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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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vince of Orinoco, and part of the Saliva nation,forming a separate district, and situate in theplains of San Juan, of the new kingdom of Gra-nada, near the river Sinaruco. It was destroyedby the Caribee indians in 1684.

ADORATORIO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru, situatew. of Larin.

ADSON’S Town lies near the n. e. line of NewJersey, and s. e. of the Drowned Lands; 27 milesn. of Morristown, and 24 n. w. of Patterson . ]

ADUANA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Maracaibo, situate on the shore ofthe lake of this name, on the e. side.

ADVANCE. See Forward.

AEIQUAIA, the head settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Tonala in Nueva Espana.

AERIUCTUQUEN, a mountain of the pro-vince and colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana,in the Dutch possessions. It is the beginning ofthe great sierra of Binocote, between the riversCutini and Caroni.

AFFREUX, a lake of the province and colonyof Virginia, near the coast.

AFUERA, one of the islands of Juan Fer-nandes, on the S. sea coast, in the kingdom ofChile. About 400 leagues to the n. of Cape Horn.This coast swarms with sea lions and wolves.Lat. 33° 47' s. Long. 80° 41' w.

[Aga|AGA]], a mountain of the province and captain-ship oi Rio Janeiro in Brazil. It is between therivers Irutiba and Tapoana, on the sea-coast.

AGACES, a nation of Indians, of the provinceof Paraguay, on the shore of the river of thisname, towards the e. The people are numerous,valiant, and of a lofty stature. In ancient timesthey were masters of that river, cruising about init, and being the enemies of the Guaranies ; butafter several conflicts, they were at last subjectedby Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, governor of theprovince, in 1642.

AGALTECA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Honduras, in the kingdom of Guate-mala.

AGAMENTIGUS, a river of the province andcolony of New England, of York county, dis-trict of Maine. It is indebted to the ocean for itswaters, through Pascataqua bay ; having no con-siderable aid from streams of fresh water. Itsmouth is about four miles s. from Cape Neddieriver. Small vessels can enter here.]

AGAMENTIGUS, a mountain of consider-able elevation in the district of Maine, distantabout six miles from Bald Head, and eight fromYork harbour. Lat. 43° 12' n, and Long. 70°

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43' w. from Greenwich. It is a nofed land-markfor seamen, and is a good directory for the entryof Pascataqua harbour, as it lies very nearly inthe same meridian with it and with Pigeon hill,on Cape Ann. The mountain is covered witliwood and shrubs, and affords pasture up to itssummit, where there is an enchanting prospect.The cultivated parts of the country, especially onthe s. and s. w. appear as a beautiful garden, in-tersected by the majestic river Pascataqua, itsbays and branches. The immense ranges ofmountains on the «. and n. w. afford a sublimespectacle ; and on the sea side the various in-dentings of the coast, from Cape Ann to CapeElizabeth, are plainly in view in a clear day ; andthe Atlantic stretches to the e. as far as the powerof vision extends. At this spot the bearing of thefollowing objects were taken, with a good sur-veying instrument, October 11, 1780.

Summit of the White mountains, n. 15° w.

Cape Porpoise, n. 63° e.

Rochester hill, n. 64° w,

Tuckaway South peak, s. 80° w.

Frost’s hill, Kittery, s. 57° w.

Saddle of Bonabeag, w. 14° w.

Isle of Shoals Meeting-house, s. 6° r.

Varney’s hill, in Dover, distant 10| miles bymensuration, «. 89° zo. Variation of theneedle, 6° te).]

AGAMUNTIC, or Amaguntic Pond, inthe district of Maine, sends its waters northward tothe Chaudiere, through the west branch of thatriver.]

AGCHILLA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya in Peru.It has in its district seven public chapels, withinfour leagues distance.]

AGENAGATENINGA, a river of the pro-vince and country of the Amazonas, in the Portu-guese territory. It rises in the country of theAnamaris Indians, runs n. and enters the abundantstream of the Madera.

AGIQUA, a river of N. Carolina, which runsn. w. and afterwards turning to the w. enters theCherokees.

AGNALOS, a nation of infidel Indians, of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, inhabiting the moun-tains w. of the river Apure.

AGNAPURAS, a chain of mountains, or acordillera of the kingdom of Peru, whicli run forleagues from n. to s. without termination, andseparate the Taucas from the Chizuitos Indians.

AGOMISO, an island of Hudson’s bay, nearits w. coast; n. n. e. from Albany fort.] >

AGONICHE, a river of Nova Scotia, running

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captainship of the Rio Grande in Brazil. Itrises near the coast, and runs s. s. e. entering thesea close to the cape of San Roque.

Aguada, a sharp point or small island of theS. sea, near the coast, in the province and corre-gimiento of Atacama.

Aguada (point in Cartagena), a point on the coast of Tierra Firme,in the province and government of Cartagena. Itis one of those which form the mouth of the gulphof Uraba or Darien.

AGUADILLA, a river of the province andkingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the moun-tains on the s. and enters the large river Chagrevery near its mouth, and the castle of this name.Here ships take in water, on account of the conve-nience of a bay, for the defence of which there is,upon the shore, a battery belonging to the samecastle, which was built under the directions ofDon Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743.

AGUADORES, River of the, in the islandof Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast ofthis island, having at its mouth a watch-tower andguard to give notice of vessels which may enter theport of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it isseven leagues distant.

AGUAIO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico,and kingdom of Nueva España, founded in theyear 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Quere-taro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of SierraGorda.

Aguaio, another settlement, with the dedicatorytitle of San Miguel, in the new kingdom of Leon,inhabited by Spaniards ; 10 leagues distant fromLa Punta.

AGUAIUS, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Quixos and Marcas in the kingdomof Quito.

AGUAGE, a settlement and real of mines of theprovince and government of Sonora in NuevaEspaña. Lat. 29°w. Long. 111° 5'

AGUAJES, a settlement of the province ofTepeguna, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, situ-ate on the shore of the river of Las Nasas.

AGUALEI, a small river of the province andgovernment of Guayana, which rises in the sierrasof Usupama, and enters the Caroni on the e. side.

AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of thejurisdiction of [Izatlan]] in Nueva Galicia. It hasa convent of the religious order of St. Francis, andin 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families ofIndians, including the wards of its district; 17leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20° 44' n.Long. 103° 33' w.

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AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdictionof Santiago de las Atalayas, and government ofSan Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It isof a hot temperature, and produces the same fruitsas the other settlements of this province.

AGUAMIRO, a settlement of the province andcer re gimiento of Huamalies in Peru, celebrated forsome medicinal and very salutary baths.

AGUAN, a river of the province and govern-ment of Honduras, which runs into the sea at thegulph of this name.

AGUANATO, Santa Maria de, a settlementof the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro,^.nAalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the provinceand bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold tem-perature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo,and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain theirlivelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteenleagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid.

AGUANO, a lake of the province and govern-ment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. ' It isformed by an arm or channel of the river Gualla-ga, and is very near the shore of that river.

AGUANOS, San Antonio de, a settlementof the province and government of Mainas in thekingdom of Quito ; one of those which belongedto the missions held there by the Jesuits, andthus called from the nation of Indians of whom it iscomposed. It was founded in 1670 by the fatherLorenzo Lucero.

Aguanos, another settlement, with the dedica-tory title of San Francisco, in this province, andof these missions.

AGUAPAI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay. It rises between the Pa-rana and the Uruguay, near the settleiment of SanCarlos, runs j. forming a curve, and returning c.enters the last of the above rivers not far from thesettlement of La Cruz.

Aguapai, another river of the same provinceand government, which runs w. and enters theParana close to the Juan Gazu.

AGUAPEI, a river of the same province andgovernment as the two former. It is very small,and rises in the mountains of Nuestra Senora deFe ; runs from n. to s. and enters the Parana.

AGUARAU, a river of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay, which runs w. and entersthe Parana between the Inau and Piray .

AGUARICO, San Pedro de, a settlement ofIndians, converted by the missions of the Jesuits,in the province and government of Mainas; situ-ate on the shore of the river Napo.

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anti government of Darien, near the n. coast, andthus "called from an eagle Avitli two heads, whichwas caught here in 1608, and which Avas sent tothe queen, Doha Maria-Ana of Austria, motherof Philip III. At its skirt is a bay, or swampyground, which is round, and has a very narroAVinlet. Forty-five leagues from Cartagena.

Aguila (point), a point or cape of the larger island ofthe Malvinas or Falkland isles ; thus named fromhaving been discovered by the French frigate, theAguila, or Eagle. It is one of those whith formtlie great bay or port.

AGUILUSCO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Arantzan, and alcaldiamayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishop-ric of Mechoacan. It contains 32 families of In-dians, who employ themselves in sowing seed,cutting Avood, manufacturing vessels of fineearth en-Avare, and saddle-trees for riding.

AGUIRRE, a river of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela. It rises by the side of thecity of Niura, runs s. passes through the town ofSan Carlos, and enters the Sarara.

Aguirre (pastures), some pastures for young horses inthe province and corregimiento of Coquimbo, ofthe kingdom of Chile, between the rivers Ramosand Mamas,

AGUJA, Point of the, on the coast of TierraFirme, and of the province and government ofSanta Marta, between this city and Cape Chichi-bacoa. It is the part of land which projects far-thest into the sea.

Aguja, Point of the, another point on thecoast of the S. sea,, and of the province and corre-gimiento of Piura in Peru.

Aguja, Point of the. See article Eguille.

AGUR, Francisco, a settlement of the pro-vince and captainship of Espiritu Santo in Bra-zil, situate near the coast and the bay of EspirituSanto,

AGUSTIN, San, a capital city of the pro-vince and government of E. Florida, situate on thee. coast, in a peninsula, or narrow strip of land.It has a good port, which was discovered by Ad-miral Pedro Menendes de Aviles, on St. Augus-.tin’s day in the year 1565, which was his reasonfor giving the place this title, which has, however,been tAvice changed. He also built here a goodcastle for its defence. The city has a very goodparish church, and a convent of the Franciscanorder; and, as far as relates to its spiritual con-cerns, it is subject to the bishop of Cuba, who hasat various times proposed the erection of anabbey, but has not obtained his wish, although ithad been approved by the council of the Indies.

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It has two hospitals, one for the garrison troops,and another for the community ; it has also anhermitage, Avith the dedicatory title of Santa Bar-bara. It was burnt by Francis Drake in 1586;by Captain Davis, Avith the Bucaniers, in 1665 ;but it was immediately afterwards rebuilt. In1702 it Avas besieged by the English, under thecommand of Colonel Moore, who, failing in hisattempts to take the castle, which Avas defended bythe governor, Don Joseph de Zuniga, exhibitedhis revenge by burning and destroying the town.In 1744 the English returned to the siege, underthe command of General Oglethorp, who wasequally unsuccessful, in as much as it w^as mostvaliantly defended by the governor, Don Manuelde Montiano, who defied the bombardment of theenemy. This fort has a curtain of 60 toises long ;the parapet is nine feet ; and the terrace, or horizon-tal surface of the rampart, is 20 feet high, withgood bomb-proof casemates, and mounted Avith 50pieces of cannon, having also, on the exterior, anexcellent covered way. The city, although it isencompassed by a wall, is not strong, and its de-fence consists in 10 projecting angles. It was ced-ed, Avith the whole of the province, to the English,by the King ofSpain, in the peace of Versailles, in1762 ; and it remained in their possession till 1783,when it was restored by the treaty of Paris. Thebreakers at the entrance of the harbour haveformed two channels, whose bars have eight feet ofwater each. Long. 81° 40'. Lat. 29° 58'.

Agustin, San, a settlement and real of mines,of the province of Tarauraara, in the kingdotli ofNueva Vizcaya, which was formerly a populationof some consequence, and wealthy withal, fromthe richness of its mines, Avhich -have lately falleainto decay, and thereby entailed poverty upon theinhabitants. It is 26 leagues s. of the town of S,Felipe de Chiguagua.

Agustin, San, another small settlement orw ard of the head settlement of the district of Zum-pahuacan, and alcaldia mayor of Marinalco, inNueva España.

Agustin, San, another settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Nopaluca, and alcaldiamayor of Tepcaca, in Nueva España. It contains20 families of Indians, and is distant a little morethan a league from its head settlement.

Agustin, San, another, in the head settlementof the district of Pinoteca, and alcaldia mayor ofXicayan. It contains 70 families of Indians, whotrade in grain, seeds, and tobacco. Four leaguen. of its head settlement.

Agustin, San, another settlement of the dis-trict of Cuilapa, and the alcaldia mayor of Quatro

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Villas. It contains 34 families of Indians, whocultivate and trade in grain, pulse, coal, and thebark of trees. A little more than two leagues tothe w. with a slight inclination to the s. of its headsettlement.

Agustin, San, another setttlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucuman in Peru ; si-tuate on the shore of the river Tercero (third river.)

Agustin, San, another settlement of the pro-vince and alcaldia mayor of Vera Paz in the king-dom of Guatemala.

Agustin, San, another of the province andgovernment of Popayan in the kingdom of Quito.

Agustin, San, another of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres in Peru, on the shoreof the river Ibiquay.

Agustin, San, another of the province andalcaldia mayor of Culiacan in Nueva España,situate near the town of Rosario.

