forms the latter river.
CAPANATOIAQUE, a small settlement of the head settlement of Acantepec, and alcaldía mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva España. Its temperature is warm, and it contains 90 families of Mexican Indians, who employ themselves in the cultivating and dressing of cotton.
Capanema, a river of the same province, which rises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea in the bay.
CAPARRAPI, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of the city of Palma, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the new kingdom of Granada. Its temperature is warm ; the number of its inhabitants is much reduced ; they may, however, still amount to 40 housekeepers : its only productions are some maize, cotton, yucas, and plantains.
Capatarida, the river which rises near the coast, runs n. and enters the sea.
(CAPATI. Within a very few years has been discovered in the gold mine of this place, on the mountains of Copiapo, a new immalleable sort of metal, of a kind unknown to the miners ; but Molina imagined it to be no other than platina.)
(Cape St. Antonio, or Anthonio, is the point of land on the s. side of La Plata river in S. America, which, with cape St. Mary on the n. forms the mouth of that river. Lat. 36° 32' s. Long, 56° 45' w.)
(Cape Blow-me-down, which is the s. side of the entrance from the bay of Fundy into the basin of Minas, is the easternmost termination of a range of mountains, extending about 80 or 90 miles to the gut of Annapolis; bounded n. by the shores of the bay of Fundy, and s. by the shores of Annapolis river.)
(Cape Cod, anciently called Mallebarre by the French, is the s. e. point of the bay of Massachusetts, opposite cape Ann. Lat. 42° 4' n. Long. 70° 14' w. from Greenwich. See Barnstaple County and Province Town.)
(Cape Elizabeth, a head-land and township in Cumberland county, district of Maine. The cape lies in n. lat. 43° 33' e. by s. from the centre of the town nine miles, about 20 s. w. of Cape Small point, and 12 n e. from the mouth of Saco river. The town has Portland on the n. e. and Scarborough s. w. and contains 1355 inhabitants. It was incorporated in 1765, and lies 126 miles n. e. of Boston.)
(Cape Fear is the s. point of Smith’s island, which forms the mouth of Cape Fear river into two channels, on the coast of N. Carolina, s. w. of cape Look-out, and remarkable for a dangerous shoal called the Frying-pan, from its form. Near this cape is Johnson’s fort, in Brunswick county, and district of Wilmington. Lat. 33° 57' n. Long. 77° 56' w.)
(Cape Fear River, more properly Clarendon, affords the best navigation in N. Carolina. It opens to the Atlantic ocean by two channels. 'I'he s. w. and largest channel, between the s. w. end of Smith’s island, at Bald head, where the light-house stands, and the e. end of Oakes island s. w. from fort Johnston. The new inlet is between the sea-coast and the n. e. end of Smith’s island. It will admit vessels drawing 10 or 11 feet, and is about three miles wide at its entrance, having 18 feet water at full tides over the bar. It continues its breadth to the flats, and is navigable for large vessels 21 miles from its mouth, and 14 from Wilmington ; to which town vessels drawling 10 or 12 feet can reach without any risk. As you ascend this river you leave Brunswick on the left and Wilmilgton on the right. A little above Wilmington the river divides into n. e. and n. w. branches. The former is broader than the latter, but is neither so deep nor so long. The n. w. branch rises within a few miles of the Virginia line, and is formed by the junction of Haw and Deep rivers. Its general course is s. e. Sea ves-
sels can go 25 miles above Wilmington, and large boats 90 miles, to Fayetteville. The n. e. branch joins the n. w. branch a little above Wilmington, and is navigable by sea vessels 20 miles above that town, and by large boats to S. Washington, 40 miles further, and by rafts to Sarecto, which is nearly 70 miles. The whole length of Cape Fear river is about 200 miles.)
(Cape May is the s. westernmost point of the state of New Jersey, and of the county to which it gives name. Lat. 38° 59' n. Long. 74° 55' w. It lies 20 miles n. e. from cape Henlopen, which forms the s. w. point of the mouth of Delaware bay, as cape May does the n. e.)
(Cape May County spreads n. around the cape of its name, is a healthy sandy tract of country, of sufficient fertility to give support to 2571 industrious and peaceable inhabitants. The county is divided into Upper, Middle, and Lower precincts.)
CAPETI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains in the interior of this province, runs from e. to w. and enters the large river of Tuira.
Capi, a small river of the country of the Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese. It runs from e. to w. and enters the Marañon opposite the city of Pará. Don Juan de la Cruz, in his map of S. America, calls it Cupiu.
CAPIATA, a small settlement of the province and government of Paraguay ; situate on the shore of the river of its name, three leagues e. of the city of Asuncion. [Lat. 25° 21' 45". Long. 57° 31' 48" w.]
Santiago del Estero, on the bank of the river Choromoros.
Capillucas, a lake of the same province and government; formed from an overflow or channel of the river Napo, and at no great distance from the banks of this river.
CAPINOTA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cochambaba in Peru, and of the archbishopric of Charcas ; in which there is, independent of the parish-church, a convent of the order of San Agustin.
