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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]





Aguarico, another settlement of the same pro-yince, and belonging to the same missions, andbearing the dedicatory title of San Estanislao.

Aguarico, a river of the same province andf overnment, being one of those which enter theNapo by the n. side. At its mouth, or entrance,begins the large province of the Encabellados ;and here it was that the Portuguese attempted toestablish themselves in 1732, invading it with acertain number of Piraguas, (small vessels), whichcame from Para. They were, however, throughthe well-timed precautions of the president of Qui-to, forced to retire without attaining their object.This river contains much gold in its sands, andits body is much increased by other streams, suchas those of the Azuela, Cofanes, Sardinas, and Du-ino. It descends from the grand Cordillera of theAndes, near the town of San Miguel de Ibarra,washes the territory of the Sucurabios Indians, andenters the Napo in lat. 1° 23' s.

AGUARINGUA, an ancient and large settle-ment of the nation of the Taironas Indians, in theprovince and government of Santa Marta.

AGUARO, a river of the province and go-vernment of Honduras. It enters the S. sea to thee. of Aguan.

Aguaro, Cano de, a river of the province andgovernment of Venezuela. It enters the Guarico,and is famous for abounding in fish, particularlya kind called pabon, which has a circular spot ofsky-blue and gold upon its tail, resembling an eye,and which is much esteemed for its excellent fla-vour.

AGUAS, a small river of the province andgovernment of Paraguay. It runs n. n. w. andenters the Uruguay close to the J uipa.

Aguas-blancas. See Yaguapiui.

Aguas-bellas, a small river of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay. It runs c.and enters the Parana.

Aguas-calientes, an alcaldia mayor of thethe kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric ofGuadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdictionincludes four head settlements of the district, andtwo large estates called the Pavellon, as also theestate Del Fuerte, in which quantities of grain andseed are cultivated. The principal settlement isthe town of the same name, of a moderate tempera-ture, its inhabitants consisting of 500 Spanish fa-milies, as also of some of Mustees and Mulattoes;and although some Mexican Indians arc to befound here, they merely come to traffic with theproductions of the other jurisdictions. It con-tains three convents ; one of the bare- footed Fran-ciscans, a sumptuous and well-built fabric ; one ofthe Mercenarios; and a third of San Juan de Dios,with a well-endowed hospital ; not to mentionseveral other chapels and altars in the vicinity.It is 140 leagues n. n. w. of Mexico, and 35 ofGuadaiaxara. Long. 101° 51' 30" w. Lat. 22° 2' n.

Aguas-calientes, another settlement in theprovince and government of Venezuela, of thekingdom of Tierra Firme, situate upon the coast.

AGUASTELAS, San Miguel de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of the district of SanAndres of Acatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa,in Nueva España. It is but lately established,and is one league s. of its head settlement.

AGUATEPEC, Santa Maria de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of the district andalcaldia mayor of Tecali in Nueva España. Itcontains 48 families of Indians.

AGUATLAN, the head settlement of the dis-trict of the alcadia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Es-pana. It was formerly a separate jurisdiction;but on account of its smallness, and the ill-fa-voured and craggy state of its soil, it was incorpo-rated with another close to it. It contains 46 Indianfamilies, and is 12 leagues e. of its capital.

AGUATUBI, a settlement of the province ofMoqui in Nuevo Mexico.

AGUATULCO, a river of the province andalcaldia mayor of Tegoantepec in Nueva España.It runs e. and enters the S. sea near the Capolita.

AGUEDA, Mono de Santa, a mountain ofthe w. coast of the straits of Magellan, in the SierraNevada (snowy sierra).

Agueda, a point or cape near the above moun-tain.

[AGUGA Cape, on the coast of Peru, S. Ame-rica, lies s. of Puira, in the 61° of s. lat. and in the81° of w, long.]

AGUIJO, San Miguel de, a settlement ofthe new kingdom of Leon.

AGUILA, Villa Gutierrez de la, a townof the alcaldia mayor of Xerez in Nueva España.It was formerly very considerable, and had a nu-merous population of Spaniards, when it wasmade a fortress against the Tepehuanes and Tarau-maras Indians. It is an alcaldia mayor ^ but itsjurisdiction is consolidated with another, on ac-count of its being a place of little consideration,and its population being very scanty, and livingin some small wards and estates in its district. Itlies at the c. entrance of the province of Nayarith,and is the boundary of the kingdom of NuevaGalicia, being nine leagues e. of Xerez.

Aguila, a very lofty mountain of the province

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those which form its different mouths : also theisland of its name, inhabited by the Guaranos In-dians.

CAPUXA, a small settlement of the jurisdictionand alcaldía mayor of Ixmiquilpán, and of the ca-pital of Orizava, in Nueva España.

CAQUETA, a very large and abundant riverrising in the province of Sucumbios in the kingdomof Quito, in the mountains of Mocoa, this namebeing also given to it: it runs from w. to e. Onthe s. it gathers the waters of the San Pedro, SantaCruz, and Arevalo, and on the n. those of theLucia, Pato, Tango, Tabaquero, Cascabeles,Iscanzé, and others of an inferior description. Itdivides itself into two arms, the one of which takesthe name of Yupura, and which, running nearly tothe same point as the Marañon, separates itself intoother branches, which enter into this latter river in4° of lat. and immediately become as large andconsiderable as if they were the main stream : theother arm is also divided into two, the one takinga n. e. course, and entering the Orinoco, and theother running s. e. and bearing the name of the RioNegro ; by means of which, in the year 1744, somePortuguese came from Marañon to Orinoco, andproved the communication of these rivers, whichbefore was doubted : also by one of the arms of theYupura, Gonzalo Ximenes de Quesada found hisway to the new kingdom of Granada when heundertook its conquest. Some maintain that thisriver was the Orinoco, and thus has Don PedroMaldonado represented it in his map published inthe year 1750; but that of the Father BernadoRosella, missionary of the abolished society of theJesuits in Orinoco, made after the notes and in-structions of the Father Manuel Roman, attributeswith some confidence another origin to the Orinoco,and speaks of the Caquetá as one of the rivers whichenter it on the w. side. The Spanish geographerCruz, in his General Chart of America, makes nodistinction between the Yupura and the Caquetá,and only speaks of one stream, which runs con-tinually to the s. s. e. through the territory of the Ca-vauris Indians, before it enters the Marañon. Hedelineates the same as throwing out four branchesto the w. and three to the e. all which join the latterriver ; and he further states, that before it becomesthus divided, it forms on its n. side two large lakescalled Ynabavú and Cumapi ; from the whole ofwhich may be easily inferred how great is theabundance of its waters.

CAQUEZA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofUbaque in the new kingdom of Granada, situate ina warm but pleasant and agreeable soil, althoughmuch infested by venomous snakes called tayas :


it abounds in the productions of a warm climate,contains more than 200 housekeepers, and is nineleagues to the s. w. of Santa Fe, in the road whichleads from San Juan de los Llanos to this capital.

CAQUIAUIRI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Pacages in Peru.

CAQUINGORA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Pacages in Peru.

CARA, an ancient province of the kingdom ofQuito towards the w. It extends itself along thecoast of the Pacific sea from the point of Pajonal tothe bay of Quaquez, for the space of 19 or 20leagues ; is watered by the rivers Tasagua andChonos to the s. and by the Jama to the n. Thewhole of the lands lie low, and are uncultivated andfull of wood ; the climate is hot and moist. It is atpresent united to the province of Esmeraldas.

CARA, the capital, which is now destroyed, wasfounded by Francisco de Ribas in the year 1562.It was situate in the bay of Cara, which is formedby the mouths of the two rivers Tasagua andChones : its ruins are still to be seen, and from thesewas built the settlement of Canoa, at six leaguesdistance, which was the residence of the lieutenantgovernor. This settlement was in 31' s. lat.

Cara, with the addition of BELLA, a small set-tlement of the Portuguese in the province and cap-tainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil ; situate at thesource of the river Prieto, and in the territory orcountry of the Pories Indians.

CARABAIA, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded on the e. by Larecaja, w. by Quis-picanchi, n. w. and n. by the territories of theinfidel Indians, called Carangues, Sumachuanes,and others, who are separated by the famous riverInambary; s. w. by the province of Canes andCanches or Tinta, and s. by Lampa and Asangaro,and in part by Puno or Paucarcolla. According {othe nice measurements which were made with re-gard to this province as well as of the others, it issaid to be 40 leagues from n. to s. and 50 at themost from e. to w. Its furtherest limits are only 14leagues distant from Cuzco, although on horsebackit is necessary to go a round of 60 leagues. Itsclimate is various, according to the more or lesselevated situation of the country; so that it is insome parts very cold, and in others more temperate.The pastures are good, consequently there is nowant of cattle, and in the neighbourhood of theAndes they gather three or four crops of coca inthe year. In this province is included that calledSan Gaban, which was united to it; many settle-ments having been at the same time added to theprovinces of Larecaja, Lampa and Asangaro. Ithas abounded more in gold than any other province

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he was at length persuaded to accept it by the ac-clamations and remonstrances of all parties, andespecially of the vicar-general of his order; hebegan to preside without being consecrated ; butbeing yet full of scruples, he renounced the office,and without permission returned to Spain ; h^ thenwent to Koine, but being desired by his holiness toreturn to his diocese, he was said to have been somuch affected as not to have been able to prevailupon himself to enter the city : he returned, there-fore, immediately to the coast, and embarked forFlorida, with a view of converting some of theinfidels ; and with this object he again set off forSpain, in order to obtain his renunciation ; whenbeing at length tired with his wanderings, andAvorn out Avith age, he died in his convent of To-ledo in 1562.

5. Don Juan de Simancas, native of Cordova,collegian of San Clemente de Bolonia ; he enteredin 1560, went to be consecrated at Santa Fe, andupon his return, had the mortification to find thatthe suburbs of Xiximani had been sacked by someFrench pirates ; which disaster was again repeatedin the following year, 1561. This bishop, afterhaving governed his church for the space of 10years, and suffering much from the influence of ahot climate, left the see without a licence, andreturned to his country, where he died in1570.

6. Don Ft. Luis Zapata de Cardenas, of theorder of St. Francis, native of Llerena in Estre-madura, third commissary-general of the Indies ;elected bishop in 1570, promoted to the archbi-shopric of Santa Fe before he left Spain, and in hisplace was chosen,

7. Don Fr. Juan de Vivero, a monk of the or-der of St. Augustin, native of Valladolid ; hepassed over into America, was prior of the conventof Lima, founder of the convent of Cuzco, electedbishop, which he renounced ; nor would he ac-cept the archbishopric of Chacas, to which he waspromoted : he died in Toledo.

8. Don Fr. Dionisio de los Santos, of the orderof Santiago, prior of the convent of Granada, andprovincial of the province of Andalucia ; electedin 1573 : he died in 1578.

9. Don Fr. Juan de Montalvo, of the same orderof St. Domingo, native of Arevalo ; elected bishop,he entered Cartagena in 1579, passed over to SantaFe to the synod celebrated there by the archbishop ;and in 1583 had the mortification of seeing hiscity sacked, plundered, and destroyed by SirFrancis Drake; Avhich calamity had such a greateffect upon him, and well knowing noAV that hehad no means of relieving the necessities of the

poor, who were dependent upon him, he fell sickand died the same year.

10. Don Fr. Diego Osorio, of the same orderof St. Domingo ; he went over as a monk to Car-tagena, from thence to Lima and Nueva Espana,received the presentation to this bishopric in 1587,which he would not accept, and died in 1579, inMexico.

11. Don Fr. Antonio de Hervias, also a Domi-nican monk, collegian of San Gregorio de Valla-dolid, his native place, where he had studiedarts ; he passed over to Peru, and was the firstmorning-lecturer in the university of Lima, ma-nager of the studies, qualificator of the inquisition,vicar-general of the province of Quito, and after-wards presented to the bishopric of Arequipa,then to that of Verapaz, and lastly to that of Car-tagena, where he died in 1590.

12. Don Fr. Pedro de Arevalo, monk of the or-der of St. Gerome ; he was consecrated in Spain,and renounced the bishopric before he came totake possession of it.

13. Don Fr. Juan de Ladrada, a Dominicanmonk, native of Granada ; he A^'as curate and re-ligious instructor in the Indies, in the settlements ofSuesca and Bogota, vicar-general of his religionin the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, lecturer on thesacred scriptures and on theology in Santa Fe,'was consecrated bishop of Cartagena in 1596 : herebuilt the cathedral, established a choir of boysand chaplains, and made a present of a canopy tobe carried by the priests over the blessed sacra-ment when in procession ; he assisted at the foun-dation of the college of the regulars of the societyof Jesuits, and of that of the fathers called thebarefooted Augustins, on the mountain of LaPopa ; he had the satisfaction of having for hisprovisor the celebrated Don Bernardino de Al-mansa, a wise and virtuous man, who was after-Avards archbishop of Santa Fe ; he frequentlyvisited his bishopric, and after having governed17 years, died in 1613.

14. Don Fr. Pedro de Vega, a monk of thesame order of St. Domingo, native of Bubiercain the kingdom of Aragon, professor of theologyand of the sacred AA'ritings in the universities ofLerida and Zaragoza ; he entered Cartagena asbishop in 1614, and his short duration disappintedthe hopes he had so universally excited, for hedied in 1616.

15. Don Diego Ramirez de Zepeda, friar of theorder of Santiago, native of Lima, a renownedpreacher, and consummate theologist ; being atMadrid, he was elected, and died before he couldreach the bishopric.

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(Catherine’s Isle, a pleasant island on theharbour of Sunburj, in the state of Georgia.)

(Cathehine’s Isle, a small productive islandon the s. coast of St. Domingo, 20 leagues e. ofthe town of St. Domingo.)

(CATHERINE's Town, in Ontario county, NewYork, lies three miles s. of the 5 . end of Senecaake.)

Catilina, a bay of tlie e. coast of the island ofNewfoundland, between the capes Santos andNuevo.

(CATO, a military township in New York state,12 miles s. e. of lake Ontario, and about 20 s. ofOswego fort.)

CATOA, a river of the province and country ofLas Amazonas. It rises in tlie mountains of theAndes, runs n. and enters the Marailon on the s.side, between the rivers Coari and Coyame.