Agustin, San, a point or cape of the coast ofBrazil, in the province and captainship of Per-nambuco, between the port Antonio Vaz and theriver Tapado. One hundred leagues from thebay of Los Miiertos ; [300 miles n. e. from the bayof All Souls. Lat. 8° 38' s. Long. 35° 11' tc.]

Agustin, San, another point or cape of thecoast of the province and government of Rio deHacha, and kingdom of Tierra Firme, close to thelake of San Juan, on the e. side.

Agustin, San, a river of the province andgovernment of Antioquia, in the new kingdom ofGranada. It runs from s. to n. and afterwards,with a slight inclination to the w. enters the riverS. Juan, of the province of Choco.

Agustin, San, a small island of the gulph ofCalifornia, or Red Sea of Cortes ; situate in themost interior part of it, and near upon the coast ofNueva España, opposite the bay of San JuanBaptista.

[ AGWORTH, a township in Cheshire county.New Hampshire, incorporated in 1766, and con-tains 704 inhabitants ; eight miles e. by n. fromCharlestown, and 73n. w. by a), from Portsmouth.]

AHOME, a nation of Indians, who inhabit theshores of the river Zuaque, in the province ofCinaloa, and who are distant four leagues fromthe sea of California : they were converted to theCatholic faith by father Andres de Rivas, a Jesuit.Their country consists of some extensive and fer-tile plains, and they are by nature superior to theother Indians of Nueva España. Moreover, theirHeathenish customs do not partake so much of thespirit of barbarism. They abhorred polygamy,and held virginity in the highest estimation : andthus, by way of distinction, unmarried girls wore

a small shell suspended to their neck, until the dayof their nuptials, when it was taken off by the bride-groom. Their clothes were decent, composed ofwove cotton, and'they had a custom of bewailingtheir dead for a whole year, night and morning,with an apparently excessive grief. They aregentle and faithful towards the Spaniards, withwhom they have continued in peace and unityfrom the time of their first subjection. The prin-cipal settlement is of the same name, and lies atthe mouth of the river Fuerte, on the coast of thegulph of California,* having a good, convenient,and well sheltered port.

AHORCADOS, Point of the, on the shore ofthe large lake of Los Patos, of the province andcaptainship of Rey in Brazil.

Ahorcados, some small islands or points onthe coast of the S. sea, in the district of SantaElena, of the province and government of Guay-aquil, close to the mouth of the river Colonche.

AHUACATEPEC, San Nicolas de, anothersettlement of the above head settlement and alcal-dia mayor.

AHUACATES, Santa Maria de, a branchof the head settlement of the district and alcaldiamayor of Cuernavaca in Nueva España.

AHUACATLAN, Santa Maria de, a set-tlement of the head settlement of the district ofSan Francisco del Talle, and alcaldia mayor ofZultepec, in Nueva España. It is of a cold tem-perature, inhabited by 51 families of Indians, anddistant three leagues s. of its head settlement.

Ahuacatlan (Zochicoatlan), another settlement of’the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan inNueva España. It is of a cold temperature, si-tuate on a small level plain, surrounded by hillsand mountains. It contains 13 families of In-dians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its capital.

Ahuacatlan, with the dedicatory title of SanJuan, the head settlement of the district of thealcaldia mayor of Zacatlan in Nueva España.Its inhabitants are composed of 450 families ofIndians, and 60 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mu-lattoes, including the settlements of the district.Five leagues from its capital, and separated by amountainous and rugged road, as also by a verybroad river, whose waters, in the winter time, in-crease to such a degree as to render all communi-cation between the above places impracticable.

Ahuacatlan, another, of the head settlementof the district of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor ofTlapa, in the above kingdom. It contains 160families of Indians, who trade in chia^ (a whitemedicinal earth), and grain, with which its territoryabounds. It lies n, w. of its head settlement.

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river Hudson. It is small, but has a great tradefrom the contiguity of the Iroquese Indians. Itcontains 350 houses, buiH afterthe Dutch fashion ;and that of the magistracy, which consists ofa mayor, six aldermen, and a recorder, is verybeautiful. The city is defended by a regular fortwith four bastions, the rest of the fortification con-sisting of palisades. Here the treaties and alli-ances have been made with the Indians. It wastaken by Robert Car in 1664, and added to thisprovince by Colonel Dongan. [It is 160 miles «.of the city of New York, to which it is next in rank,and 340 s. of Quebec. This city and suburbs, byenumeration in 1797, contained 1263 buildings, ofwhich 863 were dwelling houses, and 6021 inha-bitants. Many of them are in the Gothic style,with the gable end to the street, which custom thefirst se^ttlers brought from Holland; the newhouses arc built in the modern style. Its inhabit-ants are collected from various parts of tlie world,and speak a great variety of languageJ^, but theEnglish predominates ; and the use of efery otheris gradually lessening. Albany is urfrivalled forsituation, being nearly at the head of sloop navi-gation, on one of the noblest rivers in the world.It enjoys a salubrious air, and is the natural em-porium of the increasing trade of a large extent ofcountry ay. and w. — a country of an excellent soil,abounding in every article for the W. Indiamarket; plentifully watered with navigable lakes,creeks, Snd rivers ; settling with unexampled rapid-ity ; and capable of aftbrdingsubsistenceto millionsof inhabitants. The public buildings are, a lowDutch church, of ancient and very curious con-struction, one for Episcopalians, two for Presby-terians, one for Germans'or Higli Dutch, and onefor Methodists ; an hospital, city hall, and a hand-some brick jail. In the year 1609, Henry II udson,whose name the river bears, ascended it in his boatto Aurnnla, the spot on which Albany now stands.The improvements in this city have, of lateyears, been very great in almost all respects.Wharfs have been built on the river, the streetshave been paved, a bank instituted, a new andhandsome style of building introduced. One milen. of this city, in its suburbs, near the manor-houseof lieutenant-governor Van Renssalaer, are veryingeniously constructed extensive and usefulworks, for the manufacture of Scotch and rappeesnuff, roll and cut tobacco of dilferent kinds,chocolate, mustard, starch, hair-powder, split-pease, and hulled barley. These valuable worksare the property of Mr. James Caldwell, who un-fortunately lost a complete set of similar works byfire, in Jidy 1791, with the stock, valued at

37,500 dollars. It is a circumstance worthy ofremark, and is evincive of the industry and enter-prise of the proprietor, that the whole of the pre«sent buildings and machinery were begun andcompleted in the short space of eleven mouths.These works are decidedly superior to any of thekind in America. All the articles above enume-rated, even to the spinning of tobacco, are manu-factured by the aid of water machinery. For theinvention of this machinery, the proprietor hasobtained a patent. These Avorks give employ-ment and subsistence to 40 poor boys, and a num-ber of workmen.] Long. 73° 42' w. Lat. 42°40' n.

Albania, or Albany, a large river of NewFrance, which takes its rise from the lake Chris-tinaux, runs n. e. and enters the sea at Hudson’sbay.

Albania, or Albany, a fortress in New SouthWales, N. America. [Lat. 32° 17' n. Long. 81°51' a;.]

ALBARICOQUES, Point of the, a cape onthe n. coast, in the head settlement of the islandof Santo Domingo, and in the French territories.It lies between the Trou d’Enfers and Cape Bom-bon.

ALBARRACIN, Desert of, a very loftymountain, always covered with snow, in tlie newkingdom of Granada.

ALBARRADA, a settlement of Indians ofthe kingdom of Chile, situate on the shore of theriver Cauchupil.

Albarrada, another settlement, with the dedi-catory title of San Miguel, in the head settlementof the district of Mitla, and alcaldia mayor ofTentitlan, in Nueva España. It contains 22Indian families, and is seven leagues n. of its headsettlement.

ALBARREGAS, a large and abundant riverof the new kingdom of Granada, which descendsfrom the mountains of Bogota, irrigates the coun-try and the city of Merida, running n. of thiscity until it enters the lake Maracaibo.

ALBEMARLE, a county of the province andcolony of N. Carolina, and that part of it whichis most agreeable, fertile, and salutary. It pro-duces various sorts of fruits and pulse, and thewinter is very temperate. This colony was esta-blished in 1670 by the lords and proprietors of it,who equipped, at their own expence, three ships,and a coiisiderable number of persons, with provi-sions for 18 months, and an abundance of merchan-dize, tools, and arms fit for the new establishment ;to which they sent resources yearly, in the pro-portion . required, until it appeared tube in a fit

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Pichihua,

Yaura,

Marangani,

Tinta,

Pitumanca,

Surimana,

Langui,

Checa,

Asiento de Con-doroma,

Santuario de la Vir-gen de Huancani,

San Pedro de Cacha,

Combapata,

Pueblo Nuevo,

Santuario de Tan-gascucal,

Quehue,

Coporaque,

Candelaria.

Its repartimiento amounted to 112,500 dollars,and it paid 900 dollars yearly for alcavala. Thecapital is Tinta.

CANETE, a province and corregimiento ofPeru. Its jurisdiction begins six leagues s. ofLima, and extends as far as 35, following thecoast of the Pacific ocean. It is bounded on then. e. by the province of Huarochiri, on the e. byYauros, on the s. by Yca, on the s. e. by CastroVireyna, and on the w. by the sea. It is 31 leaguesin length from n. to s. and from eight to nine inwidth, from e. to w. It is watered by some streams,of which the most considerable are the Mala onthe n. which rises from the lake Huasca-cocha,in the province of Yauyos, and the Cañete. Onits coast are many small ports and bays, thoughvery insecure and of unequal bottom. It aboundsin wheat, maize, sugar-cane, and all sorts offruit. The lands of this province belong for themost part to noble families at Lima, with whichcapital it carries on a considerable trade in fish,(brought from the coast), in fruit and vegetables,salt procured from the salt grounds of Chielca,and in nitre brought from the town of Mala.Its corregidor used to have a repartimiento of124,000 dollars, and it paid 992 yearly for alca-vala. The settlements of this province are,

Cañete, San Pedro de Mala,

Chilca, Pacarán,

Calango, Almagro,

Chincha, Lunaguana,

Tanqui, Zuñiga.

Coillo,

Canete, a river of the same province, whichrises from the lake Tiell-cocha in Yauyos. Itruns to the w. and enters the sea near the Herbae.At its entrance are to be seen the remains of a fortwhich belonged to the Incas of Peru.

Canete, some islands near the coast of thesame province.

Canete, a port in the same province, fre-quented by small vessels. It is very confined andinsecure.

CANGREJILLOS, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucumán, and juris-

diction of Jujuy, situate on the shore of the riverLaquiaca.

CANGREJO, a large settlement of the sameprovince and government as the former, and ofthe same jurisdiction, situate likewise on the shoreof that river.

CANGREJOS, Island of the, lies at the en-trance of the river Orinoco, in its principal mouth,called Navios, on the n. side. Mr. Bellin callsit Cangray. It is small, and inhabited by CaribeeIndians.

CANI, a settlement of the province and corre-gimiento of Huanuco in Peru, annexed to the cu-racy of Santa Maria del Valle.

(CANIADERAGO, a lake in Otsego county,New York, nearly as large as Otsego lake, andsix miles w. of it. A stream called Oaks creekissues from it, and falls into Susquehannah river,about five miles below Otsego. The best cheesein the state is said to be made on this creek.)

CANIBALES, or Caribes, a barbarous na-tion of Indians, who are, according to their name,cannibals, inhabiting the islands of the Antillesbefore they were taken and conquered by the Spa-nish, English, and French. There are few ofthese Indians at the present day inhabiting thoseislands ; the greater part are to be found in Domi-nica, which is entirely possessed by them ; theyadore a man who they affirm was uncreated, andthe first of all men, who descended from heaven,and was called Longuo, from whose navel wereborn other men , and some also from his legs, whichhe himself cleft open with a hatchet. With theManicheans, they believe in the two original causesof good and evil, and in the immortality of thesoul ; and whenever any one dies they bury withhim his slaves and servants, thinking they maybe of use to him in the other world. They arepolygamists, very cruel, but dexterous in the useof the bow and arrow ; they are to be found alsoin other parts of the continent. [See Caribes.]

(CANICODEO Creek, a s. w. head water ofTioga river in New York, which interlocks withthe head waters of Genessee river, and joins Co-nesteo creek 26 miles w. n. w. from the Paintedpost.)

CANICUARIS, a barbarous nation of Indians,who live scattered in the woods of Rio Negro tothe n. of Marañon. It is but little known.

CANIN, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Chancay in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Canchas.

CANIS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Tillos.

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CAPANA, a river of the province and countryof the Amazonas, in the part belonging to the Por-tuguese. It rises in the territory of the YaveisIndians, between the rivers Cuchivara and theMadera ; runs to the s. and turning to the s. s. e.enters into one of the lakes which forms the latterriver.

CAPANATOIAQUE, a small settlement of thehead settlement of Acantepec, and alcaldía mayorof Tlapa, in Nueva España. Its temperature iswarm, and it contains 90 families of Mexican In-dians, who employ themselves in the cultivatingand dressing of cotton.

CAPANEMA, a settlement of the province andcaptainship of Todos Santos in Brazil ; situateon the shore of the river of its name, near the bay.

Capanema, a river of the same province,which rises near the coast, runs e. and enters thesea in the bay.

CAPANEREALTE, a river of the provinceand alcaldía mayor of Soconusco, in the king-dom of Guatemala. It runs into the S. sea be-tween the rivers Colate and Gueguetlan.

CAPARE, an island of the river Orinoco, in theprovince and government of Guayana; situate atthe entrance, and one of those forming the mouths,of that river.

