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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W. It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.

ACAPAZINGO, San Diego DE, the head settlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Cuernavaca.

ACAPETLAHUAIA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Escateopan, and alcaldía mayor of Zaqualpa. It contains 180 Indian families.

ACAPONETA, the alcaldía mayor of the kingdom of Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdiction is reduced. It enjoys various hot and cold temperatures, and has therefore the crops peculiar to both climates; and the same are sown in its district, and produce abundantly. The capital is the town of the same name, situate between the two rivers St. Pedro and de Cartas ; the latter dividing Nueva España from the provinces of Rosario and Cinaloa, as also the bishoprics of Durango and Gaudalaxara, from whence it is distant 83 leagues, W. N. W. It has a convent of the order of St. Francisco. Long. 105° 40' 30". Lat. 22° 43' 30".

ACAPULCO, the capital city of the government of Nueva España, situate on the coast of the S. sea. Its inhabitants amount to nearly 400 families of Chinese, Mulattoes, and Negroes. It has a parish church, with two vicars, and two convents, one of the order of St. Francis, and the other of St. Hyppolite de la Casidad, which is a royal hospital ; an office of public accounts, with an accountant and treasurer for the managing and keeping the accounts of the duties produced by the goods brought in the China ships. The city is small, and the churches and houses are moderately ornamented. The greater part of the city is on the seashore. The air is of an extremely hot and moist temperature ; for, independent of its being in the torrid zone, it is entirely shut oxit from the N. winds, being surrounded by lofty serranias. These circumstances render it very unhealthy, especially in the wet season, on account of the damps and seawinds blowing from the S. E. to the great detriment of the inhabitants and merchants who come to trade here ; this being the principal cause why there are scarcely more than eight Spanish families who reside here. It is equally in want of every sort of provision, owing to the reduced and barren state of the land, and is forced to seek its necessary supplies from the Indian settlements within its jurisdiction. The only commerce which it can be said to have, is afair which is held on the arrival of the ships from China ; and when these depart, there are no other means for the people of maintaining a trade, and if the above resource should happen to fail for three or four years, the place must inevitably be abandoned. At the distance of a musketshot, and on a promontory running far into the sea, is situate the castle and royal fort of San Diego, mounted with 31 pieces of artillery, the greater part of them 24 pounders, for the defence of the entrance of the port, which is safe, and so spacious, that 500 ships can lay at anchor in it with ease. It is surrounded by lofty rising grounds. Its principal mouth is on the S. side, formed by an Island of an oblong figure, and somewhat inclining to the S. W. The same Island forms also Acatlan mouth, which they call chica, or little. The canals on either side of the Island are 25 fathoms deep. The governor of the castle has the rank of castellano, with the title of lieutenant general of the coasts of the S. sea ; and for the defence of these coasts, there are three companies of militia, composed of the the whole of the inhabitants, namely, one company of Chinese, Acatlan another of Mulattoes, and the third of Negroes, who run to arms whenever they hear the cannon fired three times at short intervals. In the settlements of its neighbourhood they grow cotton, maize, and other seeds, vegetables and fruits. They have cattle of the large and small kind, and some tobacco, all of which productions are sufficient for the use of the castle and the city, which is 80 leagues distant from Mexico. — [The famous cut in the mountain, (Abra de San Nicholas), near the bay de la Langosta, for the admission of the sea winds, was recently finished. The population of this miserable town, inhabited almost exclusively by people of colour, amounts to 9000 at the time of the arrival of the Manilla galleon (nao de China). Its habitual population is only 4000. The chief trade of Acapulco continues still to be its commerce with Manilla. The Manilla ship arrives once a year at Acapulco, with a cargo of Indian goods, valued at 12 or 1300,000 dollars, and carries back silver in exchange, with a very small quantity of American produce, and some European goods. Lat. according to Humboldt, 16° 50' 29". Long, by ditto, 99° 46'. Lat. according to the Spaniards, 16° 50' 30". Long, by ditto, 160°. Both longitudes being measured from the meridian of Greenwich.] ACARAGA, a river of the province and government of Paraguay. It rises in the province of the Parana, and running n. enters the Uruguay where is the city of Asuncion. It is navigable by canoes throughout, and abounds in fish.

Last edit about 2 years ago by MJG



San Nicolas de laPaz,

San J uan de lasPalmas,

Pueblo Nuevo,Santero,


San Nicolas deBari,

San Bernardo A-bad,




Tiquicio de Aden-tro,

Tiquicio de Afu-era,



San Marcos,

San Pelajo,


Zienega del Oro,San Carlos de Co-losina.

