Search for Caxamarquilla* CAXAMARQUILLA* "Caxamarquilla or Pataz" "Caxa
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
It is distant 30 leagues to the n. of Tunja, andeight from the town of Suata.
CAPIUARI, a small river of the province andcaptainship of San Vincente in Brazil. It risesin the mountains near the coast, runs almost di-rectly from e. to w. and enters the Harihambu orTiete, between the Piraciacaba and Jundiaya.
Capiuari, another river of the province and go-vernment of the Chiquitos Indians, and in the king-dom of Peru ; it rises to the s. e. of the settlementof San Rafael, runs to the n. and enters the Yteneswith a slight inclination to the n. w.
CAPLITOILGUA, an island of the N. sea, inthe straits De Magellan, one of those which form thes. coast, at the mouth of the canal of St. Isidro.
Caplitoilgua, a bay in the former island.
Capot, a bay on the coast of the same island,on its n. w. side, between the town of Carbet andthe bay of Giraumont.
CAPUCINS, Morne des, or Morro de los
Capuchinos, a mountain of the island of Mar-tinique, at the back of the city of fort Royal.
CAPUE, with the addition of Baxo (low), to dis-tinguish it ; another settlement of the same islandand dominion as the former.
CAPUIO, a small settlement of the head settle-ment of Etuquaro, and alcaldía mayor of Vallado-lid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán ;in which district there are some cultivated lands,and in these, as well as in the settlement, residesome Spanish families, and some of the Musteesand Indians, who gain their livelihood in tilling theground, in making lime, and cutting wood. Fourleagues w. of its capital.
CAPULA, a village of a small settlement of thehead settlement and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec inNueva España ; situate in the cleft or hollow partof a mountain covered with trees ; its inhabitants,who consist of 63 Indian families, make charcoaland timber, these being the articles of their com-merce.
CAPULALPA, San Simon de, a small settle-ment of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor ofTezcoco in Nueva España, situate on the top of ahill; it has a very good convent of Franciscans,and contains 75 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes,and Mustees, and 196 of Indians : its territory isvery fertile, and the most luxuriant of any in thesame jurisdiction ; notwithstanding there is a lackof moisture, there being no running streams. Theyare used to gather most abundant crops of wheat,maize, barley, vetches, beans, and French beans ;they have large breeds of hogs, both in the villageand in the farms and neighbouring fattening stalls,which they carry for sale to Mexico, to La Puebla,and other parts. One league n. of its capital.
CAPULUAC, San Bartolome de, a headsettlement of the alcaldia mayor of Metepec inNueva España; it contains 524 Indian families,including those who inhabit the wards of its dis-trict, and it is two leagues to the s. e. of its capital.
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from six to 20 feet diameter, worn almost perfectlysmooth, into the solid body of a rock.]
CAXAMARCA, a province and corregimientoof Peru, in the bishopric of Truxillo ; boundeds. e. by the province of Caxamarquilla, e. by thatof Chachapoyas, n.w. by that of Luya and Chil-Igos : all these three being situate at that part oft^e Maranon which serves as a limit to this pro-vince of Caxamarca. It is bounded ». by the pro-vince of Jaen, n. w. by that of Piura, w. by thatof Saha and by a part of Truxillo, and s. by thatof Huamachuco. It is in length 40 leagues froms. e. ion. w. ; and in breadth, or across, 36 leagues.To enter it through the province of Truxillo, whichis the grand road, it is necessary to pass the cordil-lera, which is not here so lofty as in the s. pro-vinces. This province, however, abounds witheminences which are branches of the cordillera;and on account of the height and situation ofthese, a great variety of temperature is experienced,some parts being subject to an intense heat, andothers to , a severe cold. Thus it partakes of thenature of the sierra, and its uneven figure no lesscorresponds with it : but it is for the most part of agood temperature, particularly in the capital. Theprovince abounds greatly in all kinds of fruits andcattle : in it are fabricated cloths, baizes, blankets,canvas for sails of ships, and cotton garments of aVery fine and excellent quality. Formerly its prin-cipal commerce was in swine ; at present it is not,though these animals still abound in some parts.It is watered by many rivers, of which those risingon the w. side of the cordillera, as the Sana, Lam-bay eque, and those passing through the provinceof Truxillo, all enter the S. sea. The others,amongst which that of the Criznejas is the largest,incoporate themselves with the Maranon. On itsshores are lavaderos, or washing-places of gold;and its rivers in general abound in very good andwholesome fish. Besides the fruits and the pro-ductions of every kind found in this province, ithas to boast many gold and silver mines, some ofwhich are worked. There a e also some of copper,
very fine lead, brimstone, and alcaparrosa. To-wards the n. part, where it touches the province ofJaen, are found some bark-trees, the production ofwhich, although not equal to the trees of Loxa, isof the colour of heated copper, and possesses allthe virtues of the common bark. Here are alsomany medicinal herbs, and amongst them the cele-brated calagimla. In the time of the Indians, andbefore the conquest, it was so well peopled that itsnatives formed upwards of 500 settlements. Atpresent they amount to 46,000, being divided into46 settlements. The capital bears the same title,and the repartimiento of the corregidor used toamount to 80,000 dollars, and it paid an alcavalaof 640 dollars per annum.