CAPARRAPI, a small settlement of the ju-risdiction of the city of Palma, and corregimientoof Tunja, in the new kingdom of Granada. Itstemperature is warm ; the number of its inhabi-tants is much reduced ; they may, however, stillamount to 40 housekeepers : its only productionsare some maize, cotton, yucas, and plantains.

CAPATARIDA, a settlement of the provinceand government of Maracaibo ; situate on the coast,at the mouth of the river so called.

Capatarida, the river which rises near thecoast, runs n. and enters the sea.

(CAPATI. Within a very few years has beendiscovered in the gold mine of this place, on themountains of Copiapo, a new immalleable sort ofmetal, of a kind unknown to the miners ; but Mo-lina imagined it to be no other than platina.)

CAPAUILQUE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento ofYamparaes, and archbishopricof Charcas, in Peru.

(CAPE St. Andrew’s, on the coast of Para-guay, or La Plata, S, America. Lat. 38° 18' s.Long. 58° 2' w.)

(Cape St. Antonio, or Anthonio, is thepoint of land on the s. side of La Plata river inS. America, which, with cape St. Mary on the n.forms the mouth of that river. Lat. 36° 32' s.Long, 56° 45' w.)

(Cape St. Augustine, on the coast of Brazil,S. America, lies s. of Pernambuco. Lat. 8° 39' s.Long. 35° 8' w.)

(Cape Blow-me-down, which is the s. side ofthe entrance from the bay of Fundy into the basinof Minas, is the easternmost termination of a rangeof mountains, extending about 80 or 90 miles tothe gut of Annapolis; bounded n. by the shores ofthe bay of Fundy, and s. by the shores of Anna-polis river.)

(Cape Cod, anciently called Mallebarre bythe French, is the s. e. point of the bay of Mas-sachusetts, opposite cape Ann. Lat. 42° 4' n.Long. 70° 14' w. from Greenwich. See Barn-staple County and Province Town.)

(Cape Elizabeth, a head-land and townshipin Cumberland county, district of Maine. Thecape lies in n. lat. 43° 33' e. by s. from the centreof the town nine miles, about 20 s. w. of Cape Smallpoint, and 12 n e. from the mouth of Saco river.The town has Portland on the n. e. and Scarboroughs. w. and contains 1355 inhabitants. It was incor-porated in 1765, and lies 126 miles n. e. ofBoston.)

(Cape Fear is the s. point of Smith’s island,which forms the mouth of Cape Fear river into twochannels, on the coast of N. Carolina, s. w. of capeLook-out, and remarkable for a dangerous shoalcalled the Frying-pan, from its form. Near thiscape is Johnson’s fort, in Brunswick county, anddistrict of Wilmington. Lat. 33° 57' n. Long.77° 56' w.)

(Cape Fear River, more properly Clarendon,affords the best navigation in N. Carolina. Itopens to the Atlantic ocean by two channels.'I'he s. w. and largest channel, between the s. w.end of Smith’s island, at Bald head, where thelight-house stands, and the e. end of Oakes islands. w. from fort Johnston. The new inlet is be-tween the sea-coast and the n. e. end of Smith’sisland. It will admit vessels drawing 10 or 11feet, and is about three miles wide at its entrance,having 18 feet water at full tides over the bar.It continues its breadth to the flats, and is navi-gable for large vessels 21 miles from its mouth, and14 from Wilmington ; to which town vessels drawl-ing 10 or 12 feet can reach without any risk. Asyou ascend this river you leave Brunswick on theleft and Wilmilgton on the right. A little aboveWilmington the river divides into n. e. and n. w.branches. The former is broader than the latter,but is neither so deep nor so long. The n. w.branch rises within a few miles of the Virginialine, and is formed by the junction of Haw andDeep rivers. Its general course is s. e. Sea ves-

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those which form its different mouths : also theisland of its name, inhabited by the Guaranos In-dians.

CAPUXA, a small settlement of the jurisdictionand alcaldía mayor of Ixmiquilpán, and of the ca-pital of Orizava, in Nueva España.

CAQUETA, a very large and abundant riverrising in the province of Sucumbios in the kingdomof Quito, in the mountains of Mocoa, this namebeing also given to it: it runs from w. to e. Onthe s. it gathers the waters of the San Pedro, SantaCruz, and Arevalo, and on the n. those of theLucia, Pato, Tango, Tabaquero, Cascabeles,Iscanzé, and others of an inferior description. Itdivides itself into two arms, the one of which takesthe name of Yupura, and which, running nearly tothe same point as the Marañon, separates itself intoother branches, which enter into this latter river in4° of lat. and immediately become as large andconsiderable as if they were the main stream : theother arm is also divided into two, the one takinga n. e. course, and entering the Orinoco, and theother running s. e. and bearing the name of the RioNegro ; by means of which, in the year 1744, somePortuguese came from Marañon to Orinoco, andproved the communication of these rivers, whichbefore was doubted : also by one of the arms of theYupura, Gonzalo Ximenes de Quesada found hisway to the new kingdom of Granada when heundertook its conquest. Some maintain that thisriver was the Orinoco, and thus has Don PedroMaldonado represented it in his map published inthe year 1750; but that of the Father BernadoRosella, missionary of the abolished society of theJesuits in Orinoco, made after the notes and in-structions of the Father Manuel Roman, attributeswith some confidence another origin to the Orinoco,and speaks of the Caquetá as one of the rivers whichenter it on the w. side. The Spanish geographerCruz, in his General Chart of America, makes nodistinction between the Yupura and the Caquetá,and only speaks of one stream, which runs con-tinually to the s. s. e. through the territory of the Ca-vauris Indians, before it enters the Marañon. Hedelineates the same as throwing out four branchesto the w. and three to the e. all which join the latterriver ; and he further states, that before it becomesthus divided, it forms on its n. side two large lakescalled Ynabavú and Cumapi ; from the whole ofwhich may be easily inferred how great is theabundance of its waters.

CAQUEZA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofUbaque in the new kingdom of Granada, situate ina warm but pleasant and agreeable soil, althoughmuch infested by venomous snakes called tayas :

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it abounds in the productions of a warm climate,contains more than 200 housekeepers, and is nineleagues to the s. w. of Santa Fe, in the road whichleads from San Juan de los Llanos to this capital.

CAQUIAUIRI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Pacages in Peru.

CAQUINGORA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Pacages in Peru.

CARA, an ancient province of the kingdom ofQuito towards the w. It extends itself along thecoast of the Pacific sea from the point of Pajonal tothe bay of Quaquez, for the space of 19 or 20leagues ; is watered by the rivers Tasagua andChonos to the s. and by the Jama to the n. Thewhole of the lands lie low, and are uncultivated andfull of wood ; the climate is hot and moist. It is atpresent united to the province of Esmeraldas.

CARA, the capital, which is now destroyed, wasfounded by Francisco de Ribas in the year 1562.It was situate in the bay of Cara, which is formedby the mouths of the two rivers Tasagua andChones : its ruins are still to be seen, and from thesewas built the settlement of Canoa, at six leaguesdistance, which was the residence of the lieutenantgovernor. This settlement was in 31' s. lat.

Cara, with the addition of BELLA, a small set-tlement of the Portuguese in the province and cap-tainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil ; situate at thesource of the river Prieto, and in the territory orcountry of the Pories Indians.

CARABAIA, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded on the e. by Larecaja, w. by Quis-picanchi, n. w. and n. by the territories of theinfidel Indians, called Carangues, Sumachuanes,and others, who are separated by the famous riverInambary; s. w. by the province of Canes andCanches or Tinta, and s. by Lampa and Asangaro,and in part by Puno or Paucarcolla. According {othe nice measurements which were made with re-gard to this province as well as of the others, it issaid to be 40 leagues from n. to s. and 50 at themost from e. to w. Its furtherest limits are only 14leagues distant from Cuzco, although on horsebackit is necessary to go a round of 60 leagues. Itsclimate is various, according to the more or lesselevated situation of the country; so that it is insome parts very cold, and in others more temperate.The pastures are good, consequently there is nowant of cattle, and in the neighbourhood of theAndes they gather three or four crops of coca inthe year. In this province is included that calledSan Gaban, which was united to it; many settle-ments having been at the same time added to theprovinces of Larecaja, Lampa and Asangaro. Ithas abounded more in gold than any other province

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in America, and they reckon the gold it has pro-duced at 33 millions of dollars, without countingthat which has been concealed ; but at present theyscarce procure from it 200 pound weight a year,on account of the increased charges of labour, andthe want of energy in the inhabitants. Many lumpsof gold have been found here, among which thereis still remembered to have been one of the figure ofa horse, which weighed 100 weight and some oddpounds, and which was carried to the EmperorCharles V. ; and likewise another lump which wassent to Philip II. bearing a resemblance to thehead of a man, which, however, was lost togetherwith much other riches in the channel of Bahama.This latter lump was found in the washing place ofYnahuaya. Nearly the whole of the territory of thisprovince is interspered with gold. The most cele-brated washing places that it had were called SanJuan del Oro, Paulo Coya, Ananea, and that whichwas superior to all, Aporoma. In the year 1713, alump of silver also was discovered in the mountainof Ucuntaya, being of a very solid piece of metal,and of prodigious value ; in its rivers are foundsands of gold, to which at certain times of the year,the Indians have recourse, in order to pay their tri-butes. There are also other mines of silver andcopper in various parts, and springs of hot water.It is very liable to earthquakes, and according tothe tradition of the Indians, there was one whichtook place before the conquest, so large as to over-turn mountains, and that, opening the earth, itswallowed up in an abyss many towns with theirinhabitants. They likewise assert, that in the year1747, another earthquake, throwing out of theground a dirty and muddy water, thereby infectedthe rivers to such a degree as to cause a dreadfuland general mortality. It has some large riversas well as small ; all of which empty themselvesinto the Ynambari, thus rendering this river ex-tremely abundant : towards the n. and n. e. which,as we have observed, is bounded by the infidel In-dians, there are large tracts of ground covered withcoca and rice, with an abundance of mountainfruits. In the aforesaid river they are accustomedto take shad and large dories by shooting themwith muskets, or by piercing them with arrows ordarts. There are also some lakes, which, althoughwithout fish, abound in ducks, snipes, and otheraquatic fowl. The infidel Indians have made va-rious irruptions into this province: its capital isSandia, and its natives, who amount to 28,000, aredivided into 26 settlements, as follows : The repar-timiento received by the corregidor used to amountto 82,800 dollars, and it paid 662 yearly for alcavala.

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Sandia, Coaza,

Cuiocuio. Cruzero,

Laqueique, Ajoiani,

Yñacoreque, Usicaios,

Queneque, Esquena,

Patambuco, Cuntuquita,

S. Juan del Oro, Ynambari,

Quiaca, Ayapata,

Sina, Ytuata,

Para, Macusani,

Limbani, Ollachea,

Chejani, Azaroma,

Aporoma, Corani.

CARABAILLO, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Cercado in Peru. It rises in theprovince of Canta from three lakes to the n. of thecapital, and continues its course until it join thesea close to the point of Marques.

CARABAILLO, a settlement of this province andcorregimiento.

CARABANA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana, which runs to the s. andenters the Orinoco between the Corquina and theArrewow. According to Bellin, in his map of thecourse of part of the Orinoco, it is distant fromthe other river called Corobana, which also en-ters the Orinoco on the opposite side.

CARABATANG, a river of the province andcaptainship of Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises inthe sierra of the Tiguares Indians, near the coast,runs s. s. e. and enters the sea between the Congand the Goyana.

CARABELAS, River of the, in the provinceand captainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil. Itrises in the cold sierra of the Pories Indians, runss. e. and according to Cruz, e. and enters the seaopposite the bank of the Escollos (hidden rocks).

Carabelas, Grandes, a port of the islandof Cuba, on the n. part.

Carabelas, Chicas, a bay in the same island,and on the same coast, between the settlement ofGuanajo and the Puerto del Poniente (w. port.)

CARABERES. See article Guarayos.

CARABUCO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Omasuyos in Peru ; in the vici-nity of which are the ruins of a chapel, which wasdedicated to St. Bartholomew ; and the Indianshave a tradition that the above-mentioned saint ap-peared here and preached the gospel to them :thus, in the principal altar of the church, they re-verence a large cross of very strong wood, andwhich is celebrated for having wrought many mi-racles ; splinters of it being anxiously sought afterby the faithful, wherefrom to form small crosses ;

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rection to be drowned in the lake Yaguarcocha,which from thence takes its name, and signifies thelake of blood, with which it was quite polluted ;tlie Indians stating, .according to their traditions,that no less than 20,000 people were thus sacri-ficed. Part of this province is at present compre-hended in that of Ibarra, and part in that ofOtavalo.

CARAP, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana. It rises between the Aca-mon and the Agualey, and taking its course be-tween these two, enters the Caroni on the e. side.

CARAPAICURA, a small river of the provinceand government of Cumana. It rises in the ser-ranla of I mataca, runs and enters the Cuyunion the n. side.

CARAPANATUBA, a river of the province ofGuayana, in the part belonging to the Portuguese.It runs s. s. e. and enters the mouth of the Mara-non before you come to the town and fort of Ma-capa.

CARAPATO, a river of the province and cor-regimiento of Sicasica. It is but small, rises tothere), of the settlement of Caracoto, runs n. andenters the Cliuquiavo.

