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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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which the inhabitants trade. These are composed of34 Indian families. It is a little more than threeleagues from its head settlement,
AIOZINGO, a settlement of the alcaldía mayorof Chaleo in Nueva España, situate on the shoreof the lake of Mexico, with a good port, at whichare embarked the fruits of many provinces for thesupply of that capital, (Chaleo), which is withineight or ten hours sail from hence. It has a goodconvent of S. Augustin, where a most beauti-ful image of the virgin is reverenced, and sup-posed to be wonder-working. Its inhabitants con-sist of 120 Indian families and some Spanish. Itis distant one league s, s. e. from its capital.
AIRICOS, a nation of Indians who inhabit theplains of Cazanare and Meta, of the new kingdomof Granada, to the c. of the mountains of Bogota,on the borders of the river Ele. It is numerous,and feared by all its neighbours, on account of itsvalour and dexterity in the use of arms.
Airicos, with the dedicatory title of SanFrancisco Xavier, a settlement which belongedto the Jesuits, and founded in 1662 by father An-tonio de Monteverde, and composed of some ofthose Indians who were thus reduced to the Catho-lic faith.
AIRIHUANCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru.
AIRS, a small city of the province and colonyof New Jersey, in the county of Burlington.
AIUDA, Nuestra Senora be la, a villageand settlement of the Portuguese, in the provinceand captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situateupon the sea-coast, and on the shore of the riverS. Miguel.
Aiuda, another settlement in the province andcaptainship of Puerto Seguro, situate upon thecoast on the shore of the port.
AIUILA, a river of the province and alcaldiamayor of Soconusco, in the kingdom of Guate-mala: It runs into the S. sea between the settle-ment of Suchitepec and the river Coatlan.
AIUINOS, a nation of Indians of the provinceand government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana,converted to the faith by father Francisco Olinano,of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1624.They live towards the n. of the above province,and in the times of their heathenism they dwelt inthe lofty mountains, in order that they might de-fend themselves from the other nations with whomthey were at war. They are docile, well-inclined,and of good habits.
AIUN, or luMERi, a river of the province and
viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. It runs s. and entersthe Rio Negro.
AIUNCHA, Pago BE, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucuman, in the districtand jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero,from whence it is 22 leagues distant. It is situateon the shore of the river Dulce.
AIUTLA, the head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, containing 187 Indianfamilies, and a convent of the religious order of S.Domingo ; distant 13 leagues to the e. of its capi-tal.
Aiutla, another settlement in the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Autlanof the same kingdom, with 23 Indian families, whohave large stores of pulse and fruit, so rich and fer-tile is their country. It is annexed to the curacy ofTenamaztlani, from whence it lies one league s,
AlUA, a small town of the island of St. Domin-go, situate in the line which divides the Spanishterritory from the French. It was the inhabitantsof this town who chiefly contributed to ensure thevictory which was gained against the Spaniards inthe plain of Puerto Real, by the president DonFrancisco de Segura y Sandoval, in 1691.
AIX, Palmar be, a large beach on the coastof Florida, within the channel of Bahama, nearthe point of Canaveral ; memorable for the ship-wreck of 22 vessels, composing the fleet of NuevaEspana, which took place in 1715, being under thecommand of Don Antonio de Ubila ; memorablealso for the loss of two galleons from Tierra Firme,commanded by Don Antonio de Echevers ; theloss of the one and the other amounting to nearly20 million dollars.
Aix, a river of the same province, which runsinto the sea very near the Palmar.
AJOIANI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Coaza.
[AJOS, a parish situate on the foot of the moun-tains which separate the rivers Paraguay and Pa-rana, about 24 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23°26' 34" s. Long. 56° 30' w.~\
AJOUES, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and government of Louisiana, in which theFrench held a garrison and fort for its defence, onthe shore of a lake near the Missouri.
A joues, another settlement of the same provinceand government, situate on the shore of the riverMissouri.
AKANCEAS, a nation of savage Indians of N.America, who live at the conflux of the riversMississippi, and another abundant stream of its
nardo. On the shore at its mouth the French,under Robert la Sale, made their first establish-ment in the year 1683.
CANELOS, a large province of the kingdomof Quito, discovered by Gonzalo Pizarro in theyear 1540, who gave it this name on account ofthe quantity of cinnamon trees found in it, whichgrow very strong, shedding an odour somethinglike camphor, and very pungent. This cinnamon,which is called raspado, is carried to Quito, andsold at six reals a pound, being made use of in-stead of the fine cinnamon. A small viper is fre-quently met with in it of the same colour as thecinnamon, and extremely venomous. This pro-vince is uncultivated, full of impenetrable forestsand rivers, and contains only one settlement of thesame name, on the n. shore of the river Bobonaza,in which is the port of Canoas, and the residenceof a religious Dominican, who is the curate ofthose few miserable Indians. In lat. 1° 32' 20" s.
CANES AND Canches, a province and cor-regiminto of Peru, bounded on the e. by Cara-baya, towards the town of Mauclani, on the s. e.by Lampa in the cordillera of Villacanota, onthe s. by Cailloma, s. e. by a part of the provinceof Condesuios of Arequipa, w. by Chumbivilca,being divided by the river Apurimac, and n. w.by Quispicanchi. It is in length from n. to s.30 leagues, and 15 in width : Its climate is, forthe greater part, extremely cold, on account ofits being nearly covered with mountains of snow ;nevertheless they cultivate here barley, maize,potatoes, cavi, and quinoa; and in the warm parts,which consist of uneven and broken grounds nearthe rivers, some kinds of fruit, though in no abun-dance. Here also are great quantities of animalswhich breed upon the mountains from the luxu-riance of the pastures ; and of these are the vigog-nes, huanacos, and viscachas, which latter are aspecies of hare or rabbit ; deer also, and par-tridges, abound here. In the rivers are foundbagres a foot in length. The principal riverswhich water this province, are the Vilcamayo,which runs from the province of Quispicanchi,into which runs another flowing down from thesnowy sierras on the e. part called Combapata.
This river has a stone bridge, and descends fromthe heights of Cailloma. This province has manylakes, which are filled with water-fowl, such asducks, widgeons, and others ; these birds arefound more particularly in lake Lanchug, which isthree leagues long and one and a half broad, andin it there is also found the load-stone. Linencloth is fabricated here. In the district of SanPedro de Cacha, in a place called Rache, there isan ancient and grand edifice with nine gates, halfof the walls of which, as high as the first stories,are made of carved stone ; the rest of the edificebeing of earth upon five galleries of stone, formingas it were so many other walls. This building issaid to have served as a temple in Viracocha in thetime of the gentilism of the Indians. At a smalldistance there is an artificial lake with aqueductswhich keep it always at a proper height ; thislake is situate upon a black mountain, which maybe about two leagues in circumference ; also inthe same vicinity are vestiges of a considerablepopulation, and here is found a mineral earthfrom which they fabricate jars, large pitchers, and other vessels, which are carried to be sold in theneighbouring provinces. In this province aremany mines of silver, but they are not worked, onaccount of their being some of them filled withwater, and some of them broken in, with the ex-ception, however, of those of Condoroma, which,although they have experienced the former ca-lamity, do not fail to render yearly many marksof gold, a pretty good testimony of their riches.Great indeed have been the labour and expence inthe attempts to empty them of the water, but inthis they have not as yet succeeded. Here are alsofour good sugar-mills ; and in the jurisdiction ofthe town of Yauri, are two mines of copper, whichare worked : Some gold mines also are not wanting,although they be of little note. In the establish-ment of Condoroma it is not unusual to expe-rience, in the tempests of thunder and lightning,a sort of prickly sensation on the hands and feetand other parts of the body, which they call mos-cas, or flies, without, however, being able todiscover any of these insects ; and it should seemthat the effect is to be attributed to the state of theatmosphere, since the heads' of canes, buckles,and silver or gold galloons, though during suchtimes highly affected by the electric matter, ceaseto be so on the cessation of the tempest. The in-habitants of this province amount to 18,000 souls, dwelling in 24 settlements, which are,
San Pablo, Yanacoa,
Massachusetts, incorporated in 1797, it beingformerly the n. part of Stoughton.)
CANZE, a river of the colony and govern-ment of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessedby the Dutch. It rises between the Berbice andthe Corentin, and after a very round-about course,enters the former, close to its mouth, or where itruns into the sea.
CAO, Santa Maria Magdalena de, asettlement of the province and corregimiento ofTruxillo in Peru, situate in the valley of Chicama.It was the capital in the time of the Indians, andthe number of these 200 years ago was 3000 ; butnow it is reduced to a wretched state, and occu-pies a small spot on the other side of the river,being nine leagues distant from its capital.
Cao, with the dedicatory title of Santiago, todistinguish it from another settlement of the sameprovince and corregimiento, although they areboth equally poor and reduced. Its inhabitantsmaintain themselves by the cultivation of maize,wheat, rice, and vegetables, which they carryfor sale to the other provinces, so that they arefor the most part a race of carriers, and indeedpossess no inconsiderable droves of mules. It issix leagues from its capital, just by the sea.
CAOBAS, River of the, in the island of St.Domingo, in that part possessed by the French.It rises in the valley of San Juan, runs to the w.and afterwards changing its course to the n. w. en-ters the Artibonito.
Cassipa, into which it enters ; and afterwardsrunning out at the n. side of this lake, it findsits way through a subterraneous passage, until itempties itself into the Orinoco, on its s. shore.The borders of this river are inhabited by anation of barbarous Indians, who wander con-tinually through the forests without any fixedabode. They are cannibals as well as the otherIndian tribes around them, and with whom theykeep up a continual warfare.
Capachica, a narrow strip of land formed bythe great lake Titicaca. Of these strips there arethree, and this appears, for the distance of a league,to be completely divided from any main land.
CAPACHO, a village under the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Christoval, in the new kingdom ofGranada ; of a warm temperature ; abounding insugar-cane, from which much sugar is manufac-tured, and in cacao ; but it is much infested bythe barbarian Indians, called the Motilones (short-haired), who destroy the plantations. It contains200 house- keepers, and is 24; leagues n. e. ofPamplona, in the road which leads to Mérida andLa Grita, and eight leagues from the city of SanChristoval.
Capaia, a river of the same province and go-vernment, which rises in the serranía, and aftermaking many turnings runs into the sea, near thecape Codera towards the e.
years after Cumana, 39 after Coro, 33 afterBarcelona, and 15 after Barquisimeto.
2. Ils privileges.— It is the capital, not only ofthe province of Venezuela, but likewise of thatimmense extent of country occupied by the go-vernments of Maracaibo, Barinas, Guayana, Cu-mana, and the island of Margareta ; since it is theseat as well of the captain-generalship, the political 'and military authority of which extends over allthese provinces, as of the royal audience, of theintendancy, and of the consulate, the jurisdictionof which extends as far as the captain-general-ship.
3. Temperature.— Its temperature does not atall correspond with its latitude ; for, instead ofinsupportable heat, which, it would appear,ought to reign so near the equator, it, on thecontrary, enjoys an almost perpetual spring. Itowes this advantage to its elevation, which is 460fathoms above the level of the sea. Thus, al-though the sun has the power usual in such a lati-tude, the elevated situation of Caracas counter-balances its influence. The transitions from heatto cold are great and sudden, from whence nume-rous diseases arise; the most common of which arecolds, called by the Spaniards catarros.
4. Meteorology.— Height of Fahrenheit’s ther-
mometer at Caracas.
In the winter.
Generally at 6 A. M 58°
2 P. M. ' ... 73
10 P. M 68
The maximum .... 76The minimum . . . .52
In the summer.
Generally at 6 A. M 72°
2 P. M 79
10 P. M 75
Maximum . . . . .85
Minimum ..... 69Humidity, according to the hydrometer of Duluc.
The mercury, which rises in the most s. partsof Europe, and in the variations of the atmo-sphere to 1 l-12ths of the Paris inch, ascends only2-12ths in the e. parts of Tierra Firme. They ob-serve at Caracas, in all the seasons, four small at-mospherical variations every 24 hours, two in theday, and two in the night.
5. Blue of the skies by the cyanometer of Seaus-sure.
Generally .... 18
6. Oxigen and nitrogen gas. — Of 100 parts, 28of oxj'^gen and 72 of nitrogen.
The maximum of the first is 29The minimum . . . 27f
7. Variation of the needle.
Sept. 27th, 1799 . . 4° 38' 45"
8. Inclination of the dipping needle. Generally^^4-so- Oscillation of the pendulum : in 15 minutes,1270 oscillations.
9. Situation. — The city of Caracas is built in avalley of four leagues in length, in a direction frome. to w. and between that great chain of mountainsAvhich runs in a line with the sea from Coro to Cu-mana. It is, as it were, in a basin or hollow form-ed by this chain ; for it has mountains of equalheight to the n. and to the s. The city occupies aspace of 2000 square paces ; the ground on whichit stands remains as nature formed it, art havingdone nothing towards levelling it, or diminishingits irregularities. The declivity is every wheredecidedly from the s. : the whole of it is 75 fa-thoms perpendicular from the gate De la Pastorato the n. unto the river Guaire, which bounds thecity to the s.