The settlements are.
Caxamarca, the ca-pital,
Trinidad de Chetu,S. Francisco doCay an,
Santa Catalina deChugod,
San Pablo de Cha-lique,
S. Luis de Tuniba-din,
S. Bernardino de
S. Juan de Llallan,Nepos,
San Miguel de Pal-laques,
San Juan de Huam-bos,
Todos Santos deChota,Tacabamba,Yauyucan.
its figure is
The capital is large and handsomeirregular, and it is situate upon a level plainT Thehouses are of clay, and the streets are wide andstraight. The parish church, Avhich has threenaves, is of finely worked stone, and the buildingexpences of it Avere defrayed by King Charles II.in the time of the viceroy the Duke of La Palata,in 1682. It has a parish of Spaniards, calledSanta Catalina ; two of Indians, which are SanPedro and San Joseph ; two convents of the orderof St. Francis, one of the Observers, and anotherof the Recoletans ; an hospital and a convent ofBethlemites, a monastery of nuns of La Concepcion,an house of entertainment of Nuestra Senora de
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Las Mercedes, and an hospital for women. Itcontains more than 2000 inhabitants, and amongstthese many illustrious families, descended from thefirst conquerors. The Indians here are accountedthe most industrious of any in the kingdom. Theleinperaturc is mild, and it abounds in fruits andpastures : here arc also mines of various metals. Hereit was that Atahualpa was put to death by theSpanish, being the last Inca and Emperor ofPeru ; and there is still to be seen a stone, of ayard and an half long and two-thirds wide, whichserves as the foundation to the altar of the chapelwhere he met his fate. Of this palace, which wasfor the most part built of mud, but which was verylarge, and was afterwards converted into the prison,the chapel, and house of the corregidor, called DeCahildo, nothing has been left save a piece of wallof about 12 yards long and eight wide. It hasnot long been forgotten to what point the Emperorwaved Ins hand,' to signify where his pursuersmight find the treasure which might secure to himhisliberty. At a league’s distance, to the e. of thecity, arc seen the termas, or baths, as they arecalled, of the Inca ; the waters of which are notso plentiful as they were formerly, although so hotas to boil an egg ; but the egg, although it ap-pears completely done, will, if put on a commonfire to boil, take just as much time as an egg whichis perfectly cold ; if kept a day or more it breaks,and the smell and flavour of h, when eaten, is likemud ; but if it be not eaten until it be cold, thenits flavour is similar to that of any other egg* Onthe banks of the stream from whence these watersflow, and in the pools formed by them, there isfound a multitude of animalcule, which looked atthrough a microscope appear like shrimps. Lat.6° 54' 5.