CAPITANEJO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the new kingdom of Granada; situate on the bank of the river Sogamoso, in the territory called Cabuya de Chicamocha, which is the direct road from Tunja to Santa Fe. It is of a very hot temperature, abounding in sugar-cane, and other productions of a warm climate. The natives are very subject to an epidemic disorder of lumps or swellings under the chin. Its population consists of 100 housekeepers.
It is distant 30 leagues to the n. of Tunja, and eight from the town of Suata.
CAPIUARI, a small river of the province and captainship of San Vincente in Brazil. It rises in the mountains near the coast, runs almost directly from e. to w. and enters the Harihambu or Tiete, between the Piraciacaba and Jundiaya.
Capiuari, another river of the province and government of the Chiquitos Indians, and in the kingdom of Peru ; it rises to the s. e. of the settlement of San Rafael, runs to the n. and enters the Ytenes with a slight inclination to the n. w.
CAPLITOILGUA, an island of the N. sea, in the straits De Magellan, one of those which form the s. coast, at the mouth of the canal of St. Isidro.
Caplitoilgua, a bay in the former island.
Capot, a bay on the coast of the same island, on its n. w. side, between the town of Carbet and the bay of Giraumont.
CAPUCINS, Morne des, or Morro de los
Capuchinos, a mountain of the island of Martinique, at the back of the city of fort Royal.
CAPUE, with the addition of Baxo (low), to distinguish it ; another settlement of the same island and dominion as the former.
CAPUIO, a small settlement of the head settlement of Etuquaro, and alcaldía mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán ; in which district there are some cultivated lands, and in these, as well as in the settlement, reside some Spanish families, and some of the Mustees and Indians, who gain their livelihood in tilling the ground, in making lime, and cutting wood. Four leagues w. of its capital.
CAPULA, a village of a small settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec in Nueva España ; situate in the cleft or hollow part of a mountain covered with trees ; its inhabitants, who consist of 63 Indian families, make charcoal and timber, these being the articles of their commerce.
CAPULALPA, San Simon de, a small settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Tezcoco in Nueva España, situate on the top of a hill; it has a very good convent of Franciscans, and contains 75 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees, and 196 of Indians : its territory is very fertile, and the most luxuriant of any in the same jurisdiction ; notwithstanding there is a lack of moisture, there being no running streams. They are used to gather most abundant crops of wheat, maize, barley, vetches, beans, and French beans ; they have large breeds of hogs, both in the village and in the farms and neighbouring fattening stalls, which they carry for sale to Mexico, to La Puebla, and other parts. One league n. of its capital.
CAPULUAC, San Bartolome de, a head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Metepec in Nueva España; it contains 524 Indian families, including those who inhabit the wards of its district, and it is two leagues to the s. e. of its capital.
[1803 amounted to 5,500,000, and the exports consisted of produce to the value of 4,000,000 dollars. He also states the population in 1808 at 900,000 souls. The receipts of Caracas, Guatemala, and Chile, are consumed within the country. The population of some of the chief cities is thus stated ; Caracas 40,000, La Guaira 6000, Puerto Cabello 7600, Coro 10,000. The harbour, or La Vela de Coro, as it is commonly called, and its environs, are supposed to contain not less than 2000. In 1797 three state prisoners were sent from Spain to Caracas, on account of their revolutionary propensities. Being treated with great indulgence by the officers and soldiers to whose care they were committed, they formed the project of a conspiracy against the government. They engaged a number of persons, some of them of consequence, in their party. After gaining their first converts, the spirit did not spread. The coldness and apathy of the people did not admit of the effervescene they desired. After the plot had been kept a secret for many months it was disclosed to the government. Some of the ringleaders escaped, and others were taken. It was found that seventy-two had entered into the conspiracy; six were executed. The rest either escaped, or were sent to the galleys or banished from the country. For an account of the recent revolution in Caracas, see Venezuela.]
Caracas, some islands of the N. sea near the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Cumana. They are six in number, all small and desert, serving as places of shelter to the Dutch traders, who carry on an illicit commerce on that coast.
CARACHIS, San Carlos de a settlement of the province and country of the Amazonas ; a reduccion of the missions which belonged to the abolished order of the Jesuits. It is at the mouth of the river Huerari, where this enters the Maranon.
CARAIMILLA, a settlement on the coast of the province and corregimiento aforementioned, between point Caraima Alta, and the isle of Obispo.
CARAMANTA, a city of the province and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Gratiada ; founded by Sebastian de Benalcazar in 1543, near the river Cauca. Its temperature is hot and unhealthy, but it is fertile in maize, vegetables, grain, and abounds with herds of swine : near it are many small rivers which enter the Cauca, and some salt pits of the whitest salt. On the mountains within its jurisdiction, are some settlements of barbarian Indians very little known. This city is indifferently peopled, and is 65 leagues distant to the n. e. of Popayan, and 50 from Antioquia. Long. 75° 33' w. Lat. 5° 58' «.
escape the destruction which followed them whereever they fled. Still are the vestiges of this calamity to be seen, and there are large quantities of this mud or lava, now become hard, scattered on the s. side of the settlement.
CARHUACAIAN, a settlement of the same province and corregimiento as the former ; annexed to the curacy of Pomacocha.
CARI, a river of the province and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the Mesa (Table-land) de Guanipa, and runs s. being navigable to the centre of the province, and enters the Orinoco near the narrow part.