San Geronimo deBuenavista.

The capital is a large city adorned with beauti-ful buildings, founded by Pedro de Heredia in1533, on the shore of a great and very convenientbay more than two leagues in length. It was call-ed Calamari in the time of the Indians, which sig-nifies, in their language, the land of craw-fish, fromthe abundance of these found in it. It is situateon a sandy island, which forming a narrow strait,gives a communication to the part called TierraBomba ; on the left it is entered by a woodenbridge, having a suburb called Xiximani, whichis another island uniting with the continent bymeans of a bridge in the same manner as itself.It is well fortified, and is the residence of a go-vernor, with the title of captain-general, dependenton the viceroy of Santa Fe, having beeu indepen-dent till the year 1739. Besides the precinct andbastions, it has a half-moon, which defends theentrance or gate ; and at a small distance is thecastle of San Felipe de Baraxas, situate on aneminence, and on the side of the bay the castles ofSan Luis, Santa Cruz, San Joseph, San P'elipe,and Pastelillo, which were rebuilt in a modernmanner, in 1654;, by the Lieutenant-general DonIgnacio de Sala, with the names of San Fernando,San Joseph, El Angel, and El Pastelillo. Thecathedral church is magnificent, and included in itis the parish of Sagrario, besides two other pa-rishes called La Trinidad and Santo Toribo. Ithas the convents of monks of St. Francisco, St.Domingo, St. Augustin, St. Diego, La Merced,and San Juan de Dios, which is an hospital, andsituate at the top of a high mountain without thewalls of the city, at a quarter of a league’s dis-tance from the convent of the barefooted Augustins,called Nuestra Senora de la Popa ; to this con-vent vessels are accustomed to offer up a salutationas soon as they discover it at sea. It has also acollege which belonged to the society of Jesuits,a convent of Santa Clara, one of the Observersof San Francisco, and another of barefooted Car-

melites. At a small distance without the city isthe hospital of San Lazaro for lepers, which ma-lady is epidemical in the country. It has also atribunal of the inquisition, established in 1610, ofwhich there is only three in all America, and put-tingthis city, in this pointof view, onafooting withthe metropolitan cities Lima and Mexico. It is thehead of a bishopric erected in 1534 by his holinessClement VII. The bay abounds in fish of variouskinds, but it is infested by marine wolves. Theclimate of this city is very hot ; from May to No-vember, which are the winter months, thunder,rain, and tempests are very frequent, but fromthis inconvenience they derive an advantage offilling with water their cisterns, called aijibes, andwhich afford them the only supply of this inostnecessary article ; accordingly every house is fur-nished with one of these cisterns : from Decemberto April, which is the summer, the heat is exces-sive, occasioning continual perspiration, whichdebilitates the frame, and causes the inhabitants tohave a pale and unhealthy appearance, althoughthey nevertheless enjoy good health, it being notunusual to find amongst them persons exceeding80 years of age. The irregularity of this climateproduces several very afflicting disorders, as theblack vomit, which is most common amongststrangers and sea-faring people, few of whom havethe luck to escape it, but no person ever has ittwice. The inhabitants are likewise much trou-bled with the leprosy, or disease of St. Lazarus ; theculebrilla, which is an insect which breeds under theskin, and causes a swelling which is accustomed toterminate in gangrene and spasms or convulsions :besides these inconveniences, there are multitudesof troublesome insects which infest the houses,such as beetles, niguas, scorpions, centipeds, andmorcielagos. The largest trees are the caob, thecedar, the maria, and balsam ; of the first aremade canoes, out of the solid trunk, for fishing andcommerce ; the red cedar is better than the white,and the two last, not to mention their utility fromthe compactness of their timber, for their delicioussmell and beautiful colour, are the trees fromwhence are procured those admirable distillationscalled the oil of Maria and balsam of Tolu. Hereare also tamarind trees, medlars, sapotas, papai/as,cassias, and Indian apple trees, producing deli-cate and pleasant fruits ; the fruit, however, of thelast mentioned is poisonous, and many who, de-ceived by the beauty of these apples, have therashness to taste them, soon repent of their folly,for they immediately swell to a distressing degree :so if perchance any one should sleep under itsbranches, he will be afflicted in the same way.

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running to unite themselves with that of Toachi.It is to the n. of the paramo of Elenisa, and issometimes covered with snow.

CORCA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Huanoquite.