CAXAMARQUILLA y Collaos, a pro-vince and corregimiento of Peru, called also Pa-táz ; bounded e. by the mountains of the infidelIndians, n.e. and n. by the province of Cha-chapoyas, ti.zo. by that of Caxarnarca, the riverMarailon flowing between the two, w. by part ofthe province of Conchucos, and s. by that of Iluai-malies. It is 26 leagues long from ?^. to s. and sixwide, where it extends itself farthest along the e.shore of the river Maranon, Avhich divides thisprovince from those of Conchucos and Huama-chuco. Its temperature is various ; in the hol-lows and uneven I'laces it is mild ; in the partslying upon the above river it is hot, and in thevery lofty parts it is cold. The territory is ruggedand uneven, and a level spot of ground, or Uarmra,is scarcely to be seen throughout the w'hole. Onthe e. side it is as it were walled in by vejy
lofty and craggy mountains, increasing in heightuntil they gradually reach the loftiest summit:but these are the provident sources of streamswhich flow down from them into the Maranon, andwhich, together with the rains, fertilize several spotsof kind, producing maize, wheat, potatoes, ocas,bark, French beans, herbs, and sugar-cane, for theworking of which there are mills on the spot.Every kind of cattle is found here in moderation,and the Maranon abounds in fish. Almost all themountains of this province have in them veins ofsilver and gold ore : but these are very deceitful,and as well upon this account as from the want ofhands, they are for the most part abandoned. Thegold mines, however, have always been worked,though the silver mines not more than 20 yearsback up to now, in which time some riches havebeen discovered ; and even at the present day thegold mines would produce 600 marks, and those ofsilver 3000. The trade of the mines is certainlythe principal commerce of the place, and it is faci-litated by four ports in the Maranon, which afforda convenient opening and communication with theother provinces. The inhabitants of this placescarcely amount to 8000, who live in 17 settle-ments. Its repartimiento used to amount to50,000 dollars, and its alca'oala to 400 dollarsper annum.
The settlements are,
Asiento de Saru-milla,
Santa Isabel dePias,
Santa Magda leade Huayo,Pataz,
The settlement, the capital of this province, is ofthe same name. Lat. 7° 36' s.
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dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pasco ; in whichis the celebrated mountain and mine of Lauri-cocha.
CAXAMARQUILLA Y COLLAOS, the territory ofthe missions which forms part of the former pro-vince, and which is a reduccion of the infidel moun-tain Indians, who have been converted by themonks of St. Francis: these Indians are main-tained by a portion paid by the kin«?’s procuratorout of the royal coffers at Lima. They dwell tothe e. of the province, and are reduced to foursettlements ; two of the Ibita, and two of the Cho-lona nation. It is now 90 years since their foun-dation, and the number of Indians may at presentamount to 2000. Those settlements are situateupon mountains covered with trees and thickwoods ; from whence the natives procure incense,cffCflo, resinous gums, oil of Maria, dragon’s blood,the reed called bejuco^ dried fish, honey, wax,monkeys, parrots, and macaws, whicli^ are thebranches of its commerce ; tliough not less so isthe coca plant, which they pack up in measures offour bushels each , and carry in abundance to differentparts, for the consumption of the whole province.The missionaries of the above order have madevarious attempts, and have spared neither painsnor labour in penetrating into the interior parts ofthe mountains ; having repeatedly discovered otherbarbarous nations, whom they would fain have re-duced to the divine knowledge of the gospel.
The aforesaid settlements are,
Jesus de Sion, San Buenaventura,
Jesus de Ochonache, Pisano.
CAXATAMBO, a province and corregimientoof Peru, bounded n. by that of Huailas, n. e. bythat of Conchuios, e. by that of Huamalies, s. e.by that of Tarma, s. by the part of Chancay calledChecras, s. e. by the low part of Chancay, and n.w. by that of Santa. It is in length 34 leagues n. e.s. w. and 32 in width n. w. s. e. ; the greaterpart of it is situate in a serrama. Its temperatureis consequently cold, except in the broken and un-even spots and in the low lands. Besides the pro-ductions peculiar to the serrama., this provinceabounds in all sorts of seeds and fruits; in allspecies of cattle, especially of the sheep kind, fromthe fleece of whicli its inhabitants manufacturemuch cloth peculiar to the country ; this beingthe principal source of its commerce. It producessome grain and cochineal, used for dyes ; and if thislatter article were cultivated, it would bring greatprofit. Amongst tlie mountains of this provincethere is one called Huilagirca of fine flint, and twomines of sulphur and alcaparrosa, articles employedin the colouring of wools, not only in this province,
but in those of Huanuco, Huamalies, and Jauja:It has also mines of good yeso or gypsum. Theprincipal rivers by which it is irrigated, are twowhich rise in the same soil, and both of which enterthe S. sea, after having laved the contiguous pro-vinces ^ in former times there were fine silver mines,which are still worked, but for some reason or other,to very little profit. On the n. c. part, on some emi-nences, is a spot called Las Tres Cruces, (The ThreeCrosses), there being as many of these fixed up hereto determine its boundaries, and that of the pro-vince of Santa Huailas. Its population consists ofthe 69 following settlements : its repartimiento usedto amount to 1^0, (XX) dollars, and the akavala to1046 dollars per annum.