Cari, a settlement of the same province; one of those under the care of the religious order of S. Francisco, missionaries of Piritu. It is situate on the shore of the former river.
CARIACO, a large gulf of the coast of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Curnana. It is also called, Of Curnana, from this -capital being built upon its shores. The bajr runs 10 or 12 leagues from w. to c. and is one league toroad at its widest part. It is from 80 to 100 fathoms deep, and the waters are so quiet as to resemble rather the waters of a lake than those of the ocean. It is surrounded by the serramasy or lofty chains of mountains, which shelter it from all winds excepting that of the n. e. which, blowing on it as it were through a straitened and narrow passage, it accustomed to cause a swell, especially from 10
m the morning until five in the evening, after which all becomes calm. Under the above circumstances, the larger vessels ply to windward ; and if the wind be very strong, they come to an anchor ou the one or other coast, and wait till the evening, when the land breezes spring up from the s. e. In this gulf there are some good ports and bays, viz. the lake of Obispo, of Juanantar, of Gurintar, and others.
Cariaco, a river of the same province and government, taking its rise from many streams and rivulets which rise in the serrania, and unite be. fore they flow into the valley of the same Uame. After it has run some distance over the plain, it is cut off' to water some cacao plantations, and then empties itself into the sea through the former gulf. In the winter great part of the capital, which is situate upon its banks, is inundated, and the river is tlien navigated by small barks or barges ; but in the summer it becomes so dry that there is scarcely water sufficient to nqvigate a canoe.
Cariaco, a small city of the same province, situate on the shore of the gulf. [This city (according to Depons) bears, in the official papers and in the courts of justice, the name of San Felipe de Austria. The population is only 6500, but every one makes such a good use of his time as to banish misery from the place. The production most natural to the soil is cotton, the beauty of which is superior to that of all Tierra Firme. This place alone furnishes annually more than 3000 quintals ; and besides cacao they grow a little sugar. Lat. 10° SO' n. Long. 63° 39' w.
(CARIACOU is the ehief of the small isles dependent on Granada island in the West Indies; situate four leagues from isle Rhonde, which is a like distance from the «. end of Granada. It contains 6913 acres of fertile and well cultivated land, producing about 1,000,000 lbs. of cotton, besides corn, yams, potatoes, and plaintains for the Negroes. It has two singular plantations, and a town called Hillsborough.)
CARIATAPA, a settlement which belonged to the missions of the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province of Topia and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate in the middle of the sierra of this name, and on the shore of the river Piastla.
[boyes. or pretended magicians, sacrifices and worship ; wounding themselves on such solemnities with an instrument made of the teeth of the agouti, which inflicted horrible gashes ; conceiving, perhaps, that the malignant powers delighted in groans and misery, and were to be appeased only by human blood,]
Caribe, a settlement of the same province and government ; situate on the windward coast of the cape of Tres Puntas. In its district are 26 plantations, 15 of cacao, and the rest of vines and maize, which yield but indifferently, from a want of water; although they find means of supplying this in some degree by the rain. The community consists of 1070 souls ; and is five leagues distant from the settlement of Carupano.
(CARIBEANA, now called Paria or New Andalucia, which see.)
CARIBES, a barbarous and ferocious nation of Indians, who are cannibals, inhabiting the province which by them is called Caribana. They are divided under the titles of the Maritiraos and Mediterraneos : the former live in plains and upon the coast of the Atlantic, are contiguous to the Dutch and French colonies, and follow the laws and customs of the former, with whom they carry on a commerce. They are the most cruel of any that infest the settlements of the missions of the river Orinoco, and are the same as those called Galibis. The Mediterraneos, who inhabit the s. side of the source of the river Caroni, are of a more pacific nature, and began to be reduced to the faith by the regular order of the abolished society of the Jesuits in 1738, The name of Caribes is given not only to these and other Indians of the Antilles, but to all such as are cannibals. See Caribe.
CARICHANA, a settlement of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana ; one of the missions of the Rio Meta, which was under the care of the society of Jesuits, of the province of Santa Fe. It is situate on the shore of the Orinoco, by the torrent of its name ; and is at present under the care of the religious order of Capuchins.
Carichana, Torrent of, a strait of the river
Orinoco, formed by different islands, some covered by, and some standing out of, the water, so that the navigation is very difficult and dangerous. It is near the mouth of the river Meta.
Carimbatay, a river of the above province and government, which runs w. and enters the Xexuy near the town of Curuguato.
CARIOCOS, a lake of the country of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese territories, on the shore of the river. It is formed by the Topinambaranas, which, according to Mr. Bellin, makes this sheet of water before it enters the former river.
CARIPE, a settlement of the province and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, situate in the middle of a serranía; one of the missions in that province belonging to the Aragonese Capuchin fathers.
CARIPORES, a settlement of S. America, to the n. of Brazil and of the river of Las Amazonas : although of barbarian Indians, it deserves particular mention, on account of its virtuous and pacific customs, so different from the brutality and sloth of the surrounding nations. These Indians are handsome, lively, bold, valorous, liberal, honest, and affable, and in short the most polished nation of Indians in all America ; they esteem honour, justice, and truth; are enemies to deceit, eat bread made of cazave, which they have a method of preserving good for three or four years. They do not scruple to eat the flesh of some ugly snakes found in their woods, but are not cannibals ; neither do they revenge upon their prisoners taken in war the cruelties they experience from their enemies.
