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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.
ABERCORN, a town of the province and colony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a league's distance from the city of this name. [It is about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, and 13 N W of Savannah.]
ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the province and government of Cartagena. They run from W to N E from near the large river of Magdalena to the province of Chocó, and the S. Sea. Their limits and extent are not known, but they are 20 leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. Francisco Cesar in 1536; he being the first who penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, in which time he had to undergo the most extreme privations and excessive perils ; not that these exceeded the hardships which were endured by the licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest with a fine army.
ABIGIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 30 leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito.
[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 12 miles SW from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 NE from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 39° 27' 30" N Long. 76° 20' 35" W.]
[another, the chief town of Washington county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 145 miles from Campbell's station, near Holston; 260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and 310 as the road runs, bearing a little to the S of W Lat. 36° 41' 30" N Long. 81° 59' W.]
Abipi, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, and canes ; it has been celebrated for its rich mines of emeralds, which are, however, at present abandoned from want of water; it is nearly three leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco.
ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and government of Tucuman, inhabiting the S shores of the river Bermejo. Their number once exceeded 100000; but they are certainly at present much reduced. They go naked, except that the women cover themselves with little skins, prettily ornamented, which they call queyapi. They are very good swimmers, of a lofty and robust stature, and well featured: but they paint their faces and the rest of their body, and are very much given to war, which they carry on chiefly against such as come either to hunt or to fish upon their territory. Their victims they have a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a landmark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. From their infancy they cut and scarify their bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their country is inundated, which happens in the five winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or upon the tops of trees: they have some slight notion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and the produce of the chase, holding in the highest estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of infusing strength and valour. They have no knowledge either of God, of law, or of policy; but they believe in the immortality of the soul, and that there is a land of consummate bliss, where they shall dance and divert themselves after their death. When a man dies, his widow observes a state of celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an abstinence from fish: this period being fulfilled, an assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that her husband has given her leave to marry. The women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing hides; the men are idlers, and the boys run about the whole day in exercising their strength. The men are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the women are accustomed to conceal their husband's weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear more than two or three children, killing all above this number.
Abisca, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, to the E of the Cordillera of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and to the S of Cuzco. It is little known, consisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes; and hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success: the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.
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another whose note resembles atrumpet. It aboundsin quadrupeds, as mules, horses, and cattle of thelarge and small kind, the antas, which is calledhere gran bestia^ (great beast), huanacos, vicunas,llamas, or native sheep, stags, bears, ant-eaters,wild bears, otters, tigers, mountain cats, visca-chas, (or large hares), large and small foxes, tor-toises, higuanos, and others ; all of which affordfood to tlie voracious Indians. In this provinceare also found many insects, such as scorpions,vipers, snakes of several kinds, some of two heads,and some with rattles, squirrels, mocamucas, am-palabas, or what are called in other countries owls,which are extremely deformed, and attract smallanimals to them by their screeching, quiriquinchosof various sorts, glow-worms, a great variety offlies and spiders, and of these a large kind veryvenomous, silk-worms, Avhich, if taken care of,would yield an abundance of silk, locusts, Avhichare eaten by the Indians both dry and fresh ; also ants,the beds of which are so deep as to render the roaddangerous for men and for horses to pass, theseinsects being of such an undaunted and trouble-some nature as often to attack a viper or locust inlarge bodies, and in some settlements to enter ahouse like a plundering army, devouring every in-sect and worm in their way, not leaving a singleeatable thing untouched ; scarcely shall these havefinished their operations, but they are succeeded byanother band, and indeed it is very liazardous todisturb them, since they bite very fiercely andcause much pain. This province has no mines,although it is said that formerly some were workedby the Indians ; some little time since, however,one of iron was discovered, when it was thought tohave been of gold. This extensive and pleasantcountry is inhabited by a multitude of infidel In-dians, of different nations and of various barbarouscustoms. It was casually discovered in 1586 byJuan de Banos, a native of Chuquisaca, a factorof the settlement of Yala ; he had an Indian slavewho used frequently to run away from his masterfor a time and return again, and who being askedonce whither he went, replied toChacu; this itAvas tliat led to its discovery, and to the subse-•quent attempts at several times made to conquerit; first by Martin de Ledesma, afterwards by.Tuan Manso, Don Pedro Lasarte, and lastly byD >11 Christoval de Sanabri, all of which were in-effectual. San Francisco Solano entered the coun-try, and succeeded in reducing some of the nativesto the Christian faith ; these, however, soon re-turned to their idolatry. The regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits likewise engaged themselves in thereduction of this country in 1587, the first of their
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preachers here being Father Alonzo Barzana,called the apostle of Peru ; they continued herefor a number of years, and during their stayfounded seven settlements. The inhabitants ofthe whole province are computed at 100,000.Catalogue of the nations which inhabit Chaco.
