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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]




Bishops who have presided in Santa Cruz de laSierra.

1. Don Antonio Calderon, native of Vilches,dean of the holy church of Santa Fe, bisliop ofPuertorico and Panama; first bishop in 1605;died at the advanced age of upwards of 100years.

2. Don Fray Fernando de Ocampo, of the re-ligious order of St. Francis, a native of Madrid.

3. Don Juan Zapata y Figueroa, native ofVelez-Malaga ; he was canon and inquisitor ofSeville ; presented to the brishopric of Santa Cruzin 1634.

Fray Juan de Arguinao, a religiousDominican, native of Lima, was prior and provin-cial in his religion, first professor of theology andwriting in that university, qualificator of the in-quisition ; presented to the bishopric of Santa Cruzin 1646, and promoted to the archbishopric ofSanta Fe in 1661.

5. Don Fray Bernardino de Cardenas, native ofLima, of the order of St. Francis ; promoted fromParaguay to this bishopric in 1666.

6. Don Fray Juan de Rivera, of the order ofSt. Augustin, native of Pisco in Peru ; first pro-fessor of theology.

7. Don Fray Juan de Esturrizaga, of the orderof preachers, native of Lima.

8. Don Pedro de Cardenas y Arbieto, native ofLima, collegian of the royal college of San Mar-tin, canon of its holy church.

9. Hon Fray Juan de los Rios, of the order ofSt. Dominic, a native of Lima, provincial of hisreligion in the province of San Juan Bautista delPeru.

10. Don Fray Miguel Alvarez de Toledo, ofthe order of Nuestra Sexiora de la Merced, electedin 1701.

11. Don Miguel Bernardo de la Fuente, deanof the holy church of Truxillo, elected in 1727.

12. Don Andres de Vergara and Uribe, electedin 1744 ; he died in 1745.

13. Don Juan Pablo de Olmedo, native of Tu-cuman, elected in 1745, died in 1757.

14. Don Fernando Perez de Obiitas, native ofArequipa, elected in the aforesaid year, died in1760.

15. Don Francisco Ramon de Herboso, nativeof Lima, elected in 1760, promoted to the arch-bishopric of Charcas in 1766.

16. Don Juan Domingo Gonzalez de la Ri-gucra, elected the aforesaid year, and promotedto the archbishopric of the holy metropolitanchurch of Lima in 1780.

17. Don Alexandro de Ochoa, elected in 1782.

Cruz, Santa, a city of the above province,which was once the capital ; founded by Nuno deChaves in 1557, after that he had passed along theshores of the river Paraguay to discover a commu-nication with the other provinces. Its inhabitants,however, not being able to stay in it through theincessant sallies of the Indians who surroundedthem, were under the necessity of changing theirsettlement ; but disagreeing in the choice of place,some of them united together, and founded the cityof Santiago del Puerto, and others that of SanLorenzo de la Frontcra, which is to-day the capi-tal, the former city being entirely abandoned.

Cruz, Santa, a settlement of the province andcorregimunto of Yauyos in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of the settlement of Pacaran in the provinceof Canete.

Cruz, Santa, another, a conversion of Indiansof the missions which were held by tlie regulars ofthe company of Jesuits, in the province and go-vernment of Mainas of the kingdom of Quito.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and go-vernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme, between the cities of Cumanagoto and Ca-riaco.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and go-vernment of Popayan ; situate to the s. of the cityof Almaguer, in the limits of the jurisdiction olQuito.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementand alca’d'ia mayor of Jochimilco in Nueva Es-pana ; situate in a mountainous and cold country,containing 46 families of Indians, who live by cut-ting timber and making fuel. It is two leagues tothe cU. of its capital.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and cor-regimiento of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Paccho.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement ofSt. Francisco del Valle, and akaldia mayor ofZultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 28 fa-milies of Indians, dedicated to the cultivation ofthe land, and cutting bark from trees. Ten leaguesfrom its head settlement.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxamarca in Peru.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcorregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of Pucquin.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcorregimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Pari.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlementof Huehuetlan, and alcaldia mayor oi Cuicalian, inNueva Espana; situate on the middle of a raoun-

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vince and government of Buenos Ayres, foundedin ]629, in lat. 29° 29' 1" 5.]t])Cruz, Santa, an island oftheN. sea,^one of theAntilles, 22 leagues long and five wide. Its terri-tory is fertile, but the air unhealthy at certain sea-sons, from the low situation. It has many rivers,streams, and fountains, with three very good andconvenient ports. It was for a long while desert,until some English settled themselves in it, andbegan to cultivate it; afterwards the French pos-sessed themselves of it, in 1650, and sold it thefollowing year to the knights of Malta, from whomit was bought, in 1664, by the West India com-pany. In 1674, it was incorporated with the pos-sessions of the crown by the king of France. Itsinhabitants afterwards removed to the island of St.Domingo, demolished the forts, and sold it to acompany of Danes, of Copenhagen, who nowpossess it. It was the first of the Antilles whichwas occupied by the Spaniards ; is SO leagues

from the island of St. Christopher’s, eight fromPuertorico, six from that of Boriquen, and fivefrom that of St. Thomas. It abounds in sugarscane and tobacco, as also in fruits, which renderit very delightful. [It is said to produce SO, 000or 40,000 hhds. of sugar annually, and other W.India commodities, in tolerable plenty. It is ina high state of cultivation, and has about 3000white inhabitants and 30,000 slaves. A greatproportion of the Negroes of this island have em-braced Christianity, under the Moravian mission-aries, whose influence has been greatly promotiveof its prosperity.

The official value of the Imports and Exportsof Santa Cruz were, in

1809, imports ^^435,378, exports ^ig84,964.

1810, 422,033, 89,949.

And the quantities of the principal articles im--

ported into Great Britain were, in




Cotton Wool.

Brit. Plant.

For. Plant.

Brit. Plant.

For. Plant.







1809, 297






1810, 31




Santa Cruz is in lat. 70° 44' n. Long. 64° 43' w.See West Indies.]