Caxatambo, the ca-
A cay a,
Palpas, distinct from
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It was conquered and united to the empire byInca Roca, the sixth Emperor.
CHALLAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarquilla or Pataz in Peru,in the district of which is an estate called Huasil-las, where there is a house of entertainment be-longing to the religion of St. Francis, in whichreside the missionaries who assist in the conversionof the infidel Indians of the mountains.
CHAMA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Maracaibo. It rises at the foot of thesnowy sierra, runs, making the form of two SS, tothe e. and rt;. and passing by to the s. of the cityof Merida, returns n. and enters the great lake ofMaracaibo at the side opposite its mouth.
CHAMACON, a river of the province and go-vernment of Darien in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; it rises in the mountains of the e. coast,and runs from s. e. to n. w. until it enters the largeriver Atrato near its mouth.
CHAMACUERO, San Francisco de, a set-tlement and head settlement of the district of thealcaldia mayor of Zelaya in the province and bi-shopric of Meohoacan. It contains 690 families ofIndians, and more than 30 of Spaniards, Mustees,and Mulaltoes, with a convent of the order of St.Francis ; is five leagues to the n. of its capital.
CHAMAL, a settlement of Indians of the Chi-chimeca nation, in the head settlement of the dis-trict of Tamazunchale, and alcaldia mayor of Valles,in Nueva Espana ; situate in a valley of the samename. Its inhabitants having been reduced atthe beginning of the 18th century, and having re-quested a priest, one was sent them of the religionof St. Francis ; but no sooner did he arrive amongstthem than they put him to death, eating his body,and at the same time destroying the settlement.They were, however, afterwards reduced to thefaith, rather through the hostilities practised against
them by their neighbours than a desire of embrac-ing it. It is five leagues from Nuestra Senorade la Soledad.
CHAMANGUE, a river of the province andgovernment of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom ofQuito. It runs through the territory of the city ofAvila from n. w. to s. e. and enters the river Coca,on the w. side, in lat. 46° s.
CHAMARIAPA, a settlement of the provinceof Barcelona, and government of Curaana, in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; one of those which areunder the care of the religious observers of St.Francis, the missionaries of Piritu. It is to thew. of the mesa (table land) of Guanipa.
CHAMBA, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, towardsthe s. It runs from e. to w. passes near the settle-uient of Vilcabamba, and then enters the river Ma-lacatos.
(CHAMBERSBURG, a post town in Pennsyl-vania, and the chief of Franklin county. Itis situated on the e. branch of Conogocheaguecreek, a water of Potow.mac river, in a rich andhighly cultivated country and healthy situation-.Here are about 200 houses, two Presbyterianchurches, a stone gaol, a handsome court-housebuUt of brick, a paper and merchant mill. It is58 miles e. by s. of Bedford, 11 w. zo. of Shippens-burg, and 157 w. of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 57'n. Long. 77° 40' a-'.)
CHAMBIRA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito ;situale at the source of the river of its name. Itrises to the e. of the settlement of Pinches, betweenthe rivers Tigre and Pastaza, and runs nearly pa-rallel to the former, where it enters, with a muchincreased body, into the Maranon.
(CHAMBLEE River, or Sorell, a water ofthe St. Lawrence, issuing from lake Champlain,300 yards wide when lowest. It is shoal in dryseasons, but of sufficient breadth for rafting lumber,&c. spring and fall. It was called both Sorcll andRichlieu when the French held Canada.)