(==CATORCE, or La Purissima ConcepcionDe Alamos de Catorce==, one of the richest minesof New Spain, and in the intendancy of San LuisPotosi. The real de Catorce, however, has onlybeen in existence since 1773, when Don SebastianCoronado and Don Bernarbe Antonio de Zepedadiscovered these celebrated seams, which yield an-nually the value of more than from 18 to ^20 mil-lions of francs, or from 730,460/. to 833,500/.sterling.)

(CATTAHUNK, one of the Elizabeth isles, inthe state of Massachusetts. See Buzzard’sBay.)

CATUARO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near to and s. of the city of Ca-riaco.

CAUACUAN, a river of the province and cap-tainship of Rey in Brazil. It runs e. and entersthe Uruguay, between the rivers Ipau and Pi-ricaya.

CAUAIAMA, a small river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and en-ters the Uruguay, between the rivers Guarey andBracuaenda.

CAUAILLON, a settlement and parish of theFrench, in their possessions in St. Domingo ; situ-ate on the coast and at the w. head, near the bayof its name, between the settlements of Torbec andLos Cayos.

CAUAIU, a small river of the same provinceand government as the former. It runs w. andenters the Parana, between the rivers Verde andYocare-mini.

Cauaiu, a bay of the same island, opposite theIsla Vaca or Cow island.

CAUALA, a settlement of the province and cap-iainship of Espiritu Santo in Brazil ; situate > 1 . ofVillarica.

CAU-ALLERIZAS, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Yaguarsongo in the king-dom of Quito.

CAUANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Conchucos in Peru.

CAUASAN, San Francisco Xavier de, atown of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate in the midst of the sierraof Topia, on the coast of the S. sea, on the shoreof the river Plastin. It has a small port for lesservessels, which has oftentimes been invaded byenemies. It is a curacy administered by the cler-gy, and to which two small settlements of MexicaaIndians are annexed.

CAUCA, a large and copious river of the pro-vince and government of Popayán, which risesin the mountains of the government of Mariquita,and running 160 leagues from s. to?i. in whichcourse it collects the ’waters of many other rivers,it passes near the cities of Popaj'iin, Buga, Cali,and Anserma ; from whence it is navigable until itenters the large river of the Magdalena. It is verynarrow where it passes through the cities of Po-payan and Antioquia, and forms the letter S, tak-ing its course through rocks, which render its na-vigation very dangerous. The Indians, however,are so dexterous in guarding their canoes fromrunning against the rocks by paddles, that it isvery seldom indeed that any accident occurs tothem. They call this strait Las Mamas de Cara-manta, from a city which was here of this name.Many make this navigation for the purpose ofavoiding a round-about journey of many days, andin a bad road through the mountains ; and it issaid that some have had the good fortune to dis-cover a route by water free from all difficulties,and that this was actually made by the pontificateof the bishop of Popayan, Don Diego de Mon-toy.

Cauca, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela. It runs n. and entersthe sea at the mouth of the Golfete or Littlegulf.

CAUCAQUA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate near the riverTuy, opposite the cape of Codera.

CAUCHUPIL, a river of the kingdom of Chile;it runs to the s. s. e. and then turning s. enters theLebo.

CAUIAN, a settlement of the province andcaptainship of Para in Brazil ; situate on the

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CHAQUIMINAS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Asangaro in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Sandia in the province of Ca-rabaya.

CHARABAYE, a settlement of the provinceand government of Venezuela ; situate on the shoreof a river in the district of the city of Caracas, andto the e. of the town of Victoria.

CHARACATO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. In itschurch is a miraculous image of Nuestra Senorade la Purificacion or Candelaria, to which singulardevotion is paid.

CHARAI, a settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Cinaloa ; situate on the shore ofa river of the fort which lies between the settle-ments of Ziribijoa and Mochicauchi.

(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)

CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement ofMongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced)annexed to the curacy of the same. Its tempera-ture is mild, and abounds in pure good water, andin the productions of a hot climate.

CHARANDO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Guimeo, and alcaldia mayor of Cirandaro,in Nueva Espafia ; annexed to the curacy of Turi-cato.

CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ;situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, fromwhence its temperature is so cold that it is seldomany crops can be gathered from the seeds that aresown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 inthe wards of its district, and a convent of the reli-gious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settle-ment.

CHARAPE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito.

CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district ofPuerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in thekingdom of Quito, at a small distance from thesea-coast and bay of its name ; this title beingalso applied to the point which forms the samebay.

CHARAZANI, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina,which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. Thewhole of it abounds in cataracts, and its watersthrow up immense quantities of coal, which wasthe cause of its being thus named.

CHARCA, a settlement of the province and

corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Sacaca.

CHARCANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru.

CHARCAS, an extensive province of the king-dom of Peru, composed of various others. Its ju-risdiction comprehends the district of this royalaudience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the cor-regimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, andextends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It isbounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian servingas a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregi-miento of Atacama, which is of its district, andforms the most n. part of this province in that di-rection, and being closed in on its other sides bythe kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, in-cluding the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . :is in many parts very thinly peopled, and coveredwith large desert tracts, and rugged and impene-trable mountains, and again by the elevated cordil-leras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras orpampas, which serve to mark its size and the relativedistances of its territories. Its temperature through-out is extremely cold, although there are not want-ing parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At thetime that this province was in the possession of theIndians, and previous to the entrance of the Spa-niards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointlyunder the name of Charcas ; and the conquest ofthese was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui,fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the ter-ritory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Hereit was that his conquests terminated : nor did thesubjection of these parts extend farther than Col-laysuyo until after his death, when he was suc-ceeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor,who carried on still farther the victories which hadbeen already gained, conquering all the nations asfar on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwardsfounded the city of this name, called also La Plata.After that the Spaniards had reduced that part ofPeru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and thatthe civil wars and dissensions which existed be-tween these were at an end, they endeavoured tofollow up their enterprise by making a conquest ofthe most distant nations. To this end, in 1538,Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force,and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues,found in them such a spirited opposition, that afterseveral battles he was brought to think this objectwas nearly impracticable : this idea was strength-ened by the reception he had met with from theChuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given himconvincing proofs of their valour and warlikespirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just

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tilizes the valley which gives it its name ; and runs30 leagues, collecting the waters of many otherstreams, mountain floods, and rivulets, which aug-ment it to such a degree as to render the fording ofit impracticable just where it enters the sea.

CHICAMOCHA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises in the paramo or mounlain-desert of Albarracin, between that city and thecity of Santa Fe, on the 7i. side : when it passesthrough Tunja, being then merely a rivulet, it hasthe name of the river of Gallinazos, which it after-wards changes for that of Sogamoso ; and for thatof Chia, Avhen it passes through this settlement.It is afterwards called Chicamocha, and passesthrough various provinces, until it becomes incor-porated with the Magdalena, into which it entersin one large mouth. A little before this it formsa good port, called De la Tora, where there wasformerly a settlement, but which is at present ina state of utter ruin.

CHICANAM, a small river of the province andcolony of Surinam, or the part of Guayana pos-sessed by the Dutch. It is one of those whichenter into the Cuyuni.

CHICANI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru j annexed tothe curacy of Combaya.

(CHICAPEE, or Chickabee, a smrdl river inMassachusetts, which rises from several ponds inWorcester county, and running s.zo. unites withWare river, and six miles further empties into theConnecticut at Springfield, on the e. bank of thatriver.)

CHICAQUARO, a small settlement or ward,of the district and jurisdiction of Valladolid, in theprovince and bishopric of Mcchoacan.

CHICASAWS, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina, comprising the Indians of this nation,who have here many other settlements ; in all ofwhich the English have forts, and an establish-ment for their commerce and defence.

Chicasaws, a river of this province, whichruns w. and enters the Mississippi 788 miles fromits mouth, or entrance into the sea.

(CHICCAMOGGA, a large creek, which runsn.w. into Tennessee river. Its rnoutli is six milesabove the Whirl, and about 27 s. w. from themouth of the Ilivvassee. The Chiccamogga Indiantowns lie on this creek, and on the bank of theTennessee. See Ciiickamages.)

CHICHAS y Tarija, a province and correg/-miertto of Peru ; bounded on the n. by that ofGinti, s. by that of Tucuman, the river called

Quiaca serving as the line of division, vo. by thatof Lipes, and n. by that of Porco. The district ofTarija belonging to this corregimiento, which is 40leagues distant from the capital of Chichas, isbounded e. by the territories of the infidel Chiri-guanos, Chanaes, and Mataguayos Indians, to thefirst settlements of which from the last habitationsof Tarija there is a narrow, craggy, and mountain-ous route of 14 leagues in length. It is alsobounded on the n. and w. by the valley of Pilaya,and on the s, by the jurisdiction of Xuxui. Thedistrict of Chichas is 140 leagues in circumference,and that of Tarija 80, being either of them inter-sected by some extensive seiTanias : in the boun-daries of the former there are many farms andestates for breeding cattle, where are also producedpotatoes, maize, wheat, barley and other grain,likewise some wine. Here are mines of gold andsilver, which were formerly very rich ; it havingbeen usual for the principal ones to yield somethousand marks in each caxon ; this being espe-cially the case in the mines of Nueva Chocaya,which still yield to this da}-- 60 or 60 marks. Manyof the metals found in these mines are worked upfor useful purposes. The mines of Chilocoa have,on the Whole, been most celebrated fortlieir riches.The rivers, which are of some note, are that ofSupacha, which flows down from the cordillera ofLipes, and running e. passes through the middle ofthe province until it enters the valley of Cinti, ofthe province of Pilaya and Paspaya ; and another,called Toropalca, which enters the province ofPorco, and passes on to the same part of Cinti.The inhabitants of this district amount to 6200.In the settlement of Tatasi both men and womenare subject to a distressing lunacy, which causesthem to run wildly and heedlessly over the moun-tains, without any regard to the precipices whichlie in their way ; since it has generally been ob-served that they dash themselves headlong down :if, however, it should happen that they are notkilled, the fall, they say, frequently restores themto a sane mind. The observation, that the animalsof this country, namely, \\ie vicunas and the nativesheep, are subject to this malady, is without founda-tion ; but it is thought to arise from the peculiareflluviasof the minerals abounding here, and whichhave a great tendency to cause convulsions. Thewomen of tlie aforesaid settlement, when about tobring forth children, like to be delivered of themin the low parts of the qiiebradas, or deep glens.The settlements of this province are,

Santiago de Cota- San Antonio de Riogaiia, Blanco,

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tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues tothe w. n. w. of Mexico.

Chilchota, another settlement of the headsettlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui-catlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountainwhich is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading incochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.It is eight leagues from its head settlement.

Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory titleof San Pedro. It is of the head settlement ofQuimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de losLlanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami-lies of Indians.

CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlementand real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix-miquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215families of Indians, and in the real are 27 ofSpaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. Itis of an extremely cold and moist temperature,and its commerce depends upon the working ofthe lead mines. Some silver mines were formerlyworked here, but these yielded so base a metal,and in such small quantities, that they were en-tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yieldedby far the greatest emolument. Five leagues tothe e. of its capital.

CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame-rica, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by thestraits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on thee. by the provinces of Tucuman and BuenosAyres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, andon the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal-lanicas from the straits and the plains or desertsof Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. TheInca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carriedhis conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, inlat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the firstSpaniard who discovered this country, in the year1335, and began its conquest, which was after-wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe-dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, andafterwards met with a disgraceful death at thehands of the Indians, having been made prisonerby them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are themost valorous and warlike of all in America ) theyhave maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde-pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they areseparated by the river Biobio. This is the limitof the country possessed by them ; and thoughthe Spaniards have penetrated through differententrances into their territories, and there built va-rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these beenpulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-

fenders of their liberty and their country. Theyare most dexterous in the management of the lance,sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macanawood ; and although they are equally so in thepractice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” Theyare very agile and dexterous horsemen, and theirhorses are excellent, since those which run wild,and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have notdegenerated, or become at all inferior to the bestwhich that country produces. The part whichthe Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends itswhole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapoto the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond theisle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, asit were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera ofthe Andes ; from these descend infinite streams andrivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,and forming a country altogether charming andluxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for theconvenience and enjoyment of life, producing, inregular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame-rica and Europe. The summer here begins inSeptember, the estio (or hot summer) in December,the autumn in March, and the winter in June.The climate is similar to that of Spain, and thetemperature varies according to the elevation ofthe land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,and which are very low, are of a warm tempera-ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture thanwhat they derive from some small rivers descend-ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the spaceof 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the otherprovinces it rains more frequently, in proportionas they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,from April to September ; for which reason theyare more fertile. These provinces are watered bymore than 40 rivers, which also descend from thecordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snowmelted in the summer, swelling them to a greatheight. They generally abound in fish of themost delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and manyothers. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main-taining a vast population by the shell-fish foundupon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the mostdelicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasya species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,and tunnies, which come at their seasons onthe coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra-bas of Andaluda. For some years past they saltdown cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a

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[nominni emperor of Peru, -who had succeeded theunrortunate Atahiialpa.

2. Roads from Peru to Chile. — Two roads leadfrom Peru to Cliile ; one is by the sea-coast, and isdestitute of water and provision ; the other, for adistance of 120 miles, passes over the immensemountains of the Andes : the inexperience of Al-magro caused him to take the latter ; for althoughit was, without doubt, the shortest, it Avas difficultin the extreme : for his army, after having beenexposed to infinite fatigue, and many conflictsAvith the adjoining savages, reached the cordillerasjust at the commencement of Avinter, destitute ofprovisions, and but ill supplied Avith clothing. Inthis season the snow falls almost incessantly, andcompletely covers the Icav paths that are passablein summer ; notwithstanding, the soldiers, en-couraged by their general, advanced with muchtoil to the top of those rugged heights. But, vic-tims to the severity of the weather, 150 Spaniardsthere perished, Avith 10,000 Peruvians, Avho, beingaccustomed to the Avarmth of the torrid zone, wereless able to endure the rigours of the frost. It isaffirmed, that of all this army not one Avould haveescaped Avith life, had not Almagro, resolutelypushing forward with a few horse, sent them timelysuccours and provisions, which were found inabundance at Copiapo.