Cruz, Santa, a small island in the straits©f Magellan, opposite cape Monday. The Ad-miral Pedro Sarmiento took possession of it for thecrown of Spain, that making the tenth time of itsbeing captured.

Cruz, Santa, a small island of the coast ofBrazil, in the province and captainship of Rey,between that coast and the island of Santa Catalina.

Cruz, Santa, a sand -bank or islet near the n.coast of the island of Cuba, and close to the sand-bank of Cumplido.

Cruz, Santa, a point of the coast of the provinceand government of Honduras, called Triunfo dela Cruz, (Triumph of the Cross), between theport of La Sal and the river Tian, SO leagues fromthe gulf, in lat. 15° 40'.

Cruz, Santa, a port of the coast which lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan.On one side it has the Ensenada Grande, or LargeBay, and on the other the mountain of Santa Ines.Lat. 50° 10' s.

==Cruz, Santa, a river of the coastwhich lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Magel-lan. It runs into the sea.


Cruz, Santa, a small river of the provinceand captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. Itrises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea be-tween the Grande and the Dulce, opposite theshoals ofS. Antonio.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andcaptainship of Seara in the same kingdom. It risesnear the coast, runs n. and enters the sea betweenthe point of Palmeras and that of Tortuga,

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province andgovernment of Maracaybo. It rises in the sierraof Perija, runs e. and enters the great lake on thew. side.

Cruz, Santa, a lake of the province and countryof the Chiquitos Indians in Peru, formed from adrain issuing from the side of the river Para-guay, opposite the cordillera of San Fernando.

Cruz, Santa, a small island of the gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes; situate near thecoast, between the two islands of Catalana and SanJoseph.

Cruz, Santa, a small port of the island of Curacao, in the w. part, opposite the island of Oruba.

Cruz, Santa, a mountain on the coast of theMalvine or Falkland isles.

Cruz, Santa, a cape or point of the coast of thx

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[unexpectedly into one of their houses of worship,found the cacique employed in obtaining responsesfrom the zemi. By the sound of the voice whichcame from the idol, they knew that it was hollow,and dashing it to the ground to expose the impos-ture, they discovered a tube which was before co-vered with leaves, that communicated from theback part of the image to an inner apartment,whence the priest issued his precepts as through aspeaking trumpet ; but the cacique earnestly en-treated them to say nothing of what they had seen,declaring that by means of such pious frauds, hecollected tributes, and kept his kingdom in sub-jection. Happily, however, the general system oftheir superstition, though not amiable, was notcruel. We find among them but few of thosebarbarous ceremonies which filled the Mexicantemples with pollution, and the spectators withhorror.

5. Their arts . — Our islanders had not only theskill of making excellent cloth from their cotton,but they practised also the art of dyeing it with avariety of colours; some of them of the utmostbrilliancy and beauty. The piraguas were fullysufficient for the navigation they were employedin, and indeed were by no means contemptible sea-boats. We are told that some of these vesselsAvere navigated with forty oars ; and Herrera re-lates, that Bartholomew Columbus, in passingthrough the gulf of Honduras, fell in with one thatwas eight feet in breadth, and in length equal to aSpanish galley. Over the middle was an awning,,composed of mats and palm-tree leaves ; under-neath Avhich were disposed the women and chil-dren, secured both from rain and the spray of thesea. It Avas laden with commodities from Yucatan.These vessels Avere built either of cedar, or thegreat cotton-tree hollowed, and made square ateach end like punts. Their gunnels Avere raisedAvith canes braced close, and smeared over withsome bituminous substance to render them Avater-tight, and they had sharp keels. Our islandersfar surpassed most other savage nations in the ele-gance and variety of their domestic utensils andfurniture, their earthenware, curiously Avovenbeds, and implements of husbandry. Martyrspeaks Avith admiration of the Avorkmanship ofsome of the former of these. In the account hegives of a magnificent donation from Anacoana toBartholomew Columbus, on his first visit to thatprincess, he observes, that among other valuablesshe presented him with 14 chairs of ebony beauti-fully wrought, and no less than 60 vessels of dif-ferent sorts, for the use of his kitchen and table,


air of which Avere ornamented Avith figures of va-rious kinds, fantastic forms, and accurate repre-sentations of living animals. The industry andingenuity of our Indians therefore must havegreatly exceeded the measure of their wants.]

Bishops who have presided in the island of Cuba.

1. Don Fray Juan de Ubite, a monk of theorder of St. Francis ; elected first bishop in 1525,and although not placed in the catalogue of thischurch by Gil Gonzalez Davila, he certainly pre-sided here as bishop.

2. Don Fray Bernardo de Mesa, of the orderofSt. Dominic, native of Toledo ; he died in 1538.

3. Den Fray Juan of Flanders, and native ofthis country, of the religious order of St. Do-minic ; he left the bishopric from being appointedconfessor to the queen of France, Dona Lconor ;succeeded by,

4. Don Fray Miguel Ramirez de Salamanca,native of Burgos, of the order of St. Dominic,master in his religion, preacher to the EmperorCharles V. collegian in the college of San Gre-gorio of Valladolid, regent in the university ofLobayna, and bishop of Cuba, in 1539.

5. Don F?'ay Diego Sarmiento, native of Bur-gos, a Carthusian monk, prior of the convent ofSanta Maria de las Cuevas of Seville ; electedbishop in 1540 : he renounced the bishopric afterhaving made the visitation of the whole island, andreturned to Spain.

6. Don Fernando de Urango, native of Azpeitiain Guipuzcoa, collegian of the college of St. Bar-tholomew in Salamanca, master and professor oftheology ; elected bishop in 1551; he died in1536.

7. Don Bernardino de Villalpando ; he governeduntil 1569.

8. Don Juan del Castillo, native of La Ordenin the bishopric of Burgos, collegiate of the col-lege of Sigiienza, and of that of St. Bartholomewin Salamanca, professor of arts ; elected bishop in1567 ; he goA^erned until 1580, Avhenhe renouncedhis functions, and returned to Spain.