(CARIY, a parish of the province and govern-
Rio Negro, on a great island formed by this river and that of Pasimoni.
Carlos, San, a settlement (with the surname of Real) of the province and government of Buenos Ayres ; situate on the shore of the river La Plata, near the colony of Sacramento, which belonged to the Portuguese. In its vicinty, on the n. n. e. part, there is a lake of very good sweet water.
Carlos, San, a valley in the province and government of Tucumán, which is very fertile in vines, wheat, maize, carob-trees, tar, and in birds and animals of the chase. Its natives are those who most of all infested the Spaniards when they conquered this province.
Carlos, San, another, of the province and country of Las Amazonas ; a reduccion of the missions which were held there by the regulars of the society of Jesuits. It lies between the rivers Araucaso and Shiquita, in the territory of the Cahumaris Indians.
Carlos, San, some sierras or mountains, called De Don Carlos, in the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil. They run parallel to the sierra of Los Difuntos, in the extremity of the coast formed by the mouth of the river La Plata.
CARLOSAMA, a large settlement of Indians of the province and corregimiento of Pastes in the kingdom of Quito, on the 5. shore of the river of its name. Its territory is most fertile, but the climate is very cold, and the streets almost always
Impassable. It is to the zo. n. zo. of the settlement of Ipialos, and e. n. e. of that of Cumbal.
CARMEN, a river of the province and colony of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by the Dutch. It rises in the sierra of Rinocote, runs from w. to e. and gathering the waters of many others, enters in a large body into the Mazarroni.
Carmen, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena ; situate in the district of the mountains of Marca, between those of San Jacinto and San Francisco de Asis. It is one of those new settlements that were founded by the Govemor Don Juan Pimienta in 1776.
Carmen, another, in the same kingdom ; situate near a stream and on the shore of the river Tocantines, on the e. side, and not far from the Arrayal of San Feliz.
also De Piedras ; at its top is, according to the account of Don J nan de la Cruz, the Bugio del Gato, which serves as a watch-tower, which others maintain is situate upon the point Canoa, just by its side.
CARUPANO, a settlement of the province and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, on the sea-shore, at the cape of Tres Puntas i there are in its district 25 small estates of cacao, 35 of sugar-cane, a few of yucas and other fruits ; some of them belonging to its inhabitants, and others to tlie inhabitants of Margareta and Cumana.
CARUPARABAS, a nation of Indians but little known, who inhabit the woods and shores of the rivers which run into the Negro.
(CARVEL OF St. Thomas, a rock between the Virgin isles e. and Porto Rico on the w. at a small distance it appears like a sail, as it is white and lias two points. Between it and St. Thomas, passes Sir Francis Drake’s channel.)
(CARVEL, a township in Plymouth county, Massachussetts. Here is a pond with such plenty of iron ore, that 500 tons have been dragged out of the clear water in a year. They have a furnace upon a stream which runs from the pond ; and the iron made of this ore is better than that made out of bog ore, and some is almost as good as refined iron.)
CASABLANCA, San Gabriel de, a settlement of the head settlement of Teutitlan, and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan, in Nueva Espana: it contains 34 families of Indians, who live by the commerce of salt from some saMnes which they have in their district, at about a league’s distance from this settlement ; here are also some crops of maize : it is of a hot temperature, and lies two leagues from its head settlement.
Casablanca, also with the dedicatory title of Santa Barbara, a town of the province and corregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile, situate on the coast : it formerly belonged to the jurisdiction of Valparaiso, from which it was separated.
CASANARE, a large river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; on the shores of which are various settlements of the missions, which under this name were held at the expence of the regulars of the society of Jesuits, and which are at present under the care of the monks of St. Domingo : it rises in the paramos or mountain-deserts of Chita, of the district of the city of Pamplona, and after running many leagues, divides itself into two branches : the one, named the Uruhi, enters the Meta ; and the other, named the Sirapuco, enters the Orinoco, first receiving those of Purare and Tacoragua. To the w. of this river are the reducciones of the Pantos Indians, and to the n. those of the Pautes ; to the e. and upon a plain, is the river San Salvador, aftbrding an handy port for communication with the Meta and the Orinoco : it is afterwards entered by the river Tame, which pours into it in a large stream from the same sierras, and has upon its banks the two numerous nations, the reducciones of the Giraras and Botoyes Indians.
Casanare, a settlement of Indians, of the reducciones which were made by the regulars of the society of Jesuits, in the same province and government as the former river : it consists of the Achaguas Indians, being situate on the shore of that river, with a good and well-frequented port : it is fertile^ and abounds in maize, yucas, and above all in cattle : its natives, who are very numerous, employ themselves in making little trunks of cane neatly painted of various colours, and mats and sieves^ which they call manares : here are also some white inhabitants, and the reduccion is now under the care of the religion of St. Domingo.
CASAPA, a settlement of the missions which
Were Held by the Jesuits, in the province and government of Paraguay ; situate almost to the s, of Villa Rica.
CASA-PIEDRA, a settlement of this province and kingdom ; situate near the coast and upon the shore of a river thus called.