3. Kindly receined at Copiapó. — Those of themost robust constitutions, who Avere able to resist theinclemency of the season, by this unexpected aid,were enabled to extricate themselves from the snow,and at length reached the plains of that province,Avhich is the first in Chile ; Avhere, through respectfor the Peruvians, they were well received and en-tertained by the inhabitants. While Almagro re-mained in Copiapo, he discovered that the reigningulmen had usurped the government in prejudiceof his nephew and Avard, who, through fear of hisuncle, had fled to the Avoods. Pretending to beirritated at this act of injustice, he caused theguilty chief to be arrested, and calling before himthe laAvful heir, reinstated him in the government,Avith the universal applause of his subjects, avIioattributed this conduct entirely to motives of jus-tice, and a Avish to redress the injured. The Spa-niards, having recovered from their fatigues throughthe hospitable assistance of the Copiapiirs, and re-inforced by a number of recruits Avliom RodrigoOrganez had brought from Peru, comniencc<l theirmarch for the s. provinces. As it was natural,the natives were not a little curious concern-ing these their new visitors : they croAvded aroundthem to their march, as Avell to examine them near,as a present them with such things as they thought

Avould prove agreeable to a people who appeared tothem of a character far superior to that of othermen. In the mean time, tAvo soldiers having se-parated from the army, proceeded to Guasco,Avhere they Avere at first Avell receiA'ed, but Avereafterwards put to death by the inhabitants, in con-seqtience, no doubt, of some acts of violence, whichsoldiers freed from the controul of their officers arevery apt to commit.

4. First European blood shed. — This Avas thefirst European blood spilt in Ciiile, a countryafterwards so copiously deluged with it. On beinginformed of this unfortunate accident, calculatedto destroy the exalted opinion Avhich he Avished toinspire of his soldiers, Almagro, having proceededto Coquirnbo, ordered the ulnien of the district,called Marcando, his brother, and tAventy of theprincipal inhabitants, to be brought thither; all ofAvhorn, together Avith the usurper of Copiapo, hedelivered to the flames, without, according to Her-rera, pretending to assign any reason for his con-duct. This act of cruelty appeared to every onevery extraordinary and unjust, since among thoseadventurers there Avere not wanting men of sensi-bility, and advocates for the rights of humanity.The greater part of the army openly disapprovedof the severity of their general, the aspect of Avhoseaffairs, from this time forAvard, became graduallyworse and worse. About this period, 1537, Alma-gro received a considerable reinforcement of re-cruits under Juan de Rada, accompanied withroyal letters patent, appointing him governorof 200 leagues of territory, situate to the s.of the government granted to Francis Pizarro.The friends Avhom he had left in Peru, taking ad-vantage of this opportunity, urged him by privateletters to return, in order to take possession ofCuzco, Avhich they assured him Avas within thelimits of his jurisdiction. Notwithstanding this,inflated with his new conquest, he pursued hismarch, passed the fatal Cachapoal, and regardlessof the remonstrances of the Peruvians, advancedinto the country of the Promaucians.

5. Battle with the Promaucians. — At the firstsight of the Spaniards, their horses, and the thun-dering arms of Europe, these valiant people Averealmost petrified Avith astonishment; but soon re-covering from the effects of surprise, they opposedAvith intepridity their new enemies upon the shoreof the Rio Claro. Almagro, despising their force,placed in the first line his Peruvian auxiliaries, in-creased by a number Avhom Paullu had drawnfrom the garrisons ; but these, being soon routed,fell back in confusion upon the rear. The Spa-niards, who expected to have been merely specta-]1

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[tors of the battle, saw themselves compelled to sus-tain the vigorous attack of tlie enemy, aud advanc-ing with their horse, began a furious battle, Avhichcontinued with great loss upon either side till nightseparated the combatants- Although the Promau-cians had been very roughly handled, they lost notcourage, but encamped in the sight of their enemy,determined to renew the attack the next morning.The Spaniards, however, though by the custom ofEurope the_y considered themselves as victors,having kept possession of the field, were very dif-ferently inclined. Having been accustomed tosubdue immense provinces with little or no resist-ance, they became disgusted willi an enterprisewhich could not be effected without great fatigue,and the loss of much blood, since in its prosecutionthey must contend with a bold and independent na-tion, by whom they were not believed to be im-mortal.

6. Expedition abandoned, and whp. — Thus all,by common consent, resolved to abandon this ex-pedition ; but they Avere of various opinions re-specting their retreat, some being desirous of re-turning to Peru, while others wished to form a set-tlement in the n. provinces, where they had beenreceived Avith such hospitality. The first opinionwas supported by Almagro, Avhose mind began tobe impressed by the suggestions contained in theletters of his friends. Accordingly Ave find him re-turning Avith his army to Peru in 1538: he tookpossession of the ancient capital of that empire ;and after several ineffectual jiegociations, fought abattle with the brother of Pizarro, by Avhom he Avastaken, tried, and beheaded as a disturber of thepublic peace. His army having dispersed attheir defeat, afterAvards reassembled under the titleofthe soldiers of Chile, and e.xecuted ncAv disturb-ances in Peru, already sufficiently agitated. Suchwas the fate of the first expedition against Chile,undertaken by the best body of European troopsthat had as yet been collected in those parts. Thethirst of riches Avas the moving spring ofthe ex-pedition, and the disappointment of their hopes ofobtaining them, the cause of its failure. FrancisPizarro, having by the deatli of his rival obtainedthe absolute command ofthe Spanish possessions inS. America, lost not sight of the conquest of Chile,which he conceived might, in any event, prove animportant acquisition to him. Among the adv’en-turers avIio hatl come to Peru, were two officerscommissioned by the court of Spain, under thetitles of Governors, to attempt this expedition. Tothe first, called Pedro Sanchez de FIoz, Avas com-mitted the conquest of the country as far as tlic riverMaule ; and to the other, Carmargo, the remainder

to the Archipelago of Chiloe. Pizarro, jealous ofthese men, under frivolous pretexts, refused to con-firm the royal nomination, and appointed to thisexpeditioi! his quarter-master, Pedro de Valdivia,a prudent and active officer, who Inid gaiticd ex-perience in the Italian Avar, and wiiat was still agreater recommendation, Avas attached to his party ;directing him to take De Hoz with him, Avho Avasprobably more (o be feared than his colleague, andto ailoAv him every advantage in the partidon ofthe lands.

7. Valdivia marches against Chile. — This officerhaving determined to cstabiisli a pennanent settle-ment in the country, set out on his march in theyear 1540, Avith 200 Spaniards, and a numerousbody of Peruvian auxiliaries, accompanied bysome monks, several Avomen, and a great numberof European quadrupeds, Avith CAmry tiling requisitefor a new colony. He pursued the same route asAlmagro ; but, instructed by the misfortunes of hispredecessor, he did not attempt to pass the Andesuntil midsummer. He entered Chile Avithout in-curring any loss, but very difi’erent Avas the recep-tion lie experienced from the inhabitants of the n.provinces from that Avhich Almago had met Avith.Those people, informed of the fate of Peru, amifreed from the submission they professed to owe theInca, did not consider themselves obliged to respecttheir invaders. They of course began to attackthem upon all sides, Avith more valour than con-duct. liike barbarians in general, incapable ofmaking a common cause Avihli each other, and fora long time accustomed to the j'oke of servitude,they attacked them by hordes or tribes, as theyadvanced, without that steady firmness Avhich cha-racterises the valour of a civilized people. TheSpaniards, hoAvever, notwithstanding the ill-com-bined opposition of the natives, traversed the pro-vinces ofCopiapo, Coquimbo, Quillota, and Meli-pilla, and arrived, much harrassed, but Avith littleloss, at that of Mapocho, now called St. Jago.

8. Province, of St. Jago described. — This pro-vince, Avhich is more than 600 miles distance fromthe confines of Peru, is one of the most fertile andpleasant in the kingdom. Its name signifies theland of many people;” and from the accounts ofthe first Avriters upon Chile, its population corres-ponded thercAvith, being extrcnsciy numerous. Jtlies upon the confines of the principal mountainof the Andes, and is 140 miles in circiimfereiicc.It is watered by the rivers Maypo, Colina, Lampa,and Mapocho, Avhich last divides it into two nearlyequal parts; and after pursuing a subterraneouscourse for the space of five miles, again shows it-self Avith increased copiousness, and disdiarges itsl

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[waters into the Majpo. The mountains of Caren,which terminate it on the n. abound witli veins ofgold ; and in that part of tlie Andes whicli boundsit at the e, arc found several rich mines of silver.Valdivia, who liad endeavoured to penetrate as faras possible into the country, in order to render itditlicnlt for Ids soldiers to return to Peru, deter-mined to make a settlement in this province,which, from its natural advantages, and its remote-ness, appeared to him more suitable than any otherfor the centre of his conquests.

9. Capital founded.—Wiih. this view, havingselected a convenient situation on the left shore ofthe Mapocho, on the 24th February 1541, helaid the foundations of the capital of the kingdom,to which, in honour of that apostle, he gave thename of St. Jago. In laying out the city, he di-vided the ground into plats or squares, each con-taining 4096 toises, a fourth of Avhich he allowedto every citizen, a plan which has been pursuedin the foundation of all the other cities ; one of theseplats, lying upon the great square, he destined forthe cathedral and the bishop’s palace, Avhich heintended to build there, and the one opposite forthat of the government. He likewise appointed amagistracy, according to the forms of Spain, fromsuch of his army as were the best qualified ; andto protect the settlement in case of an attack, heconstructed a fort upon a hill in the centre of tliecity, Avhich has since received the name of St.Lucia. Many have applauded the discernmentof Valdivia, in having made choice of this situa-tion for the seat of the capital of the colony. Butconsidering the wants of a great city, it would havebeen better placed 15 miles farther to the s. uponthe Maypo, a large river, Avhich has a direct com-munication with the sea, and might easily be ren-dered navigable for ships of the largest size. Thiscity, however, contained in 1807 more than 40,000inhabitants, and is rapidly increasing in popula-tion, from its being the seat of government, andfrom its great commerce, supported by the luxuryof the Avealthy inhabitants. Meanwhile the na-tives saw Avith a jealous eye this new establishment,and concerted measures, although late, for freeingthemselves of these unAvelcome intruders, Valdiviahaving discovered their intentions in season, con-fifiedthe chiefs of the conspiracy in the fortress ;and suspecting some secret intelligence betAveenthem and the neighbouring Promaucians, repairedwith 60 horse to the river Cachapoal to Avatchtheir movements. But this measure was unneces-sary ; that fearless people had not the policy tothink of uniting Avith their neighbours in order tosecure themselves from the impending danger.

10. Steady unanimity of the Mapochinians . —The Mapochinians, taking advantage of the de-parture of the general, fell upon the colony withinconceivable furj^, burned the half-built houses,and assailed the citadel, wherein the inhabitants hadtaken refuge, oh all sides. Notwithstanding theultimate defeat Avhich the Mapochinians expe-rienced in this battle, and others of not less import-ance Avhich they afterwards experienced, the}-never ceased, for the space of six years, until theirutter ruin, to keep the Spaniards closely besieged,attacking them upon every occasion that offered,and cutting off their provisions, in such a mannerthat they Avere compelled to subsist upon unwhole-some and loathsome viands, and upon the littlegrain that they could raise beneath the cannon ofthe place. The fertile plains of the neighbour-hood had become desert and uncultivated, as theinhabitants had destroyed their crops and retiredto the mountains. This mode of life did not fail todisgust the soldiers of Valdivia, but he contriAmdAvith much prudence and address to sooth theirturbulent spirits, painting to them in seducingcolours the happy prospect that aAvaited them.

11. The mine of Valdivia had often

heard in Peru that the valley of Quillota abounded inmines of gold, and imagined that he might obtainfrom thence a sufficient quantity to satisfy his sol-diers ; in consequence, notwithstanding the diffi-culties Avith which he was surrounded, he sentthither a detachment of troops, with orders tosuperintend the digging of this precious metal.The mine that Avas opened Avas so rich that itsproduct surpassed their most sanguine hopes ;their present and past sufferings were all buried inoblivion, nor Avas there one among them who hadthe remotest wish of quitting the country. Thegovernor, (for Valdivia had persuaded the magis-tracy of the city to give him this title), Avho Avasnaturally enterprising, encouraged by this success,had a frigate built in the mouth of the river Chile,Avhich traverses the valley, in order more readilyto obtain succours from Peru, without which hewas fully sensible he could not succeed in accom-plishing his vast undertakings. In the mean time,as the state of affairs was urgent, Valdivia wasresolved to send to Peru by land two of his cap-tains, Alonzo Monroy and Pedro Miranda, withsix companions, whose spurs, bits, and stirrups hedirected to be made of gold, hoping to entice, bythis proof of the opulence of the country, his fel-loAV-citizens to come to his assistance. These mes-sengers, though escorted by 30 men on horseback,who were ordered to accompany them to the bor-ders of Chile, Avere attacked and defeated by 100]

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[ auxiliaries, from whence has sprung that rootedantipatliy which the Araucanians preserve againstthe residue of that nation. In the course of theyear 1546, Valdivia, having passed the Maule,proceeded in his career of victory to the riverItata ; but being defeated there, he relinquishedhis plans of proceeding farther, and returned toSt. Jago.

17. Valdivia sets sail for Peru ^ and returns withmen and supplies . — Being disappointed in hissuccours from Peru, he, in 1547, was on tlie eveof his departure for that country, when Pastenesarrived, but without any men, and bringing newsof the civil war which had broken out between theconquerors of the empire of the Incas. Neverthe-less, persuaded that he miglit reap an advantagefrom these revolutions, he set sail with Pastene forPeru, taking with him a great quantity of gold;on his arrival he served, in quality of quarter-mas-ter-general, in the famous battle that decided thefate of Gonzalo Pizarro. Gasca, the president, whounder the royal standard had gained the victory,pleased with the service rendered him upon thisoccasion by Valdivia, confirmed him in his otliceof governor, and furnishing him with an abun-dance of military stores, sent him back to Chilewith two ships filled with those seditious adven-turers, of whom he was glad of an opportunity tobe disembarrassed. The Copiapins, eager to re-venge the murder of their prince, killed about thesame time 40 Spaniards, who had been detachedfrom several squadrons, and were proceeding fromPeru to Chile ; and the Coquirnbanes, instigatedby their persuasion, massacred alt the inhabitantsoi’ the colony lately founded in their territory,ra,zing the city to its foundation. Francis Aguirrewas immediately ordered there, and had severalencounters with them with various success. In1549 he rebuilt the city in a more advantageoussit nation ; its inhabitants claim him as their founder,and the most distinguished of them boast them-selves as his descendants. After a contest of nineyears, and almost incredible fatigues, Valdivia,conceiving himself well established in that part ofChile which was under the dominion of the Peru-vians, distributed the land among his soldiers,assigning to each, under the title of commandery,a considerable portion, with the inhabitants liv-ing thereon. By this means, having quieted therestless ambition of his companions, he set outanew on his march for the s. provinces, with arespectable army of Spanish and Proraauciantroops.