9. Don Antonio Diaz de Salcedo, of the orderof St. Francis, collegiate of St. Clement of Bolonia,renoAvned for his virtues and letters ; elected in1580, through the renunciation of the former, andpromoted to the church of Nicaragua in 1597.

10. Don Fray Bartolome de la Plaza, of theorder of St. Francis, in the same year, until1602.

11. Don Fray Juan Cabezas, of the order of St.Dominic, native of Zamora ; he studied laAvs and

4 A

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canons in Salamatica, passed over to the Indies asvicar of the province of Santa Cruz in the Spapishisland, came to Spain at the general capitulation,and was elected bishop of Cuba in 1602 ; he at-tempted to translate the cathedral to the Havana,but did not succeed ; visited Florida, and waspromoted to the mitre of Guatemala in 1610.

12. Dm Fray Alonso Enriquez de Armendariz,of the order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced, na-tive of Navarra; was comendador of Granada,titular bishop of Sidonia, and nominated to Cubain 1610; he wrote, by order of the king, aspiritual and temporal relation of his bishopric,and w’as promoted to that of Mechoacan in 1624.

13. Don Fray Gregorio de Alarcon, of theorder of St. Augustin ; elected in the same year ;died in the voyage.

14. Don Leon de Cervantes, native of Mexico ;he studied in Salamanca, and was collegiate inthe university of Sigiienza, school-master in thechurch of Santa Fe, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada, bishop of Santa Marta, and promoted to thissee in 1625, and from this to that of Guadalaxara,in 1631.

15. Don Fray Geronimo Manrique de Lara,of the order of Nuestra Sefiora de la Merced, twicecomendador of Olmedo, difinidor of the provinceof Castille, and master in sacred theology ; electedbishop of Cuba in 1631 ; he died in 1645.

16. Don Martin de Zelaya Ocarriz, in 1645.

17. Don Nicolas de la Torre, native of Mexico,first professor of theology in its university, fourlimes rector of the same, canon of that metropo-litan church, first chaplain of the college ofNuestra Senora de la Caridad, examiner-generalof the archbishopric, and visitor-general of theconvents ; presented to the bishopric of Cuba in1646 ; died in 1652.

18. Don Juan de Montiel, until 1656.

19. Don Pedro de Reyna Maldonado, nativeof Lima, a celebrated writer, who governed un-til 1658.

20. Don Juan de Santa Matia Saenz de Ma-nosca, native of Mexico, inquisitor of that capi-tal ; elected in 1661, promoted to the church ofGuatemala in 1667.

21. Don Fray Bernardo Alonso de los Rios, ofthe order of La Trinidad Calzada, until 1670.

22. Don Gabriel Diaz Vara and Caldron, until1674.

23. Don Juan Garcia de Palacios, until 1680.

24. Don Fray Baltasar de Figueroa y Guinea,a Bernard ine monk, until 1683.

,25. Don Diego Ebelino dc Compostela, in 1685.

26. Don Fray Geronimo de Valdes, Basilicanmonk; elected, in 1703, bishop of Portorico, andpromoted to this in 1706.

27. Don Fray Francisco de Yzaguirre, of thereligious order of St. Augustin ; he governed until1730.

28. Don Fray Gaspar de Molina y Oviedo, ofthe order of St. Augustin ; elected in 1730, pro-moted before he took possession of the bishopricof Malaga to the government of the cogncil, andafterwards to the purple.

29. Don Fray J uan Laso de la Vega y Cansino.of the religious order of St. P'rancis ; elected in thesame year, 1730.

30. Don Pedro Agustin Morel de Santa Cruz ;he governed until 1753.

31. Don Santiago de Echavarria y Elquezaga,native of Cuba ; promoted to the bishopric of Ni-caragua in 1753.

Governors and Captains-general who have presidedin the island of Cuba.

1. Don Diego Velazquez, native of Cuellar,knight of the order of Santiago, a conqueror andsettler of this island, nominated by the AdmiralChristopher Columbus in 1511; he governedAvith great applause until his death, in 1524.

2. Manuel de Roxas, native of the same townas was his predecessor, on account of whose deathhe was nominated to the bishopric, and in remem-brance of the great credit he had acquired in theconquest of the island, receiving his appointmentat the hands of the audience of St. Domingo, andbeing confirmed in it by the emperor in 1525 ; hegoverned until 1538.

3. Hernando de Soto, who governed until1539.

4. The Licentiate Juan de Avila, until 1545.

5. The Licentiate Antonio de Chaves, until1547.

6. The Doctor Gonzalo Perez Angulo, until1549.

7. Diego Mazariegos, until 1554.

8. Garcia Osorio, until 1565.

9. Pedro Melendez de Aviles, until 1568.

10. Don Gabriel de Montalvo, until 1576.

11. The Captain Francisco Carreno, until1578.

12. The Licentiate Gaspar de Toro, until1580.

13. Gabriel de Lujan, until 1584.

14. The militia colonel Juan de Texeda, until1589.

15. Don Juan Maldonado Barrionuevo, until1596.

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dom of Guatemala, in the province and alcaldiamayor of Chiapa.

CUCHUNA, a large settlement of Indians, andformerly the capital of a small province of thisname in Peru, to the w. of the mountains of (heAndes. It was founded by Maita Capac, fourthEmperor of the Incas, after that he had literallystarved the country into obedience. These In-dians were treacherous, and used to give theirenemies a very deadly poison ; the said emperorcaused many to be burnt alive for having practisedthis abominable custom, and their houses to bedestroyed, together with their cattle and posses-sions.

CUCIO, a settlement of the head settlement ofPerucho, and alcaldia mayor of Guimco, in NuevaEspana. It contains 140 families of Indians, andis a quarter of a league from its head settlement.

CUCUANA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Mariquita in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate on the shore of the river Mag-dalena.