(CARAPEGUAY, a parish of the province andgovernment of Paraguay, situate near a smallriver, 11 leagues 5. e. of Asuncion. Lat. 25°45' 31" s. Long. 57° 16' 56" w.)

CARAPO, asettlement of the province of Guay-ana, and government of Cumana, one of those be-longing to the missions of the Catalatxian Capuchinfathers.

CARAPO, a river of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the newkingdom of Granada ; it rises in the country ofthe Chiricoas Indians, runs n. and enters the Meta.

CARAPU, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana ; it rises near the lakeJeupa, runs from s. to n. and enters the Paragua.

CARAPUCHO, Morro de, a mountain onthe coast of Peru, in the province and corregi-miento of Carangas.

CARAQUES, Bay of, on the S. sea-coast, andin the province and government of Guayaquil. Itis close to cape Pasao, and near the equinoctialline. There was a settlement here, bearing the samename, the ruins of which are still visible.

CARAQUET, a small island of the gulf of St.Lawrence, on tlie coast of Nova Scotia or Arca-dia, by the Orphan’s bank.

CARARA, a small river of the province andcaptainship of Para in Brazil; it runs n. and en-ters the sea between the settlement of Senambocaand the island of San Juan.

CARARE, a large river of the new kingdom ofGranada. It rises in the valley of Alferez, to then. of the city of Tunja, runs from s. ton. and join-ing the Zarbe, enters the large river of Magdalena.On the e. side, near the narrow pass which formsits shores, the French have constructed a fort toguard against invasion from the infidel Indians.

CARARI, a strait of the large river Magdalena,formed by great rocks. There was formerly herea fort, which has been moved to a place at somelittle distance. The course of the waters in theabove strait is so rapid as to render it sometimesimpossible for vessels and canoes to pass through it.

==CARAS=, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Andajes.

CARASA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cochabamba in Peru.

CARASANI, asettlement of the province andcorregmiento of Larecaja in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Combaya.

CARATE, a small island of the S. sea, near thecoast.

CARATES, a river of the province and go-vernment of Maracaibo. It rises in the mountainsof Lonia, runs s. w. and after many windings,enters the great lake of Maracaibo.

CARAVELAS, Mouth of the, the entrance ofa bay on the n. coast of the island of Cuba.

CARAUELE, Point of the, an extremity ofthe coast looking to the e. in the island of Marti-nique, one of those two which run into the sea inthe above direction.

Carauele, a small island of the N. sea, situatenear the n. e. coast of the island of Martinique,on the n. side of Carauele point.

CARAUELI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cumana in Peru.

CARAUELLES, a river of the province andcaptainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil. It risesat the foot of the « Fria, and describing a smallcircle, runs s. e. and according to Cruz, e. andenters the sea opposite the island of Pajaros.

CARAZ, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Huailas in Peru.

CARBET, a settlement of the island of Mar-tinique, one of the Antilles ; situate on the n. s».coast, Avith a good port. It Avas a curacy of theregular order of Jesuits, now abolished.

Carbet, two very high mountains of the aboveisland. They are full of sharp points similar tothose on Montserrat in Cateluila. They are nearthe coast, lying towards the n. w. part ; and theFrench call them Pitons de Carbet.

Carbet, a point on the e. coast of the island

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Of Guadalupe, between the Three Rive*‘s and theAgujero del Ferro.

Carbet Point, on the s. coast of lake Superior,in New France, opposite the island of Philipeaux.

Carbet, a river of the island of Guadalupe,which tuns nearly e. and enters the sea betweenthe Grande and the Orange.

CARBON, Island of, situate in the middle ofa lake on the coast of the province and govern-ment of Buenos Ayres.

Carbon, Monte de, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Puchacay in the king-dom of Chile; situate upon the coast and on theshore of the bay of Culumo, near the mouth ofthe river Biobio.

CARBONIERE, a settlement of the island ofNewfoundland, situate on the e. coast, on theshore of the bay of Concepcion.

CARCAI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Soras. It has a hot spring of water ofvery medicinal properties, and its heat is so greatthat an egg may be boiled in it in an instant.

CARCARANAL, a river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It rises in the pro-vince of Tucuman, in the mountains of the cityof Cordoba, runs nearly from e. torw. with thename of Tercero, and changing it into Carcara-iial, after it becomes united Avith the Saladillo, joinsthe Plata, and enters the Salado and the Tres Hec-manas.

CARCAZI, a settlement of the government andJurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, situate betAveen two mountains, whichcause its temperature to be very moderate. It pro-duces much Avheatand maize ; in its cold parts suchfruits as are peculiar to that climate, and in themilder parts sugar-cane. Its neighbourhoodabounds Avith flocks of goats ; and the number ofinhabitants may amount to about 200 Spaniardsand 30 Indians. It is situate on the confines Avhichdivide the jurisdictions of Tunja and Pamplona.

CARCHIPOR, a river of the province and go-vernment of Cayenne in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises in the mountains of the same pro-vince, and runs into the sea on the side of capeOra nge.

(CARDIGAN, about 20 miles e. of Dartmouthcollege, New Hampshire. The township ofOrange once bore this name, which see.)

CARDIN, a settlement of the province of Ve-nezuela and government of Maracaibo, situate onthe shore of the coast, in the interior of the gulfformed by the peninsula of cape San Roman.

CARDINALES, Sombreros de. See articlePitangoas.

CARDOSO, Real de, a settlement and realof gold mines in the province and captainship ofTodos Santos in Brazil; situate on the shore ofthe large river of San Francisco, to the n. of thevillage of Tapuyas.

CAREHANEU, a small river of Pennsylvania,which runs w. and enters the Ohio.

CAREN, a valley or meadow-land of the king-dom of Chile, renowned for its pleasantness, beauty,and extent, being five leagues in length; also fora fountain of very delicate and salutary water,which, penetrating to the soil in these parts, ren-ders them so exceedingly porous, that a person tread-ing somewhat heavily seems to shake the groundunder him. There is an herb found here that keepsgreen all the year round: it is small, resemblingtrefoil, and the natives call it caren: it is of a veryagreeable taste, and gives its name to the valley.

CARENERO, a bay of the coast of the king-dom of Tierra Firme in the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It is extremely convenientfor careening and repairing ships, and from thiscircumstance it takes its name. It lies behind capeCodera towards the e.

CARET, Anse be, a bay of the island of St.Christopher, one of the Antilles, on the n. e. coast,and in the part possessed by the French beforethey ceded the island to the Englissh. It is be-tween the bays of Fontaine and Morne, or Fuenteand Morro.

=CARETI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme.It rises in the n. mountains, and enters the sea iathe bay of Mandinga.

CAREU, a settlement of the island of Barba-does, in the district of the parish of Christchurch.

CARGONACHO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Philpichaca.

CARGUAIRASO, a lofty mountain and vol-cano of the province and corregimiento of Rio-bamba in the kingdom of Quito. It is in the dis-trict of the asiento of Ambato, covered with snowthe whole year round. Its skirts are covered withfine crops of excellent barley. In 1698 this pro-vince was visited by a terrible earthquake, whichopened the mountain and let in a river of mud,formed by the snows which were melted by thefire of the volcano, and by the ashes it threw up.So dreadful were the effects of this revolution thatthe whole of the crops were completely spoiled ;and it was in vain that the cattle endeavoured to-

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ment of Paraguay ; situate on a small river aboutl5 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23° 30' 27"Long. 56° 52' w.)

CARLISLE, a settlement of the island of Ja-maica ; situate on the s.

(Carlisle, the chief town of Cumberlandcounty, Pennsylvania, on the post-road from Phi-ladelphia to Pittsburg ; is 125 miles w. by n. fromthe former, and 178 e. from the latter, and 18 s. w.from Harrisburgh. Its situation is pleasant andhealthy, on a plain near the s. bank of Conedog-winet creek, a water of the Susquehannah. Thetown contains about 400 houses, chiefly of stoneand brick, and about 1500 inhabitants. The streetsintersect each other at right angles, and the publicbuildings are a college, court-house, and gaol, andfour edifices for public worship. Of these thePresbyterians, Germans, Episcopalians, and RomanCatholics, have each one. Dickinson college,named after the celebrated John Dickinson, esq.author of several valuable tracts, has a principal,three professors, a philosophical apparatus, and alibrary containing near SOOO volumes. Its re-venue arises from 4000/. in funded certificates, and10,000 acres of land. In 1787 there were 80 stu-dents, and its reputation is daily increasing.About 50 years ago this spot was inhabited by In-dians and wild beasts.)

(Carlisle, a bay on the w. side of the islandof Barbadoes in the West Indies ; situated be-tween James and Charles forts, on which standsBridge-town, the capital of the island.)

CARLOS, San, a settlement of the provinceand captainship of Rey in Brazil ; situate on theshore of a small river which enters the head of thatof Curituba.

Carlos, San, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the shore of a small river nearthe river Pargua, about five leagues s. w. of Can-delaria. Lat. 27° 44' 36" s. Long. 55° 57' 12" w.

Carlos, San, another, of the missions of theprovince and government of Tucuman, in the jn-risdiction of the city of Salta; situate on the shoreof the river of Guachipas.

Carlos, San, a city of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of theriver Aguirre, to the n. of the city of Nirua. [Itowes its existence to the first missionaries of Vene-zuela, and its increase and beauty to the activityof its inhabitants. The greatest part of its popu-lation is composed of Spaniards from the Canaryislands ; and as these leave their native country

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but to meliorate their condition, they arrive with awillingness to work, and a courage to undertakeany thing that they think the most proper to an-swer their views. Their example even inspires asort oT emulation among the Creoles, productiveof public prosperity. Cattle forms the great massof the wealth of the inhabitants. Oxen, horses,and mules, are very numerous. Agriculture, al-though not much followed, is yet not neglected.Indigo and coffee are almost the only things theygrow. The quality of the soil gives the fruits anexquisite flavour, but particularly the oranges,which are famed throughout the province. Thecity is large, handsome, and well divided ; theycompute the inhabitants at 9300. The parishchurch, by its construction and neatness, answersto the industry and piety of the people. The heatat San Carlos is extreme ; it would be excessive ifthe n. wind did not moderate the effects of the sun.It lies in 9° 20' lat. 60 leagues s. w. of Caracas,24 s. s.e. of St. Valencia, and 20 from St. Philip’s.

(Carlos, San, a town of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a small riverabout two leagues n. of Maldonado. Lat. 34° 44'45" s. Long. 55° 44' zw.)

(Carlos, San, Real, a parish of the provinceand government of Buenos Ayres ; situate on ariver of the same name, about five leagues n. ofColonia del Sacramento. Lat. 34° 25' 8" s. Long,57° 50' w.')

(San Carlos de Monterey|Carlos, San, de Monterey]]==, the capital ofNew California, founded in 1770, at the foot of thecordillera of Santa Lucia, which is covered withoiiks, pines, (foliis lernis J, and rose bushes. Thevillage is two leagues distant from the presidio ofthe same name. It appears that the bay of Mon-terey had already been discovered by Cabrillo onthe 13th November 1542, and that he gave it thename of Bahia rle los Pinos, on account of thebeautiful pines with which the neighbouring moun-tains are covered. It received its present nameabout 60 years afterwards from Viscaino, in ho-nour of the viceroy of Mexico, Gaspar deZunega,Count de Monterey, an active man, to whom weare indebted for considerable maritime expedi-tions, and who engaged Juan de Onate in the con-quest of New Mexico. The coasts in the vicinityof San Carlos produce the famous aurum merum(ormier) of Monterey, in request by the inhabi-tants of Nootka, and which is employed in thetrade of otter-skins. The population of San Carlosis 700.)

Carlos, San, a fort of the province and go-vernment of Guayana, situate on the shore of the

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Rio Negro, on a great island formed by this riverand that of Pasimoni.

Carlos, San, a bay of the w. coast of Florida,45 leagues from the soundings of Tortuguilla.Lat. 27° 10'. Long. 284° 30'.

Carlos, San, a small island of the gulf of Cali-fornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, in the interior ofthe same, and very close upon the coast.

Carlos, San, a river of the island of Guada-lupe, which runs nearly due n. e. and enters thesea in the bay of the Great Cul de Sac.

Carlos, San, a settlement (with the surnameof Real) of the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the shore of the river La Plata,near the colony of Sacramento, which belonged tothe Portuguese. In its vicinty, on the n. n. e. part,there is a lake of very good sweet water.

Carlos, San, an island of the straits of Magel-lan, between the mountain of the Pan de Azucarand cape Galand of the n. coast.

Carlos, San, a valley in the province and go-vernment of Tucumán, which is very fertile invines, wheat, maize, carob-trees, tar, and in birdsand animals of the chase. Its natives are thosewho most of all infested the Spaniards when theyconquered this province.

Carlos, San, a settlement and fort of the islandof St. Christopher, one of the Antilles.

Carlos, San, another, of the island of Cuba;situate on the n. coast, on the point of land calledthe Pan de Mantanzas.

Carlos, San, another, of the province and go-vernment of Maracaibo ; situate in the island Pax-ara, on the shore of the Gran Laguna, or Greatlake.

Carlos, San, another, of the province andcountry of Las Amazonas ; a reduccion of the mis-sions which were held there by the regulars of thesociety of Jesuits. It lies between the rivers Arau-caso and Shiquita, in the territory of the Cahu-maris Indians.