18. Concepcion founded. — After a journey of150 miles, he arrived, without encountering many

obstacles, at the bay of Penco, which had beenalready explored by Pastene, where, on the 5th ofOctober 1550, he founded a third city, called Con-cepcion. The situation of this place was veryadvantageous for commerce from the excellence ofits harbour, but, from the lowness of the ground,exposed in earthquakes to inundations of the sea.Accordingly we find it destroyed in this mannerby an earthquake that occurred on the 8th of J uly1730, and the 24th of May 1751; for this reason,the inhabitants established themselves, on the 24thof November 1764, in the valley of Mocha, threeleagues s. of Penco, between the rivers Andalienand Biobio, where they founded New Concepcion,The harbour is situated in the middle of the baycalled Talgacuano, a little more than two leaguesw. of Mocha ; a fort is now all the building that isleft at Penco. But to return to our history, theadjacent tribes perceiving the intention of theSpaniards to occupy this important post, gave in-formation of it to their neighbours and friends theAraucanians, who foreseeing that it would not belong before the storm would burst upon their owncountry, resolved to succour their distressed allies,in order to secure themselves. But before we pro-ceed to relate the events of this war, it may bemore advisable to give some account of the cha-racter and manners of that warlike people, whohave hitherto, with incredible valour, opposed theoverwhelming torrent of Spanish conquest, andfrom henceforward will furnish all the materials ofour history.


Of the character and manners of the Arauca-nians.

1. Local situation . — The Araucanians inhabitthat delightful country situate between the riversBiobio and Valdivia, and between the Andes andthe sea, extending from 36° 44' to 39“ 50' of s.latitude. They derive their appellation of Arau-canians from the province of Arauco, which,though the smallest in their territory, has, likeHolland, given its name to the whole nation,either from its having been the first to unite withthe neighbouring provinces, or from having atsome remote period reduced them under its do-minion. This people, ever enthusiastically at-tached to their independence, pride themselves inbeing called auca, which signifies frank or free ;and those Spaniards who had left the army in theNetherlands to serve in Chile, gave to this countrythe name of Araucanian Flanders, or the InvincibleState ; and some of them have even had the mag-nanimity to celebrate in epic poetry tlie exploits]

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[modesty and simplicity ; their dress is entirely ofwool, and, agreeable to the natural taste, of agreenish blue colour ; it consists of a tunic, a gir-dle, and a short cloak, called ichella, which isfastened before with a silver buckle. The tunic,called chiamal^ is long, and descends to the feet ; itis without sleeves, and is fastened upon the shoul-der by silver broches or buckles ; this dress,sanctioned by custom, is never varied ; but togratify their love of finery, they adorn themselveswith all those trinkets which caprice or vanity sug-gests. They divide their hair into several tresses,Avhich float in graceful negligence over their shoul-ders, and decorate their heads with a species offalse emerald, called glianca, held by them in highestimation ; their necklaces and bracelets are ofglass, and their ear-rings, which are square, ofsilver ; they have rings upon each finger, thegreater part of which are of silver. It is calculatedthat more than 100,000 marks of this metal areemployed in these female ornaments, since theyare worn even by the poorest class.

4. Dwellings . — We have already given someaccount of the dwellings of the ancient Chilians :the Araucanians, tenacious, as are all nations notcorrupted by luxury, of the customs of theircountry, have made no change in their mode ofbuilding. But as they are almost all polygamists,the size of their houses is proportioned to the num-ber of women they can maintain ; the interior ofthese houses is very simple ; the luxury of conve-nience, splendour, and show, is altogether un-known in them, and necessity alone is consultedin the selection of their furniture. They neverform towns, but live in scattered villages or ham-lets on the banks of rivers, or in plains that areeasily irrigated. Their local attachments arestrong, each family preferring to live upon theland inherited from its ancestors, which they cul-tivate sufficiently for their subsistence. The geniusof this haughty people, in which the savage stillpredominates, will not permit them to live irtwalled cities, which they consider as a mark ofservitude.

5. Division of the Araucanian state.— Althoughin their settlements the Araucanians are wanting inregularity, that is by no means the case in thepolitical division of their state, which is regulatedwith much nicety and intelligence. They havedivided it from n. to s. into four tdhal-mapiis, orparallel tetrarchates, that are nearly equal, towhich they give the names of Laiiquen-mapu, themaritime country ; L,elbun-mapu^ the plain coun-try ; Inapire-mapUy the country at the foot of theAndes ; and Pire-mapuj or that of the Andes.

Each uthal-mapu is divided into five aillareguesor provinces; and each aillaregue, into nine reguesor counties. The maritime country comprehendsthe provinces of Arauco, Tucapel, lllicura, Bo-roa, and Nagtolten ; the country of the plain in-cludes those of Encol, Puren, Reposura, Ma-quegua, and Mariquina ; that at the foot of theAndes contains Mar veil, Colhue, Chacaico, Que-cheregua, and Guanagua ; and in that of theAndes is included all the valleys of the cordillerasysituate within the limits already mentioned,which arc inhabited by the Puelches. These moun-taineers, who were formerly a distinct nation, inalliance Avith the Araucanians, are now unitedunder their government, and have the same ma-gistrates. In the second and third articles of theregulations of Lonquilmo, made in the year 1784,the limits of each uthal-mapu are expresslj" defined,and its districts marked out. It declares to beappertaining to that of the cordilleras., the Huilli-ches of Changolo, those of Gayolto and Rucacho-roy, to the s. ; the Puelches and Indian pampas tothe n. from Malalque and the frontiers of Mendozato the Mamil-mapu in the pampas of BuenosAyres ; the whole forming a corporate body withthe Puelches and Pehuenches of Maule, Chilian,and Antuco; so that at present, in case of an in-fraction of the treaty, it may easily be known whatuthal-mapu is to make satisfaction. This divi-sion of Araucania, Avhich discovers a certain de-gree of refinement in its political administration, isof a date anterior to the arrival of the Spaniards,and serves as a basis for the civil government ofthe Araucanians, w'hich is aristocratic, as that ofmany other barbarous nations has been. Thisspecies of republic consists of three orders of no-bility, each subordinate to the other; the toqiiis,the apo~ulmenes, and the ulmenes, all of Avhomhave their respective vassals. The toquis, whomay be styled tetrarchs, are four in number, andpreside over the uthal-mapus. The appellation oftoqui is derived from the verb toquin, which sig-nifies to judge or command ; they are independentof each other, but confederated for the publicAvelfare. The apo-iilmenes or arch-ulmenes go-vern the provinces under their respective toquis.The ulraenes, who are the prefects of the regues orcounties, are dependent upon the apo-ulmenes ;this dependence, however, is confined almost en-tirely to military affairs. Although the ulmenesare the lowest in the scale of the Araucanian aris-tocracy, the superior ranks, generally speaking,are comprehended under the same title, which isequivalent to that of cacique. The discriminativebadge of the toqui is a species of battle-axe, made]

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[14. EMMera^ceremome^.-— Notwithstanding theyknow the difference between the body and the soul,tlieir ideas of the spirituality of the latter do notseem to be very distinct, as appears from the cere-monies practised at their funerals. As soon as oneof their nation dies, his friends and relations seatthemselves upon the ground around the body, andweep fora long time; they afterwards expose it,clothed in the best dress of the deceased, upon ahigh bier, called pzV/Mnj/, where it remains duringthe night, which they pass near it in weeping, oriu eating and drinking with those who come toconsole them ; this meeting is called curicahu/n,the black entertainment, as that colour is amongthem, as Avell as the Europeans, the symbol ofmourning. The following day, though sometimesnot until the second or third after the decease ofthe person, they carry the corpse in procession tothe eltun, or burying jdacc of the family, whichis usually situated in a wood or on a hill ; twoyoung men on horseback, riding full speed, pre-cede the procession. The bier is carried by theprincipal relations, and is surrounded by women,who bewail the deceased in the manner of thehired mourners among the Romans ; while anotherwoman, who walks behind, strews ashes in theroad, to prevent the soul from returning to its lateabode. On arriving at the place of burial, thecorpse is laid upon the surface of the ground, andsurrounded, if a man, with his arras, if a woman,with female implements, and with a great quan-tity of provisions, and with vessels filled withchica, and with wine, which according to theiropinions are necessary to subsist them during theirpassage to another world ; they sometimes evenkill a horse, and inter it in the same ground. Afterthese ceremonies, they take leave with many tearsof the deceased, wishing him a prosperous journey,and cover the corpse with earth and stones placedin a pyramidal form, upon which they pour agreatquantity of chica. The similarity between thesefuneral rites and those practised by the ancientsmust be obvious to those acquainted with the cus-toms of the latter. Immediately after the relationshave quitted the deceased, an old woman, called2'empulcague, comes, as the Araucanians believe,in the shape of a whale, to transport him to theElysiari fields ; but before Ids arrival there, he isobliged to pay a toll, for passing a very narrowstrait, to another malicious old woman who guardsit, and who, on failure, deprives the passenger ofan eye. This fable resembles much that of theferryman Charon, not that there is any probabilitythat the one was copied from the other ; as thehunaan mind, when placed in similar situations,

will give birth to the same ideas. The soul, whenseparated from the body, exercises in another lifethe same functions it performed in this, with noother difference except that they are unaccoiiv-panied with fatigue or satiety ; husbands havethere the same wives as they had on earth, butthe latter have no children, as that happy countrycannot be inhabited by any except the spirits ofthe dead ; and every thing there is spiritual. Ac-cording to their theory, the soul, notwithstandingits new condition of life, never loses its originalattachments ; and when the spirits of their country-men return, as they frequently do, they fightfuriously with those of their enemies wheneverthey meet with them in the air ; and these com-bats are the origin of tempests, thunder, andlightning. Not a storm happens upon the An-des or the ocean which th(‘y do not ascribe to abattle between the souls of their fellow-country-men and those of the Spaniards ; they say thatthe roaring of the wind is the trampling of theirhorses ; the noise of the thunder that of their drums,and the flashes of lightning the fire of their artillery.If the storm takes its course tow ards the Spanishterritory, they affirm that their spirits have putto flight those of the Spaniards, and exclaimtriumphantly, Imvime?i, imivimen, puen, laguvi-men! “ Pursue them, friends, pursue them, killthem !” If the contrary happens, they are greatlj’afflicted, and call out in consternation, Yavida-men^ puen, namunlumcnl “ Courage?, friends, befirm !” I'hus do they believe that the dead, al-though mere spirits, are possessed, like the sha.dows which thronged about iEiieas in his descentinto the infernal regions, of the same passions, anda love of the same pursuits, by w hich they wereactuated when living.

“ Quoe, gratia curruumArmorumque fuit vivis, quee curanitenlesPascere equos, eadem sequitur tellure repostos."

Their ideas respecting the origin of creation arcso crude and ridiculous, that to relate them wouldserve for little else than to shew the weakness ofhuman reason when left to itself. 'They haveamong them the tradition of a great deluge, inwhicli only a few persons were saved, who tookrefuge upon a high mountain, called Thegtheg,the thundering, or the sparkling, Avhich hadthreepoints, and possessed the property of moving upontlie water. From hence it is to be inferred, thatthis deluge was in consequence of some volcaniceruption, accompanied by terrible earthquakes, orshould appear to be a corrupted tradition ofNoah’s flood. Whenever a violent earthquakeoccurs, these people fly for safely to these moun-l

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C H I L E.


[Araucanians maj justly claim tlie merit of not be-ing' ill this respect inferior to other nations. Theirgames are very numerous, and for the most partvery ingenious ; they are divided into the seden-tary and gymnastic. It is a curious fact, andworthy of notice, that among the first is tiie gameof chess, which they call comienn^ and which hasbeen known to them from time immeniorial. Thegame of quechu, which they esteem iiighiy, has agreat affinity to tliat of back-gammon ; but insteadof dice they make use of triangular pieces of bonemarked with points, which they throw with alittiehoop or circle, supported by two pegs, as wasprobably i\\e fritillus of the Ro.mans. The youthexercise themselves frequently in wrestling andrunning, ’i'hey are fond of playing at ball, whichis made from a species of rush, and called pilma.^All their gymnsatic games, many of which re-semble those of the European youth, requirestrength, are well suited to their genius, and forthe most part serve as an image of war. Whathas been said of the Araucanians does not altoge-ther apply to the Puelches, or inhabitants of thefourth uthal-mapu, situated in the Andes. These,although they conform to the general custom ofthe nation, always discover a great degree of rude-ness and savageness of manners. Their name sig-nifies eastern-men. They are of lofty stature,and are fond of hunting, which induces them fre-quently to change their habitations, and extendtheir settlements, not only to tiie eastern skirls ofthe Andes, but even to the borders of the lake Aa-gitelguapi, and to the extensive plains of Patago-nia, on the shores of the Atlantic. The Arauca-nians hold these mountaineers in high estimationfor the important services which they occasionallyrender them, and for the fidelity which they haveever observed in their alliance with them.

Chap. IT.

The wars of the Araucanians with the Spaniards,and concomitant events.

Sect. I. Comprising a period of nine years,from 1550 to 1559.

I. The Toqui Aillavila . — It was in the year1550, that the Araucanians, having resolved tosend succours to the inhabitants of Penco, whowere at that time invaded by the Spaniards, gaveorders to the Toqui Aillavila to march immediatelyto tiieir assistance at the head of 4000 men : heaccordingly passed the great river Biobio, whichseparates the Araucanian territory from that qf thePencones, and boldly offered battle to these ne-wenemies, who had advanced to meet him to theshores of the Andalien. After the first discharge

of musketry, which the Araucanians sustainedwithout being terrified or disconcerted, thus earlymanifesting how little they would regard it whenrendered familiar by habit, Aillavila, with a rapidmovement, fell at once upon the front and flanksof the Spanish army. Tiie Spaniards were con-sequently thrown into much disorder, and theirgeneral was exposed to imminent danger, havinghad his horse killed under him, when Aillavila,hurried forwards by a rash courage, received amortal wound. The Araucanians having lost theirgeneral,-with many of their most valiant officers,then retired, but in good order, leaving the fieldto the Spaniards, who had no disposition to pur-sue them. Valdivia, who had been in many bat-tles in Europe as well as America, declared thathe had never been exposed to such imminent ha-zard of his life as in this engagement.