CUCUCHO, San Bartolome de, a settle-ment of tlie head settlement of Arantzan, and aleal-dia mayor of Valladolid, in the province andbishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 27 familiesof Indians, who employ themselves in agriculture,cutting wood, and making earthen-ware and

CUCUCHUCHAU, San Pedro de, a settle-ment of the bead settlement of the city of Cucupao,and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the provinceand bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate on the shoreof the lake. It contains 18 families of Indians,and is two leagues to the s. of its head settle-ment.

CUCUISAS, a small river of the province andgovernment of Guayana. It rises to the e. of thesettlement of Encaramada, and enters the Itari.

CUCUMAYA, a river of Spanish island, or St.Domingo, which rises near the s. coast, runs s.and enters the sea between the Seco and the Bo-mana, opposite the island Cataline.

CUCUNUBA, a settlement oiihe corregimientoof Ubate in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It isof a cold temperature, and produces the fruits ofthis climate. It consists of 100 families, includingthose of its vicinity, and of 80 Indians; is nineleagues to the n. of Santa Fe.

CUCUNUCO, a mountain to the e, of the pro-vince and government of Popayan, eternallycovered with snow. From it rises the river Pu-rase, as also the river La Plata. It takes its namefrom a nation of Indians, by whom it was inhabit-

C U E 549

ed, and of whom a few only, who are reduced tothe,faith, remain.

CUCURPE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Sonora in Nueva Espana; situateon the shore of the river of its name, between thesettlements of Dolores and Ticapa.

CUCURULU, a river of the kingdom of Peru,which runs through the country of the CanisiencsIndians to the e. of the Andes, it abounds in fishof a very fine quality, which serve as food to thebarbarians; runs e. and being much swelled bythe waters it collects from others, enters the riverSanta Rosa.

CUCUTA, San Joseph de, a settlement ofthe government and jurisdiction of Pamplona inthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hottemperature, though healthy, of great commerce,owing to the cacao with which it abounds, andwhich is brought by persons coming from variousparts, the greater portion of it being embarked onthe river Sulia for Maracaibo. It contains morethan 100 rich Indians, but is infested with snakes,lice, and other noxious insects and reptiles.

CUCUTA, an extensive valley of this province (Pamplona),between the cities of Pamplona and S. Christoval,discovered by Juan de San Martin in 1534 ; cele-brated for its fertility, and excellent breed ofmules, by which the kingdom is supplied. It iswatered by many streamlets which render it luxu-riant and fertile, and most particularly in cacaoof the finest quality. The herb on which the muleschiefly feed is wild marjoram.

CUDAJA, a lake of the province and countryof Las Amazonas, in the territory possessed by thePortuguese. It is formed by one of the arms w hichis thrown out by the river Maranon, and returnsto enter the same, in the country of ihe CabaurisIndians.

CUDIHUEL, a settlement of Indians of thedistrict of Guadalabqueu in the kingdom of Chile,on the shore of the riv'er Valdivia.

CUDUUINI, a small river of the provinceand government of Cumaná. It rises in the ser~of Irnataca, runs s. and enters the Curgunion the n. side.

CUEBAYA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situateat the source of the river Bezani, to the w. of thegarrison which takes this name.

CUECA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Chipan.

CUELLO, a settlement of the jurisdictionof Tocayma, and government of Mariqnita, in

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the Nuevo Reynb de Granada ; situate in a greatvalley called the Llano Grande, where is bred alarge proportion of neat-cattle. Upon its side isthe river of its name, which presently enters theSaldana, and is full of fish. It is of a hot tempe>rattire, abounds in maize, cacaoj tobacco, yucas^and plantains ; and amongst the sand of the river’sside is found a great quantity of gold. It contains700 housekeepers, and a little more than 80 In-dians. It is 40 leagues to the s. w. of Santa Fe.

CUENCA, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Quito; bounded n. by the provinceof Riobamba ; s. by that of Jaen de Bracamoros ;e. by that of Guayaquil ; w. by that of Quijosand Macas ; n. e. by that of Chimbo ; and s. that of Loxa. Its temperature is mild,balm and healthy. Great herds of cattle are bredhere, and it consequently abounds in flesh-meats ;likewise in every species of birds, grains, pulse,garden herbs, sugar, and cotton ; the natives mak-ing of the latter very good woven articles, and inwhich they trade, as well as in wheat, chick-peas,bark, French beans, lentils, bams, and sweetmeats.Its mines are of gold, silver, copper, quicksilver,and sulphur; but none of them are worked; alsoin the llanos or plain of Talqui, are some minesof alabaster, extremely fine, though somewhatsoft. Tlie principal traffic of this province arefloor-carpets, cabinet articles, and tapestries, herecalled pawos de cor/e, (cloths of the court), beauti-fully worked, and which are so highly esteemedthat no house in the kingdom, that has any pre-tensions to elegance and convenience, is seen with-out them. It is watered by four large rivers, call-ed Yanuneay, Machangara, Banos, and Tume-bamba ; the latter being also called Matadero, andis the largest. It abounds in bark and cochineal,the latter being gathered in great quantities, andemployed in the dyeing of baizes, which areesteemed the best of any in America. Its tannedhides and prepared skins are equally in high esti-mation. It is, in short, more highly favouredthan any other province in natural riches j and itwould not have to envy any other, were it not thatits inhabitants, who have been called Morlacos,were of a haughty, domineering disposition, greatdisturbers of peace, and more inclined to riot anddiversion than to labour. The capUal is