CHAMBLI, a French fort in the province and
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the natives make friezes. The low part, lookingupon the coast, enjoys a temperature equal inmildness to that of Lima. It is very fertile, andin the many estates which are in it maize grows ingreat quantities, and it, besides serving as food forthe labourers, and independent of that which is de-voured by the wild pigeons with which those fieldsare filled, serves to fatten numbers of pigs, which arecarried to supply the markets of Lima ; those ani-mals, one year with another, amounting to 22,000head, and producing an emolument of 300,000dollars to the proprietors of the estates. Here arealso some estates of sugar-cane, and others ofFrench beans and wheat, of which the crops wereformerly very great, and used, together with thevines, to be reckoned amongst the chief produc-tions of this country, though they have now maderoom for a more general cultivation of maize.What conduces much to render the soil fertile, iswhat the Indians call huano^ and which, in theirlanguage, signifies dung, this being brought fromsome small islands at a little distance from thecoast towards the n. It is thought to be the excre-ment of some birds called huanaes^ who have beenaccustomed to deposit it in the above places fromtime immemorial. Some of it has also been foundin various other islands of the coast of Canete,Arica, and others. Of this it is certain, that ahandful being put at the root of a plant of maize,it becomes so invigorated as to produce upwardsof 200 for one, and that not less than 90,000bushels of this valuable manure is used yearly.In the centre of the province, and upon the coast,are some fine salines^ which supply some of theneighbouring districts ; and amongst the rest, thoseof Canta, Tarma, Caxatambo, Huamalies, Hua-nuco, Conchuco, and Huailas, are the most noted.The salt is not only used in the workingof the me-tals, but for preserving the cattle from a venomousinsect called alicuya^ which preys upon their entrailsuntil it destroys them. The population consists of37 settlements ; the capital of which is the town ofArnedo or Chancay. Its repartimiento amountedto 122,000 dollars, and its alcavala to 976 dol-lars per annum.
Arnedo or Chancay,
S. Juan de Huaral,
Cauchaz or Maráz,
Chancay, the capital of the above province,founded in a beautiful and very healthy valley, ata league and a half’s distance from the river Pasa-mayo, by order of the viceroy Count of Nieva, in1563 ; who destined it for the honour of being anuniversity, at which however it never attained. Ithas a tolerable port, frequented by trading vessels,a convent of monks of the order of St. Francis, anda good hospital. It is well peopled, and its inha-bitants consist of several noble and rich families.One league from the sea, and 15 from Lima. Lat.11° 30' 5.
CHANCHAMAIU, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tarma in Peru, with a fort uponthe river Tapo, in the part washed by this river,called El Balseadero de Chanchamaiu. TheChunchos Indians of this province took possessionof it in 1742, and abandoned it in 1743.
CHANDUI, a settlement of the district of SantaElena in the province and government of Guaya-quil ; situate on the sea-shore, with a port whichis frequented by vessels only in stress ; it havingsome extensive shoals which lie just at its entrance.Here it was that the admiral’s ship of the Armadadel Sur foundered and was wrecked in 1654, as itwas dropping down to Panama, for the purpose ofdispatching the galleons under the charge of theMarquis de Villarubia ; although, through the op-portune assistance of the viceroy of Peru, Countde Salvatierra, and of tlm president of Quito, DonPedro Vazquez de Veljixco, the greater part of theproperty on board was saved. Likewise, in 1721.another ship was lost here, carrying the salaries tothe Plaza of Panama, without a single thing onboard being saved ; until, in 1728, a furious windfrom the s. w. blew ashore several fragments of the
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and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdictionof the city of Santiago del Estero, on the shore ofthe river Choromoros.
(CHAUDIERE River, a s. e. water of the St.Lawrence, rising in Lincoln and Hancock coun-ties, in the district of Maine. The carrying placefrom boatable waters in it, to boatable Avaters in theKetmebeck, is only five miles.)