Carlos, San, another, of the province and go-vernment of Guatemala ; situate on the shore ofthe river of S. Juan, or Del Desaguadero.

Carlos, San, some sierras or mountains, calledDe Don Carlos, in the province and captainship ofRey in Brazil. They run parallel to the sierra ofLos Difuntos, in the extremity of the coast formedby the mouth of the river La Plata.

CARLOSAMA, a large settlement of Indians ofthe province and corregimiento of Pastes in thekingdom of Quito, on the 5. shore of the river ofits name. Its territory is most fertile, but the cli-mate is very cold, and the streets almost always

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Impassable. It is to the zo. n. zo. of the settlementof Ipialos, and e. n. e. of that of Cumbal.

CARLTON, a settlement of the island of Bar-badoes, in the district and parish of St. Thomas.

CARLUTAS, a river of the province and cap-tainship of Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises near thecoast, runs s. s. e. and enters the sea between theGenibabu and the Rio Grande.

CARMA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimienlo of Porco in Peru ; annexed to the cu-racy of Porco.

(CARMEL, a township in Dutchess county,New York. By the state census of 1796, 237 ofits inhabitants were electors.)

(CARMELO, a river on the coast of New Al-bion, s. e. of Francisco bay. A little n. from itis Sir Francis Drake’s harbour, where that navi-gator lay five weeks.)

Carmelo, Sierras del, a cordillera of verylofty mountains of the province of California ; theyrun to the sea-shore from the sierra of the Enfado,as far as the cape of San Lucas.

CARMEN, a river of the province and colony ofSurinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by theDutch. It rises in the sierra of Rinocote, runsfrom w. to e. and gathering the waters of manyothers, enters in a large body into the Mazar-roni.

Carmen, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cartagena ; situate in the district ofthe mountains of Marca, between those of San Ja-cinto and San Francisco de Asis. It is one ofthose new settlements that were founded by the Go-vemor Don Juan Pimienta in 1776.

Carmen, another settlement, with the additionof Frayeles de el, which is the village of the pro-vince and captainship of Todos Santos in Brazil ;situate between the rivers Rans and Tucumbira.

Carmen, another, in the same kingdom ; situatenear a stream and on the shore of the river Tocan-tines, on the e. side, and not far from the Arrayalof San Feliz.

Carmen, a large island of the gulf of California,or Mar Roxo de Cortes, near the coast, betweenthe islands of San Ildefonso and Agua Verde.

Carmen, a town of the province and captain-ship of Espiritu Santo in Brazil ; situate on theshore and at the head of a river which gives it thisname.

CARMOT, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarca la Grande in Peru ;situate on the shore of the river Chicama.

CARNELAND, Islas de, islands near thecoast of the province and government of Honduras,

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CARTAGENA.

San Nicolas de laPaz,

San J uan de lasPalmas,

Pueblo Nuevo,Santero,

Lorica,

San Nicolas deBari,

San Bernardo A-bad,

Morales,

Babilla,

Tablada,

Tiquicio de Aden-tro,

Tiquicio de Afu-era,

Majagua,

Nechi,

San Marcos,

San Pelajo,

Zerete,

Zienega del Oro,San Carlos de Co-losina.

San Geronimo deBuenavista.

The capital is a large city adorned with beauti-ful buildings, founded by Pedro de Heredia in1533, on the shore of a great and very convenientbay more than two leagues in length. It was call-ed Calamari in the time of the Indians, which sig-nifies, in their language, the land of craw-fish, fromthe abundance of these found in it. It is situateon a sandy island, which forming a narrow strait,gives a communication to the part called TierraBomba ; on the left it is entered by a woodenbridge, having a suburb called Xiximani, whichis another island uniting with the continent bymeans of a bridge in the same manner as itself.It is well fortified, and is the residence of a go-vernor, with the title of captain-general, dependenton the viceroy of Santa Fe, having beeu indepen-dent till the year 1739. Besides the precinct andbastions, it has a half-moon, which defends theentrance or gate ; and at a small distance is thecastle of San Felipe de Baraxas, situate on aneminence, and on the side of the bay the castles ofSan Luis, Santa Cruz, San Joseph, San P'elipe,and Pastelillo, which were rebuilt in a modernmanner, in 1654;, by the Lieutenant-general DonIgnacio de Sala, with the names of San Fernando,San Joseph, El Angel, and El Pastelillo. Thecathedral church is magnificent, and included in itis the parish of Sagrario, besides two other pa-rishes called La Trinidad and Santo Toribo. Ithas the convents of monks of St. Francisco, St.Domingo, St. Augustin, St. Diego, La Merced,and San Juan de Dios, which is an hospital, andsituate at the top of a high mountain without thewalls of the city, at a quarter of a league’s dis-tance from the convent of the barefooted Augustins,called Nuestra Senora de la Popa ; to this con-vent vessels are accustomed to offer up a salutationas soon as they discover it at sea. It has also acollege which belonged to the society of Jesuits,a convent of Santa Clara, one of the Observersof San Francisco, and another of barefooted Car-

melites. At a small distance without the city isthe hospital of San Lazaro for lepers, which ma-lady is epidemical in the country. It has also atribunal of the inquisition, established in 1610, ofwhich there is only three in all America, and put-tingthis city, in this pointof view, onafooting withthe metropolitan cities Lima and Mexico. It is thehead of a bishopric erected in 1534 by his holinessClement VII. The bay abounds in fish of variouskinds, but it is infested by marine wolves. Theclimate of this city is very hot ; from May to No-vember, which are the winter months, thunder,rain, and tempests are very frequent, but fromthis inconvenience they derive an advantage offilling with water their cisterns, called aijibes, andwhich afford them the only supply of this inostnecessary article ; accordingly every house is fur-nished with one of these cisterns : from Decemberto April, which is the summer, the heat is exces-sive, occasioning continual perspiration, whichdebilitates the frame, and causes the inhabitants tohave a pale and unhealthy appearance, althoughthey nevertheless enjoy good health, it being notunusual to find amongst them persons exceeding80 years of age. The irregularity of this climateproduces several very afflicting disorders, as theblack vomit, which is most common amongststrangers and sea-faring people, few of whom havethe luck to escape it, but no person ever has ittwice. The inhabitants are likewise much trou-bled with the leprosy, or disease of St. Lazarus ; theculebrilla, which is an insect which breeds under theskin, and causes a swelling which is accustomed toterminate in gangrene and spasms or convulsions :besides these inconveniences, there are multitudesof troublesome insects which infest the houses,such as beetles, niguas, scorpions, centipeds, andmorcielagos. The largest trees are the caob, thecedar, the maria, and balsam ; of the first aremade canoes, out of the solid trunk, for fishing andcommerce ; the red cedar is better than the white,and the two last, not to mention their utility fromthe compactness of their timber, for their delicioussmell and beautiful colour, are the trees fromwhence are procured those admirable distillationscalled the oil of Maria and balsam of Tolu. Hereare also tamarind trees, medlars, sapotas, papai/as,cassias, and Indian apple trees, producing deli-cate and pleasant fruits ; the fruit, however, of thelast mentioned is poisonous, and many who, de-ceived by the beauty of these apples, have therashness to taste them, soon repent of their folly,for they immediately swell to a distressing degree :so if perchance any one should sleep under itsbranches, he will be afflicted in the same way.

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in beautiful singing birds ; and in its rivers aremany sorts of fish of a fine flavour, particularly thepatah. It is not without mines of gold, and laba~deros or washing places, but these are not worked,save by a few day-labourers. In the church of themonks of San Francisco is venerated an image of themost Holy Mary, with the title of La Probezuypainted on a piece of cotton-stuff, adorned with twofine pieces of silver, the natives payitig great de-votion to this superb work, from the wonderfulthings that have been said to have been effectedthrough the prayers offered up to her of whom thisis the semblance. This city has been the nativeplace of,

Don Melchor de Salazar, governor of Choco,and founder of the city Toro.

Of the Doctor Don Francisco Martinez Bueno,presbyter and visitor of the bishopric of Popayan ;a man of great literature.

Of the Doctor Don Manuel de Castro y Rada ; amost exemplary curate.

Of the Father Joseph Vicuna, who, after havingbeen a celebrated Jesuit, became a monk in thecollege of missions for propagating the faith in Po-payan, and died whilst preaching to the AndaquiesIndians.

Of the Father Estevan de Rivas, who, after hav-ing filled the title of jurist with great credit, be-came a Franciscan monk, and died an exemplarypenitent in his convent at Cartagena.

Of the Doctor Don Francisco Felipe del Campo,professor de prima of canons in the university ofSanta Fe ; a celebrated orator.

Of the Doctor Don Geronirao de Rivas, trea-surer and dignitary of the holy church of Popayan,provisor and ecclesiastical governor of that bishop-ric.

Of the Doctor Don Joseph de Renteria, assessorof the viceroyalties of Santa Fe and Lima, honoraryoidor of the audience of Charcas : all of whomhave borne testimony to the clearness and acutenessof their understandings and excellence of their dis-positions. But for all the information on thesesubjects, we have to thank Don Manuel del Cara-po, the son of the last mentioned, who resides inthis court, and to whom the merits thus severallyapplied, unitedly belong.

The arms of this city are three imperial crownswith a sun, and its inhabitants amount to about 5000or 6000 : 25 leagues n. e. of Popayan, in 4° 46'n. lat.

Cartago, another capital city, of the provinceof Costa Rica, in the kingdom of Guatemala,situate 10 leagues from the coast of the N. sea, and17 from that of the S. in each of which it has agood port ; it was formerly rich and flourishing, onaccount of its commerce w ith Panama, Cartagena,Portobclo, and the Havanah ; but it is at the presentday reduced to a miserable village of very few in-habitants, and without any commerce. It has, be-sides the parish church, a convent of monks of St.Francis, and is in 9° 42' s. lat.

Cartago, a river of the same province and go-vernment as is the former city : it runs w. and en-ters the S.sea, in the port of La Herradura.

Cartago, a bay in the province and govern-ment of Honduras, inhabited by the infidel Mos-quitos Indians.

CARTAMA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Antioquia: it rises in the mountains ofChoco, traverses the valley to which it gives itsname, and running e. enters the Cauca.

CARTEL, a port of the coast of the provinceand government of Florida, opposite the castle ofSt. Augustin.

(CARTER, a new county in the state of Tennes-see, formed of a part of the county of Washing-ton.)

(CARTERET, a maritime county of New Beradistrict, N. Carolina, on Core and Pamlico sounds.It contains 3732 inhabitants, including 713 slaves.Beaufort is the chief town.)

Carteret, a district and jurisdiction of S. Caro-lina, on the sea-coast.

Carteret, a cape or extremity of the coast ofthe same province, and one of those which formLong bay. See Roman.

(CARTERSVILLE, a town in Powhatancounty, Virginia, on the s. side of James rivtr, 4fmiles above Richmond.)

CARUALLEDA, Nuestra Senora de, acity of the province and government of Venezuela,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; founded byFrancis Faxardo in 1568, and not in 1560, as ac-cording to Coleti : it has a small but insecure port.The town is also a miserable place, having sufferedmuch injury, a short time after its foundation, bythe violent disturbances caused in its neighbour-hood by the Governor Don Luis de Roxas : 80leagues e. of Coro.

CARUALLO, a settlement of the province andcaptainship of Paraiba in Brazil, situate near thesea-coast, and on the shore of the river Camara-tuba.

CARUGAMPU, a small river of the provinceand government of Paraguay ; it runs and en-ters the Parana between the rivers Capuy andParanay.

CARUJAL, PUNTA DE, a point on the coast ofthe province and government of Cartagena, called

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Were Held by the Jesuits, in the province and go-vernment of Paraguay ; situate almost to the s, ofVilla Rica.

CASA-PIEDRA, Isla De, an island of thecoast and kingdom of Brazil, and province andcaptainship of the Rio Janeiro, close to Cape Frio.

CASA-PIEDRA, a settlement of this province andkingdom ; situate near the coast and upon the shoreof a river thus called.

Casa-Piedra, a river which runs s. s. e. in thisprovince, and joins the sea very near Cape Frio.

==CASAPOEIRA, Bahia de, or De BarrerasBermejas==, a bay on the coast and in the captain-ship of Marañon, arid kingdom of Brazil, betweenthe islands Ygirapa and Sipatuba.

CASARA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Chincheros.

Casara, another settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Vilcas Huaman, also of Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Hualla.

CASARANI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa inPeru.

CASARIDA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Maracaibo ; situate on the coast, atthe mouth of the river of its name.

Casarida. This river rises near the coast, runsn. and enters the sea.

CASAS-GRANDES, an extensive and beautifulvalley of the province of Los Apaches in NuevaEspaña.

CASAUATAI, a river of the province andcountry of the Amazonas : it rises from the lake ofthe Gran Cocama, in 6 ° 48' s. hit. runs to the s. ofthe Maraiion, and following its course towards then. for more than 25 leagues, runs e. to enter theUcayale on its e. side, and afterwards to receivethe waters of the Zapofe.

CASCABAMBA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Talavera.

CASCABELES, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito :it rises near the ruins of the city of Simancas, andenters the river Caqueta, where are also the ruinsof the city of Mocoa.

CASCADE, a small river of country and landof Labrador : it runs s. between the rivers Bois andSan Francisco, and enters the sea in the strait ofBellisle.