Cuenca, Santa Ana de, a city founded by GilRamirez Davalos, in 1557, in the valley of Yunquilla, celebrated for its pleasantness and fertility ;this valley is six leagues and an half long, and asmany wide in the middle of the serrania; from thisserrama issue, to water the same valley, four large

rivers, the first called Machangara, which runs r,of the city, and very close to it; the second,which runs to the n, is called Matadero, being alsonearthetown ; the third Yanuneay, at half a quarterofa league’s distance, and the fourth Banos: of allthese united is formed a very large one, which af-terwards takes the name of Paute, and which hasin its environs mines of gold and silver. This cityis large, and one of the most beautiful of any inthe kingdom. The parish church, which was erectedinto a cathedral, and head of the bishopric of theprovince, in the year 1786, is magnificent. Ithas four parishes, (he five following convents, viz.of the religious order of St. Francis, St. Domingo,St. Augustin, St. Peter Nolasco, and a collegewhich belonged to the regulars of the company ofJesuits, two monasteries of nuns, one of La Concep-cion, and the other of Santa Teresa, and an hospi-tal, being one of the most sumptuous, convenient,and well attended possible; the whole of thesebeing very superior edifices. The streets run instraight lines; the temperature is kind, mild, andhealthy ; and the neighbourhood abounds in everykind of flesh, and in whatsoever productions canbe required, as pu)ge, vegetables, and fruits.Some very fine large cheeses are made here, whichresemble those of Parma, and are carried as dain-ties to Lima, Quito, and other parts. The sugarywhich is made in great quantities, is of the finestand most esteemed sort, as are also the conservesof various fruits, which are known by the name ofcaccetas de Cuenca. A few years ago, a hat manu-factory was established here, when a stamp wasmade bearing the resemblance of an EmperorInca, and with the motto, “ Lahore duce, comitefortuna.” This proved one of the best and mostuseful manufactories of any in the city. In theterritory to the s. is the height of Tarqui, cele-brated for being the spot where the base of themeridian was taken by the academicians of thesciences of Paris, M. Godin, Bouger, and La Con-damine, assisted by Jorge Juan and Don Anto-nio de Ulloa, who accompanied them, in 1742.yhis city is subject to tempests, which form on asudden when the sky is clear, and which are ac-companied with terrible thunder and lightning,the women apply themselves to labour, and it isby these that is carried on the great commercewhich exists in baizes which they fabricate, andare held in high esteem, together with other wo-ven articles. It is the native place of the FatherSebastian Sedeno, missionary apostolic of the ex-tinguished company of the Jesuits in the provinceof Mainas- The population of Cuenca is 14,000

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souls. Sixty leagues from Quito, in lat. 2° 55'5. and long. 78° 50'.

Cuenca, a settlement of tlie province and eor-regimiento of [Angaraez]] in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Conayca. In its district is a spring ofhot water, which issues boiling.

CUENCAME, San Antonio de, a town ofthe province of Tepeguana, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya. It is the rea/of the silver mines,where reside numbers of people of all ranks. Ithas a convent of the religious order of St. Francis,and in its district are various manufactories forgrinding the metals that are extracted from themines. It is 37 leagues to the n. of the capitalGuadiana, and 24 from Durango.

CUENCO, a settlement of the head settlement ofTirindaro, and alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, in theprovince and bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate ina glen surrounded by many mountains. Throughits gutters runs a crystalline stream of sweet water,which serves to fertilize its orchards and cultivatedgrounds. It contains 66 families of Indians, andis two short leagues to the n. of its head settle-ment.

CUENTLA, a settlement of the head settlementof San Francisco, of the valley and alcaldia mayorof Zultepec in Nueva Espana. It contains 53families of Indians.

CUERNAVACCA, a town of the intendancyof Mexico, the ancient Quauhnahuac, on the s.declivity of the cordillera of Guchilaque, in a tem-perate and delicious climate, finely adapted forthe cultivation of the fruit-trees of Europe.Height 1655 metres, or 5429 feet.]

CUERNO, Island of, or of the Horns, inthe N. sea, near the coast of Florida, between theislands Delfina and De Navios.

CUERO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom ofQuito. Some write it with a Q.

CUERNOS, a small river of the province andgovernment of Maracaibo. It is an arm of thePalmar,, which enters the great lake.

CUES, San Juan de los, a settlement of thebead settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlanin Nueva Espana. It contains 72 families of In-dians, whose commerce is in maize, French beans,and fruits. In its vicinity is a sugar-mill, at which60 families of Negro slaves assist.

CUES, San Antonio DE los, in the intend-ancy of Oaxaca in Nueva Espaua. A very po-pulous place on the road from Orizaba to Oaxaca,celebrated for the remains of ancient Mexican for-tifications.]

CUEUAS, San Agustin de las, a settlement

and head settlement of the district of the alcaldiamayor of Coyoacan in Nueva Espana. It is of avery good temperature and of a healthy situation,abounding in waters and fruit-trees, and coveredwith country houses, orchards, and gardens,which serve as a recreation to the people of Mex-ico. It has a convent of the religious order of St.Domingo, and 751 families; lying three leaguesto the s. of Mexico, and two from its capital.

Cueuas, another settlement, of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits in the province of Tepeguana, andkingdom of Nueva Espana; situate on the shoreof the river Florido, and at the distance of sixleagues from the garrison of the valley of San Bar-tolome.

Cueuas, another, of the missions which wereheld by the same regulars of the company, in theprovince of Taraumara, of the same kingdom asthe former, 20 leagues to the s. of the real of themines of Chiguagua.

CUEYTE, a river in the island of Cuba, whichabounds with alligators.

CUGUI, a small river of the district of Toltenbaxo in tire kingdom of Chile. It runs n. andenters the Tolten.

CUIABA, Jesus de, a town of the province ofMatagroso in Brazil ; situate on the shore of theriver Paraguay, at its source, near the large lakeof LosXareyes. In its vicinity are some abundantgold mines, which have been worked by the Por-tuguese since the year 1740. Lat. 14° 33'.

Cuiaba, a river of this kingdom (Brazil), and in theterritory of its name. It rises in the mountains,runs n. and afterwards turning its course to thew. enters the sea.

CUIABENO, a lake of the province and go-vernment of Quijos and Macas in the kingdom ofQuito. It is to the s. of the settlement of SanAntonio de Amoguajes.