10. Its waters. — It derives its waters from foursmall rivers. The first, which is called Guaire,bounds it entirely on the s. part without pene-trating into the city. Although this be scarcelyconsiderable enough to deserve the name of a river,it is too large to pass by the name of a rivulet. Thesecond, which bears the name of Anauco, watersthe e. side of the town ; and the part where it ap-proaches nearest is called Candelaria, where thereis built a handsome bridge, facilitating the com-munication with the valley of Chacao. The thirdis the Caroata : its course is from n. to s. throughall the w. part of the city, and separates it fromthe quarter called St. John, which parts are unitedby a stone bridge of a sufficiently solid construc-tion, but the regularity of which does not equalthat of the Candelaria. The fourth is named Ca-tucho, to which the city owes the waters of an in-finite number of public and private fountains ; yetthe inhabitants of Caracas, insensible to its bene-fits, suffer it to run in the same channel that timehas made for it, and amidst all the deformitieswhich the rains have occasioned ; for the fourbridges of communication which are thrown acrossit are rather to be considered the offsprings of ne-cessity than as objects of ornament. These fourrivers, after having served all the domestic uses ofthe city, run in one single channel across the valleyof Chacao, which is covered Avith fruits, provi-sions, and merchandize ; and, mixing their wa-]
emolument which used to be derived to the Eng-lish froPA the skins of the castor, is at presentgreatly abridged from the circumstance of the In-dians invariably destroying this animal; but theloss is in a great measure made up from the greatgain acquired in the sale of turpentine, fish, andpitch. Here they cultivate quantities of indigoof three sorts, much maize, and in the low landsexcellent rice. All this province is a plain 80miles in length, carrying on a great commerce inthe above productions, and formerly that of ricewas very considerable; it being computed to haveyielded that article to the value of 150,000/. ster-ling per annum. In its woods are many exquisitekinds of timber, and the country abounds withrabbits, hares, dantas, deer, pheasants, partridges,cranes, pigeons, and other birds, and with num-bers of ravenous and fierce wolves, against theattacks of which it is difficult to preserve thecattle. The European animals have also multi-plied here astonishingly, so that it is not unusualfor persons, who at first had not more than three orfour cows, now to possess as many thousands.These two provinces forming Carolina have 10navigable rivers, with an infinite number of smallernote, all abounding in fish ; but they hare fewgood ports, and the best of these is Cape Fear.N. Carolina is not so rich as is S. Carolina, andDenton was formerly the capital of the former,but it is at present reduced to a miserable village ;the capital of both is Charlestown, which since thelast w^r is independent of the jEnglish, togetherwith all the country, which now forms one of the 13provinces composing the United States of America.[See North Carolina and South Carolina.]
(CAROLINE County, in Virginia, is on the s.side of Rappahannock river, which separates itfrom King George’s county. It is about 40 milessquare, and contains 17,489 inhabitants, including10,292 slaves.)
whole province. It abounds in gold mines, andis fertile in all the fruits peculiar to the climate,but it is much reduced.
Caroni, a large and abundant river of the pro-vince of Guayana. It rises in the mountains in-habited by the Mediterranean Caribes Indians,runs many leagues, laving the territory of the Ca-puchin missionaries of Guayana. Its shores arevery delightful, from the variety of trees and birdsfound upon them. It enters the Orinoco on the s.side, eight leagues from the garrison of Guayana,and 72 leagues before this river enters the sea, be-ing divided into two arms, which form a smallisland. It is very abundant and wide, but it isnot navigable, on account of the rapidity of its cur-rent, and from its being filled with little islands andshoals, as likewise on account of a great waterfallor cataract, which causes a prodigious noise, and isclose to the mission and settlement of Aguacagua.Its waters are very clear, although at first sightthey appear dark and muddy, which effect is pro-duced from the bed of the river being of a sand ofthis colour. Its source, though not accuratelyknown, is affirmed by the Caribes Indians to bein the snowy sierra to the n. of the lake of Parime,that also being the source by which this lake issupplied. At its entrance into the Orinoco, itgushes with &uch impetuosity as to repel the watersof this river the distance of a gun’s shot, [or, as'Depons observes, half a league. Its course is di-rectly from s. to n. and its source is more than100 leagues from its mouth.]
==CARORA, S. Juan Bautista del Por-tillo DE==, a city of the province and governmentof Venezuela, founded by Captain John Salamancain 1572, and not in 1566, as is asserted by FatherColeti, in the Siege of Baraquiga. It is situate inthe savanas or Uanuras ; is of a hot temperature,but very healthy, although deficient in water,since the river Morere, which passes in its vicinity,affords but a trifling stream in tlie summer, and isat times entirely dry. In its district are bred allkinds of cattle, but particularly thegoat, as the quan-tities of thorns and thistles found in this countryrender it peculiarly adapted for the nourishmentof this animal. It abounds in very fine grains,also in aromatic balsams and gums, noted for thecure of w'ounds. At present it is reduced to amiserable population, unworthy of the name of acity, consisting of Mustees, Mulattoes, and some In-dians.; but it still preserves a very good parishchurch, a convent of monks of St. hhancisco, and
The antidote, however, is oil taken in abundanceinternally, and applied outwardly. Neither wheatnor barley are known here, but the place aboundsin maize and rice, of which they make cakes, andwhich are the common bread of the natives, andmore particularly so that called cazave^ being asort of cake made of the root yiica^ name, or mo-niato. There are also a great number of cottontrees. The arms of this city are a green crossupon a gold ground, with a lion rampant oneach side. It was sacked in 1593 by RobertBaal, a pirate ; in 1583, by Sir Francis Drake, 23years from the time of its being fortified, and notfrom its foundation, as according to Mr. La Ma-tiniere ; again iti 1695, by Mr. Ducase, assisted bythe adventurers or fiibustiers, who completely pil-laged it : but a great sensation having been causedamongst the inhabitants at the loss of a superb se-pulchre made of silver, in which it rvas usual ona good Friday to deposit the eucharist, they hadthe good fortune to obtain its restitution throughthe interest and favour of Louis XI F. TheEnglish, under the command of Admiral Vernonand Sir Charles Ogle, besieged this city in 1740,when, although its castles were destroyed, andit was completely besieged, it would not surren-der, being gloriously defended by the viceroyDon Sebastian de Esiava, and Don Bias de Lezo,who caused the English to abandon the enterprisewith precipitancy and with great loss. [For thisconduct on the part of the English, several reasonswere assigned besides the strength of the place ;namely, the mortality among the troops, wantof skill in the commanders, and certain ditferencesbetween the admiral and the general. The forti-fications which they demolished have since beenrepaired.] It is the only part of all America wherethere is etfective coin of a fourth part of a real insilver. Its inhabitants amount to 9160 souls incommunion. It has been the native place of manycelebrated persons, such are,
Don Augustin Samiento de Sotomayor, of the or-der of Santiago, viscount of Portillo.
Don Andres de la Vega, professor at Salamanca,a famous lawyer.
Fray Carlos de Melgarejo, a religious Domini-can, an excellent preacher, and a man of unble-mished life.
Don Caspar de Cuba and Arce, head collegiateof San Marcos de Lima, oidor of Chile.
Don Gonzalo de Herrera, Marquis of Villalta,governor of Antioquia.
Don Gregorio Castellar y Mantilla, governor ofCumana, and general of the armada of the guardof the coasts of Cartagena.
Don Joseph de Paredes, captain of infantry,knight of the order of Santiago.
Fray Joseph Pacheco, of the order of St. Au-gustin, master, visitor, and vicar-general i:i his pro-vince of the Nuevo Reyno.
The Father Joseph de Urbina, of the extin-guished company, rector of the college of SantaFe.
Don.Iuan Fernandez Rosillo, dean of the churchof his country, bishop of V^erapez and of Mecho-acan .
Fray Juan Pereyra, a religious Dominican.
Don Lope Duke Estrada, kiiight of the order ofSantiago.
It is in long. 75° 24' and lat. 10° 25' n. [Foraccount of the present revolutions, see Vene-zuela.]
Bishops who have presided in Cartagena.
1. Don Fray Tomas del Toro, a monk of theorder of St. Domingo, elected the . first bishop in1532; but being at Talavera, his country, at thetime, he unfortunately died before he was conse-crated.
2. Don Fray Geronimo de Loaisa, a Dominicanmonk, renowned for his virtue and talent, and forhis experience in Indian affairs ; he was elected inthe room of the former, was consecrated at Valla-dolid, and there he erected the church into a ca-thedral in 1538, the same year in which he enteredCartagena ; from hence he was promoted to thearchbishopric of Lima in 1542.
3. Don Fray Francisco de Santa Maria y Bena-vides, of the order of St. Gerome, of the illustriousfamily of the Marquises of Fromesta ; serving atthat time the Emperor in Flanders, he took to areligious life, and was elected bishop of Cartagenain 1543. The city, in his time, was plundered bytwo pirates, lieaded by the Spanisli pilot AlonsoVexines, who cominitted thisactout of revenge fora flogging he had received ; they also ill-treatedthe venerable prelate, who had the additional griev-ance, in the year L551, of witnessing the city inflames. In 1554 he was promoted to the churchof Modonedo in Galicia, and was succeeded inCartagena by,
4. Don Fray Gregorio de Beteta, a Dominicanmonk, brought up in the convent of Salamanca, andone of the twenty who went to the Nuevo Reynode Gratiada, from whence he passed over to Mex-ico to convert the Indians, and afterwards withthe same object to the provinces of Santa Marta,Uraba, ami Cartagena ; and being teacher amicurate in one of his settlements, he received theorder of presentation to this bishopric in 1555 ;although he endeavoured to decline the dignify,
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from six to 20 feet diameter, worn almost perfectlysmooth, into the solid body of a rock.]
CAXAMARCA, a province and corregimientoof Peru, in the bishopric of Truxillo ; boundeds. e. by the province of Caxamarquilla, e. by thatof Chachapoyas, n.w. by that of Luya and Chil-Igos : all these three being situate at that part oft^e Maranon which serves as a limit to this pro-vince of Caxamarca. It is bounded ». by the pro-vince of Jaen, n. w. by that of Piura, w. by thatof Saha and by a part of Truxillo, and s. by thatof Huamachuco. It is in length 40 leagues froms. e. ion. w. ; and in breadth, or across, 36 leagues.To enter it through the province of Truxillo, whichis the grand road, it is necessary to pass the cordil-lera, which is not here so lofty as in the s. pro-vinces. This province, however, abounds witheminences which are branches of the cordillera;and on account of the height and situation ofthese, a great variety of temperature is experienced,some parts being subject to an intense heat, andothers to , a severe cold. Thus it partakes of thenature of the sierra, and its uneven figure no lesscorresponds with it : but it is for the most part of agood temperature, particularly in the capital. Theprovince abounds greatly in all kinds of fruits andcattle : in it are fabricated cloths, baizes, blankets,canvas for sails of ships, and cotton garments of aVery fine and excellent quality. Formerly its prin-cipal commerce was in swine ; at present it is not,though these animals still abound in some parts.It is watered by many rivers, of which those risingon the w. side of the cordillera, as the Sana, Lam-bay eque, and those passing through the provinceof Truxillo, all enter the S. sea. The others,amongst which that of the Criznejas is the largest,incoporate themselves with the Maranon. On itsshores are lavaderos, or washing-places of gold;and its rivers in general abound in very good andwholesome fish. Besides the fruits and the pro-ductions of every kind found in this province, ithas to boast many gold and silver mines, some ofwhich are worked. There a e also some of copper,
very fine lead, brimstone, and alcaparrosa. To-wards the n. part, where it touches the province ofJaen, are found some bark-trees, the production ofwhich, although not equal to the trees of Loxa, isof the colour of heated copper, and possesses allthe virtues of the common bark. Here are alsomany medicinal herbs, and amongst them the cele-brated calagimla. In the time of the Indians, andbefore the conquest, it was so well peopled that itsnatives formed upwards of 500 settlements. Atpresent they amount to 46,000, being divided into46 settlements. The capital bears the same title,and the repartimiento of the corregidor used toamount to 80,000 dollars, and it paid an alcavalaof 640 dollars per annum.
The settlements are.
Caxamarca, the ca-pital,
Trinidad de Chetu,S. Francisco doCay an,
Santa Catalina deChugod,
San Pablo de Cha-lique,
S. Luis de Tuniba-din,
S. Bernardino de
S. Juan de Llallan,Nepos,
San Miguel de Pal-laques,
San Juan de Huam-bos,
Todos Santos deChota,Tacabamba,Yauyucan.
its figure is
The capital is large and handsomeirregular, and it is situate upon a level plainT Thehouses are of clay, and the streets are wide andstraight. The parish church, Avhich has threenaves, is of finely worked stone, and the buildingexpences of it Avere defrayed by King Charles II.in the time of the viceroy the Duke of La Palata,in 1682. It has a parish of Spaniards, calledSanta Catalina ; two of Indians, which are SanPedro and San Joseph ; two convents of the orderof St. Francis, one of the Observers, and anotherof the Recoletans ; an hospital and a convent ofBethlemites, a monastery of nuns of La Concepcion,an house of entertainment of Nuestra Senora de
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Las Mercedes, and an hospital for women. Itcontains more than 2000 inhabitants, and amongstthese many illustrious families, descended from thefirst conquerors. The Indians here are accountedthe most industrious of any in the kingdom. Theleinperaturc is mild, and it abounds in fruits andpastures : here arc also mines of various metals. Hereit was that Atahualpa was put to death by theSpanish, being the last Inca and Emperor ofPeru ; and there is still to be seen a stone, of ayard and an half long and two-thirds wide, whichserves as the foundation to the altar of the chapelwhere he met his fate. Of this palace, which wasfor the most part built of mud, but which was verylarge, and was afterwards converted into the prison,the chapel, and house of the corregidor, called DeCahildo, nothing has been left save a piece of wallof about 12 yards long and eight wide. It hasnot long been forgotten to what point the Emperorwaved Ins hand,' to signify where his pursuersmight find the treasure which might secure to himhisliberty. At a league’s distance, to the e. of thecity, arc seen the termas, or baths, as they arecalled, of the Inca ; the waters of which are notso plentiful as they were formerly, although so hotas to boil an egg ; but the egg, although it ap-pears completely done, will, if put on a commonfire to boil, take just as much time as an egg whichis perfectly cold ; if kept a day or more it breaks,and the smell and flavour of h, when eaten, is likemud ; but if it be not eaten until it be cold, thenits flavour is similar to that of any other egg* Onthe banks of the stream from whence these watersflow, and in the pools formed by them, there isfound a multitude of animalcule, which looked atthrough a microscope appear like shrimps. Lat.6° 54' 5.