Casa-Piedra, a river which runs s. s. e. in this province, and joins the sea very near Cape Frio.
Casarida. This river rises near the coast, runs n. and enters the sea.
CASAUATAI, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas : it rises from the lake of the Gran Cocama, in 6 ° 48' s. hit. runs to the s. of the Maraiion, and following its course towards the n. for more than 25 leagues, runs e. to enter the Ucayale on its e. side, and afterwards to receive the waters of the Zapofe.
CASCABELES, a river of the province and corregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito : it rises near the ruins of the city of Simancas, and enters the river Caqueta, where are also the ruins of the city of Mocoa.
CASCAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Conturnaza ; in the district of which there is, at three leagues distance, a large piece of hewn stone of 13 yards long and three quarters of a yard wide on every face, particularly rough and unpolished.
Cascas, a large swamp of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos, which is formed from different arms of the rivers Sarare and Apure, and communicates itself with the lake of Arechona ; both of these lakes being near the last river, and at the skirt of ihe paramo or mountain desert of Chisgas.
(CASCO Bay, in the district of Maine, spreads n. w. between cape Elizabeth on the s. w. and cape Small Point on the n. e. Within these points, which are about 40 miles apart, are about 300 small islands, some of which are inhabited, and nearly all more or less cultivated. The land on these islands, and on the opposite coast on the main, is the best for agriculture of any on the sea-coast of this country. Casco includes several bays. Maquoit bay lays about 20 miles n. of cape Elizabeth. The waters of Casco extend several arms or creeks of salt water into the country. The waters go up Meadow’s river, where vessels of a considerable size are carried by the tide, and where it flows within one mile of the waters of Kennebeck. On the e. side of cape Elizabeth is the arm of the sea called Stroudwater. Farther e. is Presumpscot river, formerly called Presumpea, or Presumpkeag, which rises in Sebago Pond. This river opens to the waters of Casco bay on the e. of Portland ; its extent is not great, but it has several valuable mills upon it. Rayal’s river, called by the natives W estecustego, falls into the bay six miles from
Presurapscot river. It has a good harbour at its mouth for small vessels, and has several mills upon it ; two miles higher a fall obstructs the navigation. Between it and Kennebeck there are no rivers ; some creeks and harbours of Casco bay throw themselves into the main land, affording harbours for small vessels, and intersecting the country in various forms.)
CASIBANI, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas : it rises in the cordillera of the Mochovos and Pichambios Indians, runs in a serpentine course to the n. then inclining for many leagues to the s. e. enters the Maranon or Amazonas, near the settlement of N uestra Seilora de Guadalupe.
CASIDI, a river of the province and government of Guayana : it enters the Orinoco, according to Beilin, but which is afterwards contradicted by his own map, since it is^there represented as having its source to the e. of the city of Pamplona, and as running into the river Apure.
CASIMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the city of Santiago de los Atalayas, in the government of San Juan de los Llanos, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada : it is of a very hot temperature, and abounds in fruits of a similar climate. Its natives, who are numerous and consist of the Neolitos Indians, are very industrious, docile, and of good dispositions, having been reduced to the faith by the missionaries of the extinguished society of Jesuits. The settlement is at present in the charge of the barefooted order of St. Francis, and lies three leagues from the settlement of Surimena, on the shore of the large river Meta.
CASIPA, a large lake of the province of Nueva Andalucía Austral or South, to the w. ofthe Vacaronis Indians : it is 30 leagues in length from n. to s. and 24 in width from e. to w. Four large rivers flow from it, the principal of which areArous or Aroi and Caroa, the which enter the Orinoco on its e. side. Its woods are inhabited by some barbarous
nations of Caribes Indians, such as are the Canuris to the n. the Bsparagois to the e. the Aravis to the s. and the Chaguas and Lasipagotes to thezw. In this lake tortoises and alligators abound ; its waters are hurtful, and the climate here is unhealthy; hurricanes are frequent here, from the winds which blow from the neighbouring mountains.
Casipoure, a cape or point of the coast opposite the side of cape Orange.
CASIRI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Parinacocha in Peru ; annexed to the .curacy of its capital : in its vicinity is an elevated mountain, in which great Indian wealth is said to be secreted.
CASIRIAQUI, Cano de, a large and copious arm of the river Negro, by which this communicates with the Orinoco, and through that with the Maranon or Las Amazonas ; which communication, however, has been frequently doubted and controverted since the short time of its having been discovered.
CASIRRUENTI, a large and copious river abounding in fine fish, of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos : it passes through the llanuras of Cazanare and Meta, and, near the settlement of San Joaquin de Atanari, enters the Meta.
CASIUINDO, a settlement of the province and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of the city of Xuxuy ; annexed to the curacy of Cochinoca ; it has two hermitages, which serve as chapels of ease, with the dedicatory title of Rinconada and Rio de San Juan. The natives fabricate powder of excellent quality, and in its district are gold mines, which are not worked.
CASMA, Alta, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Santa in Peru ; situate on the coast of the S. sea, with a moderately good port. It was sacked in 1586 by Edward David, an English pirate.
Olifo, and between the rivers of Great and Little Mance.]