CUIAC, Santiago de, a settlement of thehead settlement of Amatlan, and alcaldia mayor ofZacatlan, in Nueva Espana. It lies four leaguesfrom its bead settlement, but the journey to it fromthence is almost impracticable, owing to its beingsituate in the middle of the sierra.

CUIACLAZALA, a settlement of the headsettlement of San Luis de la Costa, and of the al^caldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. Itproduces a great quantity of cochineal, this beingthe only production in which its inhabitants mer-chandize. These are composed of 60 families ofIndians. It is seven leagues to the j. of itscapital.

CUIANA, a small river of the province and

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country of Las Amazonas. It flows in the territoryof the Carigueres or Mutuanis Indians, runs c.and enters the Madera opposite the great cataract.

CUIAPAN, a settlement of the head settlementof Atoyaque, and alcaldia mayor of Zayula, inNueva Espana. It contains 70 families of In-dians, who live by agriculture and making coarsestuffs. It is one league to the s. of its head settle-ment.

CUIATAN, a settlement of the head settlementof the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxitlan,being a league and a half’s distance to the s. w.

CUIAUTEPEC, Santiago de, a settlementof the head settlement of Olinala, and alcaldiamayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains32 families of Indians, and is two leagues to then. c. of its head settlement.

CUIAUTEPEC, another settlement of the headsettlement of Ayotitlan, and alcaldia mayor ofAmola, in the same kingdom. It contains 13 fa-milies of Indians, who live by agriculture andbreeding cattle; is 10 leagues to the w, of itshead settlement.

CUICATLAN, the alcaldia mayor of the pro-vince and bishopric of Mechoacan. It is 19leagues in length from e. to w. and 1 1 in widthn. s. It is of a hot temperature, abounds in salt-petre, scarlet-dye, and cotton, of which beautifulornamental dresses are made ; these being the prin-cipal source of its commerce. The capital is thesettlement of the same name, inhabited by 125 fa-milies of Cuicatecos Indians, who cultivate greatquantities of maize, French beans, and cotton. Itis 70 leagues to the e. with a slight inclination tothe s. of Mexico. The other settlements of thisdistrict are,

Alpizagua==, ==Teponastla,

Cotahuiztla==, Teutitlan]],

Nacantepec==, Santa Ana]],

Quiotepeque==, ==San Lucas,

Coyula==, ==San Antonio,

Izcatlan==, ==San Mateo,

Papalotipac==, ==San Martin,

Santiago==, ==Casa Blanca,

San Lorenzo==, ==Nanahuatipac,

San Geronimo==, ==San Juan de los Cues,

Santa Cruz==, ==Thecomahuaca,

Santa Maria==, ==Teopuxco,

San Lorenzo==, ==Santiago,

Los Santos Reyes==, ==Huehuetlan,

Tepeuzila==, ==San Pedro,

San Pedro==, ==San Juan,

San Andres==, ==Huahutla,

Santa Maria==,==Chilchola.

==CUICEO=, (Of the lake), the alcaldia mayor of

the province and bishopric of Mechoacan ; boundedc. by the province of Acambaro ; n. by that ofZelaya; nc. by that of Pasquaro ; and s. by thatof Valladolid. It is in length eight leagues frome. to w. and five in width «. s. It is surroundedby a lake of wholesome water, which gives itsname to the jurisdiction, and which, towards then. part, becomes dry in the summer season, itswaters being supplied from certain drains fromanother large lake which lies on its s. side. Thetemperature here is, for the most part, mild anddry, and the place abounds with salutary waters,which bubble out from a fountain in an island ofthe above mentioned lake. Its commerce is verysmall, since it produces only maize, French beans,and Chile pepper, and a kind of fish found in greatabundance in both the lakes, called charaes.

The capital is the settlement of the samename ; situate in front of the island formed bythe lake.. It contains a convent of the religiousorder of St. Augustin, and 190 families of Indians,including those of the wards of its district, 72 ofSpaniards, 11 of Mulattoes, and 43 of Mustees.It is 50 leagues to the w, of Mexico. The othersettlements are,

San Marcos==, ==San Buena Ventura,

San Geronimo==, ==Cupandaro,

Sta. Ana Maya==, ==San Juan. (Mechoacan)

CUICOCHA, a large lake of the province andcorregimiento of Octavalo in the kingdom ofQuito, surrounded by living stone. To the e. ithas a rock, where it forms a streamlet, which after-wards enters the river Blanco. It does not appearto receive its waters from any source, and i«thought to be filled through subterraneous aque-ducts from the mountain of Cota-cacbe, which iscovered with eternal snow. In the middle of thislake rise two hills, which have the appearance oftwo beautiful isles, the one being covered withtrees, and filled with stags and mountain goats, andthe other being bedecked with a herb calledp^jow,amongst which thrive many Indian rabbits, which,in the language of the country, are called cuy^ andfrom thence the name of Cuy-cocha, which meansthe lake of Indian rabbits. The water which runsbetween the two islands, forms a channel of 3000fathoms. This lake belongs to the noble familyof the Chiribogas of Quito.

CUILAPA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Ygualapa in Nueva Espana,half a quarter of a league’s distance from its ca-pital.

CUILAPA, a town, the head settlement of thedistrict of the alcaldia mayor of Quatro Villas inNueva Espana ; situate at the skirt of a mountain.

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It is of a mild temperulurcj but rather inclined tocold than heat. It contains 264 families of In-dians, and a convent of the religious order of St.Domingo, and in its district are various estates, inwhich, and in the 10 settlements of which its dis-trict consists, are collected scarlet dje, seeds, fruits,coal, woods, and timber. It is two leagues s. e. ofthe capital.

CUILOTO, a river of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, It rises in the mountains of Bogota,runs e. through the llanos or plains of Casanare andMeta, and afterwards enters the river Meta. Somebarbarian Indians, the liraras and Chinalos, liveabout its borders, dispersed amongst the woods.

CUIQUE, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of thelake Tacarigua, towards the s.