2. The Toqui L.incoyan . — In the following yearthe Araucanians w('re again led on to tiie attack bya new toqui, Lincoyan ; when such was the ter-ror inspired by their approach, that the Spaniards,after confessing themselves, and partaking of thesacrament, thought proper to take shelter underthe cannon of their fortifications. The event ofthis battle was the cause of the foundation of thechapel dedicated to St. James, which chapel wasbuilt by the Spanish soldiers from sentiments ofgratitude, and from their supposition that the re-treat of Lincoyan, who was unsuccessful in hisfirst attack, was caused by the supernitui'aiagency of the apostle St. James himself, whomthey declared to have seen riding upon a whitehorse with a flaming sword, and striking terrorinto his enemies. The governor, after the elapseof nearly a year, resolved to attack them with areinforcement he had just received from Peru : heaccordinglj^, unobstructed by the tardy operationsof Lincoyan, bent his way towards the shores ofthe Cauten, which divides the Araucanian terri-tory into two nearly equal parts.

3. Imperial founded . — At the confluence of thisriver and that of Daraas, he founded the city ofImperial, so called in honour of the EmperorCharles the Fifth, or, as it is said by some, in con-sequence of finding there eagles with two headscut in wood, and placed as ornaments upon thetops of houses. This city was situated in a beau-tiful spot, abounding with every convenience oflife; and during the short period of its existencebecame the most flourishing of any in Chile. Itsposition on the shore of a large river, of sufficientdepth for vessels to lie close to the walls, renderedit a highly advantageous situation for commerce,and would enable it to obtain immediate succour!

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[in case of a siege. Modern geographers speak ofit as a city not only existing in the present time,but as very stongly fortified, and the seat of abishopric, when it has been buried in ruins formore than 200 years.

4. Villarua founded. — About the same time hedispatched Alderete, one of liis officers, with 60men, to form a settlement on the shore of the greatlake J^auquaiy to which he gave the name of Vil-larica, from the great quantity of gold that hefound in its environs. In the mean time, havingreceived fresh reinforcements, he commenced hisinarch towards the s. still kept in view byliincoyan, whom timid caution constantly pre-vented from offering himself to his enemy.

5. The Clinches. — In this manner the Spanishcommander traversed, with little loss, the Avholeof Araucania from n. to s. ; but at his arrivalat the Calacalla, which separates the Arau-canians from the Cunches, he found the latter inarms determined to oppose his passage. Whilehe was deliberaling what measures to pursue, awiiman of the country, called Recloma, had theaddress to jiersuade the Cunchese general to fa-vour the strangers ; and without foreseeing theconsequences, he permitted them to pass unmo-lested. The Cunches form one of the most valiantnations of Chile : they inhabit that tract of countrywhich lies upon the sea, between the river Cala-ealla, at present called Valdivia, and the Archi-pelago of Chiloe. They are the allies of theAraiicanians, and mortal enemies to the Spaniards,and are divided into several tribes, which, likethose in the other parts of Chile, are governed bytheir respective uhnenes.

6. Valdivia founded. — The Spanish com-mander having passed the river with his troops,founded upon the southern shore the sixthcity, called Valdivia, being the first of theAmerican conquerors who sought in this man-ner to perpetuate his family name. This set-tlement, of which at present only the fortress re-mains, in a few years attained a considerable de-gree of celebrity, not only from the superior fine-ness of the golcl dug in its mines, which obtainedit the privilege of a mint, but from the excellenceof its harbour, one of the most secure and plea-sant in the S. sea. The river is very^ broad,and so deep, that ships of the line may anchorwithin a few feet of the shore ; it also forms seve-ral other harbours in the vicinity.

7. For tresses of Puren, Tucapel, and Araucobuilt. — Valdivia, satisfied with the conquests, orrather incursions, that he had made, turned back,and in repassing the provinces of I\iren, Tucapel,

and Arauco, built in each of them, in 1553, a for-tress, to secure the possession of tire others ; as hewell knew that from these provinces alone he hadto apprehend any attempt that might prove fatalto his settlements. Ercilla says, that in this expe-dition the Spaniards had to sustain many battleswith the natives ; which is highly probable, as thecontinuance of Lincoyan in command can on noother principle be accounted for. Without re-flecting upon the imprudence of occupying solarge an extent of country with so small a force,Vahlivia had the farther rashness, on his return toSantiago, to dispatch P'rancis de Aguirre, with200 men, to conquer the provinces of Cujo andTucuman, situated to the e. of the Andes.

8. Cilj/ of the Frontiers founded. — The Spanishgeneral, indefatigable in his plans of conquest, re-turned also himself to Araircania; and in theprovince of Encol founded the seventh and lastcity, in a country fertile in vines, and gave it thename of the City of the Frontiers. This name,from events which could not possibly have been inthe calculation of Valdivia, has become strictlyapplicable to its present state, as its ruins are, inreality, situated upon the confines of the Spanishsettlement in that part of Chile. It was a richand commercial city, and its wines were trans-ported to Buenos Ayres by a road over the cor-dilleras.

9. Three principal military offices instituted atConcepcion . — After having made suitable provi-sions for this colony, Valdivia returned to his fa-vourite city of Concepcion, where he institutedthe three principal military offices ; that of quar-ter-master-general, of serjeant-major, and of com-missary ; a regulation which has, till within a fewyears, prevailed in the royal army of Chile. Atpresent only two of these offices exist ; that of thequarter-master-general, who is also called the in-tendant, and resides in the city of Concepcion,and that of the serjeant-major.

10. The Toqui Caupolican. — The next toquiwho distinguished himself in the Araucanianwars, and who succeeded Lincoyan in command,was Caupolican ; he evinced a spirit of much en-terprise and cunning, and succeeded in drivingthe S])aniards from the forts of Arauco and Tuca-pel, which Avereby his orders completely destroyed.In a succeeding battle we find this commander,from the loss of a number of his men, flying inconfusion before the Spanish artillery, and suffer-ing all the horror and disgrace attendant upon anapparent defeat, when, in a momentous crisis, ayoung Araucanian, called Lautaro, whom Valdi-via in one of his incursions had taken prisoner,]

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[The celebrafed poet Ercilla was one of the party,ami solicitous of the rcj)utation of having pro-ceeded Anther s. than any other European, hecrossed the gulf, and upon the opposite shore in-scribed on the bark of a tree some verses contain-ing his name, and the time of the discovery, the5Jst January 1559.

26. Cit?/ of Osorno founded. — Don Garciasatisfied with having bee ti the first to discover byland the Archipelago of Chiioe, returned, takingfor his guide one of those islanders, who conduct-cfl liim safely to Imperial through the country ofthe Huiiliches, which is for the most part level,a d abounds in provisions. The inhabitants, whoare similar in every respect to their western neigh-bours the Cunches, made no opposition to hispassage. He there founded, or, according to somewriters, rebuilt the city of Osorno, which increas-ed rapidly, not less from its manufactures ofwoollen and linen stuffs, than from the fine goldprocured from its mines, which were afterwardsdestroyed by tlie Toqui Paillamacu.

Sect. II. Comprising a period of 27 ^ears, from1559 to 1586.

27. Coupolican //. — The campaign of thefollowing year was rendered still more memorableby the numerous battles that were fought betweenthe two armies ; that of the Araucanians was com-manded by Caupolican, the eldest son of the gene-ral of that name ; but though he possessed thecelebrated talents of his father, he was not equallysuccessful in defeating his enemy. lJut of all hisicontests, thalof Quipeo was the most unfortunate ;for here he lost all Ids most valiant officers, andbeing pursued by a detachment of Spanish horse,he slew himself to avoid the melancholy fate of hisfather.

28. The Guarpes subjected. —~T)on Garcia, con-sidering this baftle decisive in every point of view,and finding himself provided with a good numberof veteran troops, sent a part of them, under theeornmand of Pedro Castillo, to complete the con-quest of Cujo, which had been commenced byFrancis de Aguirre. That prudent officer sub-jeclcd the Guarpe.s, the ancient inhabitants of thatprovince, to the Spanish government.

29. St. J uan and Mendoza founded.—We found-ed on the c, limits of the Andes two cities, one ofwhich he called .It. .Tuan, and the other Mendoza,from the family name of the governor. This ex-tensive and fertile country remained for a consider-able time under the government of Chile, but hassince been transferred to the viceroyalty of BuenosAyres, to which, from its natural situation, it ap-

pertains. Whilst in this manner Don Garcia tookadvantage of the apparent calm that prevailed inthe country, he heard of the arrival at BuenosAyres of the person appointed his successor by thecourt of Spain. In consequence of this informa-tion, confiding the government for the present toRodrigo de Quiroga, he returned to Peru, w here,as a reward for his services, he was promoted tothe exalted station which his father had filled.

SO. Villagran reinstated.— ~'VUe governor ap-pointed in place of Don Garcia was his predeces-sor, Francis Villagran, w ho having gone to Eu-rope after he had been deprived of the government,procured his reinstatement therein from the courtof Spain. On his arrival at Chile, supposing,from the information of Don Garcia and Quiroga,that nothing more was necessary to be done withthe Araucanians, and that they were in no condi-tion to give him trouble, Villagran turned his at-tention to the re-acquisition of the province ofTucuman, which, after having been by him, in1549, subjected to the government of Chile, hadbeen since attached to the viceroyalty of Peru.

31. The province of Tucuman restored, after-wards retaken.— Gvegon Castaneda, who had thecharge of this enterprise, defeated the Iferuviancommander, Juan Zurita, the author of the dis-memberment, and restored the country to theobedience of the captains-generalof Chile ; it was,however, retained under their government but ashort time, as they were obliged by the court ofSpain, before the close of the century, to cede itagain to the government of Peru. But neitherDon Garcia nor Quiroga, notwithstanding the longtime they had fought in Chile, had formed a cor-rect opinion of the temper of the people whom theypretended they bad conquered. The invincibleAraucanian cannot be made to submif to the bit-terest reverses of fortune. The few ulraenes whohad escaped from the late defeats, more than everdetermined to continue the war, assembled, imme-diately after the rout of Quipeo, in a wood, wherethey unanimously elected as toqui an officer ofinferior rank, called Antiguenu, who had signa-lized himself in the last battle. He, with a fewsoldiers, retired to the inaccessible marches ofLumaco, called by the Spaniards the Rochela,wheie he caused high scaffolds to be erected tosecure his men from the extreme moisture of thisgloomy retreat. The youth , who were from time totime enlisted, went thither to be instructed in thescience of arms, and the Araucanians still consi-dered themselves free, since they had a toqui.

32. Cahete r/eitrqyec?.— -Antiguenu began nowto make incursions in the Spanish territory, in]

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- fS7. Suppression of the tribunal o f audience. — In1575’ the tribunal of audience was* suppressed, asit is asserted, on the sole principle of economy, andRodrigo Quiroga was reinstated in the governmentby order of Philip II. This experienced olhcer,having received a reinforcement of 2000 men fromSpain, gave directions to his father-in-law, RuizGamboa, to found a new colony at the foot of thecordilleras, between the cities of Santiago andConcepcion, which has since received the appella-tion of Chilian, from the river on whose shore itstands, and has become the captial of the fertileprovince of that name. Shortly after the establish-ment of this settlement, in 1589, the governor diedat a very advanced age, having nominated Gamboaas his successor. The three years of Gamboa’sgovernment were occupied on one side in opposingthe attempts of Paynenancu, the then existingtoqui, and on the other in repelling the Pehuen-ches and Chiquillanians, Avho, instigated by theAraucanians, had begun to molest the Spanish set-tlements.

38. Description of the Pehuenches. — The Pe-huenches form a numerous tribe, and inhabit thatpart of the Chilian Andes lying between lat. 34°and 37° s. to the e. of the Spanish ])rovinces ofCalchagua, Maule, Chilian, and Huilquilemu.Their dress is no way difl’erent from that of theAraucanians, except that instead of drawers orbreeches, they Avear around the waist a piece ofcloth like the Japanese, which falls down to theirknees. Their boots or shoes are all ot one piece,and made from the skin of the hind leg of an oxtaken ofi’ at the knee ; this they fit to the foot whilegreen, turning the hair within, and sewing up oneof the ends, the skin of the knee serving for theheel. These shoes, from being Avorn, and oftenrubbed Avith tallow, become as soft and pliable asthe best dressed leather. Although these moun-taineers have occasionally shown themselves to bevaliant and hardy soldiers, they are neverthelessfond of adorning and decorating themselves likewomen. They wear ear-rings and bracelets ofglass beads upon their arms ; they also ornamenttheir hair with the same, and suspend little Ivellsaround their heads. Notwithstanding they havenumerous herds of cattle and sheep, tlieir usualfood is horse-flesh, which, like the Tartars, tlieyprefer to any other ; but, more delicate than thatpeople, they eat it only Avhen boiled or roasted.They dwell in the manner of the Redouin Arabs,in tents made of skins, disposed in a circular form,leaving in the centre a spacious field, where theircattle feed during the continuance of the herbage.When that begins to fail, they transjAort themselves

to another situation, and in this manner, continu-ally changing place, they traverse the valleys of thecordilleras. Each village or encampmeirt is go-verned by an ulmen or hereditary prince. Intheir language and religion they differ not from tlieAraucanians. They are fond of hunting, andoften, in pursuit of game, traverse the immenseplains Avhich lie between the great riv^r of Plataand the straits of Magellan. These excursions theysometimes extend as far as Buenos Ayres, andplunder the country in the vicinity. They fre-quently attack the caravans of merchandize goingfrom thence to Chile ; and so successful have theybeen in their enterprises, that, owing to that cause,the commerce in that quarter Avas once almost en-tirely stopped, though very lately resumed Avitli a to-lerable degree of A'igour. They have, nevertheless,for many years abstained from committing hostilitieswithin the Chilian boundaries in time of peace ;induced either by the advantages which they de-rive from the trade with the inhabitants, or fromthe fear of being roughly handled by them. Theirfavourite Aveapon is the laqve, Avhich they alwayscarry with them fastened to their girdles. It isvery probable that the ten Americans conductedby the valiant Orellana, of Avhose amazing couragemention is made in Lord Anson’s voyage, were ofthis tribe. Notwithstanding their wandering andrestless disposition, these people are the most in-dustrious and commercial of any of the savages.When in their tents they are never idle. The avo-men Aveave cloths of various colours : the menoccupy themselves in making baskets and a varietyof beautiful articles of Avood, feathers, or skins,Avhich are highly prized by their neighbours. Theyassemble every year on the Spanish frontiers, Avherethey hold a kind of fair, which usually conti-nues for 15 or 20 days. Hither they bring fos-sil salt, gypsum, pilch, bed-coverings, ponchos,skins, woo], bridle-reins beautifully wrought ofplaited leather, baskets, wooden vessels, feathers,ostrich eggs, horses, cattle, and a variety of otherarticles ; and receive in exchange wheat, Avine,and the manufactures of Europe. They are veryskilful in traffic, and can with difficulty be over-reached. Eor fear of being plundered by thosewho believe every thing is lawful against infidels,they never all drink at the same time, but separatetiiemsch'es into several companies ; and Avhilesomekeep guard, the others indulge themsehms in thepleasures of Avine. They are generally humane,complacent, lovers of justice, and possess all thosegood qualities that are produced or perfected bycommerce.