CASTRO, a capital city of the province and government of Chiloé in the kingdom of Chile; peopled by the order of Don Lope Garcia de Castro, governor of Peru, who gave it his name in 1560 : it lies, between two small livers, and has a good port; is inhabited by some good and opulent families, and enjoys a pleasant ,and healthy temperature. It is also called Chjloe, and is of a regular and beautiful form ; has, besides the parish church, a convent of monks of St. Francis, and a bishop auxiliary to that of Santiago. It was .sacked by the Dutch in 1643 ; is 42 leagues s. of the city of Osorno, in lat. 42° 40' s.
Castro-Vireyna, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. w. by the province ofCanete, «. by that of Yauyos, n. e. by that of Angaraes, and partly by the jurisdiction of Huamanga and Huanta, m. by that of Vilcas Huaman, s. w. by that of Lucanas, and s. s. w. and w. by that of \^ca. It is uneven and barren, and its inhabitants, on this account, amount scarcely to 6900, although it is 22 leagues in length from e. to as, and 25 in width n. to s. No mines have been discovered here, nor are there any other roads to it than merely such as are opened through passes in the snow, or where no obstruction is ofered by the copious streams which every where precipitate themselves down from the mountains, and which are particularly large in the rainy season, which is from October to Slarch. Its productions are wheat, maize, and potatoes; and in some glens, where the cold is not so great, fruits and cattle are extremely plentiful. Here are also lla~ mas, vicunas, and huanacos, the wool of which they turn to some profit. This province is watered by rivers, some of which descend from the provinces of the coast of the S. sea, and others from the further side of the cordillera, running towards the e. and entering the Maranon ; it is also watered by the Canete, which rises from the Chicha, and collects other streams in this province ; by the Pisco, which rises from a lake called .firacocha ; by the Yea, from the lake Choclo-
cocha ; and by the Calcamayo, which enters the province of Vilcas Huaman. In all the waters of this province, notwithstanding they are very abundant, there is a great scarcity of fish, and without doubt this arises from the cold which prevails here. This province is but thinly peopled, and its inhabitants are poor : they do not, we have heard, amount to more than 7000 souls. It consists of six curacies, to which there are 29 other settlements annexed. Its yearly reparlimiento amounted to 86,400 dollars, and it paid an alcavala equal to 691 dollars. The capital is of the same name ; this is a small and poor town, situate on a lofty spot, where the cold is most intense : close to it runs a river, which is made use of for working the mills of the silver mines ; which, although they produce this metal of a good quality, they are by no means well stocked with it. The town has a convent of monks of St. Francis, and two large estates called Huallanto and Huallanga, in which thera are churches annexed to this curacy ; is 14 leagues from Huancablica, 26 from Pisco, and 60 from
la. Long. 74° 44'. Lat. 13° 49' s. The
ements of the province
CATA, a settlement of the province and govern
merit of Venezuela ; situate upon the coast near cape Blanco.
(CATABAW River. See Wateree.)
(Catabaw Indians, a small tribe who have one town called Catabaw, situate on the river of that name, hit. 44° S9' n, on the boundary line between N. and S. Carolina, and contains about 450 inhabitants, of which about 150 are fighting men. They are the only tribe w hich resides in the state ; 144,000 acres of land . were granted them by the proprietary government. These are the remains of a forrnidalile nation, the bravest and most generous enemy thp Six Nations had, butthey have degenerated sincp they have been surrounded by the whites.)
CATACACHI, a settlement of the province and corregimiehto of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Santa Cruz, in which there is a stream of water Avhich distils from some crevices, and deposits in its bed a sort of white stone or crystalline substance, which they call catachi^ and which being dissolved in water, is accounted a specific in the flux.
CATACUMBO, a river of the province and government of Maracaibo, which rises to the e. of the city of Las Palmas, and runs e. increasing its stream by many others which flow into it, until it unites itself with the Sulia, to enter the lake of Maracaibo; where, at its mouth, it extends itself and forms a large pool of water called La Laguneta.
CATALINA, Santa, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the settlement of Nuestra Senora de la Purificacion. It contains 132 families of Indians.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the head settlement of Tantoyuca, and alcaldia mayor of Tampico, in the same kingdom : it is of a hot temperature, and contains 80 families of Indians, who apply themselves to the culture of the soil ; is 10 leagues to the e. of its head settlement.
CATALINA, Santa, another,' of the head settlement of Mistepeque, and alcaldia mayor of Nejapa, in Nueva España: it is of a cold temperature, situate at the foot of a mountain, with 60 families of Indians, and is 4 leagues from its head settlement.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province of Tepeguana and kingdom of Nueva Viscaya, on the shore of the river Las Nasas ; is 30 leagues to the n. w. of its capital.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement, with the addition of Sera, of the province and government of Maracaibo, in the district of the city of Pedraza ; situate on the shore of the river Pariva ; is one of the missions which are held in Barinas bj the religion of St. Domingo.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the same pro
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(==CATORCE, or La Purissima Concepcion De Alamos de Catorce==, one of the richest mines of New Spain, and in the intendancy of San Luis Potosi. The real de Catorce, however, has only been in existence since 1773, when Don Sebastian Coronado and Don Bernarbe Antonio de Zepeda discovered these celebrated seams, which yield annually the value of more than from 18 to ^20 millions of francs, or from 730,460/. to 833,500/. sterling.)