CASCAJAL, a river of the province and king-dom of Tierra Firme : it rises in the mountains ofPortovelo, and runs into the sea through the bay ofthis city.

Cascajal, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cartagena ; situate on the shore of theriver Cauca, in the district and jurisdiction of thetown of Mompox.

CASCAJO, ISLA DEL, an island of the coast ofthe province and government of Cartagena, close tothe island of Arenas.

Cascajo, a point of the s. coast of the island ofSanto Domingo, in the French possessions : it liesbetween port Nonet and port Salud.

CASCARA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Lampa.

CASCAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Conturnaza ; in the district of whichthere is, at three leagues distance, a large piece ofhewn stone of 13 yards long and three quarters of ayard wide on every face, particularly rough andunpolished.

Cascas, a large swamp of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos, which isformed from different arms of the rivers Sarare andApure, and communicates itself with the lake ofArechona ; both of these lakes being near the lastriver, and at the skirt of ihe paramo or mountain de-sert of Chisgas.

CASCAY, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Paucartambo in Peru.

CASCAYUNCA, an ancient province of Peru, tothe n. e. of Cuzco, conquered by Tupac Yupanqui,twelfth Emperor.

(CASCO Bay, in the district of Maine, spreadsn. w. between cape Elizabeth on the s. w. and capeSmall Point on the n. e. Within these points,which are about 40 miles apart, are about 300 smallislands, some of which are inhabited, and nearlyall more or less cultivated. The land on theseislands, and on the opposite coast on the main, isthe best for agriculture of any on the sea-coast ofthis country. Casco includes several bays. Maquoitbay lays about 20 miles n. of cape Elizabeth. Thewaters of Casco extend several arms or creeks ofsalt water into the country. The waters go upMeadow’s river, where vessels of a considerablesize are carried by the tide, and where it flowswithin one mile of the waters of Kennebeck. Onthe e. side of cape Elizabeth is the arm of the seacalled Stroudwater. Farther e. is Presumpscotriver, formerly called Presumpea, or Presumpkeag,which rises in Sebago Pond. This river opens tothe waters of Casco bay on the e. of Portland ; itsextent is not great, but it has several valuable millsupon it. Rayal’s river, called by the nativesW estecustego, falls into the bay six miles from

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CASONA, a river of the province of Guayana :it runs e. and enters the Esquivo,

CASPANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Atacama, and of the archbishopricof Charcas, in Peru ; annexed to the curacy ofChiuchiu.

(CASPEAN, or Beautiful, a small lake inGreensborough, Vermont. It has Hazen block-house on its w. side. It is a head water of LaMoille river.)

CASPIYACU, a small river of the provinceand government of Mainas in the kingdom of Qui-to ; it runs from s. s. e, to n. n, w. and enters theYana at its sources.

(CASQUIPIBIAC, a river on the n. side of Cha-leur bay, about a league from Black cape, n. w.by n. in the bottom of Casquipibiac cove, at thedistance of about one league from which is thegreat river of Casquipibiac. It lies about w, fromthe former, and affords a small cod and salmonfishery.)

(CASSITAH, an Indian town in the w. part ofGeorgia; which, as well as the Coweta town, is60 miles below the Horse ford, on Chattahouseeriver.)

CASTA, San Pedro de, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Coquimbo in thekingdom of Chile : it runs n. n. e. and enters theMames near the sea-coast.

(CASTAHANA, Indians of N. America, whoresemble the Dotames, except that they tradeprincipally Avith the Crow Indians, and that theywould most probably prefer visiting an establish-ment on the Yellow Stone river, or at its mouth onthe Missouri.)

CASTEENS, a small river of the province ofSagadohook : it runs s. and enters the sea in thebay of Penobscot. On its shore and at its mouth isa settlement of Indians, where the English have afort and an establishment.

CASTELA, a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Moxos in the king-dom of Quito, being formed from those of the Beniand Paravari ; it afterwards unites itself with thatoftheYtenes, and changes its name to Madera,which joins the Maranon on the s. side, in lat. 3°13' 18" s.

CASTELLANOS, Puerto, a port in the largeisland of San Sebastian, and near the coast of Bra-zil, and province and captainship of San Vin-cente.

CASTILLA, Santo Tomas de, a settlementof the province and government of Honduras in thekingdom of Guatemala. Its port is good, and wellfrequented with vessels.

CASTILLA DEL ORO. See Tierra Firme*

CASTILLO, a river of the province and districtof Quillota in the kingdom of Chile : it runs w-and joins the Pcrquilabquien to enter the Lon-gamilla.

Castillo, a port of the coast, in the same pro-vince and kingdom, between the former river andthe port Valparaiso.

Castillo, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of thecity of Cordova ; situate on the shores of the riverTercero, near the mouth Avhere this enters the Sa-ladillo.

CASTILLOS Grandes, an island of the pro-vince and captainship of Rey in Brazil. It is verynear the coast, between the cape Santa Maria ofthe river La Plata and the cape of Las Yncas;the Portuguese have a fort in it.

Castillos Grandes, another island, withthe addition of Chicos, to distinguish it from theother in the same province and kingdom, and ata little distance from the above island.

Castillos Grandes, a point of land or ex-tremity of the island of Guadalupe, opposite thoseof Deseada and of Marigalante.- It is thus calledfrom two castles which it has in it.

(CASTINE, the shire town of Hancock county,district of Maine, is situate on Penobscot bay. Itwas taken from the town of Penobscot, and incor-porated in Feb. 1796. It is named after a Frenchgentleman who resided here ISO years ago, asalso)

(Castine River, which is about 14 mileslong, is navigable lor six miles, and has severalmills at the head of it. It empties into Penobscotbay.)

(CASTLE Island. See Crooked Island.)

(CASTLETOWN, a township in Richmondcounty, Stateti island, New York, which contains805 inhabitants, including 114 slaves; 114 of itsinhabitants are electors.)

(CASTLETON, a township and river in Rut-land county, Vermont, 20 miles s. e. of mount In-dependence at Ticonderoga. Lake Bombazon ischiefly in this town, and sends its waters into Cas-tleton river, which, rising in Pittsford, passesthrough this town in a s. westerley course, and failsinto Pultney river in the town of Fairhaven, a littlebelow Colonel Lyon’s iron Avorks. Fort War-ner stands in thistoAvn. Inhabitants 805.)

(CASTOR’S River, in Newfoundland island,empties in the harbour of St. John’s. Its size isconsiderable for 15 miles from the sea.)

(Castor, Estanque del, a lake of the pro-vince and colony of Virginia, on the shore of the

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CAT

vince and government, on the shore of the riverMasparro, between the cities of New and Old Ba-rinas.

Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and government of Venezuela, on theshore of the river Mosquitos, near where this riverenters the Orituco.

Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and government of Cartagena, in thekingdom of Tierra Firme.

Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and government of La Sonora in NuevaEspana ; situate in the country of the SobaipurisIndians, on the shore of a river which enters theGila, between the settlements of San Cosme andSan Angelo.

Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and government of Tucumán, in thejurisdiction of the city of Xuxuy, with four cha-pels of ease.

Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in thekingdom of Guatemala.

Catalina, Santa, another, of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the same king-dom.

Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theisland of Barbadoes, in the parish and district of S.George.

Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theisland of Jamaica, which is a parish of the Eng-lish, situate in the s. part.

Catalina, Santa, some sierras or mountainsof the coast of Brazil, in the province and captain-ship of Rey, opposite the island of Santa Catalina,from which they take their name.

Catalina, Santa, a cape or point of land onthe coast of the province and government of Cos-tarica and kingdom of Guatemala, between theport of Las Velas and the town of Nicaragua.

Catalina, Santa, a small island close to thes. coast of the island of St. Domingo, between LaSaona and the bay of Caballo.

Catalina, Santa, another island of the coastof Florida to the n. of Georgia.

Catalina, Santa, another island of the coastof Georgia, between the islands Sapola and As-sabaw.

Catalina, Santa, a bay on the coast of thestraits of Magellan, between point St. Silvestre andpoint St. Antonio de Padua.

Catalina, Santa, a bay of the e. coast of theisland of Newfoundland, between the Saint’s capeand New cape.

Catalina, Santa, a river of the province andcolony of Maryland, in the county of Talbot. Itruns j. and enters the sea in the bay of Chesapeak.

Catalina, Santa, an island of the N. sea,near the coast of Tierra Firme, opposite the Escu-do de Veraguas. It is of a good temperature, fer-tile, and abounding in cattle and fruits. It had init a settlement defended by two castles, called San-tiago and Santa Teresa; which, together with thetown, were destroyed by an English pirate, JohnMorgan, who took the island in 1665 ; and al-though it was recovered in the same year by thepresident of Panama and Colonel Don J uan Perezde Guzman, it remained abandoned and desert.

Catalina, Santa, another small island nearthe coast of Brazil. See St. Catherine.

Catalina, Santa, a small island, situate tothe s. of St. Domingo, and close to it in the frontof the settlement of Higuey.

Catalina, Santa, a valley, in which there isalso a small settlement, in the Nuevo Reyno deLeon ; annexed to the curacy of its capital, fromwhence it lies three leagues to the w. It contains20 families in its neighbourhood, and producesonly some sorts of pulse and some goats.

Catalina, Santa, another valley of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Moquehua in Peru,bounded by a river and by the cordillera.

Catalina, Santa, a bay on the coast ofNova Scotia, between the port Carnero and thatof Ours or Oso.

CATAMAIU, a large and rapid river of theprovince and government of Loxa in the kingdomof Quito, also called Chira, at the part where itenters the sea. It rises in the paramo or desertmountain of Sabanilla ; and collecting the watersof several smaller rivers, runs from s. to n.until it unites itself with tlie Gonzanama, whichenters it on the s. side, in lat. S° 47' s. ; it thenturns its course to the xo. and afterwards to the5 . w. and receives the tributary streams of therivers Quiros, Macara, and Pelingara ; all ofwhich enter it on the s. side. Being swelled withthese, it takes the name of Amotape, from the settle-ment of this name, situate on its shore. Near itsmouth this river is called Colan, and it empties it-self into the sea in the corregimiento and provinceofPiura. The countries which it laves are fertileand beautiful, and its banks are covered with or-chards and plantations of sugar-canes of the terri-tory of Loxa. The climate here is very hot, andin the valleys formed by this river the inhabitantsare much afflicted with the tertian fever ; its wa-ters are generally very cold and unwliolesonic.

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CATAMARCA, S. Fernando de, a city ofthe province and government of Tucumán, found-ed by Juan Gomez Zurita, in 1538, in the fertileand extensive valley of Conando. It has a fort torepress the encroachments of the Indians. Thename of Canete was given it in honour to the vice-roy who then commanded in Peru ; this was after-wards changed to London, in honour to the queenof England, wife of Philip II. king of Spain. Theinquietudes caused amongst the inhabitants by theinfidel Indians induced Don Geronimo Luis deCabrera, son of a governor of that province, in1663, to remove it to another not less fertile val-ley, and to give it the name of San J uan de la Ri-vero ; and lastly, by the permission of the king,in 1683, it was transferred to a spot in the valleyof Catamarca ; where it still remains, under thesame title, at 80 leagues distance from its first sta-tion. It has, besides the parish church, a conventof the Recoletos monks of St. Francis, with thededicatory title of San Pedro de Alcantara ; anhospital of Merced ; aud a house of residence,which formerly belonged to the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits. On the w. side of the val-ley is a mountain in which there are gold mines ;and on the w. also from n. to s. runs a serrama^ theskirts of which are for many leagues covered withestates and cultivated grounds, and filled, fromthe abundance of fine pastures, with lage and smallcattle and with mules. A tolerably large riverruns through the valley in the rainy season, andterminates in some lakes M’hich are formed by itabout 30 leagues s. of the city. The commerce ofthis city is very small, so that there is no coin cur-rent ; and even the payments of the royal dutiesare paid in effects, and in the productions of thecountry, such as cotton, linens, pepper, brandy,and wheat. Lat. 27° s.

Catamarca, a settlement of the same provinceand government ; situate in the district of thiscity.

CATAMBUCU, a settlement of the provinceand government of Popayán in the kingdom ofQuito.

CATAN, San Francisco de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxamarca inPeru ; annexed to the curacy of Chetu.

CATANERA, an ancient province of Peru, inthat of Condesuyos, in which dwelt the nation ofthe Quechuas. It was subjected to the empire bythe Inca Capac Y upanqui, fifth Emperor.

CATANIAPU, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia. Itrises to the s. of the settlement of San Joseph de

Mapoyes, runs w. and enters the Orinoco close tothe torrent of Los Atures.

CATAPUIN, San Juan de, a settlement ofthe province and government of Quixos y Macasin the kingdom of Quito.

CATARAQUA, or Catarakui, a copiousriver of the province and country of the IroqueesIndians. It rises from the lake Ontario, runs n. e.and continues its course as far as Quebec, fromwhence it takes the name of St. Lawrence, andthen enters the sea.

Cataraqua, a bay on the n. coast of lakeOntario, in New France or Canada.

CATARUBEN, a settlement of the missions ofSan Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; one of the seven which were held bythe regulars of the company of Jesuits, and be-longing to the nation of the Salivas Indians. TheCaribes burnt and destroyed it in 1684.

CATAROSI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aymaraez in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Pampamarca.

CATAS-ALTAS, a settlement or village of thePortuguese, in the province and captainship ofEspiritu Santo, and kingdom of Brazil ; situate onthe shore of the river Doce or Dulce.