39. Description of the Chiquillanians. — The]3 I 2

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428 CHI

[ChiquUIanians, whom some have erroneously sup-posed to be a part of the Pehuenches, live to then. e. of them, on the e. borders of the Andes.These are the most savage, and of course the leastnumerous of any of the Chilians ; for it is an esta-blished fact, that the ruder the state of savage life,the more unfavourable it is to population. Theygo almost naked, merely wrapping around themthe skin of the guanaco : their language is guttural,and a very corrupt jargon of the Chilian. It isobservable that all the Chilians who inhabit the e.valleys of the Andes, both the Pehuenches, thePuelches, and the Huilliches, as well as the Chi-quillanians, are much redder than those of theircountrymen who dwell to the zo. of that mountain.All these mountaineers dress themselves in skins,paint their faces, live in general by hunting, andlead a wandering and unsettled life. They are noother, as we have hitherto observed, than the somuch celebrated Patagonians, who have occasion-ally been seen near the straits of Magellan, and havebeen at one time described as giants, and at an-other as men a little above the common stature. Itis true, that they are, generally speaking, of a loftystature and great strength.

40. Landing and defeat of the Engish. — Nowwhilst the Araucanians endeavoured to oppose theprogress of the Spaniards in their country, andwhilst Don Alonzo Sotomayor, who succeeded Ro-drigo Quiroga in the government, was strenuouslyexerting his influence to [suppress the Pehuenchesand the Chiquillanians on the e. the English alsohad planned an expedition to these remote parts.On the 21st July 1586, Sir Thomas Cavendishsailed with three ships from Plymouth, and in thefollowing year arrived on the coast of Chile. Helanded in the desert port of Quintero, and endea-voured to enter into a negociation with the nativesof the country. But his stay there was of shortcontinuance ; he rvas attacked by Alonzo Molina,the corregidor of Santiago, and compelled to quitthe coast with the loss of several of his soldiers andseamen.

Sect. III. Comprising a period of 201 years^from 1586 to 1787.

The history of the Araucanians, with regard totheir Avars with the Spaniards in the above period,Avould form little more than a recapitulation ofbattles similar to those already described, but bear-ing, nevertheless, a corroborative testimony to theexertions which a brave and generous people Avillever exhibit for the just maintenance of their na-tural rights. The interest of these wars must,therefore, have been in a great measure anticipated,

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and they will consequently be treated of in a man-ner much more general than those which have beenalready mentioned; and this, since they will allowspace for the more free detail of other politicalevents.

41. Nature of the war in anno 1589. — In thetoquiate of Guanoalca, in 1589, the Spanish go-vernor, Don Alonzo Satomayor, apprehensive thathe should not be able to defend them, or not con-sidering them of sufficient importance, evacuatedthe forts of Puren, Trinidad, and Spirito Santo,transferring the garrison to another fortress whichhe had directed to be built upon the river Puchan-qui, in order to protect the city of Angol : so thatthe war now became in a great measure reducedto the construction and demolition of fortifications.To the Toqui Guanoalca sncceeded Quintuguenuand Paillaeco, and it has been observed that therepeated victories gained over them by the Spa-niards, and which they held as the cause of suchexultation, were but the preludes of the severestdisasters that they had ever experienced inChile.

42. Independence restored. — After the death of thelast mentioned toqui, the Araucanians appointed tothe chief command the hereditary toqui of the se-cond uthal-mapu, called Paillamachu, a man ofa very advanced age, but of wonderful activity.Fortune, commonly supposed not to be propitiousto the old, so far favoured his enterprises, that hesurpassed all his predecessors in military glory,and had the singular felicity of restoring his coun-try to its ancient state of independence. Owing tothe continued successes of this general, on the 22dof November 1598, and under the government ofLoyola, not only the Araucanian provinces, but thoseof the Cunchese and Huilliches were in arms, andeven the whole of the country to the Archipelagoof Chiloe. It is asserted, that every Spaniard whohad the misfortune of being found without the gar-risons was put to death ; and it is certain that thecities of Osorno, Valdivia, Villarica, Imperial,Canete, Angol, Coya, and the fortress of Arauco,were nil at once invested with a close siege. Butnot content with this, Paillamachu, without loss oftime, crossed the Biobio, burned the cities of Con-cepcion and Chilian, laid waste the provinces intheir dependence, and returned loaded rvitli spoilto his country. In some successive battles he like-wise caused the Spaniards to cvacute the fort ofArauco, and the city of Canete, and obliged the in-habitants to retire to Concepcion. On the 14th ofNovember 1599, he caused his army to pass thebroad river Calacalla or Valdivia, by swimming,stormed the city at day-break, burned the houses, J

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[{he king. All the veteran troops in Cliile do notexceed 2000, and these consist of artillery, dra-goons, and infantry. The infantry as well as theartillery is under the command of two lieutenant-colonels.

3. Ecdesiasikal government .— respects theecclesiastical government, Chile is divided intothe two large dioceses of St. Jago and Concepcion,which cities are tlie residencies ot the bishops,who are suffragans to the archbishop of Lima.The first diocese extends from the confines of Peruto the river Maule, comprehending the provinceof Cnjo upon the other side of the Andes. Thesecond comprises all the rest of Chile, with theislands, although the greater part of this extent isinhabited by pagans. The cathedrals are sup-plied with a proper mmiber of canons, whose re-venues depend upon the tithes, as do those of thebishops. The court of inquisition at Lima hasat St. Jago a commissioner with several subalternofficers. Pedro Valdivia, on his first enteringChile, brought with him the monks of the orderof Mercy ; and about the year 1553, introducedthe Dominicans and strict Franciscans. The Au-gustins established themselves there in 1595; andthe Hospitallers of St. John of God, about thethe year 1615. These religious orders have all anumber of convents, and the three first form dis-tinct jurisdictions. The brothers of St. John ofGod have the charge of the hospitals, under acommissary, who is dependent upon the provin-cial of Peru. These are the only religious frater-nities now in Chile. The Jesuits, who came intoChile in 1593, with the nephew of their founder,Don Martin de Loyola, formed likewise a separateprovince. Others have several times attempted,but without success, to form establishments, theChilians having always opposed the admission ofnew orders among them. In St. Jago and Con-cepcion are several convents of nuns ; but theyare the only cities that contai?i them.

4. The cities and dwellings . — The cities arebuilt in the best situations in the country. Manyof them, however, w ould have been better placed,for the purposes of commerce, upon the shores ofthe large rivers. This is particularly the case withthose of more recent construction. The streetsare straight, intersecting each other at right angles,and are 36 French feet in breadth. On accountof earthquakes the houses are generally of onestory ; they are, however, very commodious,whitewashed without, and generally painted within.Each is accommodated with a pleasant garden, ir-rigated by an aqueduct which furnishes water forthe use of the family. Those belonging to the


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wealthier classes, particularly the nobility, arefurnished with much splendour and taste. Theinhabitants perceiving that old buildings of twostories have resisted the most violent shocks, ha\ eof late years ventured to reside in the upper rooms,and now begin to construct their houses in theEuropean naanner. In consequence of this thecities have a better appearance than formerly ; andthe more so, as instead of forming their houses of clayhardened in the sun, which was supposed less liableto injury, they now employ brick and stone. Cel-lars, sewers, and wells, were formerly much morecommon than at present; a circumstance whichmay have contributed to render the buildings moresecure from earthquakes. The churches are ge-nerally more remarkable for their wealth than theirstyle of architecture. The cathedral and thechurch of the Dominicans in the capital, whichare built of stone, are however exceptions. Thefirst was constructed at the royal expcnce, underthe direction of the Bishop Don Manuel Alday,an excellent and learned prelate; it is built in amasterly style, and is 384 French feet in front.The plan was drawn by two English architects,who superintended the work : but when it washalf finished they refused to go on, unless theirwages were increased. In consequence of this tliebuilding was suspended, when two of the Indianswho had worked under the Englishmen, and hadsecretly found means of instructing themselves inevery branch of the art, offered to complete it :which they did with as much skill and perfectionas their masters themselves could have displayed.In the capital the follow ing edifices are also worthyof remark : the barracks for the dragoons, themint, which has been lately built by a Homan ar-chitect, and the hospital for orphans.

5. Population . — Spanish Chile, in consequenceof the freedom granted to its maritime trade, ispeopling with a rapidity proportioned to the salu-brity of its climate and the fertility of its soil. Itspopulation in general is composed of Europeans,Creoles, Indians, Negroes, and Musters. TheEuropeans, except a few French, English, andItalians, are Spaniards, who for the most part arefrom the s. provinces of Spain. D. Cosrne Bueno,whose manuscript account of Peru is stated byRobertson, as having been drawn up in 1764,(though the copies w hich v/e have seen of this workcontain facts of a later date by at least 20 years),ffives to Chile a population of 240,000 souls.Malespina, who visited that country in 1790, is ofopinion that this estimate, is greatly under thetruth ; and we hove been lately informed, on goodauthority, that the present population of Chile]

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]^pean merchandise gold, silver, copper, vicugnawool, and hides. A trade with the East Indieswould be more profitable to the Chilians'than anyother, as tlieir most valuable articles have eitherbecome scarce, or are not produced in that wealthypart of Asia ; and the passage, in consequence ofthe prevalence of the s. winds in the Pacific, wouldbe easy and expeditious. No money is coined orhas currency in Chile except gold and silver, acircumstance very embarrassing to the internaltraffic. Their smallest silver coin is one sixteenthof a dollar, and their weights and measures are thesame that are used in Madrid.

13. Natural divisions. — Chile, properly called,or that part which is situated between the Andes andthe sea, and within lat. 24° and 45° s. is at least 120miles in breadth. It is commonly divided intotwo equal parts, that is, the maritime country, andthe midland country ; the maritime country is in-tersected by three chains of mountains, runningparallel to the Andes, between which are numerousvalleys watered by delightful rivers. The midlandcountry is almost flat ; a few insulated hills only areto be seen, which diversify and render the appear-ance of it more pleasing. The Andes, which areconsidered as the loftiest mountains in the world,cross the whole continent of America, in a directionfrom s. to n. for we cannot consider the mountainsin North America in any other light than as a con-tinuation of the cordilleras. The part appertainingto Chile may be 120 miles in breadth ; it consistsof a great number of mountains, all of tliernofaprodigious height, which appear to be chained toeach other, and where nature displays all thebeauties and all the horrors of the most picturesquesituations. Although it abounds witli frightfulprecipices, many agreeable valleys and fertile pas-tures are to be found there; and the rivers, whichderive their sources from the mountains, often ex-hibit the most pleasing as well as the most terrify-ing features. That portion of the cordilleras whichis situated between lat. 24° and 33° is wholly de-sert ; but the remainder, as far as the 45°, is in-habited by some colonies of Chilians, who areCcallcd Chiquillanes, Pehuenches, Puelches, andHuilliches, but are more generally known by thename of Patagonians. The surface of Chile isestimated at 378,000 square miles. There areabout eight or nine roads which cross its cordillera ;of which that leading from the province of Acon-cagua to Cuyo, although dangerous, as being nar-row, and having on either side lofty and perpendi-cular mountains, is the most travelled. Mules areoften precijiitated from these roads into the riversbeneath.

14. Political divisions . — The political divisionsof Chile consist of the part occupied by the Spa-niards, and that which is inhabited by the Indians.The Spanish part is situated between lat. 24° and37° s. and is divided into 13 provinces, viz.Copiapo, Coquimbo, Quillota, Aconcagua, Meli-pilla, and St. Jago, (which contains the capital cityof the country of the same name), Rancagua, Cal-diagua, Maule, Ytata, Chilian, Puchacay, andIluilquelemu. The Indian country is situated be-tween the river Biobio and the Archipelago ofChiloe, or lat. 36° and 41°. It is inhabited by threedifferent nations, the Araucanians, the Cunches,and the Huilliches. The Araucanians do not, asMr. De Paun pretends, inhabit the barren rocks ofChile, but, on the contrary, the finest plains in thewhole country, situate between the rivers Biobioand Valdivia.