CUIQUILA, Santa Maria de, a settlementand head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold tem-perature, contains 76 families of Indians, whoseonly employment is that of making stone flags ;and these in sufficient quantity to supply the wholeprovince. Is nine leagues s.w. of its capital.

CUISILLO, San Francisco de, a settlementand head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of thetown of Leon, in the province and bishopric ofMechoacan, contains S3 families of Indians, whoemploy themselves in the cultivation of maize andmany fruits. It is very close to its capital.

CUITES, a settlement of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province and govetument of Cinaloaof Nueva Espaila.

CUITI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien, of the kingdom of Tierra Firme.It rises in the mountains towards the n. and entersthe sea between the islands Palmas and Pinos.

CUITINA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate in the llanura of Sogamoso, be-tween the settlement of this name and that of Tota.It is of a cold temperature, produces wheat, maize,papas, and the other fruits of a cold climate. Itcontains 60 housekeepers, and as many Indians ;lies eight leagues to the n. of Tunja.

CUIXTLAHUACA, San Juan de,, a settle-ment of the alcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan in NuevaEspaila. It contains 604 families of Indians, withthose of the wards of its district. It is of a hottemperature, and lies 16 leagues s. w. of its capi-tal. It produces some scarlet dye and seeds,

CUIXTLAHUACA, San Juan de, another settle-ment, of the alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in the samekingdom. It contains 15 families of Indian’s,

VOE. 1.

CUJENA, Cano de, an arm of the river Negro,in the country of Las Amazonas. It runs nearlydue s. and joins the Parime.

CUJILLOS, a settlement of province and go-vernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito ; situate on the shore of the river Ma-railon.

[CUJO. See Cuva.]

CUL DE Sac, a settlement and parish of theFrench, in the part possessed by them in theisland of St. Domingo. It is in the head of the w.and upon the w. coast, on the shore of a river be-tween port Principe and the river of Naranjos orOranges.

Cul de Sac, another settlement and parish inthe island of Guadalupe. It lies on the shore ofthe bay of its name, between the rivers Vondi-piques and Testu. There is also another settle-ment in the same bay, between the rivers Lezardand Sarcelles.

CUL DE SAC, a large bay and convenient portof the same island (Guadalupe), which is the principal of thewhole island, and in which are many smallerislands. There is also another close to it, dis-tinguished by the title of Cul de Sac Petit ; andthese are divided by an isthmus of land, which al-lows a communication to the same lakes by a nar-row channel.

CULATAS, a small settlement of the districtand jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, in the cor-regimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada ; annexed to the curacy of Oiba, It lies be-tween the settlements of Socorro and Charala,

CULAUI, a river of the island of La Laxa, inthe kingdom of Chile. It runs w. forming a bendbetween those of Huaque and Duqueco, and entersthe Biobio.

CULCHE, a settlement of Indians, of the dis-trict of Guadalabquen, and kingdom of Chile;situate at the source of the river Valdivia.

CULEBRAS, Rio de, a river on (he coast ofthe province and government of Costarica, of tliekingdom of Guatemala. It runs into tlie N. sea,between the river Bocaes and the bay of Almi-rante.

CuLEBRAs, Rio de, another river in the pro-vince and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises inthe mountains of the n. coast, and point of SanBias, and runs into the sea to the w.

CULEBRAS, Rio de, another, of the island ofSanto Domingo, in the e. head ; runs into thesea in the great bay of Samana, between the riversMagua and Yaina.

CULEBRAS, Rio de, a lake of the province andgovernment of Venezuela, between the river of Sa-4 B

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llio Naipi to Cartagena. The same way offersthe advantage of a very quick communication be-tween Cadiz and Lima. Instead of dispatchingcouriers by Cartagena, Santa Fe, and Quito, orby Buenos Ayres and Mendoza, good quick-sail-ing packet-boats might be sent from Cupica toPeru. If this plan were carried into execution,the viceroy of Lima would have no longer to waitfive or six months for the orders of his court. Be-sides, the environs of the bay of Cupica aboundswith excellent timber fit to be carried to Lima.We might almost say that the ground betweenCupica and the mouth of the Atrato is the onlypart of all America in which the chain of theAndes is entirely broken.]

CUPIN, a small river of the province and cap-tainship of Para in Brazil. It runs n. n. zo andenters the Guama, before it runs into the Amazo-nas or Maranon.

CUPIRA, a river of the province of Barcelona,and government of Cumana, in the kingdom ofTierra Firme. It rises in the serrania, and runsf. until it enters the sea, close to the settlement ofTucuyo.

CUPITA, Cano de, an arm of the riverOrinoco, which runs out by the w. side, and takesits course n. opposite the mouth of the Caura.

CUPLICOS, a river of the province and alcal-dia maijor of Tabasco in Nueva Espana, whichfalls into the sea in the bay of Mexico, between theDos Bocas and the Tabasco.

CUPO, a small river of the province and coun-try of Las Amazonas, in the part possessed by thePortuguese. It rises in the territory of the Nou-rises Indians, runs s. and enters the Trqpibetas.

CUQUE, a large river of the province andgovernment of Darien, and kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises near the N. sea, to the e. of theprovince, and following an e. course, enters thecanal of Tarena.

CUQUIARACHI, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, in the province and government of LaSonora.

CUQUIO, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdictionof Nueva Espana, in the kingdom of Nueva Ga-licia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara ; is one of themost civilized and fertile, abounding in fruits andseeds, and being of a mild temperature. It iswatered by three rivers, which are the Verde onthe e. the Mesquital on the w. and the Rio Grandeon the s. in which last the two former becomeunited.

The capital is the settlement of its name, in-habited by a large population of Indians, some

Mmtets and Mulattoes, and a few Spaniards ;is 13 leagues to the n. e. of Guadalaxara, in long.268° ; and lat. 21° 40'. The other settlements are,Cantla== , ==Tenalucan,

Manalisco== , ==Quaquala,

Huisculco== , ==Ocotic,

Yagualica== , ==Tepunahuasco,

Acatico== , ==Yotahuacan,

Mestitlan== , ==Tacotan,

Nochistlan== , ==San Christoval,

Toyagua== , ==Iscatlan.