CAXAMARQUILLA y Collaos, a pro-vince and corregimiento of Peru, called also Pa-táz ; bounded e. by the mountains of the infidelIndians, n.e. and n. by the province of Cha-chapoyas, ti.zo. by that of Caxarnarca, the riverMarailon flowing between the two, w. by part ofthe province of Conchucos, and s. by that of Iluai-malies. It is 26 leagues long from ?^. to s. and sixwide, where it extends itself farthest along the e.shore of the river Maranon, Avhich divides thisprovince from those of Conchucos and Huama-chuco. Its temperature is various ; in the hol-lows and uneven I'laces it is mild ; in the partslying upon the above river it is hot, and in thevery lofty parts it is cold. The territory is ruggedand uneven, and a level spot of ground, or Uarmra,is scarcely to be seen throughout the w'hole. Onthe e. side it is as it were walled in by vejy
lofty and craggy mountains, increasing in heightuntil they gradually reach the loftiest summit:but these are the provident sources of streamswhich flow down from them into the Maranon, andwhich, together with the rains, fertilize several spotsof kind, producing maize, wheat, potatoes, ocas,bark, French beans, herbs, and sugar-cane, for theworking of which there are mills on the spot.Every kind of cattle is found here in moderation,and the Maranon abounds in fish. Almost all themountains of this province have in them veins ofsilver and gold ore : but these are very deceitful,and as well upon this account as from the want ofhands, they are for the most part abandoned. Thegold mines, however, have always been worked,though the silver mines not more than 20 yearsback up to now, in which time some riches havebeen discovered ; and even at the present day thegold mines would produce 600 marks, and those ofsilver 3000. The trade of the mines is certainlythe principal commerce of the place, and it is faci-litated by four ports in the Maranon, which afforda convenient opening and communication with theother provinces. The inhabitants of this placescarcely amount to 8000, who live in 17 settle-ments. Its repartimiento used to amount to50,000 dollars, and its alca'oala to 400 dollarsper annum.
The settlements are,
Asiento de Saru-milla,
Santa Isabel dePias,
Santa Magda leade Huayo,Pataz,
The settlement, the capital of this province, is ofthe same name. Lat. 7° 36' s.
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dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pasco ; in whichis the celebrated mountain and mine of Lauri-cocha.
CAXAMARQUILLA Y COLLAOS, the territory ofthe missions which forms part of the former pro-vince, and which is a reduccion of the infidel moun-tain Indians, who have been converted by themonks of St. Francis: these Indians are main-tained by a portion paid by the kin«?’s procuratorout of the royal coffers at Lima. They dwell tothe e. of the province, and are reduced to foursettlements ; two of the Ibita, and two of the Cho-lona nation. It is now 90 years since their foun-dation, and the number of Indians may at presentamount to 2000. Those settlements are situateupon mountains covered with trees and thickwoods ; from whence the natives procure incense,cffCflo, resinous gums, oil of Maria, dragon’s blood,the reed called bejuco^ dried fish, honey, wax,monkeys, parrots, and macaws, whicli^ are thebranches of its commerce ; tliough not less so isthe coca plant, which they pack up in measures offour bushels each , and carry in abundance to differentparts, for the consumption of the whole province.The missionaries of the above order have madevarious attempts, and have spared neither painsnor labour in penetrating into the interior parts ofthe mountains ; having repeatedly discovered otherbarbarous nations, whom they would fain have re-duced to the divine knowledge of the gospel.
The aforesaid settlements are,
Jesus de Sion, San Buenaventura,
Jesus de Ochonache, Pisano.
CAXATAMBO, a province and corregimientoof Peru, bounded n. by that of Huailas, n. e. bythat of Conchuios, e. by that of Huamalies, s. e.by that of Tarma, s. by the part of Chancay calledChecras, s. e. by the low part of Chancay, and n.w. by that of Santa. It is in length 34 leagues n. e.s. w. and 32 in width n. w. s. e. ; the greaterpart of it is situate in a serrama. Its temperatureis consequently cold, except in the broken and un-even spots and in the low lands. Besides the pro-ductions peculiar to the serrama., this provinceabounds in all sorts of seeds and fruits; in allspecies of cattle, especially of the sheep kind, fromthe fleece of whicli its inhabitants manufacturemuch cloth peculiar to the country ; this beingthe principal source of its commerce. It producessome grain and cochineal, used for dyes ; and if thislatter article were cultivated, it would bring greatprofit. Amongst tlie mountains of this provincethere is one called Huilagirca of fine flint, and twomines of sulphur and alcaparrosa, articles employedin the colouring of wools, not only in this province,
but in those of Huanuco, Huamalies, and Jauja:It has also mines of good yeso or gypsum. Theprincipal rivers by which it is irrigated, are twowhich rise in the same soil, and both of which enterthe S. sea, after having laved the contiguous pro-vinces ^ in former times there were fine silver mines,which are still worked, but for some reason or other,to very little profit. On the n. c. part, on some emi-nences, is a spot called Las Tres Cruces, (The ThreeCrosses), there being as many of these fixed up hereto determine its boundaries, and that of the pro-vince of Santa Huailas. Its population consists ofthe 69 following settlements : its repartimiento usedto amount to 1^0, (XX) dollars, and the akavala to1046 dollars per annum.
Caxatambo, the ca-
A cay a,
Palpas, distinct from
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ters the sea between the river Rosa and the settle-ment and parisli of Cul de Sac.
CERINZA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofTunja in tlie Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of acold temperature, and abounds in cattle and theproductions peculiar to the climate. It contains300 families, and lies in a valley, from which ittakes its name.
CERMEN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the side ofthe town of San Felipe, towards the e. betweenthis town and the settlement of Agua Culebras, onthe shore of the river Iraqui.
CERRALUO, a town and presidency of theNuevo Reyno de Leon, garrisoned by a squadronof 12 soldiers and a captain, who is governor ofthis district, for the'purpose of restraining the bor-dering infidel Indians. Between the e. and n. isthe large river of this name ; and from this begins atract of extensive country, inhabited by barba-rous nations, who impede the communication andcommerce Avith regard to this part and the pro-vinces of Tejas and Nuevas Felipinas. Is 35leagues to the e. of its capital.
Cerraluo, a bay of the coast and gulf of Ca-lifornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, opposite an islandwhich is also thus called ; the one and theother hav-ing been named out of compliment to the Marquis ofCerraluo, viceroy of Nueva Espana. TJie afore-said island is large, and lies between the formerbay and the coast of Nueva Espana.
Cerrito, another, with the surname of SantaAna. See Ctuayaquie.
==Cerro, another, called San Miguel de CerroGordo==, which is a garrison of the province of Te-peguana in the kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Itssituation is similar to the road which leads to it,namely, a plain level surface ; although, indeed,it is divided by a declivity, in ivhich there is apool of water, and by Avhich passengers usuallypass. This garrison is the residence of a captain,a Serjeant , and 28 soldiers, who are appointed tosuppress the sallies of the infidel Indians. In itsvicinity is a cultivated estate, having a beautifulorchard, abounding in fruit-trees and in zepas,which also produce fruit of a delicious flavour.The garrison lies 50 leagues n. w. of the capitalGuadiana.
Cerros, San Felipe de los, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Uruapa, and alcaldia mayorof Valladolid, in the province and bishopric ofMcchoacan. It contains 26 families of Indians,and lies eight leagues to the e. of its head settle-ment, and 10 from the capital.
CESARA, a large and copious river of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, which was called bythe Indians Pompatao, meaning in their idiom,“ the lord of all rivers,” is formed of severalsmall rivers, which flow down from the snowysierras of Santa Marta. It runs s. leaving the ex-tensive llamtras of Upar until it reaches the lakeZapatosa, from whence itj issues, divided into fourarms, which afterwards unite, and so, following acourse of 70 leagues to the w, enters the Magda-lena on the <?. side, and to the s. of the little settle-ment called Banco.
CESARES, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe kingdom of Chile towards the s. Of themare told many fabulous accounts, although theyare, in fact, but little known. Some believe themto be formed of Spaniards and Indians, being thoseAvho Avere lost in the straits of Magellan, and be-longed to the armada which, at the beginning ofthe conquest of America, Avas sent by the bishop ofPlacencia to discover the Malucas. Others pre-tend that the Arucanos, after they had destroyedthe city of Osonio, in 1599, took aAvay with themthe Spanish Avomen ; and that it Avas from the pro-duction of these Avomen and the Indiatis that thisnation of the Cesares arose. Certain it is, that theyare of an agreeable colour, of a pleasing aspect,and of good dispositions. They have some lightof Christianity, live without any fixed abode ; andsome have affirmed that they have heard the soundof bells in their territorj". It Avas attempted in1638, by the governor of Tucuman, Don Geronimo
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CHACAYACU, a river of the province ofQuixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs frome. to w. then turns its course to s. w. and shortlyafter, passing tlirough the settlement of Loreto,enters the river Suno on its w. shore.
CHACHAGUI. See Tambo Pintado.
CHACHAPOIAS, a province and corregimientoof Peru ; bounded e. and s. by the mountains ofthe infidel Indians, n. w. by the provinces ofLuya and Chillaos, and w. by C.axaraarca. Itsgreatest length is 38 leagues from n. w. to s. e. andits breadth is nearly as great. Its temperatuse isfor the most part mild, though in some places ex-ceedingly hot, and in others equally cold, since abranch of the cordillera intersects it. Upon thisaccount also it abounds greatly in all productions,such as wheat, maize, and other seeds, and in allkinds of herbs and fruits. It produces a good pro-portion of sugar ; but the principal sources of itscommerce are cotton and tobacco ; these produc-tions belonging peculiarly to the district of Mayo-bamba, three leagues distant to the s. e. and beingheld in great estimation. The women spin cot-ton, of which they manufacture canvass for thesails of ships, also for bags : they spin likewiseanother sort of delicate thread, of which theymake linen for garments ; the men employingtliemselves in the looms and in the cultivation ofcotton and tobacco : of this they used to gatheryearly 600 measures, consisting of 200 mazos orrollos each, each mazo being valued at one real.At present less is cultivated, from the prohibitionof commerce, so that the settlement has becomemuch poorer, and the price of the cotton for mak-ing sails is now at two reals per lb. ; thougli thatwhich is very fine, at a dollar. As there is no cur-rent coin, the inhabitants make barters in kind forthe necessaries they want. Thus also they pay liieirtributes, duties, and taxes ; and the treaties amongstthem for canvass and linen cloths are consequentlyvery large, the prices being regulated amongstthemselves. They cultivate coca, and with thisthey supply some of the neighbouring provinces.
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They breed cattle of every sort, horses, sheep, andcows ; of whose hides, when tanned and dried bythe fire, they manufacture trunks, saddles, chests,&c. It has but a tew mines, and of these, oneonly is gold, and a few of salt are worked. It iswatered by several rivers ; but the principal arethe Moyobamba and the Uccubaraba. Its inha-bitants amount to 10,000, and are divided into 43settlements. Its reparti mi etHo amounted to 32,000dollars ; and it paid nearly 256 for alcavala,
San Juan de la Fron- Nixaque,tera, Corobamba,
Santa Ana, Pomacocha,
San Lazaro, Quispis,
El Santo Christo de Bur- Santo Tomas,
San Christoval de las Junvilla,
San Pedro de Utac, Yambrasbamba,
Santo Tomas de Guillai, Chirta,
San lldefonso, Yapa,
La Magdalena, San Miguel de los 01-
Moyobamba, city, Palanca,
Y rinari, Thoe,
Chachapoias, a river of the above province,which runs «. w. and enters the Marafion.
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Brocal de la Mina de, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru ;finnexed to the curacy of Santa Barbara.
CHACMA, or Chamaca, a valley of the pro-vince of Cuzco and kingdom of Peru, near thecoast of the S. sea. It was well peopled in formertimes, and abounds now in sugar-cane, from whichsugar is made. It was conquered and united tothe empire by Huaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor.