CATAUBA, a river of Virginia, which runsn. e. and enters the Thames.

Catauba, another river in S. Carolina, whichruns s. e. and enters the Watery.

(CATAWESSY, a township in Northumberlandcounty, Pennsylvania ; situate on the s. e. bankof the e. branch of Susquehannah river, oppositethe mouth of Fishing creek, and about 20 milesn. e. of Sunbury.)

CATCA, a settlement of the province and corre-gimiento of Paucartambo in Peru.

CATCH, or Boutin, a port of the coast ofNova Scotia, between the bay of Cheboucto andtbe island of Samborough.

CATEMU, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile,on the shore of the river Quillota.

(CATHANCE, or Cathants, a small river inLincoln county, Maine, which rises in Topsham,and empties into Merry Meeting bay, and has se-veral mills upon it.)

(CATHERINE’S Isle, St, a small island inthe captainship of St. Vincent’s in Brazil, be-longing to the Portuguese, 47 leagues s. of Cana-nea island. It is about 23 miles from n. to s. in-habited by Indians, wiio assist the Portugueseagainst their enemies, the natives of Brazil. Lak27° 10' s. Long. 47° 15' w.)

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DEL PUERTO, a city of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; founded by Gaspar de Kodas, on thespot of the Matanza of Valdivia, in 1676. It haschanged its place several times, on account of thebadness of.its temperature : and, lastly, in the year1588, it was removed by Francisco Redondo tothe spot where it now stands : is one league fromthe river Cauca, on a very steep declivity, whichis also of an unhealthy temperature, althoughabounding greatly in gold mines, which are,however, but little worked. Jt is the nativeplace of,

Fr. Marcos Vetancur, provincial of St. Domingoin Santa Fe:

Fr. Lorenzo de Figueroa, of the province ofSan Francisco :

Don Andres de Vetancur, elected bishop ofLa Concepcion in Chile;

Fr. Diego de Figueroa, provincial of San Augus-tin in Santa Fe : and

Don Luis de Vetancur, precentor of Quito, in-quisitor of Lima, and bishop-elect of Popayan ;all brothers, and men of singular virtue andlearning.

CEAPA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Chilques and Marques in Peru; an-nexed to the curacy of Pampacucho.

CEBACO, a settlement of the province andalcaldia major of Matagalpa in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CECIL, a county, being one of the ten whichcompose the colony and province of Maryland.

(Cecil, a township in Washington county,Pennsylvania.)

CECILIA, Dona, a settlement of the provinceand government of Santa Marta in the kingdomof Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the largeriver Magdalena, opposite the lake Zapatosa, threeleagues from the town of Mompox.

CECONTEPEC, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia major of San Salvador in the king-dom of Guatemala.

(CEDAR Point, a port of entry in Charlescounty, Maryland, on the e. side of Potowmacriver, about 12 miles below port Tobacco, and 96s. by w. of Baltimore. Its exports are chiefly to-bacco and Indian corn, and in 1794 amounted invalue to 18,593 dollars.)

(Cedar Point, a cape on the w. side of Dela-ware bay, in St. Mary’s county, Maryland.)

(Cedar Lick, a salt spring in the state of Ten-nessee, 19 miles from Nashville, four from Bigspring, and six from Little spring.)

Cedar, a river of the province and colony of

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Pennsylvania, which traverses New Jersey, andenters the sea.

Cedar, another small river of the province andcolony of Delaware, which runs e. and enters thesea in the bay of its name.

Cedar, a small island of South Carolina; situatewithin the strait of Parapticoe.

Cedar, another island of the province and co-lony of Maryland, between that of Chingoteagand that of Little Matompkin.

CEDAZOS, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Zapopan in Nueva Es-paña, in which dwell some Maslees, Mulattoes,and Indians, who live by cultivating seeds.

CEDROS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paucartambo in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Challabamba.

Cedros, another settlement in the province andgovernment of Cinaloa ; situate on the shore of theriver Mayo, on the confines of the province ofAstimuri.

Cedros, a river of New France or Canada.It runs s. e. and enters the lake Erie near themouth of the strait of Misigagues.

CEGUEHUE, a small river of the provinceand government of Quijos y Macas in the king-dom of Quito. It enters, a little way from itssource, into the Azuela.

CELAYA, a town of the intendancy of Gua-naxuato in the kingdom of Nueva Espana.Sumptuous edifices have been recently constructedhere, as also at Queretaro and Guanaxuato. Thechurch of the Carmelites of Celaya has a fineappearance ; it is adorned with Corinthian andIonic columns. Its height is 1833 metres, or 6018feet.

CELEDIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru.

CELLACACA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chichas and Tarija in Peru.

CENDRE, a cape or point of land of the coastof Acadia.

CENEGUANGA, a settlement of the provinceand government of Santa Marta in the kingdom ofTierra Firme; situate on the coast near the riverPiedras.

CENEGUETAS, a settlement of the provinceand government of Guayaquil in the kingdom ofQuito.

CENGUYO, San Pedro de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Yrimbo, and alcaldia mayorof Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacan,and kingdom of Nueva Espaiia. It contains 60families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. zo.of its head settlement.

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de Granada, rises in the valley of Cerinza, runsn. and passing tlirough the city of San Gil, turnsto the w. and enters the Suarez or Sabandija.

CHALCAXINGO, a settlement of the headsettlement of Xonacatepéc, and alcaldía mayor ofCuernavaca, in Nueva España.

CHALCHILGUITES, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Nueva Vizcaya; situateclose to that of Sombrerete.

CHALCHITLAN, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Capanabastla in the king-dom of Guatemala.

CHALCO, Hamanalco, a district and alcal-día mayor of Nueva España ; situate between then. and s. of the city of Mexico, at eight leaguesdistance ; is very fertile, and abounds in produc-tions and the necessaries of life, especially in wheatand maize; the crops of the former usually amount to30,000 (argas (a measure containing four bushels)yearly, and of the latter to 25,000. Besides thisit produces great quantities of seeds, woods, sugar,honey, and the fruits of a hot climate, all ofwhich arc carried to Mexico, as well by land car-riage as by the lake, which is so favourable to itscommerce. In the sierra of the volcano of thisjurisdiction, there are silver mines, but they arenot worked, on account of the great expence. Thepopulation consists of 46 settlements, of which 16are head settlements of districts, and in 15 of thesethere are parish churches. Tlie capital is of thesame name, and it is situate on the shore of a lakeenjoying a mild temperature, and well knownfrom the fair which it celebrates every Fridaythroughout the year, to which flock a great num-ber of people from the neighbouring provinceswith merchandize ; some even coming from themost distant parts in canoes by the lake, or withdroves of mules on land. It lies between the riversFiamanalco and Tenango, which run into thelake, and the waters of this serve, when it is ne-cessary, to replenish the lake of Mexico, forwhich purpose there are proper sluices provided.It contains 350 families of Indians, and someSpaniards and Mustees ; is seven leagues fromMexico. The other settlements are,

Fiamanalco, Atlautla,

San Pedro de Ecazingo, Ayapango,

Tepozozolco, Ixtapalucan,

San Juan Tenango, Ayozingo,

Amecameca, Mexquique,

Zentlalpan, Hahuac,

Chimalhuacan, Themamatla,

Tepetuxpan, Ozumba.

CHALCO, with the dedicatory title of SanAgustin, another settlement of the head settle-

ment of Coxcotlan, and the alcaldia mayor of Val-les, in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacyof Aquismon ; is of an extremely hot and moisttemperature, on account of which it has beenabandoned by several Indian families who residedin it formerly ; 12 of these families only are nowremaining ; is 23 leagues from its capital.

CHALCO, another, of the head settlement andalcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan ; situate in theplain of a deep break or hole made by mountainfloods ; is of a hot temperature, and contains 35families of Indians ; lies 12 leagues to the n. of itscapital.

(Chalco Lake. See Mexico.)

CHALCOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Cahuanca.

CHALEUAPAN, a settlement of the provinceand government of Nicaragua in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHALEURS, a bay on the coast of the pro-vince of Nova Scotia or Acadia, and gulf of St.Lawrence. It is large and convenient.

CHALEURS, another bay on the s. coast of theisland of Newfoundland, near the point whichlooks to the w.

(CHALEURS, a deep and broad bay on the w.side of the gulf of St. Lawrence. From this bayto that of Verte, on the s. in the s. e. corner of thegulf, is the n. e. sea line of the British provinceof New Brunswick.)

CHALINGA, a settlement of Indians of theprovince and corregimiento of Coquimbo in thekingdom of Chile.

CHALIQUE, San Pablo de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxamarca inPeru.

CHALLABAMBA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Paucartambo in Peru.

CHALLACATA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Paria in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Garu Mendoza.

CHALLACOLLO, a settlement of the sameprovince and corregimiento as the former, belong-ing to the archbishopric of Charcas. It has a con-vent of monks of the order of St. Augustin.

CHALLAHUACHO, a river of the provinceand corregimiento of Chilques y Masques in Peru.It rises near the settlement of Capi, runs in a ser-pentine course to the n. n. w. and enters the Apu-rirnac.

CHALLANA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHALLAPAMPA an ancient province ofPeru, of small extent, and to the c. of Cuzco. It

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It was conquered and united to the empire byInca Roca, the sixth Emperor.

CHALLAPATA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienlo of Paria in Peru.

CHALLAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarquilla or Pataz in Peru,in the district of which is an estate called Huasil-las, where there is a house of entertainment be-longing to the religion of St. Francis, in whichreside the missionaries who assist in the conversionof the infidel Indians of the mountains.

CHALOUPES, PUERTO DE LAS, a port inthe island of Guadalupe, and on the n. coast, issmall, and lies between the Punta Antigua (OldPoint) and the Mole bay.

CHALUANCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Amaraez in Peru ; situate onthe shore of the river Pachachaca.

CHALUANI, a settlement of the same provinceand corregimiento as the former ; annexed to thecuracy of Sirca.

CHAMA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Maracaibo. It rises at the foot of thesnowy sierra, runs, making the form of two SS, tothe e. and rt;. and passing by to the s. of the cityof Merida, returns n. and enters the great lake ofMaracaibo at the side opposite its mouth.

Chama, a large and fertile valley of the sameprovince and government, to the s. of the lake.

CHAMACA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru.

CHAMACON, a river of the province and go-vernment of Darien in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; it rises in the mountains of the e. coast,and runs from s. e. to n. w. until it enters the largeriver Atrato near its mouth.

CHAMACUERO, San Francisco de, a set-tlement and head settlement of the district of thealcaldia mayor of Zelaya in the province and bi-shopric of Meohoacan. It contains 690 families ofIndians, and more than 30 of Spaniards, Mustees,and Mulaltoes, with a convent of the order of St.Francis ; is five leagues to the n. of its capital.

CHAMAL, a settlement of Indians of the Chi-chimeca nation, in the head settlement of the dis-trict of Tamazunchale, and alcaldia mayor of Valles,in Nueva Espana ; situate in a valley of the samename. Its inhabitants having been reduced atthe beginning of the 18th century, and having re-quested a priest, one was sent them of the religionof St. Francis ; but no sooner did he arrive amongstthem than they put him to death, eating his body,and at the same time destroying the settlement.They were, however, afterwards reduced to thefaith, rather through the hostilities practised against

them by their neighbours than a desire of embrac-ing it. It is five leagues from Nuestra Senorade la Soledad.

CHAMANGUE, a river of the province andgovernment of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom ofQuito. It runs through the territory of the city ofAvila from n. w. to s. e. and enters the river Coca,on the w. side, in lat. 46° s.

CHAMARI, a small river of the province andcountry of the Amazonas, which runs s. s. e. andenters the river Madera opposite that of Guayapa-ranna.

CHAMARIAPA, a settlement of the provinceof Barcelona, and government of Curaana, in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; one of those which areunder the care of the religious observers of St.Francis, the missionaries of Piritu. It is to thew. of the mesa (table land) of Guanipa.

CHAMAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Mangas.

CHAMAYA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito ; situate on the shore of the river Ma-ranon.

CHAMBA, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, towardsthe s. It runs from e. to w. passes near the settle-uient of Vilcabamba, and then enters the river Ma-lacatos.

(CHAMBERSBURG, a post town in Pennsyl-vania, and the chief of Franklin county. Itis situated on the e. branch of Conogocheaguecreek, a water of Potow.mac river, in a rich andhighly cultivated country and healthy situation-.Here are about 200 houses, two Presbyterianchurches, a stone gaol, a handsome court-housebuUt of brick, a paper and merchant mill. It is58 miles e. by s. of Bedford, 11 w. zo. of Shippens-burg, and 157 w. of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 57'n. Long. 77° 40' a-'.)

CHAMBIRA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito ;situale at the source of the river of its name. Itrises to the e. of the settlement of Pinches, betweenthe rivers Tigre and Pastaza, and runs nearly pa-rallel to the former, where it enters, with a muchincreased body, into the Maranon.

(CHAMBLEE River, or Sorell, a water ofthe St. Lawrence, issuing from lake Champlain,300 yards wide when lowest. It is shoal in dryseasons, but of sufficient breadth for rafting lumber,&c. spring and fall. It was called both Sorcll andRichlieu when the French held Canada.)