(CORCAS, or Grand Corcas, an islandalmost in the form of a crescent, n. of St. Do-mingo, in the windward passage, about sevenleagues w. of Turk’s island, and about 20 e. ofLittle Inagua or Heneagua. Lat. 21° 45' n.Long. 71° ob' w.)

CORCHUE, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and government of Valdivia in the kingdomof Chile.

CORCOLA, a settlement of the Portuguese, inthe territory of the Giiayazas Indians, of the king-dom of Brazil; situate at the source and on theshore of the river Tocantines.

CORCOUADO, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits in the province and government of LosLlanos, of the Nuevo Reyno de Gratiada, andwhich is at present under the charge of the reli-gious order of St. Francis.

CORCOUADO, a rock or island of the S. sea, op-posite the port of Santa, of the province and corre-gimiento of this name in Peru.

CORCULLA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru.

CORDES. See Verdf.


CORDILLIERS, Montagne des, a mountainof the island of Cayenne, on the skirts of avliichthe French have a fort and establishment for itsdefence.

CORDON, PUNTA DEL, a point of the coast ofthe w. head of the island of St. Domingo, on theshore of the port Pimiento.

CORDOVA, a province and alcaldia mayor ofNueva España; bounded w. by the province ofOrizava ; n. by that of San Juan de los Llanos ;e. by that of the ancient Vera Cruz ; and s. by therugged mountains of Songolica. It has on the5. e. and s.s. e. the great estate of Mataanona, 10leagues from Taliscona, the last boundary of VeraCruz. It is of a hot and moist temperature ; thegreater part of its district is composed of brokenand uneven grounds, and mountains covered withcedars, walnuts, pines, and ocotales. It has alsobeautiful and fertile plains, abounds in birds andanimals of the chase, and no less in fish, many troutand bohos being caught out of the rivers by whichthis province is irrigated. In the spacious plainof Altotonga runs a rapid river, by which it is

fertilized, and rendered abundant in every kind ofvegetable production. Here also breed manyflocks of cattle, which are the chief commerceof the place. The capital bears the same name.

This was founded in 1618, by order of the vice-roy Don Diego Fernandez de Cordova, Marquisof Gnadalcazar, who gave it his name. It is of ahot and moist temperature ; situate to the w. ofsome small mountains, which form an half-circle,and are surrounded by many umbrageous trees.The parish church is magnificent, of exquisitearchitecture, and rich ornaments. Here is a con-vent of the religious Descalzos (barefooted order)of St. Francis, and one of St. Hippolyte dela Ca-ridad, in which there is an hospital for the sickSpaniards, and for the black slaves, endowed bythe masters and proprietors of certain mills, in whichan infinite quantity of sugar is made. It aboundsin this artich', with those of tobacco, Chinaoranges, ajonjoli, large cattle, and swine ; as alsoother fruits and articles of merchandize peculiarto Europe and the kingdom itself. [Hun.boldtassert.s that the environs of Cordova and Orizabaproduce all the tobacco consumed in New Spain.]Its population consists of 260 families of Spaniards,126 of Mustees, 70 of Mulattoes and Negroes,and 273 of Mexican Indians ; of many others alsowho are of various classes, and Avho work in thesugar-mills. Forty-eight leagues to the e. «. c. ofMexico, in lat. 18° 50' ; long. 96° 56'. Theothersettlements of this jurisdiction are,

Santa Ana de Zacan, San Diego,




Sta. Maria Magdalena,Calcahualco,

S. Antonio Huatuzco,Amatlan de los Reyes,

San Bartolome,Totutla,



San Diego Huatuzco,San J uan de la Punta,San Lorenzo.

Cordova, another city, the capital of the provincoand government of Tucumán in Peru ; founded bythe governor of that province, Geronimo Cabrera,in 1573, and not by Juan Nuilezde Prado, in 1549,according to the erroneous account of the Ex-jesuit Coleti. It was in the territory of the Comi-chingones Indians, and part which they calledKisliisacate, on the shore of the river Piicani ;but removed from thence to the x. part of thesame river ; the parish being dedicated to NuestraSenora de la Pena of France, and being under theobligation of celebrating its festival on the day ofthe conception, when it was also usual to displaythe spectacle of a bull-fight. It is situate in anarrow bay, close to which is a lotty n'ountain.It is much exposed to inundations in the rainy

Last edit almost 2 years ago by kmr3934




island of Cuba, called Cruz del Principe (Cross ofthe Prince. )

CUA, Sahante de, a village and settlementof the Portuguese, in the kingdom of Brazil ;situate in the sierra of Los Corixes, between theriver of this name and that of Araguaya.