CHACO, a province of the kingdom of Peru,called the Gran Chaco, is an extensive country ;having as its boundary to the e. the river Para-guay, and being bounded on the [n.e. by the pro-vince of the Chiquitos Indians ; on the n. by thatof Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; on the zo. it touchesupon the provinces of Mizque, Tomina, Porna-bamba, Pilaya, Paspaya, Tarija, and Tucuman.On the s. it extends as far as the jurisdiction of thegovernment of Buenos Ayres, which is its farthestlimits. Towards the n. it is 150 leagues widefrom e. to w. and 250 leagues long from n. to s. ;but to make these distances, it requires manymonths, owing to the unevenness and roughness ofthe territory. It is called Chaco, or, with morepropriety, Chacu, which, in the Quechuan lan-guage, signifies junta, or company, from the cir-cumstance of its having been formed of Indians ofseveral countries, who had fled from the conquer-ing arms of the Incas, and afterwards from thoseof the Spaniards. Towards the w. it has someserraniasj which are branches of the cordilhrn ;where, on account of their immense height, thecold is very great ; but in the low grounds, whichare for the most part plains, the temperature is hot.It is full of thick woods, and in many parts isswampy and wet ; particularly in the part lyingtowards the e. on the road to Paraguay. In thewet season, which lasts from the month of Novem-ber to April, the rivers leave their beds and formvarious lakes, some of which dry up, and someremain. This province has some rivers of note ;such are the Salado and the Bermejo ; is one of themost fertile provinces in America, and would, ifit were cultivated, afford, in the greatest abun-dance, those productions wnich are now thrownaway upon the infinite number of barbarous na-
tions who inhabit it. It produces a great varietyof fine woods and fruit-trees; such as walnuts andnuts, although different from those of Europe, butwhich arc extremely well tasted ; beautiful cedars ;quebrachos^ thus called on account of their hard-ness ; guqyacanes, carob-trees, balsams, marias,palms, some of which are more than 30 yards inheight; almonds, cacaos, ceihas, whicli are verylarge trees, bearing in the pods a remarkable softwool, used for quilts, since it cannot be spun ; cot-ton-trees, mistoles, of the heart of which the In-dians make darts and cimeters ; myrrh, sarzafraz-trees, bark, and others, which have the interiorbark so delicate and white as occasionally to serveinstead of writing paper; others there are, whicli,at one or two yards up their stems, form a kind ofbarrel or pipe, and being of a very tough bark,are accustomed to be ripped open by the Indians,and thus serve as vessels, in which these keep theirliquor called chieha ; it is from this that theywhimsically call this plant palo borracho, ordrunken tree. In this province are found alsocanes for walking sticks, as fine as those of Asia ;and in the trunks of trees, in holes of the rocksand below the ground, are quantities of honey andwax wrought by bees, of which there are reckonedto be more than 12 sorts : some of the wax, besidesbeing transparent, is extremely fragrant and deli-cious to the taste, whilst some is so sour as to re-semble the juice of boiled lemons. One sort ofthese bees fabricate, with great skill, excellenthives of mud upon the branches of trees, and ofthe shape of a decanter, which are so hard thatthey will not break in falling down upon theground ; they, morever, are filled Avith exquisitewax and Avell-flavoured honey. The fruit-treeswhich this province produces, are oranges, cedars,lemons, apples, pears, melocotones^ (or peaches en-grafted on quinces), figs, nuts, prunes, and olives,also passion-floAvers ; all of which have beenbrought hither from the city of Santiago de Gua-dalcazar. Here are palms Avhich have cups con-taining 25 kernels each, differing only slightlyfrom the palms of Europe by having a flavour ofthe cocoa, and being somewhat larger. Here isalso a plant called chahuar, having prickles likethe savine, of which are made threads similar tohemp, for the manufacture of nets, bags, and somesorts of coarse garments : its root serves as food forthe Indians, as do also yucas, potatoes, and others.It has an innumerable quantity of birds, namely,Avild pigeons, ducks, herons, mountain-peacocks’pheasants, crows, condors, partridges, falcons,SAvans, periguanas, ostriches, parrots, and onekind of bird which exactly imitates an organ, and
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de Granada, rises in the valley of Cerinza, runsn. and passing tlirough the city of San Gil, turnsto the w. and enters the Suarez or Sabandija.
CHALCO, Hamanalco, a district and alcal-día mayor of Nueva España ; situate between then. and s. of the city of Mexico, at eight leaguesdistance ; is very fertile, and abounds in produc-tions and the necessaries of life, especially in wheatand maize; the crops of the former usually amount to30,000 (argas (a measure containing four bushels)yearly, and of the latter to 25,000. Besides thisit produces great quantities of seeds, woods, sugar,honey, and the fruits of a hot climate, all ofwhich arc carried to Mexico, as well by land car-riage as by the lake, which is so favourable to itscommerce. In the sierra of the volcano of thisjurisdiction, there are silver mines, but they arenot worked, on account of the great expence. Thepopulation consists of 46 settlements, of which 16are head settlements of districts, and in 15 of thesethere are parish churches. Tlie capital is of thesame name, and it is situate on the shore of a lakeenjoying a mild temperature, and well knownfrom the fair which it celebrates every Fridaythroughout the year, to which flock a great num-ber of people from the neighbouring provinceswith merchandize ; some even coming from themost distant parts in canoes by the lake, or withdroves of mules on land. It lies between the riversFiamanalco and Tenango, which run into thelake, and the waters of this serve, when it is ne-cessary, to replenish the lake of Mexico, forwhich purpose there are proper sluices provided.It contains 350 families of Indians, and someSpaniards and Mustees ; is seven leagues fromMexico. The other settlements are,
San Pedro de Ecazingo, Ayapango,
San Juan Tenango, Ayozingo,
CHALCO, with the dedicatory title of SanAgustin, another settlement of the head settle-
ment of Coxcotlan, and the alcaldia mayor of Val-les, in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacyof Aquismon ; is of an extremely hot and moisttemperature, on account of which it has beenabandoned by several Indian families who residedin it formerly ; 12 of these families only are nowremaining ; is 23 leagues from its capital.
CHALCO, another, of the head settlement andalcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan ; situate in theplain of a deep break or hole made by mountainfloods ; is of a hot temperature, and contains 35families of Indians ; lies 12 leagues to the n. of itscapital.
(Chalco Lake. See Mexico.)
(CHALEURS, a deep and broad bay on the w.side of the gulf of St. Lawrence. From this bayto that of Verte, on the s. in the s. e. corner of thegulf, is the n. e. sea line of the British provinceof New Brunswick.)
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(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)
CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement ofMongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced)annexed to the curacy of the same. Its tempera-ture is mild, and abounds in pure good water, andin the productions of a hot climate.
CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ;situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, fromwhence its temperature is so cold that it is seldomany crops can be gathered from the seeds that aresown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 inthe wards of its district, and a convent of the reli-gious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settle-ment.
CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district ofPuerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in thekingdom of Quito, at a small distance from thesea-coast and bay of its name ; this title beingalso applied to the point which forms the samebay.
CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina,which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. Thewhole of it abounds in cataracts, and its watersthrow up immense quantities of coal, which wasthe cause of its being thus named.
CHARCA, a settlement of the province and
corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Sacaca.
CHARCAS, an extensive province of the king-dom of Peru, composed of various others. Its ju-risdiction comprehends the district of this royalaudience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the cor-regimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, andextends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It isbounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian servingas a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregi-miento of Atacama, which is of its district, andforms the most n. part of this province in that di-rection, and being closed in on its other sides bythe kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, in-cluding the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . :is in many parts very thinly peopled, and coveredwith large desert tracts, and rugged and impene-trable mountains, and again by the elevated cordil-leras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras orpampas, which serve to mark its size and the relativedistances of its territories. Its temperature through-out is extremely cold, although there are not want-ing parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At thetime that this province was in the possession of theIndians, and previous to the entrance of the Spa-niards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointlyunder the name of Charcas ; and the conquest ofthese was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui,fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the ter-ritory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Hereit was that his conquests terminated : nor did thesubjection of these parts extend farther than Col-laysuyo until after his death, when he was suc-ceeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor,who carried on still farther the victories which hadbeen already gained, conquering all the nations asfar on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwardsfounded the city of this name, called also La Plata.After that the Spaniards had reduced that part ofPeru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and thatthe civil wars and dissensions which existed be-tween these were at an end, they endeavoured tofollow up their enterprise by making a conquest ofthe most distant nations. To this end, in 1538,Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force,and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues,found in them such a spirited opposition, that afterseveral battles he was brought to think this objectwas nearly impracticable : this idea was strength-ened by the reception he had met with from theChuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given himconvincing proofs of their valour and warlikespirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just
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at that critical moment received fresh succours,that were sent from Cuzco by his brother the Mar-quis Don Francisco Pizarro, he would have fallena sacrifice, with the whole of the Spanish army, tothat undertaking : but being invigorated by thisassistance, he succeeded in routing the Indians,and in obliging them to surrender to the Spanishgovernment. In 1539 the Marquis Don Fran-cisco Pizarro, seeing the importance of making anestablishment here, resolved upon building of atown, giving a commission to Captain Pedro Au-zures to execute the same. This person actuallyput into effect the plan suggested, founding thetown in exactly the same spot in which formerlystood the settlement of Chuquisaca. Here manyof its conquerors settled and became citizens, andthey gave it the name of La Plata, or Silver, fromsome mines of this metal which are found in themountain of Porco, which lies at a small distancefrom this city, and from which the Inca Emperorswere accustomed to extract immense emolument.Notwithstanding this name it has never lost itsoriginal title, Chuquisaca, although indeed it isbadly pronounced by the Spaniards ; since the In-dians, and with great propriety, will have it Cho-quezaca, Choquechaca, or Choquisacha; all ofwhich, however pronounced, signify, the first,moun-tains of gold ; the second, cunchos of gold, orfields of brambles with yellow twigs ; and the third,bridges of gold. Although this province is exten-sive, it is composed of various others, which weshall notice under their proper heads. This keepsits present name, from being the one of all theothers the most abounding in minerals, seeds, andcattle ; as well as being the one best peopled withIndians. It is watered by many large rivers ; andthe whole of it composes an archbishopric, towhich arc suffragan the bishoprics of La Paz,Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Tucuman, Paraguay,and Buenos Ayres. It belongs to the viceroyaltyof this latter place since the time that this waserected, and that the government was entrusted tothe royal audience established in 1559. The afore-said district comprehends in its jurisdiction allthe following provinces and corregimientos :Tomino, Cochabamba,
Oruro, Atacama ;
In which are contained 188 settlements and cura-cies, in which there were in 1651 about 100,000Indians. The capital of the whole jurisdiction is
the aforesaid city of Chuquisaca or La Plata. —[Charcas joined the new government of BuenosAyres in 1810. See La Plata,]
Those who have been Presidents in the RoyalAudience of Charcas.
1. The Licentiate Pedro Ramirez de Quinones,first president, in 1559.
2. The Licentiate Juan de Matienzo, a cele-brated jurisconsult, in 1580.
3. The Licentiate Zepeda, in 1588.
4. The Licentiate Alonso Maldonado de Torres,in 1606.
5. Don Juan de Lizarazu, knight of the orderof Santiago ; he passed over to the presidency ofQuito in 1612.
6. Don Diego de Portugal, in 1614.
7. Don Alonzo Perez de Salazar, who was pre-sident of Quito, and was promoted to this, wherehe governed until the year 1620.
8. Don Juan de Caravajal y Sande, promotedin 1633.
9. Don Dionisio Perez Manrique, knight ofthe order of Santiago, collegiate in the collegeof Los Manriques de Alcala, rector of the uni-versity there, oidor of Lima, and president ofQuito, from whence he was removed to be pre-sident of this audience of Charcas in 1646 ; whence,having exercised it till 1654, he was removed tothat of Santa Fe.
10. Don Pedro Vazquez de Velasco, who pre-sided until the year 1661.
11. Don Bartolome Gonzalez de Poveda, pro-moted in 1678 ; he was made archbishop of theholy church of Charcas, remaining in the presi-dency until 1688.
12. Don Diego Mesia, native of Lima, oidor ofits royal audience, and formerly of that of Quito ;he was promoted to the presidency of Charcas in1688.
13. Don Jorge Manrique de Lara, who wasoidor of Panama, afterwards of Charcas, as alsopresident.
14. Don Gabriel Antonio Matienzo, president in1723.
15. Don Francisco de Herboso, who was ap-pointed in 1725, and presided until 1732.
16. Don Agustin de Jauregui, knight of theorder of Santiago, and native of Lima.
17. Don Juan Francisco Pestana, adjutant-major of the regiment of Spanish guards ; he wasnominated in 1752, and presided until 1769.
18. Don Ambrosio de Benavides, who enteredin the above year, and presided until 1777.
19. Don Agustin de Pinedo, who succeededthe former, and governed until 1782.
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and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdictionof the city of Santiago del Estero, on the shore ofthe river Choromoros.
(CHAUDIERE River, a s. e. water of the St.Lawrence, rising in Lincoln and Hancock coun-ties, in the district of Maine. The carrying placefrom boatable waters in it, to boatable Avaters in theKetmebeck, is only five miles.)