15. Climate . — Chile is ono of the best countries

in America. The beauties of its sky, the constantmildness of its climate, and its abundant fertility,render it, as a place of residence, extremely agree-able ; and with respect to its natural productions,it may be said, without exaggeration, not to be in-ferior to any portion of the globe. The seasons suc-ceed each other regularly, and are sufficientlymarked, aithougli the transition from cold to heatis very moderate. The spring in Chile commences,as in all the countries of the s. hemisphere, the 22dSeptember, the summer in December, the autumnin March, and the winter in June. The followingaccount is from Robertson s History of America^vol. IV. c. 7. “ That part of Chile which may

properly be deemed a Spanish province, is a narrowdistrict, extending along the coast from the desertof Atacamas to the island of Chiloe, above 900miles. Its climate is the most delicious of thenew world, and is hardly equalled by that of anyregion on the face of the earth. Though border-ing on the torrid zone, it never feels the extremityof heat, being screened on the e. by the Andes, andrefreshed from the w. by cooling sea-breezes. Thetemperature of the air is so mild and equable, thatthe Spaniards give it the preference of that of the

provinces in their native country. The fertiliU’of the soil corresponds with the benignity of theclimate, and is wonderfully accommodated toEuropean productions. The most valuable ofthese, corn, wine, and oil, abound in Chile, as ifthey had been native in the country. Ail the fruitsimported from Europe attain to full maturity there.The animals of our hemisphere not only multiply,but improve in this delightful region. The hornedcattle are of larger size than those of Spain. Itsbreed of horses surpasses, both in beauty and in]

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[spirit, the famous Andalucian race, from whichthey sprang. Nor has Nature exhausted herbounty on the surface of the earth ; she has storedits bowels with riches ; valuable mines of gold, ofsilver, of copper, and of lead, have been discoveredin various parts of it. A country distinguishedby so many blessings, we may be apt to conclude,would early become a favourite station of theSpaniards, and must have been cultivated withpeculiar predilection and care ; instead of this, agreat part of it remains unoccupied. In all thisextent of country there are not above 80,000 whiteinhabitants, and about three times that number ofNegroes and people of a mixed race. The mostfertile soil in America lies uncultivated, and someof its most promising mines remain unwrought.”16. Of rain . — From the beginning of springuntil autumn, there is throughout Chile a con-stant succession of fine weather, particularly be-tween tlie 24° and 36° of latitude ; but in the islands,which for the most part are covered with woods,the rains are very frequent, even in summer. Tlierainy season on the continent usually commencesin April, and continues until the end of August.In the n. provinces of Coquimbo and Copiapo itvery rarely rains ; in the central ones it usuallyrains three or four days in succession, and thepleasant weather continues 15 or 20 days ; in thes. the rains are much more frequent, and oftencontinue for nine or ten days without cessation.These rains are never accompanied with stormsor hail, and thunder is scarcely known in thecountry, particularly in places at a distance fromthe Andes, where, even in summer, it is seldomever heard. Lightning- is wliolly unknown in theprovince of Chile; and although, in the above-mentioned mountains, and near the sea, stormsoccasionally arise, yet they, according to the di-rection of the wind, pass over, and take theircourse to the n. or s. In the maritime provincessnow is never seen. In those nearer the Andes itfalls about once in five years ; sometimes not sooften, and the quantity very trifling; it usuallymelts while falling, and it is very uncommon tohave it remain on the ground for a day. In theAndes, however, it falls in such quantities fromApril to November, that it not only lies there con-stantly during that time, but even renders themwholly impassable during the greater part of theyear. The highest summits of these mountains,which are constantly covered with snow, are dis-tinguishable at a great distance l)y their whiteness,and form a very singular and pleasing appear-ance. Those of the inhabitants who are not suf-ficiently wealthy to have ice-houses, procure

snow from the mountains, which they transportupon mules. The consumption of this article isvery considerable, as a general use is made of itin summer to cool their liquors. The maritimecountries being at a distance from the Andes, donot enjoy this advantage, but they feel the priva-tion of it less, as the heat is much more moderateupon the coast than in the interior. In the mid-land provinces is sometimes seen, in the month ofAugust, a white frost, accompanied by a slight de-gree of cold, which is the greatest that is expe-rienced in those districts. This coldness continuestwo or throe hours after sun-rise; from which timethe weather is like that of a fine day in spring.The dews are abundant throughout Chile in thespring, summer, and autumual nigids, and in agreat measure supply the want of rain duringthose seasons. Although the atmosphere is thenloaded with humidity, its salubrity is not injuredthereby, for both husbandmen and travellerssleep in the open air with perfect security. Fogsarc common on the coast, especially in the au-tumn ; they cordinue but a few hours in the morn-ing, and as they consist only of watery particles,are not prejudicial either to the health of the inha-bitants, or to the vegetation.

17. Winds . — The n. and n. w. winds usuallybring rain, and the s. and s. e. a clear sky ; theseserve as infallible indications to the inhabitants,who are observant of them, and furnish themselveswith a kindofbarometer to determine previously thestate of the weather. The same winds producedirectly contrary effects in the s. and in the n.hemisplieres. The n. and northerly winds, be-fore they arrive at Chile, cross the torrid zone,and there becoming loaded with vapours, bringwith them heat and rain; this heat is, however,very moderate, and it would seem that these winds,in crossing the Andes, which are constantlycovered with snow, become qualified, and losemuch of their heat and unhealthy properties. InTucuman and Cujo, where they are known bythe name of sonda^ they are much more incom-modious, and are more suffocating than even thesiroc in Italy. The s. winds coming immediatelyfrom the antarctic pole, are cold and dry ; theseare usually from the s. w. and prevail in Chileduring the time that the sun is in the hemis-phere ; thej' blow constantly towards the equator,the atmosphere at that period being highly rare-fied, and no adverse current of air opposing itselfto their course : as they disperse the vapodrs,and drive them towards the Andes, it rains butseldom during their continuance. The cloudscollected upon these mountains, uniting with those]

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[w hich come from the n. occasion very heavy rains,accompanied with thunder, in all the provincesbey ond the Andes, ^particularly in those of Tucu-man and Cujo, while at the same time the atmos-phere of Chile is constantly clear, and its inhabi-tants enjoy their finest season. The contrarytakes place in winter, wl)ich is the fine season inthese provinces, and the rainy in Chile. Thes.wind never continues blowing during the wholeday with the same force ; as the sun .approaclicsthe meridian, it falls very considerably, and risesagain in the afternoon. At noon, when this windis scarcely perceptible, a fresh breeze is felt fromthe sea, which continues about two or three hours ;the husbandmen give it the name of the twelveo’clock breeze, or the countryman’s watch, as it.serves to regulate them in determining tliat hour.Th is sea-breeze returns regularly at midnight, andis supposed to be produced by the tide; it isstronger in autumn, and sometimes accompaniedwith hail. The e. winds rarely prevail in Chile,their course being obstructed by the Andes. Hur-ricanes, so common in the Antilles, are unknowuhere; there exists indeed a solitary example of ahurricane, which, in 1633, did much injury to thefortress of Caremalpo, in the part of Chile.The mild temperature which Chile almost alwaysenjoys must depend entirely upon the succession ofthese winds, as a situation so near thetroj)ic wouldnaturally expose it to a more violent degree ofheat. In addition to those, the tide, the abundantdews, and certain winds from the Andes, whichare distinct from the e. wind, coot the air so muchin summer, that in the shade no one is ever in-commoded with perspiration. The dress of theinhabitants of the sea-coast is the .same in the win-ter as in the summer ; and in the interior, Avherethe heat is more perceptible than elsewhere, Reau-mur’s thermometer scarcely ever exceeds 25°.The nights, throughout the country, are generallyof a very agreeable tem.pcraturc. Notwithstand-ing the moderate heat of Chile, all the fruits ofAvarin countries, and even those of the tropics,arrive to great perfection there, Avhich renders itprobable that the Avarmth ofthe soil far exceedsthat ofthe atmosphere. The countries borderingon the e. of Chile do not enjoy these refreshingwinds ; the air there is suffocating, and as oppres-sive as in Africa under the same latitude.

18. ]\Teleors . — Meteors are A'ery frequent inChile, especially those called shooting stars, whicharc to be seen there almost the Avliole year ; alsoballs of fire, that usually rise from the Andes, andfall into the sea. The aurora australis, on thethe contrary, is very uncommon ; that which was

observed in 1640 was one of the largest; it wasvisible, from the accounts that have been left usfrom the month of February until April. Duringthis century they have appeared at four differenttimes. This phenomenon is more frequently vi-sible in the Archipelago of Chiloe, from the greaterelevation ofthe pole in that part of the country.

19. Volcanoes . — That a country producing suchan abundance of sulphureous, nitrous, and bitu-minous substances, should be subject to volcaniceruptions, is not to be Avondered at. The nume-rous volcanoes in the cordilleras wmdd, of them-selves, furnish a sufficient proof of the quantity ofthese combustible materials ; there are said tobe 14 Avhich are in a constant state of eruption,and a still greater number that discharge smokeonly at intervals. 'J’hese are all situated in thatpart of the Andes appertaining to Chile, and nearlyin the middle of that range of mountains ; so thatthe lava and ashes thrown out by them never ex-tend beyond their limits. These mountains andtheir vicinities are found, on examination, to con-tain great quantities of sulphur and sal-ammoniac,marcasite in an entire and decomposed state, cal-cined and crystaliized stones, and various metallicsubstances. The greatest eruption ever known inChile was that of Peteroa, Avhich happened on theSd of December 1760, when that volcano formeditself a new crater, and a neighbouring mountainAvas rent asunder for many miles in extent; theeruption was accompanied by a dreadful explo-sion, Avhich Avas heard throughout the wholecountry ; fortunately it Avas not succeeded by anyvery violent shocks of an earthquake : the quan-tify of lava and ashes was so great that it filledthe neighbouring valleys, and occasioned a rise oftlie Avaters of the Tingeraca, which continued formany days. At the same time the course of theLontue, a very considerable river, was impededfor 10 days, by a part of the mountain which felland filled its bed ; the Avater at length forced itselfa passage, overfloAved all the neighbouring plains,and formed a lake which still remains. In theAvhole ofthe country not included in the Andes,there are but two volcanoes ; the first, situate atthe mouth of the river Rapel, is small, and dis-charges only a little smoke from time to time ; thesecond is the great volcano of Villarica, in thecountry of Arauco. This volcano may be seen atthe distance of 130 miles ; and although* it appearsto be insulated, it is said to be connected by itsbase Avith the Andes. 'J'he summit of the moun-tain is covered with snoAv, and is in a constantstate of eruption ; it is 14 miles in circumferenceat its base, which is principally covered with]

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440 . C H

ipleasant forests : a great number of rivers derive*heir sources from it, and its perpetual verdureturnishes a proof that its eruptions have never beenvery violent.

20. Earthquakes . — The quantity of inflammablesubstances with which the soil of Chile abounds,rendered active by the electric fluid, may be con-sidered as one of the principal causes of earth-quakes, the only scourge that afflicts this favouredcotintry. Another, however, not less capable ofproducing this terrible phenomenon, is the elas-ticity of the air contained in the bowels of theearth, in consequence of the water which, insinuat-ing itself by subterranean passages from the sea,becomes changed into vapour. This hypothesiswill explain why the provinces to the e. of theAndes, at a distance from the sea, are so little in-commoded by earthquakes. Two, however, Co-piapo and Coquimbo, although near the sea, andas rich in minerals as the others, have never suf-fered from earthquakes ; and whilst the otherparts of the country have been violently shaken,these have not experienced the least shock, orbeen but slightly agitated. It is a general opinionthat the earth in these provinces is intersected bylarge caverns. The noises heard in many places,and which appear to indicate the passage of waters,or subterraneous winds, seem to confirm this opinion,and it is highly probable that by affording a freevent to the inflamed substances, these caverns mayserve to counteract the progress of those convul-sions to which the neighbouring country is subject.The inhabitants usually calculate three or fourearthquakes at Chile annually, but they are veryslight, and little attention is paid to them. Thegreat earthquakes happen but rarely, and of thesenot more than five have occurred in a period of244 years, from the arrival of the Spaniards to thepresent period, J8I2. From a course of accurateobservations it has been ascertained, that earth-quakes never occur unexpectedly in this country,but are always announced by a hollow sound pro-ceeding from a vibration of the air; and as theshocks do not succeed each other rapidly, the in-habitants have sufficient time to provide for theirsafety. They have, however, in order to securethemselves at all events, built their cities in avery judicious manner ; the streets are left so broadthat the inhabitants would be safe in the middle ofthem, should even the bouses fall upon both sides.In addition to this, all the houses have spaciouscourts and gardens, which would serve as places ofrefuge ; those who are wealthy have usually intheir gardens several i^eat wooden barracks,where they pass the night whenever they are

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threatened wdth an earthquake. Under these cir-cumstances the Chilians live without apprehension,especially as the earthquakes have never beenhitherto attended with any considerable sinking ofthe earth, or falling of buildings ; this is probablyowing to subterranean passages coramunicatino-with the volcanoes of the Andes, w Inch are so manyvent-holes for the inflamed substances, and serveto counteract tlieir effects. Were it not for thenumber of these volcanoes, Chile would, in allprobability, be rendered uninhabitable. Somepretend that they can foretel an earthquake fromcertain changes in the atmosphere : although tinsdoes not appear to be impossible, it is altogetlierdiscredited by many of the best writers on Chile :these observe that they will occur both in therainy and dry seasons, during a storm as well as acalm.

21. Some detail of productions . — Chile pro-duces none of those dangerous or venomous ani-mals which are so much dreaded in hot countries ;and it has but one species of small serpent, whichis perfectly harmless, as the French academiciansascertained when they went to Peru, in 1736, tomeasure a degree of the meridian. IJIIoa also, inhis Voyage, part II. vol. 111. observes, “ Thiscountry is not infested by any kind of insect ex-cept the chiguas, or pricker, or any poisonousreptile ; and although in the w oods and fields somesnakes are to be found, their bite is by no meansdangerous ; nor does any savage or ferociousbeast excite terror in its plains. The puma, orAmerican lion, which is sometimes met w'ith in thethickest and least frequented forests, is distinguish-ed from the African lion, both by its being with-out a mane and its timidity ; there is no instanceof its ever having attacked a man, and a personmay not only travel, but lie down to sleep withperfect security, in any part of the plain, andeven in the thickest forests of the mountains. Nei-ther tigers, wolves, nor many other ferociousbeasts that infest the neighbouring countries, areknown there. Probably the great ridge of theAndes, which is every where extremely steep,and covered with snow, serves as a barrier to theirpassage. The mildness of the climate may alsobe unfavourable to them, as the greater part ofthese animals are natives of the hottest countries.Horses, asses, cattle, sheep, goats, many kindsof dogs, cats, and even mice, have been broughthither by the Spaniards. All these animals havemultiplied exceedingly, and increased in size.The price of the best horses is from 100 to 500crowns ; the asses are strong and stately, thoughhunted chiefly for their skins; and the mules are]

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the Catholic faith, and are reduced to settlements,though the number of these is very small.

CHITEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapain Nueva Espaiia. It is of a cold temperature,and contains 39 families of Indians, who live bysowing maize, the only vegetable production oftheir territory. Five leagues w. n. w. of its capi-tal.

CHITO, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito, upon the s. shore of the river Sangalla,and in the royal road of Loxa, which leads to To-mependa. In its vicinity are some gold mines,but which are not worked ; its temperature is hotand moist, and consequently unhealthy.