CUACHIMALCO, a settlenaent of the headsettlement of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa,in Nueva Espana. It contains 06 families of In-dians, and is two leagues to the n. e. of its headsettlement.

CUAITLAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Metlatlan, <x\\A. alcaldia mayor of [Papantla]],inNueva Espana. It contains 8i families of In-dians, and is three leagues from its head settle-ment, 16 s. w. of the capital.

CUALA, Santiago de, a settlement and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofTezcoco in Nueva Espana; annexed to the cu-racy of Capulalpa, and six leagues to the n. e. ofits capital.

CUALAQUE, a scttlerneut of the head settle-ment and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in NuevaEspana. It contains two families of Spaniards,eight of Mustees^ 140 of Indians, and a conventof the religious order of St. Augustin. It is of amild temperature, and its principal commerceconsists in making painted cups of fine manufac-ture. Four leagues w. of its capital.

CUAMILA, a small settlement or ward of thealcaldia mayor Guachinango in NuevaEspana ;annexed to the curacy of the settlement ofTIaola.

CUANALA, Santa Maria de, a settlementof the bead settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in NuevaEspana ; situate on the shore ofthe pleasant valley of (3culma. It is surroundedby many small settlements or wards, in which thereare reckoned 212 families of Indians, and 10 ofMuslees and Mulattoes ;* all of whom are em-ployed as drovers or agriculturalists. Two leaguesn. of its capital.

CUAPALA, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Atlistac, and aluddia mayor of Tlapa, inNuevaEspana. It contains 42 families of In-dians.

CUATALPAN Santiago de, a settlement ofthe alcaldia mayor Tezcoco in contains 36 families of Indians, and 27 of Spa-niards and Mustics.

CUATLAN, a settlement of the head settlementof Ixtlahuacan, and alcaldia mayor of Colima ;.situate on the margin of a river which fertilizesthe gardens lying on either of its banks, the sameabounding in ail kinds of fruits and herbs. It is

of a mild temperature, and its commerce consistsin maize, French beans, and in the making ofmats. In its precincts are six estates or groves ofcoco trees ; and in those dwell .nine families ofSpaniards and Miistees. In the settlement are 70families. It is three leagues e. of its head settle-ment.

CUAUCHINOLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of Xoxutla, and alcaldia mayor ofCuernavaca, in NuevaEspana.

CUAUCOTLA, S. Diego de, a settlement ofthe head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cholulain NuevaEspana. It contains 27 families of In-dians, and is a quarter of a league from its capital.

CUAUTIPAC, a settlement of the head settle-ment and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in NuevaEspana. It contains 23 families of Indians, and isone league to the s. e. of its capital.

CUAUTLA, San Juan de, a settlement ofthe head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cholulain NuevaEspana. It contains 16 families of In-dians, and is one league to the w. of its capital.

CUAUTLA, with the dedicatory title of SanMiguel, another settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Cuernavaca in the same kingdom ; situate in afertile and beautiful open plain near the settlementof Mazate.pec. It contains 23 families of Indians,and 11 of Spaniards and Mulattoes, who employthemselves in fishing for small but well-flavouredbagres, which are found in great abundance in ariver which runs near the town.

CUAUTOLOTITLAN, a settlement of thehead settlement of Atlistac, and alcaldia mayor ofTlapa, in NuevaEspana. It contains 42 familiesof Indians.

CUB, a small river of the province and colonyof Virginia. It runs and enters the Staunton.

CUBA, a large island of the N. sea, and thelargest of the Antilles ; situate at the mouth or en-trance of the bay of Mexico. It is 235 leagues inlength from c. to a', from the cape of St. Antonioto the point of Maizi, and 45 at its widest part,and 14 at the uarrow'est. To the n. it has Floridaand the ijiicayes isles ; to the c. the island of St.Domingo, and to the s. the island of Jamaica, andthe s. continent; and to the w. the gulf or hay ofMexico. It is betw een and 23°15'n. Int. and

from 74° 2' 3'^ to 84°55'tw. long It was discoveredby Admiral Cliristopher Columbus in 1492, in hisfirst voyage, before he discovered St. Domingo ;and he mistook it for the continent, and landedupon it. In tJie year 1494, it was found to be auisland by Nicholas do Obando. lie measured itscircumierence, and careened his ve.s.sel in the portof the Havana, which from that time has been

Last edit almost 2 years ago by JoshuaOB
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