(CHAUDIERE Falls are situate about nine milesabove Quebec, on the opposite shore, and aboutthree or four miles back from the river St. Law-rence, into which the river Chaudiere disemboguesitself. The river is seen at a distance, emergingfrom a thick wood, and gradually expandingfrom an almost imperceptible stream till it reachesdie cataract, whose breadth is upwards of 360feet. Here the disordered masses of rock, whichiippear to have been rent from their bed by someviolent convulsion of nature, break the course ofthe waters, and precipitate them from a height of120 feet into an immense chasm below. In someparts large sheets of water roll over the precipice,and fall unbroken to the bottom ; while in otherplaces the water dashes from one fragment of therock to another, with wild impetuosity, bellow-ing and foaming with rage in every hollow andcavity that obstructs its progress ; from thence itrushes down with the rapidity of lightning intothe boiling surge beneath, where it rages with in-conceivable fury, till driven from the gulf byfresh columns, it hurries away and loses itself inthe waters of the St. Lawrence. The scenerywhich accompanies the cataract of Chaudiere isbeautiful and romantic beyond description. Inthe centre, a large fragment of rock, which firstdivides the water, at the summit of the precipice,forms a small island ; and a handsome fir-tree,which grows upon it, is thus placed in a mostsingular and picturesque situation. The forest oneither side the river consists of firs, pines, birch,oak, ash, and a variety of other trees and shrubs,intermingled in the most wild and romantic man-ner. Their dark green foliage, joined with thebrown and sombre tint of the rocky fragments overwhich the water precipitates itself, form a strik-ing and pleasing contrast to the snowy white-ness of the foaming surge, and the columns ofsparkling spray which rise in clouds and minglewith the air.)
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mayor of Juxtlahuaca, in Nueva España. It con-tains 57 families of Indians.
CHAYANTA, or Charcas, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Co-chabamba, n. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, e.by the province of Yamparaez, s. e. and s. by thatof Porco, and w. by that of Paria ; is 36 leaguesin length from w. to e. and 44 in width, n. s. Itstemperature is various, since it contains the settle-ments of Puna and Valles ; in the former of theseare found in abundance the productions of thesierra^ and in the latter wheat, maize, and otherseeds and herbs : they have equally a traffic withthe surrounding provinces, especially in the ar-ticles of wheat and flour of maize. Here are bred
cattle of all sorts; aiul there arc some gold mines,though they produce at present very sp:n ingly;some of the silver mines, Avhlch were very fruitful,have lately filled with water, and attempts havebeen made in vain to empty them. Indeed theonly mines which have produced any great wealthare those found in the mountains of Aullagas, andfrom them, for some years past, metals of therarest qualities have been extracted. In the woodsof the valleys, which produce very fine and excel-lent timber, are found wolves, tigers, and otherwild beasts inhabiting the mountains ; also aspecies of bees, which form their combs in the hol-lows of trees, and the honey of which they callde charas. There is a river in this province com-posed of several streams, and which unites itselfwith the Cochabamba. The number of its inha-bitants amounts to 36,000, who are divided into27 settlements. Its reparlimienfo used to amountto 92,665 dollars, and its n/cflxvife to 7-11 dollarsper annum. It is one of the richest provinces ofPeru.
The capital is of the same name, and the othersettlements are,
San Francisco dc Micani,San Marcos de Mirailo-res,
Santiago de l\Ioscari,
San Pedro de Buenavista,Acasio,
(CHEAT River rises in Randolph county,Virginia, and after pursuing a n. n. w. course, joinsMonongahela river, three or four miles within thePennsylvania line. It is 200 yards wide at itsmoutli, and 100 yards at the Dunkards settlement,50 miles higher, and is navigable for boats, exceptin dry seasons. There is a portage of 37 milesfrom this river to the Potowmack, at the mouth ofSavage river.)
nada, of a cold temperature. It lies between somemountains, and abounds in the produclioris of a,cold climate, such as wheat, maize, trullles, andbarley ; it consists of 100 house-keepers, and of40 Indians, all of Avliom are subject to the disorderof the cotos, or swelling of the throat; is 21leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.
CHEBEN, a river of Nova Scotia. It risesfrom a small lake near the settlement and fort ofSackville, runs n. and enters the Basin des Mines,or of the Mines, of the bay of Fundy.
(CHEBUCTO, a bay and harbour on the s. s. e.coast of Nova Scotia, distinguished by the loss ofa French fleet in a former war between Franceand Great Britain. Near the head of this bay,on the w. side, stands the city of Halifax, the ca-pital of the province.)
CHECHIRGANTI, a river of the provinceand government of Darien in the kingdom ofTierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the n.side, runs n. and enters the sea in the small beechor playon, opposite the port of Calidonia.
CHECHAS. See Chancay.
(CHEDABUCTO, or Milford Haven, alarge and deep bay on the easternmost part ofNova Scotia, at the mouth of the gut of Canso.Opposite to its mouth stands isle Madame. Sal-mon river falls into this bay from the w. and isremarkable for one of the greatest fisheries in theworld.)
(CHEESADAWD Lake, about 210 miles n. e.by e. of the Canadian house, on the c. end ofSlave lake, in the Hudson bay company’s terri-tory, is about 35 miles in length, and the same inbreadth. Its w. shore is mountainous and rocky.)
CHEUELUS, or CHAVELOS, a barbarous nationof Indians of the country of Marañon, who inhabitthe woods bordeiing upon the river Aguarico, tothe e. and in the vicinity of the lakes. Theyarc warlike, of a cruel and treacherous nature, andin eternal enmity with their neighbours. M. de laMartiniere will have it, that the name Chavelos isderived from the French wovd chevezLV, the menand the women both allowing and encouraging thegrowth of their hair till it reaches down to thewaist ; supposing, forsooth, that these Indiansmust either have known French when they werediscovered, or that their discoverers, at all events,must have been French.
CHEURA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.It runs w. ?z. e. and e. washing the country of theancient Esmeraldas Indians: it afterwards enterstheriver of its name on the e. side, in lat. 1° 23' n.
CHIA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zi-paquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; cele-brated in the time of the Indians for having beenthe title of the kings ox npas of Bogota; the in-vestiture of which dignity was always transferredwith the greatest possible solemnity. It is of a verycold temperature, although salutary ; and issituate on a beautiful plain, on the shore of theriver Bogota, four leagues to the n. of Santa F6.
CHIAMOTO. See Seyota.
CHIAPA, a province and alcaldia mayor of thekingdom of Guatemala ; bounded on the«. by theprovince of Tabasco, c. by that of Vera Paz, w.by that of Oaxaca of Nueva Espaha, and s. e. bythat of Soconusco. It extends 85 leagues from e.to w. and is nearly 30 across at its widest part.It was conquered by Captain Diego Marariegosin 1531 : is divided into districts or alcaldiasmayores^ which are those of Zoques, Chontales,Los Llanos, and Xiquipila ; is of a warm andmoist temperature, although it has some parts inwhich the cold predominates. Its woods aboundwith large trees of pine, cypress, cedar, and wal-nut; and of others of a resinous kind, from which
are extracted aromatic gums, balsams, and liquidamber, tacamaca, copal, &c. It produces also, inabundance, maize, swine, honey, cotton, cochi-neal, which is only made use of for the purposeof dyeing the cotton ; also cacao, and much pepperand achoie, or the heart-leaved bixa'; also vfiriouskinds of domestic and wild birds, especially par-rots, which are very beautiful and highly esteemed ;a small bird, called tolo, less than a young pigeon,with green wings ; this is caught by the Indians,who pluck from its tail some feathers, Avhich theyprize highly, and then restoring it to liberty; itbeing a capital offence, according to their laws, todestroy it. The sheep, goats, and pigs, whichhave been brought from Europe, have multipledin this province in a most extraordinary manner ;so also have horses, which are of such an esteemedbreed, that the colts are taken from hence to Mex-ico, a distance of 500 miles. In the woods breedmany lions, leopards, tigers, and wild boars,a great number of snakes, some being 20 feet inlength, and others of a beautiful crimson colour,streaked with black and white. Tlie territory is,for the most part, rugged and mountainous, andwatered by different rivers : none of these, how-ever, are of any particular consideration, althoughthat which bears the name of this province is themedium by which the aforesaid productions arecarried to the other provinces ; and although thisprovince may be accounted comparatively poor,from being without mines of gold or silver, it isnevertheless of the greatest importance, as beingthe outwork or barrier to New Spain, from the fa-cility with which this kingdom might be enteredby the river Tabasco. The capital is the royalcity of Chiapa, situate on a delightful plain. Itis the head of a bishopric, erected in 1538; andhas for arms a shield, upon which arc two sierras,with a river passing between them : above theone is a golden castle, with a lion rampant upon it ;and above the other a green palm, bearing fruit,and another lion, the whole being upon a red field.These arms were granted by the Emperor CharlesV. in 1535. The cathedral is very beautiful. Itcontains three convents of the order of St. Francis,La Merced, and St. Domingo ; a monastery ofnuns, and five hermitages. Its population isscanty and poor, and the principal commerce con-sists in cocoa-nuts, cotton, wool, sugar, cochineal,and other articles. Its nobility, although poor, arevery proud, as having descended from some an-cient families of the first nobility of Spain ; suchas those of Mendoza, Velasco, Cortes, &c. Thewomen suffer great debility at the stomach on ac-count of the excessive heat, ami they can never
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in Nueva Espana, is of a mild temperature ; si-tuate in a pleasant and fertile plain, and one whichabounds in maize, wheat, and other seeds. It con-tains S68 families of Indians, 13 of Spaniards, anda convent of the religious order of St. Francis;is one league n. of its capital,
Chiautla, with the addition of La Sal, an-other settlement, the capital of its jurisdiction, inthe same kingdom, thus called from the salt minesfound in it formerly, and from which the inhabi-tants used to derive a great commerce. At pre-sent it is in a thorough state of decay, not only asits trade has fallen off in the other provinces ; butas the Indians have applied themselves rather tothe cultivation of the soil and the planting of fruitsand pulse, from the traffic of which they derivetheir maintenance. It is inhabited by 650 familiesof Mexican Indians, and 40 of Spaniards, J\/us~iees, and Mulattoes. It contains a convent of thereligious order of St. Augustin. The jurisdictionis so much reduced that it is not more than fiveleagues in length and three in width, void of com-merce, and has but a small revenue. Its inhabi-tants, although they are somewhat given to thebreeding of small cattle, yet this must hardly beconsidered with them a branch of commerce,since they have scarcely enough of these where-with to support theiiiselves. It contains only twoother settlements, and these are,
|Forty-five leagues s. e.||to the s. w. of Mexico.|
CHIBATA, a settlement of the . province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, and the head settlement of the corregi-miento of Indies, is of a very cold and fresh tem-perature, abounding in productions, and particu-larly in cattle, from the fleeces and hides of whichare made quantities of blankets, linen cloths, andother articles for garments. It may contain about200 Indians, and it is eight leagues to the n. e.of Tunja, lying between this latter place and thesettlement of Siachoque.
on commerce with the Indians, is situated on theshore of the river Sonlahove.
CHICACHAS, a settlement of Indians of thisnation, in the territory thus called, where the Eng-lish have an establishment or factory for com-merce.
Chicagou, a river of the same province andgovernment, which runs s. then ?i. e. and entersthe former port.
CHICAHUAZTLA, San Andres de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor ofTepozcolula, in the province and bishopric ofOaxaca, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, is ofa cold temperature, inhabited by 332 families ofIndians, including those of the settlements or wardsof its district, and they maintain themselves bybartering cotton garments for salt on the coast ofXicayan ; 12 leagues s. w. of its capital.
CHICAMA, a large, fertile, and beautiful valleyof the province and corregimiento of Truxillo inPeru. It was one of the most populous in thetimes of the gentilisra of the Indians, owing to itsagreeable and benign temperature : is watered bya river of its name, which divides it from that ofChimu. In 1540, the friar Domingo de SantoTomas founded here a convent of his order, forthe instruction of the Indians, which immediatelywas turned into a priory and a house for noviciates.It is at present, however, fallen into decay, throughthe ravages of time. This valley is six leaguesfrom the capital, to the n. in the road which leadsto the provinces of Quito, Sana, and Piura.
tilizes the valley which gives it its name ; and runs30 leagues, collecting the waters of many otherstreams, mountain floods, and rivulets, which aug-ment it to such a degree as to render the fording ofit impracticable just where it enters the sea.
CHICAMOCHA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises in the paramo or mounlain-desert of Albarracin, between that city and thecity of Santa Fe, on the 7i. side : when it passesthrough Tunja, being then merely a rivulet, it hasthe name of the river of Gallinazos, which it after-wards changes for that of Sogamoso ; and for thatof Chia, Avhen it passes through this settlement.It is afterwards called Chicamocha, and passesthrough various provinces, until it becomes incor-porated with the Magdalena, into which it entersin one large mouth. A little before this it formsa good port, called De la Tora, where there wasformerly a settlement, but which is at present ina state of utter ruin.
(CHICAPEE, or Chickabee, a smrdl river inMassachusetts, which rises from several ponds inWorcester county, and running s.zo. unites withWare river, and six miles further empties into theConnecticut at Springfield, on the e. bank of thatriver.)
CHICASAWS, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina, comprising the Indians of this nation,who have here many other settlements ; in all ofwhich the English have forts, and an establish-ment for their commerce and defence.
Chicasaws, a river of this province, whichruns w. and enters the Mississippi 788 miles fromits mouth, or entrance into the sea.
