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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.
ABERCORN, a town of the province and colony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a league's distance from the city of this name. [It is about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, and 13 N W of Savannah.]
ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the province and government of Cartagena. They run from W to N E from near the large river of Magdalena to the province of Chocó, and the S. Sea. Their limits and extent are not known, but they are 20 leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. Francisco Cesar in 1536; he being the first who penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, in which time he had to undergo the most extreme privations and excessive perils ; not that these exceeded the hardships which were endured by the licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest with a fine army.
ABIGIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 30 leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito.
[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 12 miles SW from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 NE from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 39° 27' 30" N Long. 76° 20' 35" W.]
[another, the chief town of Washington county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 145 miles from Campbell's station, near Holston; 260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and 310 as the road runs, bearing a little to the S of W Lat. 36° 41' 30" N Long. 81° 59' W.]
Abipi, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, and canes ; it has been celebrated for its rich mines of emeralds, which are, however, at present abandoned from want of water; it is nearly three leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco.
ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and government of Tucuman, inhabiting the S shores of the river Bermejo. Their number once exceeded 100000; but they are certainly at present much reduced. They go naked, except that the women cover themselves with little skins, prettily ornamented, which they call queyapi. They are very good swimmers, of a lofty and robust stature, and well featured: but they paint their faces and the rest of their body, and are very much given to war, which they carry on chiefly against such as come either to hunt or to fish upon their territory. Their victims they have a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a landmark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. From their infancy they cut and scarify their bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their country is inundated, which happens in the five winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or upon the tops of trees: they have some slight notion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and the produce of the chase, holding in the highest estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of infusing strength and valour. They have no knowledge either of God, of law, or of policy; but they believe in the immortality of the soul, and that there is a land of consummate bliss, where they shall dance and divert themselves after their death. When a man dies, his widow observes a state of celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an abstinence from fish: this period being fulfilled, an assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that her husband has given her leave to marry. The women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing hides; the men are idlers, and the boys run about the whole day in exercising their strength. The men are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the women are accustomed to conceal their husband's weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear more than two or three children, killing all above this number.
Abisca, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, to the E of the Cordillera of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and to the S of Cuzco. It is little known, consisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes; and hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success: the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.
(which, with that degree of industry that is neces-sary to happiness, produces the necessaries andconveniences of life in great plenty. The inhabi-tants are almost entirely of English descent. Thereare no Dutch, Phench, or Germans, and very fewScotch or Irish people, in any part of the state.The original stock from which have sprung all thepresent inhabitants of Connecticut, and the nume-rous emigrants from the state to every j)art of tlieUnited States, consisted of 3000 souls, who settledin the towns of Hartford, New Haven, Windsor,Guilford, Milford, and Weathersfield, about theyears 1635 and 1636. In 1756, the population ofthe state amounted to 130,611 souls ; in 1774, to197,856; in 1782, to 202,877 whites, and 6273Indians and Negroes; in 1790, to 237,946 per-sons, of whom 2764 w'ere slaves ; and by the cen-sus of 1810, to 261,942 souls. The people ofConnecticut are remarkably fond of having alltheir disputes, even those of the most trivial kind,settled according to law. The prevalence of thislitigious spirit affords employment and support fora numerous body of lawyers. That party spirit,however, which is the bane of political happiness,has not raged with such violence in this state as inMassachusetts and Rhode Island. Public pro-ceedings have been conducted generally with 'nuclicalmness and candour. The people are well in-informed in regard to their rights, and judicious inthe methods they adopt to secure them. Tiiestate enjoys an uncommon share of political tran-quillity and unanimity.
All religions, that are consistent with the peaceof society, are tolerated in Connecticut : and aspirit of liberality and forbearance is increasing.There are very few religious sects in this state.The bulk of the people are Congregationalists.Besides these, there are Episcopalians andBaptists.
The damage sustained b}’- this state in the latewar was estimated at 461,235/. I6s. Id. To com-pensate the sufferers, the general court, in May1792, granted them 500,000 acres of the w. part ofthe reserved lands of Connecticut, which lie w.of Pennsylvania. There are a great number ofvery pleasant towns, both maritime and inland, inConnecticut. It contains five cities, incorporatedwith extensive jurisdiction in civil causes. Twoof these, Hartford and New Haven, are capitals ofthe state. The general assembly is holden at theformer in May, and at the latter in October, an-nually. The other cities are New London, Nor-wich, and Middleton. Weathersfield, Windsor,Farmington, Litchfield, Milford, Stratford, Fair-field, Guilford, Stamford, Windham, Suffieid, and
Enfield, are all considerable and very pleasanttowns. In no part of the world is the educationof all ranks of people more attended to than inConnecticut. Almost every town in the state isdivided into districts, and each district has a pub-lic school kept in it a greater or less part ofevery year. Somewhat more than one-third of themoneys arising from a tax on the polls and rateableestate of the inhabitants is appropriated to the sup-port of schools in the several towns, for the educa-tion of children and youth. The law directs thata grammar-school shall be kept in every countytown throughout the state. Yale college is aneminent seminary of learning, and was foundedin the year 1700. See Yace College. Acade-mics have been established at Greenfield, Plain-field, Norwich, Windham, and Pomfret, some ofwhich are flourishing.
The constitution of Connecticut is founded ontheir charter, which was granted by Charles II. in1662, and on a law of the state. Contented withthis form of government, the people have not beendisposed to run the hazard of framing a new consti-tution since the declaration of independence.Agreeable to this charter, the supreme legislativeauthority of the state is vested in a governor, de-])iity-governor, twelve assistants, or counsellors,and the representatives of the people, styled thegeneral assembly. The governor, deputy-gover-nor, and assistants, are annually chosen by thefreemen in the month of May. The representa-tives (their number not to exceed two from eachtown) arc chosen by the freemen twice a-year, toattend the two annual sessions, on the secondTuesdays of May and October. The general as-sembly is divided into two branches, called the up-per and lower houses. The upper house is com-posed of the governor, deputy-governor, and as-sistants ; the lower house of the representativesof the people. No law can pass without the con-currence of both houses.
Connecticut has ever made rapid advances inpopulation. There have been more emigrationsfrom this than from any of the other states, andyet it is at present full of inhabitants. This in-crease may be ascribed to several causes. Thebulk of the inhabitants are industrious, sagacioushusbandmen. Their farms furnish them with allthe necessaries, most of the conveniences, and butfew of the luxuries of life. They, of course, mustbe generally temperate, and if they choose, cansubsist with as much independence as is consistentwith happiness. The subsistence of the farmer issubstantial, and does not depend on incidentalcircumstances, like that of most other professions.)