CAUAILLON, a settlement and parish of the French, in their possessions in St. Domingo ; situate on the coast and at the w. head, near the bay of its name, between the settlements of Torbec and Los Cayos.
CAUAIU, a small river of the same province and government as the former. It runs w. and enters the Parana, between the rivers Verde and Yocare-mini.
Cauaiu, a bay of the same island, opposite the Isla Vaca or Cow island.
CAUASAN, San Francisco Xavier de, a town of the province of Copala, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate in the midst of the sierra of Topia, on the coast of the S. sea, on the shore of the river Plastin. It has a small port for lesser vessels, which has oftentimes been invaded by enemies. It is a curacy administered by the clergy, and to which two small settlements of Mexicaa Indians are annexed.
CAUCA, a large and copious river of the province and government of Popayán, which rises in the mountains of the government of Mariquita, and running 160 leagues from s. to?i. in which course it collects the ’waters of many other rivers, it passes near the cities of Popaj'iin, Buga, Cali, and Anserma ; from whence it is navigable until it enters the large river of the Magdalena. It is very narrow where it passes through the cities of Popayan and Antioquia, and forms the letter S, taking its course through rocks, which render its navigation very dangerous. The Indians, however, are so dexterous in guarding their canoes from running against the rocks by paddles, that it is very seldom indeed that any accident occurs to them. They call this strait Las Mamas de Caramanta, from a city which was here of this name. Many make this navigation for the purpose of avoiding a round-about journey of many days, and in a bad road through the mountains ; and it is said that some have had the good fortune to discover a route by water free from all difficulties, and that this was actually made by the pontificate of the bishop of Popayan, Don Diego de Montoy.
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It was conquered and united to the empire by Inca Roca, the sixth Emperor.
CHALLAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarquilla or Pataz in Peru, in the district of which is an estate called Huasillas, where there is a house of entertainment belonging to the religion of St. Francis, in which reside the missionaries who assist in the conversion of the infidel Indians of the mountains.
CHAMA, a river of the province and government of Maracaibo. It rises at the foot of the snowy sierra, runs, making the form of two SS, to the e. and rt;. and passing by to the s. of the city of Merida, returns n. and enters the great lake of Maracaibo at the side opposite its mouth.
CHAMACON, a river of the province and government of Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; it rises in the mountains of the e. coast, and runs from s. e. to n. w. until it enters the large river Atrato near its mouth.
CHAMACUERO, San Francisco de, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Zelaya in the province and bishopric of Meohoacan. It contains 690 families of Indians, and more than 30 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulaltoes, with a convent of the order of St. Francis ; is five leagues to the n. of its capital.
CHAMAL, a settlement of Indians of the Chichimeca nation, in the head settlement of the district of Tamazunchale, and alcaldia mayor of Valles, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a valley of the same name. Its inhabitants having been reduced at the beginning of the 18th century, and having requested a priest, one was sent them of the religion of St. Francis ; but no sooner did he arrive amongst them than they put him to death, eating his body, and at the same time destroying the settlement. They were, however, afterwards reduced to the faith, rather through the hostilities practised against
them by their neighbours than a desire of embracing it. It is five leagues from Nuestra Senora de la Soledad.
CHAMANGUE, a river of the province and government of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom of Quito. It runs through the territory of the city of Avila from n. w. to s. e. and enters the river Coca, on the w. side, in lat. 46° s.
CHAMARIAPA, a settlement of the province of Barcelona, and government of Curaana, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; one of those which are under the care of the religious observers of St. Francis, the missionaries of Piritu. It is to the w. of the mesa (table land) of Guanipa.
(CHAMBERSBURG, a post town in Pennsylvania, and the chief of Franklin county. It is situated on the e. branch of Conogocheague creek, a water of Potow.mac river, in a rich and highly cultivated country and healthy situation-. Here are about 200 houses, two Presbyterian churches, a stone gaol, a handsome court-house buUt of brick, a paper and merchant mill. It is 58 miles e. by s. of Bedford, 11 w. zo. of Shippensburg, and 157 w. of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 57' n. Long. 77° 40' a-'.)
CHAMBIRA, a settlement of the province and government of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito ; situale at the source of the river of its name. It rises to the e. of the settlement of Pinches, between the rivers Tigre and Pastaza, and runs nearly parallel to the former, where it enters, with a much increased body, into the Maranon.
(CHAMBLEE River, or Sorell, a water of the St. Lawrence, issuing from lake Champlain, 300 yards wide when lowest. It is shoal in dry seasons, but of sufficient breadth for rafting lumber, &c. spring and fall. It was called both Sorcll and Richlieu when the French held Canada.)
CHAMBLI, a French fort in the province and
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wreck, and amongst these many valuables of gold and silver, which had grown quite discoloured, to the amount of 40,000 dollars. Lat. 2°2l' s.
CHANEL, some islands near the coast of the country of Labrador, in the gulf of St. Lawrence. They are numerous and very small, one of them being very long and narrow ; forming a channel with the coast, and giving its name to the rest.
CHANESES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the province and government of Paraguay ; dwelling to the n. of the Rio de la Plata, and bounded by the Xarayes and Xacoces. They have their houses near the lakes, and maintain themselves by fishing.