[CHITTENDEN County, in Vermont, lieson lake Champlain, between Franklin county onthe w. and Addison s. ; La Moille river passesthrough its n. w. corner, and Onion river dividesit nearly in the centre.' Its chief town is Burling-ton. This county contained, by the census of1791, 44 townships and 7301 inhabitants. Sincethat time the n. counties have been taken from it,so that neither its size or number of inhabitants cannow be ascertained.]

[Chittenden, a township in Rutland county,Vermont, contains 159 inhabitants. The roadover the mountain passes through this township.It lies seven miles e. from the fort on Otter creek,in Pittsford, and about 60 n. by e. from Ben-nington.]

[CHITTENENGO, or Canaserage, a con-siderable stream which runs n. into lake Oneida,in the state of New York.]

CHIUAO, a small river of theprovince and colony of Surinam, or the part ofGuayana possessed by the Dutch . It rises in themountain of Sincomay, runs n. and turning w.enters another river which is without a name, andwhere several others unite to enter the Cuyuni onthe s. side.

CHIUATA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Cumana in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises from some plains in this territory,runs s. collecting the waters of several otherrivers, particularly that of the Suata, and thenenters the sea, just as it becomes navigable.

Same name, another river of the same provinceand government (Cumana), which rises at the foot of theserramas of Paraguay, to the w. of the town ofSan Fernando, runs s. and enters the Orinoco.

CHIUCHA, S. Juan de, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Lipes, and arch-bishopric of Charcas, in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of San Christoval.

CHIUCHIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Canchas. In its district there is amineral hot-water spring, much renowned for thecuring of various kinds of maladies.

CHIUCHIU, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Atacama, and archbishopric ofCharcas, in Peru.

CHIUGOTOS, a barbarous na-tion of Indians of the province and government ofVenezuela, bordering upon the settlement of Mara-capana. They are very few, and live retired in themountains ; they are cruel even to cannibalism.

CHIUICOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Buenos Aires ; situate to the s. ofits capital.

CHIXILA, a settlement and head settlement ofthe district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta inNueva Espana. It is of an hot temperature, con-tains 134 families of Indians, and lies 12 leaguesto the n. of its capital.

CHOCAIA, Nueva, a settlement of the pro-vince of Chichas and Tarija in Peru ; of the dis-trict of the former, and annexed to the curacy ofTatasi.

CHOCAMAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Zacan, and alcaldia mayorof Cordoba, in Nueva Espana. It is of a coldand moist temperature, contains 103 families ofIndians, and is five leagues to the n, n. w. of thecapital.

CHOCAN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Piura in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Aabaca.

CHOCAYAS, a mountain of the province andcorregimiento of Chichas and Tarija in Peru, andjurisdiction of Chuquisaca. It is celebrated forits rich gold mines.

CHOCO, a large province and government ofthe jurisdiction of Popayan ; by the territory ofwhich it is bounded e. and s. e . ; on the w. by thePacific or S. sea; n. by the barbarous nations ofIndians, and by the province of Darien ; and s. bythat of Barbacoas. The whole of this provinceabounds in woods and mountains, and is crossedby a chain of the Andes, which run as far as theisthmus of Panama. It is watered by several riversand streams, all of which run w. and enter the S.sea. The districts of Citara and Raposo form apart of this province ; very few of their ancientinhabitants remain at the present day ; the greaterpart of them having perished in the war of the

Last edit almost 2 years ago by LLILAS Benson




CHOCOPE, San Pedro y San Pablo de,a small settlement of the province and corregi-miento of Truxillo in Peru ; situate in the valleyof Chicama, watered and fertilized by the river ofthis name. It produces in abundance grapes,sugar-canes, olives, and every kind of Europeanfruit of the most excellent flavour. It was formerlya large population, since that the few inhabitantswho had been lel't at Concepcion, and those ofLicapa in the same valley, have incorporatedthemselves here. It has a very large and handsomechurch, although this underwent some damagefrom an earthquake experienced in this provincein 1759; the settlement suffered much also in 17S6,as did all the other towns of the coast, as, verycontrary to the custom of the climate here, it rainedwithout cessation for a period of 40 days, fromfive o’clock in the evening to the same hour in thefollowing morning, so that the houses were almostall entirely destroyed. Itis 10 leagues from the capi-tal, in the royal road which leads to Lima, andwhich is called De Valles. Lat. 7° 52' s.

[CHOCORUA, a mountain in Grafton county,New Hampshire, on the n. line of Strafford county,n. of Tamworth.]

[CHOCUITO. See Chucuito.]

CHOGUY. See Laches.

[CHOISEUL Bay, on the n. w. coast of theislands of the Arsacides, w. of port Praslin. Theinhabitants of this bay, like those at port Praslin,have a custom of powdering their hair with lime,which burns it and gives it a red appearance.]

CHOIX, a port of the w. coast of the island ofNewfoundland.

CHOLCHOL, a settlement of the district ofRepocura in the kingdom of Chile ; situate at themouth of the river Rumulhue before it enters theCauten.

CHOLCO-COCHA, a great lake of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru,upon the heights of the mountains of the Andes.It is navigated by rafts made by the Indians;fish it has none, from the excesisve cold of itswaters ; from it springs the river Caica-mayu.Mr. De la Martiniere confounds this lake, whichis called Chocolo-cocha, with the city of CastroVireyna, maintaining that the Indians call it bythe latter name, but which is erroneous.

CHOLI, a settlement and establishment of theEnglish in S. Carolina, and country of the Che-rokees Indians; situate at the source of the riverApalachicola.

CHOLIQUE, San Pablo de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxaraarca la Grande in Peru.

CHOLOAPA, San Bartolome de, a settlement of the head settlement of Huitepec, andalcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espana.It contains 84 families of Indians.

CHOLOSCOPO, San Mateo de, a settlementof the district, and alcaldia mayor of Mexilcaltzingo,in Nueva Espana, somewhat more thanhalf a league’s distance to the m. of ^his place.It contains 102 families of Indians, and has ahandsome convent of the strict observers of St.Francis, which is also a college for studies.

CHOLULA, a district and jurisdiction of analcaldia mayor in Nueva España. Its extent isvery limited, being only three leagues in length atthe widest part ; but it is nevertheless well filled withinhabitants ; its territory is level, and very fertilein wheat, maize, and pepper, which is here calledchile^ as also in other seeds, of which abundant cropsare gathered ; it formerly acquired agreat emolumentfrom the sale of cochineal, but this is laid asideand entirely abandoned. The Spaniards, Mustees^and Mulattoes, busy themselves in making clothsand woven stuffs of cotton, and they have manyworkshops, by which they supply with these articlesthe other provinces. Its population consists of 43settlements of Indians, which are,

San Juan Quantlazingo, Sta. Maria Quescomate,Santiago de Momospan, San Bernardino,

Santa Barbara, Sta. Clara Ocovica,

Todos Santos, Sta. Maria Malacatepe»

San Luis, que,

San Gregorio de Saca- Sta. Maria Coronango,pecpan, S. Miguel Coztla,

S. Francisco de Quapan, San Francisco Ocotlan

S. Diego Cuaucotla, San Antonio, ^

S. Sebastian, San Francisco,

S. Juan Cuautla, San Mateo,

Tonanchin, San Gabriel,

Santa MariaZacatepeque, San Lucas,

San Geronimo, San Martin,

San Pablo Zochimehua, San Lorenzo,

San Andres de Oiolula, TIantenango,

San Francisco Acate- Santa Isabel,peque, Los Santos Reyes,

San Bernardo Tlaxcal- S. Pablo Ahuatempa,zingo, S. Mateo, distinct from

S.AntonioCacalotepeque, the other,

Santa Ana, S. Miguel Papalotla,

San Martin TIanapa, S. Andres de Cholula.

[The district of Cholula contained in 1793 apopulation of 22,423 souls. The villages amount-ed to 42, and the farms to 45. Cholula, Tlax-clala, and Huetxocingo, are the three republicswhich resisted the Mexican yoke for so many cen-turies, although the pernicious aristocracy of theiff

Last edit almost 2 years ago by LLILAS Benson




down from the mountains to the jy. of the RachcsIndians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. untilit enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix,opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto,which lies to the s.

CHOPO, a settlement of the government andjurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a very mild climate, andabounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and manysorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branchof its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them forsale to the capital, which lies at a small distancefrom hence, in the road leading to M6rida andGibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost asmany indigent settlers.

[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are threemiles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]

CHOPTANK, a large navigable river of theprovince and colony of Maryland, [emptying it-self into Chesapeak bay.]

CHOPTANK, Little, another (river) of the same pro-vince Maryland. It runs w. and enters the sea in the bay ofChesapeak.

CHOQUE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Acros.

CHOQUECAMATA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregtmiento of Cochabamba in Peru.

CHOQUELIMPE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Arica in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Copia.

CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians,of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwellingimmediately upon the mountains and forests ofFosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitchtheir huts near the river Bermejo. But little isknown of their customs and of their country.

CHORAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huamalies in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Jesus.

CHOROMA, a settlement of the province andcorrregimiento of Chichas and Tarija, in the dis-trict of the former, and annexed to the curacy ofTupisa.

CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plainsor llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touchingtoAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogo-les, and extending n. as far as the mountains ofthe Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They areat present reduced to the Catholic religion, and aremixed with those of other nations ; but some fewof them still persist in their idolatry, and livedispersed upon the mountains.

CHORONI, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Tierra Firme, in the province and governmentof Venezuela, between the mountain of Ocumaraand the port of Chuapo.

CHOROS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It has the hard lot of being scantily sup-plied Avith Avater, even as much as is necessary lordrinking.

Same name, a point of the coast of this provinceand kingdom (Chile).

Same name, an island near the coast and point ofits name (Choros),

CHORRERA, a settlement of the jurisdictionand akaldia mayor of Nata in the kingdom ofTierra Firme; situate near the coast of the S.sea.

Same name, a creek of the island of Cuba, onthe 71. coast, having a fort for its protection, witha detacliment of troops from the Havana.

CHORILLO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru.

Same name, another (settlement), in the province and corregimento of Cercado in the same kingdom ; an-nexed to the curacy of Surco.

CHORRILLOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cañete in Peru; situate onthe coast, close to the point of China.

CHORROS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

CHORROU, Chike du, a rivulet and establishmentof the French, in their possessions inGuayana.

CHORUNGA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Andaray ; situate in thevalley of its name.

CHOSAPACK, a large andbeautiful bay on the coast of the province and colony of Virginia]]. [See Chesapeak.]

CHOSCHAMA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Huacaiia.

[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres, near a small lakeabout 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35°33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]

CHOTA, Todos Santos de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxamarca inPeru.

[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, thoughonly two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth.It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions,in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they foundits temperature to be intensely sultry.]

3 N

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corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Anco.

CHUNIANIS, a barbarous nation of Indiansof the lands of Magellan, in the vicinity of thestraits of Magellan. It is a tribe descended fromthe Huyellanes. They are numerous and fero-cious ; the men and women go entirely naked ;their arms are bows and arrows, the latter beingpointed with well-filed flints ; they are robust, ofgreat strength, and fine appearance. Some tra-vellers pretend that these are the fabulous giantsof whom so many have written.

CHUPA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Asangaro in Peru.

Same name, a very lofty mountain of the provinceand government of Veragua in the kingdom ofTierra Firme, to the s. of the capital, midway be-tw'cen the coasts of the two seas.

CHUPACHOS, a river of Peru, which flowsdown from the mountains of the Andes. It risesfrom the lake Patancocho, in lat. 10° 4P s . ;washes the country of the Chupachos Indians, fromwhence it takes its name, and finishes its courseby emptying itself into the Mollobamba, on the®,side, in lat. 7° 21' s.

CHUPAN, a settlement of the province andcorregbniento of Huamalies in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Banos.

CHUPANA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. Itrises iu the cordillera of the Andes, to the n. of thecity of Guanuco in Peru, and after collecting thewaters of several other rivers in its protractedcourse, enters the river Maranon in a very broadstream.

CHUPAS, an extensive valley or plain of theprovince and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru,near to the city. It is celebrated for the battlewhich was fought here by the Licentiate Baca deCastro, of the royal council of Castille, governor ofPeru, on the 16th September 1542, against thearmy of the rebels commanded by Diego de Al-magro the younger, and son of the conqueror of thesame name, when the latter was routed and takenprisoner with the loss of more than 700 men.

Same name, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Canta in the same kingdom ; annex-ed to the curacy of Pari.

CHUPE, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Cicasica in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Y anacache.

CHUQUI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Calca and Lares in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of of Lares.


Same name, settlement, in the province and corre-gimiento of Yamparaes, not far from the town ofPotosi.


CHUQUIBAMBA, a settlement and capital ofthe province and corregimiento of Condesuyos deArequipa in Peru. It is of a cold and unpleasanttemperature, and lies four leagues from Camana.

Same name, another settlement, in the province andcorregimiento of Cochabamba in Peru.

Same name, another settlement, in the province andcorregimiento of Chachapoyas, of the same king-dom.

CHUQUICARA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Guamachuco. It rises in thesame province, and enters the river Santa, chang-ing its own name to this, immediately that it touche*the boundary of this jurisdiction, which it divide*from those of Truxillo and Guamachuco.

CHUQUICHAMBI, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Charangas, arch-bishopric of Charcas in Peru.

CHUQUICOTA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Carangas, and the arch-bishopric of Charcas, in Peru.

CHUQUILLA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lipas, and archbishopric ofCharcas, in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of SanChristoval.

CHUQUl-MAGU, a river of Peru. It risesin the mountains of Jaen de Bracamoros, of thekingdom of Quito, and after laving the territoryof the corregimiento ofPiura, enters the S. sea.

CHUQUINGA, a settlement close to that ofNasca, and nearly upon the shore of the riverAmancay, where there is a narrow pass, throughwhich two men cannot without great difficulty goabreast ; for on one side rises the mountain nearlyperpendicular, and on the other is a precipicewhich runs into the river ; this is the spot where asignal victory was obtained by the rebel FranciscoHernandez Giron, in 1554, against the BrigadierAlonzo de Alvarado, both of them leaders of fac-tions, maintaining the separate interests enkindledin the civil wars of Peru.

Same name, another settlement, in the pro-vince and corregimiento of Aymaraez, also inPeru.

CHUQUIRIBAMBA, a large settlement of Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Loxa inthe kingdom of Quito ; on the shore of a smallriver which enters the Catamayu, on which ac-count some maintain that it is the origin of thelatter. It is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile

Last edit over 1 year ago by Werner Stangl
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