(CHICCAMOGGA, a large creek, which runsn.w. into Tennessee river. Its rnoutli is six milesabove the Whirl, and about 27 s. w. from themouth of the Ilivvassee. The Chiccamogga Indiantowns lie on this creek, and on the bank of theTennessee. See Ciiickamages.)
Quiaca serving as the line of division, vo. by thatof Lipes, and n. by that of Porco. The district ofTarija belonging to this corregimiento, which is 40leagues distant from the capital of Chichas, isbounded e. by the territories of the infidel Chiri-guanos, Chanaes, and Mataguayos Indians, to thefirst settlements of which from the last habitationsof Tarija there is a narrow, craggy, and mountain-ous route of 14 leagues in length. It is alsobounded on the n. and w. by the valley of Pilaya,and on the s, by the jurisdiction of Xuxui. Thedistrict of Chichas is 140 leagues in circumference,and that of Tarija 80, being either of them inter-sected by some extensive seiTanias : in the boun-daries of the former there are many farms andestates for breeding cattle, where are also producedpotatoes, maize, wheat, barley and other grain,likewise some wine. Here are mines of gold andsilver, which were formerly very rich ; it havingbeen usual for the principal ones to yield somethousand marks in each caxon ; this being espe-cially the case in the mines of Nueva Chocaya,which still yield to this da}-- 60 or 60 marks. Manyof the metals found in these mines are worked upfor useful purposes. The mines of Chilocoa have,on the Whole, been most celebrated fortlieir riches.The rivers, which are of some note, are that ofSupacha, which flows down from the cordillera ofLipes, and running e. passes through the middle ofthe province until it enters the valley of Cinti, ofthe province of Pilaya and Paspaya ; and another,called Toropalca, which enters the province ofPorco, and passes on to the same part of Cinti.The inhabitants of this district amount to 6200.In the settlement of Tatasi both men and womenare subject to a distressing lunacy, which causesthem to run wildly and heedlessly over the moun-tains, without any regard to the precipices whichlie in their way ; since it has generally been ob-served that they dash themselves headlong down :if, however, it should happen that they are notkilled, the fall, they say, frequently restores themto a sane mind. The observation, that the animalsof this country, namely, \\ie vicunas and the nativesheep, are subject to this malady, is without founda-tion ; but it is thought to arise from the peculiareflluviasof the minerals abounding here, and whichhave a great tendency to cause convulsions. Thewomen of tlie aforesaid settlement, when about tobring forth children, like to be delivered of themin the low parts of the qiiebradas, or deep glens.The settlements of this province are,
Santiago de Cota- San Antonio de Riogaiia, Blanco,
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Ingenio del Oro
And in the district of Tarija,
Tarija de Vieja, La Concepcion,
San Bernardo de Tarija, Berraeo.
The district of Tarija is a territory full of que-hradas and craggy mountains, as far as the punasand lofty plains of Escayache and Tacsora, wherethere are two salt lakes. It is composed of fourfertile valleys lying on the skirts of hills, and inthese are found human bones of a prodigious size,petrified, shin-bones of a yard and a quarter long,and teeth larger than a fist. In the midst of one ofthese valleys is the town of San Bernardo de Tarija,which is the capital of the province. Its reparti-miento used to amount to 82,350 dollars, and itsalcavala to 558 dollars per annum. For the settle-ments of this district, see above.
(Chichester, a small township in Rocking-ham county, New Hampshire, about 35 miles n. w.of Exeter, and 45 from Portsmouth. It lies onSuncook river, was incorporated in 1727, andcontains 491 inhabitants.)
CHICHICAPA, a settlement and capital of thealcaldia mayor of the province and bishopric ofOaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tem-perature, and was anciently the real of the mostesteemed silver mines; but is at present muchfallen of, the working of the mines having been for
the most part abandoned from the want of hands,in as much as the natives have given themselvesup to the trade of cochineal, in which its territoryabounds : it produces also much seed and maize.Its jurisdiction includes some of the finest andrichest provinces. It consists of five head settle-ments of districts, to which are subject as manyother. Its capital contains 430 families of Indians,and some of Spaniards, Muslees, and Mulattoes.Ninety leagues s. e. of Mexico. The other settle-ments are.
Rio Hondo or Thequila,
San Agustin de Losi-
CHICHICATEPEC, a settlement and head set-tlement of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in NuevaEspana, is of a cold temperature, contains 26 fa-milies of Indians, and is seven leagues to the s. e.of its capital.
CHICHIMEQUILLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitaquaro, and alcaldiamayor Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacanand kingdom of Nueva Espana. It contains 84families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league tothe s. of its head settlement.
(CHICKAHOMINY, a small navigable riverin Virginia. At its mouth in James river, 37miles from point Comfort, in Chesapeak bay, is abar, on which is only 12 feet water at commonflood tide. Vessels passing that may go eightmiles up the river; those of 10 feet draught 12miles ; and vessels of six tons burden may go 32miles up the river.)
(CHICKASAW Bluff is on the e. bank of theMississippi, witiiin the territories of the UnitedStates, in lat. 35 n. The Spaniards erected herea strong stockaded fort, with cannon, and furnishedit with troops, all in the space of 24 hours, in themonth of June 1795. It has since been given up,.according to the treaty of 1796.)
(Chickasaw, a creek which falls into theWabash from the c. a little below Post St. Vin-cent.)
(Chickasaw, a river which empties into theMississippi, on the e. side, 104 miles from themouth of Margot, and 67 s. w. of Mine au Fer.Tlie lands here are of an excellent quality, andcovered with a variety of useful timber, canes, &c.This river may be ascended during high floods up-wards of SO miles with boats of several tons burden.)
(Chickasaws, a famous nation of Indians, whoinhabit the country on the e. side of the Mississippi,on the head branches of the Tombigbee, Mobile,and Yazoo rivers, in the n. zo. corner of the state ofGeorgia, and n. of the country of the Chactaws.Their country is an extensive plain, tolerably wellwatered from springs, and of a pretty good soil.They have seven towns, the central one of whichis in lat. 34° 23' «• long. 89° 30' w. The num-ber of souls in this nation has been formerlyreckoned at 1725, of which 575 were fighting men.There are some Negroes among the Chickasaws,who either were taken captive in war, or ran awayfrom their masters, and sought safety among theIndians. In 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, with 900men, besides seamen, sailed from Cuba with a de-sign to conquer Florida. He travelled n. to theChickasaw country, about lat. 35° or 36° ; and threeyears after died, and was buried on the bank ofMississipi river.)
Chico, a river of the province and governmentof Panamá in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountains to the s. of the istmo, oristhmus, near the settlement of Chepo ; and runss. ze. and enters the sea in the bay or gulf of Pa-nama.
CHICOLAPA, a settlement of the head settle-ment, and alcaldla mayor of Coatepec, in NuevaEspana ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. Itcontains 187 families of Indians, who celebrateevery Friday throughout the year a teanguis orfair, at which are sold cattle and other productionsof the country. At these times it is a place of ge-neral rendezvous for the inhabitants of all the con-tiguous provinces ; and this fair has, from the greatconcourse of people usually assembling here, ob-tained the title of the famous teanguis of S. Vi-cente de Chicolapa. It is extremely fertile and plea-sant, and surrounded by several very small settle-ments or wards.
CHICOMESUCHIL, a settlement and headsettlement of tlie alcaldia mayor of Yxtepexi ofthe province and bishopric of Oaxaca in NuevaEspana, is of a hot temperature, and contains300 families of Indians, who exercise themselves inthe making scarlet cloths and cotton garments.
CHICOMOCELO, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Chiapa. in the kingdom ofGuatemala ; [having a cave very narrow at theentry, but spacious within, with a stagnant lake,which is, however, clear, and is two fathoms deeptowards the banks.]
CHICONAUTA, St. Tomas de, a settlementof the alcaldia mayor of Ecatepec in NuevaEspana; annexed to the curacy of its capital;from whence it is distant one league to the n. n. e.It contains 160 families of Indians.
CHICONCUAC, S. Miguel de, a settlementof the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tez-cuco in Nueva Espana. It contains 123 familiesof Indians, and six of Spaniards. It produces agood proportion of grain, seeds, and cattte, fromthe fleeces of which they derive great emolument,as also from the coarse stuffs manufactured of thesame. It is one league to the n. of its capital.
CHICONCUASO, a settlement of the head
tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues tothe w. n. w. of Mexico.
Chilchota, another settlement of the headsettlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui-catlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountainwhich is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading incochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.It is eight leagues from its head settlement.
Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory titleof San Pedro. It is of the head settlement ofQuimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de losLlanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami-lies of Indians.
CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlementand real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix-miquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215families of Indians, and in the real are 27 ofSpaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. Itis of an extremely cold and moist temperature,and its commerce depends upon the working ofthe lead mines. Some silver mines were formerlyworked here, but these yielded so base a metal,and in such small quantities, that they were en-tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yieldedby far the greatest emolument. Five leagues tothe e. of its capital.
CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame-rica, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by thestraits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on thee. by the provinces of Tucuman and BuenosAyres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, andon the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal-lanicas from the straits and the plains or desertsof Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. TheInca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carriedhis conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, inlat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the firstSpaniard who discovered this country, in the year1335, and began its conquest, which was after-wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe-dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, andafterwards met with a disgraceful death at thehands of the Indians, having been made prisonerby them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are themost valorous and warlike of all in America ) theyhave maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde-pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they areseparated by the river Biobio. This is the limitof the country possessed by them ; and thoughthe Spaniards have penetrated through differententrances into their territories, and there built va-rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these beenpulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-
fenders of their liberty and their country. Theyare most dexterous in the management of the lance,sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macanawood ; and although they are equally so in thepractice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” Theyare very agile and dexterous horsemen, and theirhorses are excellent, since those which run wild,and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have notdegenerated, or become at all inferior to the bestwhich that country produces. The part whichthe Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends itswhole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapoto the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond theisle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, asit were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera ofthe Andes ; from these descend infinite streams andrivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,and forming a country altogether charming andluxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for theconvenience and enjoyment of life, producing, inregular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame-rica and Europe. The summer here begins inSeptember, the estio (or hot summer) in December,the autumn in March, and the winter in June.The climate is similar to that of Spain, and thetemperature varies according to the elevation ofthe land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,and which are very low, are of a warm tempera-ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture thanwhat they derive from some small rivers descend-ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the spaceof 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the otherprovinces it rains more frequently, in proportionas they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,from April to September ; for which reason theyare more fertile. These provinces are watered bymore than 40 rivers, which also descend from thecordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snowmelted in the summer, swelling them to a greatheight. They generally abound in fish of themost delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and manyothers. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main-taining a vast population by the shell-fish foundupon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the mostdelicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasya species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,and tunnies, which come at their seasons onthe coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra-bas of Andaluda. For some years past they saltdown cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a
of declaring war is by sending from town to townan arrow clenched in a dead man’s hand,which they call comocatoria; and this they didin the year 1723, making terrible havoc andslaughter. This kingdom is evidently, fromwhat has been asserted, the most fertile, abun-dant, rich, and delightful region of all America ;to which Nature has granted, in profusion, allthat she has given to others, either with a sparinghand, or at too high a price. The people areliealthy and robust. The wind which generallyprevails is thes. w. and the Puelche, which comesfrom the cordillera, is somewhat troublesome. [ThePuelche wind takes its name from some Indians socalled, and from whose country it blows.] Chileis divided into two bishoprics, suffragan to thearchbishopric of Lima ; and these are of Santiagoand La Concepcion. It is governed by a president,governor, and captain-general, which title wasfirst possessed by Doii Melchor Bravo de Saravia,and its government is divided into 18 provincesor districts, which are,
l-a Serena or CoquimbiQuillota,
And the islands of Juatal is Santiago.
Catalogue of the barbarous Nations and principalPlaces in the kingdom of Chile.
Coquimbo or La Se-
San Juan de la Fron-tera,
San Luis de Loyola,Valdivia,
Nubbe or Nuble,Pereroa,
Estancia del Rey or
Fernandez. The capi-
Estancia de Rey, gold,Larapangui, silver,Ligua, vole.
Llaon, gold,Llupangui, gold,Notuco, vole.
Petorca, gold,Quillacoya, gold,Sinn, vole.
De la Sal,
Catalogue of the Presidents, Governors, and Cap-tains-general of the Kingdom of Chile.
1. The Adelantado Pedro de Valdivia, conquer-or of the kingdom; he served much, and withgreat valour, in the conquest of Peru, was a colo-nel of foot under Francis Pizarro, entered in theyear 1537, founded the first towns, and governeduntil the year 1551 ; he was made prisoner, fight-
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[tlieir country was peopled from the w. Howeverdiis may be, that it was originally peopled by onenation appears possible, as all the Aborigines in-habiting it, however independent of each other,speak the same language, and have a similar ap-pearance.