CHAMBLI, a French fort in the province and

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20. Don Ignacio de Flores, native of Quito,who had served as captain of cavalry in the regi-ment of the volunteers of Aragon, and who was go-vernor of the province of Moxos, being of the rankof colonel ; he was nominated as president by wayof reward for his services, in having been instru-mental to the pacification of the Indians of Peru,and to the succouring of the city of La Paz, whichwas besieged by rebels : he governed until 1786,when he was removed from the presidency.

Charcas, a ferocious and barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru, to the s.w. of the lakes of Aul-laga and of Paria ; conquered by Mayta Capac,fourth monarch of the Incas. At present theyare reduced to the Christian faith in the govern-ment of Chuquisaca or La Plata.

Santa Maria Charcas, a settlement, with the dedicatory titleof Santa Maria, being the real of the mines of thekingdom of Nueva Galicia, in which are markedthe boundaries of its jurisdiction, and those ofNueva Espana, the last district of the bishopric ofMechoacan. It contains a convent of the religi-ous order of St. Francis, and 50 families of Spa-niards, ilfwstees, and Mulattoes, as also many of In-dians dispersed in the rancherias and the estatesof its district: is 130 leagues to the n. J to then. w. of Mexico, 75 from Guadalaxera, and 18 tothe n. e. of the sierra of Pinos. Lat. 22° 55'.Long. 100° 40'.

Charcas, another settlement and real of themines of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate two leagues from thecapital. In its vicinity are the estates of Panuco,in which they work with quicksilver the metals ofthe mines. To its curacy, which is adminsteredby one of the Catholic clergy, are annexed twosmall settlements of Serranos Indians, amongst whomare found some few of the Tepeguana nation.

CHARIMIZA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito.It rises in the cordillera towards the s. and entersthe Maranon.

(CHARLEMONT, a township in Hampshirecounty, Massachusets, 16 miles w. of Deerfield,having 665 inhabitants.)

(Charles, a cape on the s.w. part of the straitentering into Hudson’s bay. Lat. 62° 40' n.Long. 75° 15' w.)

Charles, a small lake of New France, to then. of the city of Quebec, which empties itself intothe river St. Lawrence.

Charles, another cape or point of the coast ofthe country of Labrador ; one of those which formthe w. entrance or mouth of the strait of Belle-isle.

(Charles River, in Massachusetts, called an-ciently Quinobequin, is a considerable stream,the principal branch of which rises from a pondbordering on Hopkinton. It passes through Hollis-ton and Bellingham, and divides Medway fromMed field, Wrentham, and Franklin, and thenceinto Dedham, where, by a curious bend, it forms apeninsula of 900 acres of land. A stream calledlother brook runs out of this river in this town,and falls into Neponsit river, forming a naturalcanal, uniting the two rivers, and affording a num-ber of excellent mill-seats. From Dedham thecourse of the river is n. dividing Newton fromNeedham, Weston, and Waltham, passing overromantic falls ; it then bends to the n. e. and e.through Watertown and Cambridge, and passinginto Boston harbour, mingles with the waters ofMystic river, at the point of the peninsula ofCharlestown. It is navigable for boats to Water-town, seven miles. The most remarkable bridgeson this river are those which connect Boston withCharlestown and Cambridge. SeeBosxoN. Thereareseven paper mills on this river, besides other mills.][Charles County, on the w. shore of Maryland,lies between Potowmack and Patuxent rivers. Itschief town is port Tobacco, on the river of thatname. Its extreme length is 28 miles, its breadth24, and it contains 20,613 inhabitants, including10,085 slaves. The country has few hills, is gene-rally low and sandy, and produces tobacco, Indiancorn, sweet potatoes, &c.)

(Charles City County, in Virginia, lies betweenChickahominy and James rivers. It containedformerly part of what now forms Prince George’scounty. It has 5588 inhabitants, including 3141slaves.)

(Charles, a cape of Virginia, in about lat. 37°15' n. It is on the n. side of the mouth of Chesa-peak bay, having cape Henry opposite to it.]

Charles, a promontory in N. America, men-tioned by the English captain Thomas James, inhis voyage published 1663, which was made forthe sake of discovering a pass to S. America.

CHARLES. See Carlos, San.

CHARLESTON, a capital city of S. Carolina,is one of the best of N. America, excelling inbeauty, grandeur, and commerce. It is situateupon a long strip of land between two navigablerivers, which are Ashley and Cowper, and thegreater part of it upon the latter. This forms inthe city two small bays, the one to the n. and theother to the s. The town is of a regular construc-tion, and well fortified both by nature and art,having six bastions and a line of entrenchment ; onthe side of the river Cowper it has the bastions of

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America called New South Wales. Its territoryconsists of a white dry sand, and it is covered withsmall trees and shrubs. This island has a beauti-ful appearance in the spring to those Avho discoverit after a voyage of three or four months, and afterhaving seen nothing but a multitude of mountainscovered with frost, which lie in the bay, and in thestrait of Hudson, and which are rocks petrifiedwith eternal ice. This island appears at that sea-son as though it were one heap of verdure. Theair at the bottom of the bay, although in 51“ of hit.and nearer to the sun than London, is excessivelycold for nine months, and extremely hot the remain-ing three, save when the n. w. wind prevails. Thesoil on the e. <^s well as on the w. side produces allkinds of grain and fruits of fine qualities, whichare cultivated on the shore of the river Rupert.Lat. 52“ 12' n. Long. 80“ w.

CHARNACOCHA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya inPeru,

CHARO, Matlazingo, the alcaldía mayorof the province and bishopric of Mechoacán inNueva España, of a mild and dry temperature,being the extremity of the sierra of Otzumatlan ;the heights of which are intersected with manyveins of metals, which manifest themselves veryplainly, although they have never yet been dugout ; and in the wet seasons the clay or mud pitsrender the roads impassable. It is watered by theriver which rises in the pool or lake of Valladolid,and by which the crops of wheat, maize, lentils, andthe fruits peculiar to the place, are rendered fertileand productive. This reduced jurisdiction belongsto the Marquises of Valle, and is subject to theDukes of Terranova. Its population is reduced tosome ranchos, or meetings for the purpose of labour,and to the capital, which has the same name, andwhich contains a convent of the religious order ofSt. Augustin, this being one of the first templesbuilt by the Spaniards in this kingdom, the presentdilapidated state of it bearing ample testimony toits great antiquity. It contains 430 families ofPirindas Indians, employed in labour and in thecultivation of the land, and in making bread, whichis carried for the supply' of Valladolid, the neigh-bouring ranchos and estates. It should also have45 or 50 families of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulat-toes. Is .50 leagues to the w. of Mexico, and twoto the e. of Valladolid. Long. 100° 44'. Lat.19“34'.

CHARON, a small river of Canada, which runse. and enters the lake Superior in the bay of Beau-harnois.

CHARPENTIER, Fond du, a bay of the n. e.

coast of the island of Martinique, between the townand parish of Marigot and the Pan de Azucar.

CHARPENTIER, a small river of the same islandwhich runs n. e. and enters the sea in the formerbay.

CHARQUEDA, a lake of the province andcaptainship of Rey in Brazil, near the coast whichlies between this lake and that of Los Patos.

CHARRUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofParaguay, who inhabit the parts lying between therivers Parana and Uruguay. These Indians arethe most idle of any in America, and it has beenattempted in vain to reduce them to any thing likea civilized state.

Charruas, a settlement of this province andgovernment.

Charruas, a river of the same province, whichruns s. s. w. and enters the Paraná.

CHARTIER, Bahia de, a bay on the s. coastof the straits of Magellan, between the bay of SanSimon and the point of Tunquichisgua.

Chartier, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and colony of Virginia ; situate on the shoreof a river of the same name. It runs s. and entersthe sea in the county of Hampshire.

(Chartier, a township in Washington county,Pennsylvania.)

(Chartier’s Creek. See Canonsburg andMorganza.)

(CHARTRES, a fort which was built bythe French, on the e. side of the Mississippi,three miles n. of La Prairie du Rocher, or theRock meadows, and 12 miles n. of St. Genevieve,on the w. side of that river. It was abandoned in1772, being untenable by the constant washings ofthe Mississippi in high floods. The village s. ofthe fort was very inconsiderable in 1778. A mileabove this is a village settled by 170 warriors of thePiorias and Mitchigamias tribes of Illinois Indians,who are idle and debauched.)

CHASPAIA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aricá in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of Tarata.

CHASSES, a small river of N. Carolina, whichruns n. n. e. and enters that of Cutawba.

CHAT, Trou de, a settlement of the parish andisland of Martinique ; situate near the bay of theCul de Sac Royal, and to the n. e. of the capital.

Chat, a river of the island of Guadalupe, whichrises in the mountains of the e. coast, and runninge. enters the sea between the rivers Grand Bananierand Trou au Chien, or Hole of the Dog.

Chat, a cape or point of land on the coast ofthe river St. Lawrence, on the shore opposite tothe port of San Pacracio.

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empties into Chesapeak bay, at Love point. It formsan island at its mouth, and by acbannel on the e. sideof Kent island, communicates with. Eastern bay.It is proposed to cut a canal, about 1 1 miles long,from Andover creek, a mile and a half fromBridgetown to Salisbury, on Upper Duck creek,which falls into Delaware at Hook island.)

(Chester, a small town in Shannandoah county,Virginia, situate on the point of land formed bythe junction of Allen’s or North river and Southriver, which form the Shannandoah ; 16 miles s.by w. of Winchester. Lat. 39° 4' n. Long.78° 25' w.)

(Chester County, in Pinckney district, SouthCarolina, lies in the s.e. corner of the district, onW ateree river, and contains 6866 inhabitants ; ofwhom 5866 are whites, and 938 slaves. It sendstwo representatives, but no senator, to the statelegislature.)

(Chester, a town in Cumberland county, Vir-ginia ; situate on the s. w. bank of James river,15 miles n. of Blandford, and six s. of Rich-mond.)

(CHESTERFIELD, a township in Hampshirecounty, Massachusetts, 14 mites w. of Northamp-ton. It contains 180 houses, and 1183 inha-bitants.)

(Chesterfield, a township in Cheshire county.New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticutriver, having Westmoreland n. and Hinsdale s.It was incorporated in 1752, and contains 1905 in-habitants. It lies about 25 miles s. by w. ofCharlestown, and about 90 or 100 w. of Ports-mouth. About the year 1730, the garrison offort Dummer was alarmed with frequent explosions,and with columns of fire and smoke, emitted fromW est River mountain in th is township , and four milesdistant from that fort. The like appearances havebeen observed at various times since ; particularly,one in 1752 was the most severe of any. Thereare two places where the rocks bear marks of hav-ing been heated and calcined.)

(Chesterfield County, in South Carolina, isin Cheraws district, on the North Carolina line. Itis about 30 mites long, and 29 broad.)

Chesterfield County, in Virginia, is betweenJames and Appamatox rivers. It is about 30miles long, and 25 broad ; and contains 14,214inhabitants, including 7487 slaves.)

(Chesterfield Inlet, on the w. side of Hud-son’s bay, in New South Wales, upwards of 200miles in length, and from 10 to 30 in breadth ; fullof islands.)

(CHESTERTOWN, a post-town and the capi-tal of Kent county, Maryland, on the w. side of

Chester river, 16 miles s.w. of Georgetown, 38e. by s. from Baltimore, and 81 s.w. of Philadel*phia. It contains about 140 houses, a church,college, court-house, and gaol. The college wasincorporated in 1782, by the name of Washing-ton. It is under the direction of 24 trustees, whoare empowered to supply vacancies and hold,estates, whose yearly value shall not exceed 6000/.currency. In 1787 it had a permanent fund of1250/. a year settled upon it by law. Lat. 39° 12'n. Long. 76° 10' cc;.)

CHETIMACHAS, a river of the province andgovernment of Louisiana. It is an arm of theMississippi, which runs s. e. and enters the sea onthe side of the bay of Asuncion or Ascension. [Onthe Chetiraachas, six leagues from the Mississippi,there is a settlement of Indians of the same name ;and thus far it is uniformly 100 yards broad, andfrom two to four fathoms cleep, vfhen the water islowest. Some drifted logs have formed a shoal atits mouth on the Mississippi ; but as the water isdeep under them they could be easily removed;and the Indians say there is nothing to impede na-vigation from their village to the gulf. The banksare more elevated than those of the Mississippi, andin some places are so high as never to be over-flowed. The natural productions are the same ason the Mississippi, but the soil, from the extraordi-nary size and compactness of the canes, is supe-rior. If measures were adopted and pursued witha view to improve this communication, there wouldsoon be on its banks the most prosperous and im-portant settlements in that colony.)

(Chetimachas, Grand Lake of, in Loui-.siana, near the mouth of the Mississippi, is 24miles long, and nine broad. Lake de Portage,which is 13 miles long, and If broad, commu-nicates with this lake at the n. end, by a straita quarter of a mile wide. The country bor-dering on these lakes is low and flat, timbered withcypress, live and other kinds of oak ; and on the€. side, the land between it and the Chafalaya riveris divided by innumerable streams, which occa-sion as many islands. Some of these streams are*navigable. A little distance from the s. e. short?of the lake Chetimachas, is an island where per-sons passing that way generally halt as a restingplace. Nearly opposite this island there is anopening which leads to the sea. It is about 150yards wide, and has 16 or 17 fathoms water.)

CHETO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; tothe curacy of which is annexed the extensive val-ley of Huaillabamba, in the province of Chncha-poyas.

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