CHANGAME, some small islands of the S. sea, and of the bay of Panamá, in the province and government of Tierra Firme. They are two in number, being situate near the coast, and having between them a shallow or quicksand, by which they are communicated. They abound in a species of birds, from which they take their name.
CHANQUI, or Achanqui, a promontory or cape of the province and corregimiento of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile ; being eight leagues to the s. of San Marcelo. It forms and covers the mouth or entrance of the gulf of Los Coronados, with the other cape, which is to thes. called De la Ballena.
CHANTACO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, to the w. of Chuquri-bamba, and to the s. of San Pedro, consists entirely of Indians, and lies upon the bank of a small river, being of an excellent climate.
diction of the city of Cordoba ; situate near the rivers Segundo and Tercero, at the foot of the Montana Nevada, or Snowy mountain.
CHAPACOTO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom of Quito ; situate at the skirt of the Gran Cuesta, or mountain of San Antonio. Through it passes a small river, which runs down from this mountain, and empties itself in the river of Chimbo ; is of a very cold temperature, and lies in the middle of a wood. Lat. l°40's.
CHAPALA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlan in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the great lake or sea of this name ; has a good convent of the monks of St. Francis, and in its valley, which is very fertile, there is an abundance of all kinds of seed, as wheat, maize, French beans, and many delicious fruits.
Chapala, another settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Zaiula in the same kingdom ; situate in a plain of a mild temperature. It contains 42 families of Indians, who trade in seeds and other fruits, since its district abounds in garden grounds. It has a convent of the religious of St. Francis ; lies 22 leagues between the e. and n. of its capital.
Chapala, a great lake of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, called Mar de Chapala, on account of its size, is navigated by many vessels, and is extremely well stocked with fish ; from which the inhabitants of the immediate settlements derive their source of commerce.
CHAPANCHICA. See Madrigal.
CHAPARE, or Parati, a river of the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. It rises in the serrania of the Altos or Lofts of Intinuyo, from two small rivers which unite ; runs in an inclined course to the e. and enters the Marmore Grande, forming a good port.
C H I
los Llanos. Its inhabitants amount to about 200, besides 100 Indians.
CHIPATA, a settlement of the corregimiento of the jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature, and it is healthy, though by no means abounding in the productions peculiar to its climate. Its inhabitants are very few, and the number of Indians is 50. It was one of the first settlements entered by the Spaniards, and where the first mass ever celebrated in that part of the world was said by the Friar Domingo de las Casas, of the order of St. Domingo ; and is situate very close to the city of Velez.
[CHIPAWAS. See Chepawas.]
[CHIPPAWYAN Fort, in N. America, from whence M‘Kenzie embarked, on the lake of the Hills, when he made his way as far as the N. sea, in 1789.1
[CUJPPEWAY River runs s. w. into Mississippi river, in that part where the confluent waters form lake Pepin.]
CHIPURANA, a river of the province and government of Mainas. It rises in the mountains which are to the s. of Yurimaguas ; runs in a serpentine course from s. to n. and enters the Guallaga on the e. side, in lat. 7° 8' s.
CHIQUILIXPAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zayula in Nueva Espana. It contains 50 families of Indians, and in the mountains in its vicinity are some mines of copper, which have been worked at different times ; but not having produced a benefit proportionate with the expences incurred, they have been abandoned. It is, 15 leagues n. w. of its head settlement.
CHIQUINQUIRA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a cold temperature, but is healthy ; its situation is delightful, and it abounds in productions. It is watered by a river which runs through the centre of it, the waters of which are unwholesome : at a small distance another river passes through a plain ; this is called Balsa, or Raft, since, before the bridge was thrown across it, it was passed by rafts. It rises from the lake Fuguene, and abounds in most exquisite fish. The settlement, which was formerly but small, is now of great note, and its inhabitants are about 500, besides 70 Indians. It has a good convent of the religious order of S. Domingo, and is noted for the sanctuary of the virgin of its title. Under the large altar, at which is placed this image, there is a small fountain of water, renowned for the curing of infirmities, as is also the earth which is extracted from thence; it being by no means the least part of the prodigy, that although this earth has been constantly taken out for upwards of 200 years, the excavation formed thereby is comparatively exceedingly small. The faith in, and devotion towards this image, are throughout the kingdom very great, and not lesa so with regard to strangers, who visit it in great numbers from far distant provinces. This settlement is nine leagues from Tunja, and 15 to the n. zeJ. of Santa Fe.
CHIQUITI, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It runs from s. w. to n. e. between the rivers Vichi and Cuche, and enters on the s. side into the river of Las Esrneraldas.
CHIQUITOI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It is at present destroyed, and the few surviving inhabitants afterwards collected together at the settlement of Santiago de Cao, and it then became merely a small estate or hamlet, preserving its original name, and being inhabited by a few Indians.
CHIQUITOS, a numerous and warlike nation of Indians of Perú, whose country or territory extends from lat. 16° to 20° s. It is bounded w. by the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; on the e". it extends itself for upwards of 140 leagues as far as the lake of Los Xarayes ; on the n, as far as the mountains of the Tapacures, the which divide this country from that of Moxos ;