1. Language. — Their language is copious, fullof harmony and richness. Each verb, either de-rivatively or conjunctively, becomes the root ofnumerous other verbs and nouns, as well adjectivesas substantives, which in their turn reproduceothers, which are secondary, modifying themselvesin an hundred different ways. There is no part ofspeech from which an appropriate verb cannot beformed by the addition of a final en. Even fromthe most simple particles vmrious verbs are derived,that giv'e great precision and strength to conversa-tion : but what is truly surprising in this languageis, that it contains no irregular verb or noun.Every thing in it may be said to be regulated witha geometrical precision, and displays much artwith great simplicity : it contains words, appa-rently of Greek and Latin derivation, and of asimilar signification in both languages. But whatis most remarkable, it differs from every other Ame-rican language, not less in its w'ords than in itsconstruction ; and with all its richness and har-mony, its theory is so easy that it may be readilylearned in a few days. Several grammars of thislanguage are to be met with, but that of Febres,printed at Lima in 1765, is particularly to be re-commended for its method and clearness. One ar-gument further in favour of the simplicity of thistongue, is the circumstance of its having main-tained itself in its pure state, and of its not liavingsunk into an unintelligible unconnected jargon,■when it is considered that the Chilians, to the afore-mentioned period, had no ideas of writing, and thattheir traditionary accounts were so crude and im-perfect, as to afford not the least degree of informa-tion to the inquisitive mind. Hence it follows thatthe first accounts of them are contained in the Peru-vian annals ; that nation, as it was more civilized,being more careful to preserve the memory of re-markable events.
2. Original state . — When the Inca Yupanquibegan to attempt the conquest of Chile, its inhabi-tants were supposed to be numerous. They weredivided into 15 tribes or communities, independentof each other, but subject to certain chiets calledulmenes. These tribes, beginning at the n. andproceeding to the s. were called Copiapins, Co-quimbanes, Quillotanes, Mapochiniaus, Promau-cians. Cures, Cauques, Penconcs, Aruucanians,Clinches, Chilotes, Chiquilanians, Pehuenches, Pu-
elches, and Huilliches. Of these were subjugatedto the Peruvian government, more by persuasionthan force, the Copiapins, Coquimbanes, Quillo-tanes, and Mapochinians ; but the valour of thePromaucians put a stop to the success of the armsof the Inca, or rather to Sinchiruca, (a prince ofthe blood royal), to whom was entrusted the com-mand of the expedition : for these brave people,naturally addicted to pleasures and diversions, andAvhose very name signifies the free dancers.^ op-posed the Peruvian army with the most heroicvalour, and entirely defeated it in a battle which,according to Garcilasso the historian, was conti-nued for three days in succession.
S. Divided into free and subjugated. — ThusChile became divided into two parts, the one free,and the other subject to foreign domination. Thetribes who had so readily submitted to the Peru-vians Avere subjected to an annual tribute in gold,an imposition which they had never before expe-rienced ; but the conquerors, Avhether they darednot hazard the attempt, or were not able to effectit, never introduced their form of government intothese provinces. Of course, the subjected Chilians,as well as the free, preserved until the arrival ofthe Spaniards their original manners, which wereby no means so rude as many are led to imagine.
4. Agriculture . — Agriculture was already knoAvn
to them ; but being in Avant of animals to till theground, they were accustomed to turn it up witha spade made of hard wood. Tiie plants whicheither necessity or accident made known to them,Avere the maize, the the guegen, the tweer,
the quinoa, pulse of various kinds, the potato, theoxalis tuberosa, the common and the yellow pump-kin or gourd, the Guinea pepper, the madi, andthe great straAvberry. To these provisions of thevegetable kind, may be added the following of theanimal, the little rabbit, and the Chiliheuque orAraucaniau camel, Avhose flesh furnished excellentfood, and Avhose avooI, clothing for these people.If tradition may be credited, they had also the hogand the domestic fowl. With these productions,Avhich required a very moderate degree of indus-try, they subsisted comfortably, and even Avith adegree of abundance, considering the few thingsAvhich their situation rendered necessary. Subsist-ence, the source of population, being thus secured,the country became rapidly peopled under the in-fluence of so mild a climate ; Avhence it appears,that the first Avriters Avho treated of Chile, cannotliave greatly exaggerated in saying, that the Spa-niards found it filled Avith inhabitants.
5. Civilized state. — It is a fact that there was butone language spoken throughout the country ; a]
398 C H I
[nominni emperor of Peru, -who had succeeded theunrortunate Atahiialpa.
2. Roads from Peru to Chile. — Two roads leadfrom Peru to Cliile ; one is by the sea-coast, and isdestitute of water and provision ; the other, for adistance of 120 miles, passes over the immensemountains of the Andes : the inexperience of Al-magro caused him to take the latter ; for althoughit was, without doubt, the shortest, it Avas difficultin the extreme : for his army, after having beenexposed to infinite fatigue, and many conflictsAvith the adjoining savages, reached the cordillerasjust at the commencement of Avinter, destitute ofprovisions, and but ill supplied Avith clothing. Inthis season the snow falls almost incessantly, andcompletely covers the Icav paths that are passablein summer ; notwithstanding, the soldiers, en-couraged by their general, advanced with muchtoil to the top of those rugged heights. But, vic-tims to the severity of the weather, 150 Spaniardsthere perished, Avith 10,000 Peruvians, Avho, beingaccustomed to the Avarmth of the torrid zone, wereless able to endure the rigours of the frost. It isaffirmed, that of all this army not one Avould haveescaped Avith life, had not Almagro, resolutelypushing forward with a few horse, sent them timelysuccours and provisions, which were found inabundance at Copiapo.
3. Kindly receined at Copiapó. — Those of themost robust constitutions, who Avere able to resist theinclemency of the season, by this unexpected aid,were enabled to extricate themselves from the snow,and at length reached the plains of that province,Avhich is the first in Chile ; Avhere, through respectfor the Peruvians, they were well received and en-tertained by the inhabitants. While Almagro re-mained in Copiapo, he discovered that the reigningulmen had usurped the government in prejudiceof his nephew and Avard, who, through fear of hisuncle, had fled to the Avoods. Pretending to beirritated at this act of injustice, he caused theguilty chief to be arrested, and calling before himthe laAvful heir, reinstated him in the government,Avith the universal applause of his subjects, avIioattributed this conduct entirely to motives of jus-tice, and a Avish to redress the injured. The Spa-niards, having recovered from their fatigues throughthe hospitable assistance of the Copiapiirs, and re-inforced by a number of recruits Avliom RodrigoOrganez had brought from Peru, comniencc<l theirmarch for the s. provinces. As it was natural,the natives were not a little curious concern-ing these their new visitors : they croAvded aroundthem to their march, as Avell to examine them near,as a present them with such things as they thought
Avould prove agreeable to a people who appeared tothem of a character far superior to that of othermen. In the mean time, tAvo soldiers having se-parated from the army, proceeded to Guasco,Avhere they Avere at first Avell receiA'ed, but Avereafterwards put to death by the inhabitants, in con-seqtience, no doubt, of some acts of violence, whichsoldiers freed from the controul of their officers arevery apt to commit.
4. First European blood shed. — This Avas thefirst European blood spilt in Ciiile, a countryafterwards so copiously deluged with it. On beinginformed of this unfortunate accident, calculatedto destroy the exalted opinion Avhich he Avished toinspire of his soldiers, Almagro, having proceededto Coquirnbo, ordered the ulnien of the district,called Marcando, his brother, and tAventy of theprincipal inhabitants, to be brought thither; all ofAvhorn, together Avith the usurper of Copiapo, hedelivered to the flames, without, according to Her-rera, pretending to assign any reason for his con-duct. This act of cruelty appeared to every onevery extraordinary and unjust, since among thoseadventurers there Avere not wanting men of sensi-bility, and advocates for the rights of humanity.The greater part of the army openly disapprovedof the severity of their general, the aspect of Avhoseaffairs, from this time forAvard, became graduallyworse and worse. About this period, 1537, Alma-gro received a considerable reinforcement of re-cruits under Juan de Rada, accompanied withroyal letters patent, appointing him governorof 200 leagues of territory, situate to the s.of the government granted to Francis Pizarro.The friends Avhom he had left in Peru, taking ad-vantage of this opportunity, urged him by privateletters to return, in order to take possession ofCuzco, Avhich they assured him Avas within thelimits of his jurisdiction. Notwithstanding this,inflated with his new conquest, he pursued hismarch, passed the fatal Cachapoal, and regardlessof the remonstrances of the Peruvians, advancedinto the country of the Promaucians.
5. Battle with the Promaucians. — At the firstsight of the Spaniards, their horses, and the thun-dering arms of Europe, these valiant people Averealmost petrified Avith astonishment; but soon re-covering from the effects of surprise, they opposedAvith intepridity their new enemies upon the shoreof the Rio Claro. Almagro, despising their force,placed in the first line his Peruvian auxiliaries, in-creased by a number Avhom Paullu had drawnfrom the garrisons ; but these, being soon routed,fell back in confusion upon the rear. The Spa-niards, who expected to have been merely specta-]1
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[tors of the battle, saw themselves compelled to sus-tain the vigorous attack of tlie enemy, aud advanc-ing with their horse, began a furious battle, Avhichcontinued with great loss upon either side till nightseparated the combatants- Although the Promau-cians had been very roughly handled, they lost notcourage, but encamped in the sight of their enemy,determined to renew the attack the next morning.The Spaniards, however, though by the custom ofEurope the_y considered themselves as victors,having kept possession of the field, were very dif-ferently inclined. Having been accustomed tosubdue immense provinces with little or no resist-ance, they became disgusted willi an enterprisewhich could not be effected without great fatigue,and the loss of much blood, since in its prosecutionthey must contend with a bold and independent na-tion, by whom they were not believed to be im-mortal.
6. Expedition abandoned, and whp. — Thus all,by common consent, resolved to abandon this ex-pedition ; but they Avere of various opinions re-specting their retreat, some being desirous of re-turning to Peru, while others wished to form a set-tlement in the n. provinces, where they had beenreceived Avith such hospitality. The first opinionwas supported by Almagro, Avhose mind began tobe impressed by the suggestions contained in theletters of his friends. Accordingly Ave find him re-turning Avith his army to Peru in 1538: he tookpossession of the ancient capital of that empire ;and after several ineffectual jiegociations, fought abattle with the brother of Pizarro, by Avhom he Avastaken, tried, and beheaded as a disturber of thepublic peace. His army having dispersed attheir defeat, afterAvards reassembled under the titleofthe soldiers of Chile, and e.xecuted ncAv disturb-ances in Peru, already sufficiently agitated. Suchwas the fate of the first expedition against Chile,undertaken by the best body of European troopsthat had as yet been collected in those parts. Thethirst of riches Avas the moving spring ofthe ex-pedition, and the disappointment of their hopes ofobtaining them, the cause of its failure. FrancisPizarro, having by the deatli of his rival obtainedthe absolute command ofthe Spanish possessions inS. America, lost not sight of the conquest of Chile,which he conceived might, in any event, prove animportant acquisition to him. Among the adv’en-turers avIio hatl come to Peru, were two officerscommissioned by the court of Spain, under thetitles of Governors, to attempt this expedition. Tothe first, called Pedro Sanchez de FIoz, Avas com-mitted the conquest of the country as far as tlic riverMaule ; and to the other, Carmargo, the remainder
to the Archipelago of Chiloe. Pizarro, jealous ofthese men, under frivolous pretexts, refused to con-firm the royal nomination, and appointed to thisexpeditioi! his quarter-master, Pedro de Valdivia,a prudent and active officer, who Inid gaiticd ex-perience in the Italian Avar, and wiiat was still agreater recommendation, Avas attached to his party ;directing him to take De Hoz with him, Avho Avasprobably more (o be feared than his colleague, andto ailoAv him every advantage in the partidon ofthe lands.
7. Valdivia marches against Chile. — This officerhaving determined to cstabiisli a pennanent settle-ment in the country, set out on his march in theyear 1540, Avith 200 Spaniards, and a numerousbody of Peruvian auxiliaries, accompanied bysome monks, several Avomen, and a great numberof European quadrupeds, Avith CAmry tiling requisitefor a new colony. He pursued the same route asAlmagro ; but, instructed by the misfortunes of hispredecessor, he did not attempt to pass the Andesuntil midsummer. He entered Chile Avithout in-curring any loss, but very difi’erent Avas the recep-tion lie experienced from the inhabitants of the n.provinces from that Avhich Almago had met Avith.Those people, informed of the fate of Peru, amifreed from the submission they professed to owe theInca, did not consider themselves obliged to respecttheir invaders. They of course began to attackthem upon all sides, Avith more valour than con-duct. liike barbarians in general, incapable ofmaking a common cause Avihli each other, and fora long time accustomed to the j'oke of servitude,they attacked them by hordes or tribes, as theyadvanced, without that steady firmness Avhich cha-racterises the valour of a civilized people. TheSpaniards, hoAvever, notwithstanding the ill-com-bined opposition of the natives, traversed the pro-vinces ofCopiapo, Coquimbo, Quillota, and Meli-pilla, and arrived, much harrassed, but Avith littleloss, at that of Mapocho, now called St. Jago.
8. Province, of St. Jago described. — This pro-vince, Avhich is more than 600 miles distance fromthe confines of Peru, is one of the most fertile andpleasant in the kingdom. Its name signifies theland of many people;” and from the accounts ofthe first Avriters upon Chile, its population corres-ponded thercAvith, being extrcnsciy numerous. Jtlies upon the confines of the principal mountainof the Andes, and is 140 miles in circiimfereiicc.It is watered by the rivers Maypo, Colina, Lampa,and Mapocho, Avhich last divides it into two nearlyequal parts; and after pursuing a subterraneouscourse for the space of five miles, again shows it-self Avith increased copiousness, and disdiarges itsl
[ auxiliaries, from whence has sprung that rootedantipatliy which the Araucanians preserve againstthe residue of that nation. In the course of theyear 1546, Valdivia, having passed the Maule,proceeded in his career of victory to the riverItata ; but being defeated there, he relinquishedhis plans of proceeding farther, and returned toSt. Jago.