(Chaco, a large plain of the above province,in which Azara noticed a singular phenomenon,which he calls a large piece of pure iron, flexibleand malleable in the forge, but at the same timeso hard as not to be cut, though obedient to thefile. It contains about 468 cubic feet, and lieson the surface of the large plain of Chaco, on whichnot a single stone excepting this is to be found ;and what is still more curious, there is no volcanowithin 300 leagues, nor any iron mine to be heardof in that part of tho country.)
mills. The whole of the district of its territory iscovered with estates and country-seats, whichabound in all kinds of fruits, at once rendering ita place pleasing and advantageous for residence.
Concepcion, anotlier, of the province and go-vernment of the Chiquitos Indians, in the samekingdom ; a reduccion of the missions which wereheld in this province by the regulars of the com-pany of the Jesuits ; situate between the source ofthe river Verde and the river Ubay.
Concepcion, another, of the province andcountry of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese pos-sessions ; a reduccion of the missions which are heldby the Carmelite fathers of this nation ; situate onthe shore of a pool or lake formed by the riverUrubu. . .
Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru, and district ofChaco ; being a reduccion of the Abipones Indians,of the mission held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, and to-day under the charge of the reli-gious order of S. Francisco.
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-
suits, in the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the w. shore of the river Uru-guay. (Lat. 27° 58' 43". Long. 53° 27' 13" re.)
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the country of the Chiquitos Indians, inthe kingdom of Peru ; situate to the e. of that ofSan Francisco Xavier.
Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom ofQuito, which produces nothing but maize, yucas^plantains, and quantities of aloes, with the whichthe natives pay their tribute, and which are muchesteemed in Peru.
Concepcion, a town of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru, in the jurisdictionof the city of Santiago del Estero, between therivers Bermejo and Salado. It was destroyed bythe infidel Indians.
(Concepcion, a large bay on the c. side ofNewfoundland island, whose entrance is betweencape St. Francis on the s. and Flamborough headon the n. It runs a great way into the land in a s.direction, having numerous bays on the w. side,on which are two settlements, Carboniere andHavre de Grace. Settlements were made here in1610, by about 40 planters, under Governor JohnGuy, to whom King James had granted a patentof incorporation.)
CORPUS-CHRISTI, a settlement of the mis-sions which were held by the regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits in the province and government ofParaguay ; situate on the shore of the river Parana,about 11 leagues n. e. of Candelaria. Lat. 27° T23" s. Long. 55° 32' 29" w.
CORRIENTES, S.Juan de , a city of theprovince and government of Buenos Ayres inPeru ; founded in 1588, on the e. coast of the riverLa Plata, near the part where those of the Paranaand Paraguay unite. It has, besides the parish
church, three convents, of St. Domingo, St. Francis,and La Merced, and a college which belonged tothe regulars of the company of Jesuits. This cityhas been harassed by the infidel Abipones In-dians, who have here put to death many Spaniards,and taken others prisoners ; on which account aguard of horse-militia has been established for itsdefence. (It is 100 leagues n. of the city of SantaFe, and contained, in 1801, 4300 inhabitants. Lat.27° 27' 21" s.)
CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, a rivcr of the pro-vince and government of Darien in the kingdom ofTierra Firme. It rises in the mountains towardsthe n. and enters the sea in the large plain oppositethe Mulatto isles.
CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, another, of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay. It rises in theserrania which lies between the rivers Paraguayand Parana, runs w. and enters the former betweenthe rivers Mboeri and P'areiri.
CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, another cape, calledalso De Arenas Gordas, on the coast which lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Ma-gellan, between the capes San Antonio and SaaAndres.
(CORTLANDT, a township in the n. part ofthe county of W. Chester, on the e. bank of Hud-son river. New York, containing 1932 inhabitants,of whom 66 are slaves. Of its inhabitants, in 1796,305 were electors.)
CORUPA, another river. See Curupa.