[CURA, with the surname of St. Louis de, issituate in a valley formed by mountains of a verygrotesque appearance ; those on the s. w. side arecapped with rocks. The valley is, however, fer-tile, and covered with produce, but the greaterpart of the property consists in animals. Thetemperature is warm and dry ; the soil is a reddishclay, which is extremely muddy in the rainy sea-sons ; the water is not limpid, although it is whole-some. The inhabitants are 4000, governed bya cabildo. In the church is an image of our Ladyof Valencianosy the claim to which was long asubject of dispute between the curate of Cura andthat of Sebastian de los Reynos ; and after a SO yearscontest, it was ordered by the bishop Don Fran-cisco de Ibarro to be returned to this place, whenit was received in a most triumphant manner. Thiscity is in lat. 10° 2' ; twenty-two leagues s. xo. ofCaracas, and eight leagues s. e, of the lake ofValencia.]

CURABICO, a river of the province and cap-tainship of Maranan in Brazil.

CURACOA, or Curazao, an island of theN. sea, one of the Smaller Antilles ; situate nearthe coast of the province and government of Vene-zuela. It is 30 miles long, and 10 broad, and is theonly island of any consideration possessed by theDutch in America. It was settled in 1527, by theEmperor Charles V. as a property upon theliouse ofJuan de Ampues ; is fertile, and abounds in sugarand tobacco, large and small cattle, also in very goodsaline grounds, by which the other islands are pro-vided : but its principal commerce is in a contra-band trade carried on with the coasts of TierraFirme ; on which account its storehouses are filledwith articles of every description imaginable.Formerly its ports were seldom without vessels ofCartagena and Portobelo, which were employedn the Negro trade, bringing home annually froiu1000 to 15,000 Negroes, with various other ar-ticles of merchandise, although this branch ofcom-merce has, from the time that it was taken up bythe English, greatly declined. On the s. part of

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lake is as cold as snow itself, This province, like all the others of the kingdom which lie to the s. e. of the cordilfcra, is ever subject to terrible tempests of thunder and lightning, accompanied with boisterous winds and rains from October to March; the same not happening in the provinces which lie to the to. The Indians of this province are of a darker complexion than those of any other ; but they are also of loftier stature, better made, agile, and extremely addicted to the chase, in which they greatly excel, and more particularly in the taking of ostriches, which abound in the llanuras to \X\cs. ; and by all of these exercises they become so light and active as to be able to keep pace with a horse. These Indians are generally known here by the name of Guapes, and are descendants of the Pampas, their neighbours to the e. with whom they trade in the fruits of the country in exchange for clothes and other articles, money not being known amongst any of these barbarians. The Guapes are of a docile and generous disposition, but of great spirit, and very warlike, robust, and well formed. This country, considering its extent, is but thinly peopled, since its inhabitants amount to only 25,000 of all sexes and ages, according to the latest calculation. The capital is the city of Mendoza. [See Chile.] _ _

CUYO, a shoal formed by two rocks in the N. sea, near the coast of the province and government of Yucatan, close to the cape of Cotoche.

[ CUYOACAN, a settlement of the intendancy of Mexico, containing a convent of nuns founded by Hernan Cortes, in which, according to his testament, this great captain wished to be interred, " in whatever part of the world he should end his days." This clause of the testament was never fulfilled.] CUYOCUYO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. CUYOTAMBO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Quishuares. CUYOTEPEC, San Bartolome de, a head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Antequera, in the province and bishopric of Oaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a middle temperature, contains 358 families of Indians, and a convent of the religious order of St. Dominic. In its district are sown in abundance various kinds of seeds and American aloes, of which is made pulque: Four leagues s. of its capital. CUYUANA, an island of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese, formed by two arms of the river Cudiivara or Purus, which separate before they c u z enter the Maranon. It is large, and of an irregular square figure. CUYUM, or Cuyuni, a large river of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana. Its origin is not known for certain ; but, from the accounts of the Caribes Indians, it is somewhere near the lake Parime, in the interior of the province, and to the n. e. of the said lake. It runs nearly due from n. to s. making several turnings, until it enters the Esquivo. By this river the Dutch merchants of this colony, assisted by the Caribes, go to entrap the Indians, to make them labour in the estates ; and they have built two forts on either side of the mouth of this river.

CUZABAMBA, a large settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lamas in Peru ; close to which passes a small river of the same name, and which afterwards unites itself with the river Moyobamba. Cuzabamba, another settlement in the province and corregimiento of Tacunga, of the kingdom of Quito.

CUZALAPA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Ayotitlan, and alcaldia mayor of Amola, in Nueva Espana. Its population is very small, and its inhabitants employ themselves in the cultivation of seeds and breeding of cattle. Nine leagues to the w. of its head settle ment. CUZAMALA, a head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Azuchitlan in Nueva Espana, lying 10 leagues to the n. of its capital, and being divided from the same by two large rivers. It is of a hot and dry temperature ; its population is composed of 36 families of Spaniards, 30 of Mustees, 48 of Mulattoes, and 53 of Indians, who speak the Taracan language. The trade here consists in large cattle, in the cultivation of maize, and making cascalote. Some emolument also is derived from renting the lands belonging to the capital and the neighbouring settlements. CUZCATLAN, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of San Salvador in the kingdom of Guatemala. CUZCO, as it is called by the Indians, a city, the capital of a corregimiento in Peru, the head of a bishopric, erected in 1536, founded by the first Emperor of the Incas, Manco Capac, in 1043, who divided it into Hanam Cozco and Hurin Cozco, which signify Cuzco Lofty and Low, or Superior and Inferior ; the former towards the n. and the second towards the s. It is situate upon a rough and unequal plain formed by the skirts of various mountains, which are washed by

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