17. Valdivia sets sail for Peru ^ and returns withmen and supplies . — Being disappointed in hissuccours from Peru, he, in 1547, was on tlie eveof his departure for that country, when Pastenesarrived, but without any men, and bringing newsof the civil war which had broken out between theconquerors of the empire of the Incas. Neverthe-less, persuaded that he miglit reap an advantagefrom these revolutions, he set sail with Pastene forPeru, taking with him a great quantity of gold;on his arrival he served, in quality of quarter-mas-ter-general, in the famous battle that decided thefate of Gonzalo Pizarro. Gasca, the president, whounder the royal standard had gained the victory,pleased with the service rendered him upon thisoccasion by Valdivia, confirmed him in his otliceof governor, and furnishing him with an abun-dance of military stores, sent him back to Chilewith two ships filled with those seditious adven-turers, of whom he was glad of an opportunity tobe disembarrassed. The Copiapins, eager to re-venge the murder of their prince, killed about thesame time 40 Spaniards, who had been detachedfrom several squadrons, and were proceeding fromPeru to Chile ; and the Coquirnbanes, instigatedby their persuasion, massacred alt the inhabitantsoi’ the colony lately founded in their territory,ra,zing the city to its foundation. Francis Aguirrewas immediately ordered there, and had severalencounters with them with various success. In1549 he rebuilt the city in a more advantageoussit nation ; its inhabitants claim him as their founder,and the most distinguished of them boast them-selves as his descendants. After a contest of nineyears, and almost incredible fatigues, Valdivia,conceiving himself well established in that part ofChile which was under the dominion of the Peru-vians, distributed the land among his soldiers,assigning to each, under the title of commandery,a considerable portion, with the inhabitants liv-ing thereon. By this means, having quieted therestless ambition of his companions, he set outanew on his march for the s. provinces, with arespectable army of Spanish and Proraauciantroops.
18. Concepcion founded. — After a journey of150 miles, he arrived, without encountering many
obstacles, at the bay of Penco, which had beenalready explored by Pastene, where, on the 5th ofOctober 1550, he founded a third city, called Con-cepcion. The situation of this place was veryadvantageous for commerce from the excellence ofits harbour, but, from the lowness of the ground,exposed in earthquakes to inundations of the sea.Accordingly we find it destroyed in this mannerby an earthquake that occurred on the 8th of J uly1730, and the 24th of May 1751; for this reason,the inhabitants established themselves, on the 24thof November 1764, in the valley of Mocha, threeleagues s. of Penco, between the rivers Andalienand Biobio, where they founded New Concepcion,The harbour is situated in the middle of the baycalled Talgacuano, a little more than two leaguesw. of Mocha ; a fort is now all the building that isleft at Penco. But to return to our history, theadjacent tribes perceiving the intention of theSpaniards to occupy this important post, gave in-formation of it to their neighbours and friends theAraucanians, who foreseeing that it would not belong before the storm would burst upon their owncountry, resolved to succour their distressed allies,in order to secure themselves. But before we pro-ceed to relate the events of this war, it may bemore advisable to give some account of the cha-racter and manners of that warlike people, whohave hitherto, with incredible valour, opposed theoverwhelming torrent of Spanish conquest, andfrom henceforward will furnish all the materials ofour history.
Of the character and manners of the Arauca-nians.
1. Local situation . — The Araucanians inhabitthat delightful country situate between the riversBiobio and Valdivia, and between the Andes andthe sea, extending from 36° 44' to 39“ 50' of s.latitude. They derive their appellation of Arau-canians from the province of Arauco, which,though the smallest in their territory, has, likeHolland, given its name to the whole nation,either from its having been the first to unite withthe neighbouring provinces, or from having atsome remote period reduced them under its do-minion. This people, ever enthusiastically at-tached to their independence, pride themselves inbeing called auca, which signifies frank or free ;and those Spaniards who had left the army in theNetherlands to serve in Chile, gave to this countrythe name of Araucanian Flanders, or the InvincibleState ; and some of them have even had the mag-nanimity to celebrate in epic poetry tlie exploits]
[modesty and simplicity ; their dress is entirely ofwool, and, agreeable to the natural taste, of agreenish blue colour ; it consists of a tunic, a gir-dle, and a short cloak, called ichella, which isfastened before with a silver buckle. The tunic,called chiamal^ is long, and descends to the feet ; itis without sleeves, and is fastened upon the shoul-der by silver broches or buckles ; this dress,sanctioned by custom, is never varied ; but togratify their love of finery, they adorn themselveswith all those trinkets which caprice or vanity sug-gests. They divide their hair into several tresses,Avhich float in graceful negligence over their shoul-ders, and decorate their heads with a species offalse emerald, called glianca, held by them in highestimation ; their necklaces and bracelets are ofglass, and their ear-rings, which are square, ofsilver ; they have rings upon each finger, thegreater part of which are of silver. It is calculatedthat more than 100,000 marks of this metal areemployed in these female ornaments, since theyare worn even by the poorest class.
4. Dwellings . — We have already given someaccount of the dwellings of the ancient Chilians :the Araucanians, tenacious, as are all nations notcorrupted by luxury, of the customs of theircountry, have made no change in their mode ofbuilding. But as they are almost all polygamists,the size of their houses is proportioned to the num-ber of women they can maintain ; the interior ofthese houses is very simple ; the luxury of conve-nience, splendour, and show, is altogether un-known in them, and necessity alone is consultedin the selection of their furniture. They neverform towns, but live in scattered villages or ham-lets on the banks of rivers, or in plains that areeasily irrigated. Their local attachments arestrong, each family preferring to live upon theland inherited from its ancestors, which they cul-tivate sufficiently for their subsistence. The geniusof this haughty people, in which the savage stillpredominates, will not permit them to live irtwalled cities, which they consider as a mark ofservitude.
5. Division of the Araucanian state.— Althoughin their settlements the Araucanians are wanting inregularity, that is by no means the case in thepolitical division of their state, which is regulatedwith much nicety and intelligence. They havedivided it from n. to s. into four tdhal-mapiis, orparallel tetrarchates, that are nearly equal, towhich they give the names of Laiiquen-mapu, themaritime country ; L,elbun-mapu^ the plain coun-try ; Inapire-mapUy the country at the foot of theAndes ; and Pire-mapuj or that of the Andes.
Each uthal-mapu is divided into five aillareguesor provinces; and each aillaregue, into nine reguesor counties. The maritime country comprehendsthe provinces of Arauco, Tucapel, lllicura, Bo-roa, and Nagtolten ; the country of the plain in-cludes those of Encol, Puren, Reposura, Ma-quegua, and Mariquina ; that at the foot of theAndes contains Mar veil, Colhue, Chacaico, Que-cheregua, and Guanagua ; and in that of theAndes is included all the valleys of the cordillerasysituate within the limits already mentioned,which arc inhabited by the Puelches. These moun-taineers, who were formerly a distinct nation, inalliance Avith the Araucanians, are now unitedunder their government, and have the same ma-gistrates. In the second and third articles of theregulations of Lonquilmo, made in the year 1784,the limits of each uthal-mapu are expresslj" defined,and its districts marked out. It declares to beappertaining to that of the cordilleras., the Huilli-ches of Changolo, those of Gayolto and Rucacho-roy, to the s. ; the Puelches and Indian pampas tothe n. from Malalque and the frontiers of Mendozato the Mamil-mapu in the pampas of BuenosAyres ; the whole forming a corporate body withthe Puelches and Pehuenches of Maule, Chilian,and Antuco; so that at present, in case of an in-fraction of the treaty, it may easily be known whatuthal-mapu is to make satisfaction. This divi-sion of Araucania, Avhich discovers a certain de-gree of refinement in its political administration, isof a date anterior to the arrival of the Spaniards,and serves as a basis for the civil government ofthe Araucanians, w'hich is aristocratic, as that ofmany other barbarous nations has been. Thisspecies of republic consists of three orders of no-bility, each subordinate to the other; the toqiiis,the apo~ulmenes, and the ulmenes, all of Avhomhave their respective vassals. The toquis, whomay be styled tetrarchs, are four in number, andpreside over the uthal-mapus. The appellation oftoqui is derived from the verb toquin, which sig-nifies to judge or command ; they are independentof each other, but confederated for the publicAvelfare. The apo-iilmenes or arch-ulmenes go-vern the provinces under their respective toquis.The ulraenes, who are the prefects of the regues orcounties, are dependent upon the apo-ulmenes ;this dependence, however, is confined almost en-tirely to military affairs. Although the ulmenesare the lowest in the scale of the Araucanian aris-tocracy, the superior ranks, generally speaking,are comprehended under the same title, which isequivalent to that of cacique. The discriminativebadge of the toqui is a species of battle-axe, made]
[family often assumes the right of pursuing the ag-gressor or his relations, and of punishing them.From this abuse are derived the denominations anddistinctions, so much used in their jurisprudence,of gengiieritiy genguman^ g^nla^ &c. denoting theprincipal connections of the aggressor, of the in-]ured, or the deceased, who are supposed to beauthorised, by the laws of nature, to support byforce the rights of their relatives. A system ofjudicial proceedings so irregular, and apparentlyso incompatible with the existence of any kind ofcivil society, becomes the constant source of dis-orders entirely hostile to the primary object of allgood government, and public and private security.When those who are at enmity have a consider-able number of adherents, they mutually makeincursions upon each other’s possessions, wherethey destroy or burn all that they cannot carry off'.These private quarrels, called malocas^ resemblemuch the feuds of the ancient Germans, and arevery dreadful when the ulmenes are concerned,in which case they become real civil wars. Butit must be acknowledged, that they are generallyunaccompanied with the etfusion of blood, andare confined to pillage alone. This people, not-withstanding their propensity to violence, rarelyemploy arms in their private quarrels, but decidethem w'ith the fist or with the club.
8. Military system . — The military governmentof the Araucanians is not only more rational andbetter systematized than the civil, but in some re-spects appears to be superior to the genius of anuncultivated nation. Whenever the grand coun-cil determines to go to war, they proceed imme-diately to the election of a commander in chief,to which the toquis have the first claim, as beingthe hereditary generals or stadtholders of the re-public. If neither of them is deemed qualifiedfor the command, dismissing all regard for rank,they entrust it to the most deserving of the ul-menes, or even the officers of the common class,as the talents necessary for this important stationare what alone are required. In consequence, Vi-lumilla., a man of low origin, commanded theAraucanian army, with much honour, in the war of1722 ; and Curignanca, the younger son of theulmen of the province of Encol, in that whichterminated in 1773. On accepting his appoint-ment, the new general assumes the title of toqui,and the stone hatchet, in token of supreme command ;at which time the native toquis lay aside theirs,it not being lawful for them to carry them duringthe government of this dictator. They likewise,sacrificing private ambition to the public good,take the oaths of obedience and fealty to him, to-
gether with the other ulmenes. Even the people,who in peace shew themselves repugnant to all sub-ordination, are then prompt to obey, and sub-missive to the will of their military sovereign.He cannot, however, put any one to death withoutthe consent of the principal officers of his army ;but as these are of his own appointment, his ordersmay be considered as absolute. From the arrival ofthe Spaniards in the country to the present time, itisobservable, that all the toquis who have been ap-pointed in time ofwar were natives ofthe provinces ofArauco, of Tucapel, of Encol, or of Puren. Whe-ther this partiality be owing to some superstitious no-tion, or rather to some ancient law or agreement, weare unable to determine ; it appears, however, tobe repugnant to the principles of sound policy, asit is very rare for the component parts of a state tomaintain themselves long in any sort of union whenthey do not all participate equally in the advan-tages of the government. But it is a peculiarityworthy of admiration, that this discrimination hasliitherto produced no division among them. Oneof the first measures of the national council, af-ter having decided upon war, is to dispatch cer-tain messengers or expresses, called guer-quenis^to the confederate tribes, and even to those IndiansAvho live among the Spaniards, to inform the firstof the steps that have been taken, and to requestthe others to make a common cause with theircountrymen. The credentials of these envoys aresome small arrows tied together with a red string,the symbol of blood. But if hostilities are actuallycommenced, the finger, or (as Albedo will have it)the hand of a slain eneiuy is joined to the arrows.This embassy, called pulchitum^ to run the arrow,is performed with such secrecy and expedition inthe Spanish settlements that the messengers arerarely discovered. The toqui directs what num-ber of soldiers are to be furnished by each uthal-mapu ; the tetrarchs, in their turn, regulate thecontingencies of the apo-ulmenes, and these lastapportion them among their respective ulmenes.Every Araucanian is born a soldier. All areready to proff'er their services for war, so thatthere is no difficulty in raising an army, wh^ichusually consists of five or six thousand men, be-sides the corps de reserve, which are kept in readi-ness for particular occasions, or to replace thosekilled in battle. The commander in chief ap-points his vicc-toqui, or lieutenant-general, andthe other officers of his staff’, who in their turnnominate their subaltern officers : by this methodharmony and subordination are maintained be-tween the respective commanders. The vicc-to-qui is almost always selected from among the]