(CHAUDIERE Falls are situate about nine milesabove Quebec, on the opposite shore, and aboutthree or four miles back from the river St. Law-rence, into which the river Chaudiere disemboguesitself. The river is seen at a distance, emergingfrom a thick wood, and gradually expandingfrom an almost imperceptible stream till it reachesdie cataract, whose breadth is upwards of 360feet. Here the disordered masses of rock, whichiippear to have been rent from their bed by someviolent convulsion of nature, break the course ofthe waters, and precipitate them from a height of120 feet into an immense chasm below. In someparts large sheets of water roll over the precipice,and fall unbroken to the bottom ; while in otherplaces the water dashes from one fragment of therock to another, with wild impetuosity, bellow-ing and foaming with rage in every hollow andcavity that obstructs its progress ; from thence itrushes down with the rapidity of lightning intothe boiling surge beneath, where it rages with in-conceivable fury, till driven from the gulf byfresh columns, it hurries away and loses itself inthe waters of the St. Lawrence. The scenerywhich accompanies the cataract of Chaudiere isbeautiful and romantic beyond description. Inthe centre, a large fragment of rock, which firstdivides the water, at the summit of the precipice,forms a small island ; and a handsome fir-tree,which grows upon it, is thus placed in a mostsingular and picturesque situation. The forest oneither side the river consists of firs, pines, birch,oak, ash, and a variety of other trees and shrubs,intermingled in the most wild and romantic man-ner. Their dark green foliage, joined with thebrown and sombre tint of the rocky fragments overwhich the water precipitates itself, form a strik-ing and pleasing contrast to the snowy white-ness of the foaming surge, and the columns ofsparkling spray which rise in clouds and minglewith the air.)
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mayor of Juxtlahuaca, in Nueva España. It con-tains 57 families of Indians.
CHAYANTA, or Charcas, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Co-chabamba, n. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, e.by the province of Yamparaez, s. e. and s. by thatof Porco, and w. by that of Paria ; is 36 leaguesin length from w. to e. and 44 in width, n. s. Itstemperature is various, since it contains the settle-ments of Puna and Valles ; in the former of theseare found in abundance the productions of thesierra^ and in the latter wheat, maize, and otherseeds and herbs : they have equally a traffic withthe surrounding provinces, especially in the ar-ticles of wheat and flour of maize. Here are bred
rdistinguished for being very sure-footed and active.The horned cattle have, through the favourabletemperature of the climate, acquired a larger size,while their flesh has become better and more nu-tritive ; the sheep imported from Spain retain awool as beautiful as that of the best Spanish sheep,each sheep yielding annually from 10 to 15 lbs. ofwool ; they breed twice a-year, and have gene-rally two at a birth. The common price of cattlethroughout the country is from three to fourfilippi (fifteen or twenty francs), but in the sea-ports the price is fixed by an ancient regulation,at 10 crowns ; of which the commandant of theport receives four, and the owner six.
The different kinds of trees known in Chileamount to 97, and of these only 13 shed theirleaves : amongst the plants, there are 3000 notmentioned in botanical works. _The melons hereare, according to Molina, three feet long, and theonly fruits unknown are medlars, service apples,three-grained medlar, and the jujubre. Of theindigenous worms, insects, &c. are 36 species,andthetunicated cuttle-fish found here is of 150 lbs.weight. There are 13 species of crabs and craw-fish found on the sea-coast, and four species in thefresh waters. There are 135 species ofland-birds,and of quadrupeds 36, without those imported.The various kinds of esculent fish found upon thecoast are computed by the fishermen at 76, the mostof them differing from those of the n. hemisphere,and appearing to be peculiar to that sea.
Amongst the earths of this country is a claythought to be very analogous to kaolin of theChinese ; another kind called roro, producing anexcellent black dye, and represented by Feuilleand Frazier as superior to the best Europeanblacks. The membraneous mica^ otherwise Mus-covy grass, is also found here in the greatest per-fection, both as respects its transparency and thesize of its laminae ; of this substance the countrypeople manufacture artificial flowers, and like theRussians, make use of it for glazing their houses.The thin plates which are used for windows are bymany preferred to glass, from their being pliableand less fragile, and possessing what appears to bea peculiar property, of freely admitting the lightand a view of external objects to those within,while persons without are prevented from seeingany thing in the house.
22. Present revolution. — In Chile, the autho-rity of the mother country has been supersededby the aristocracy of the colony. The govern-ment has fallen, peaceably and without resistance,into the hands of the great Creole families, whoseem hitherto to have used their power with tem-per and moderation. See La PijAta.]
[CHILHOWEE, mountain, in the s. e. partof the state of Tennessee, and between it and theCherokee country.]
CHILINTOMO, a mountain of the provinceand government of Guayaquil in the kingdom ofQuito ; inhabited by some Indians, who, althoughreduced to the Catholic faith, are nevertheless ofsuch vile habits as constantly to manifest howdeeply idolatry is rooted in them.
[CHILISQUAQUE, a township on Susque-hannah river, in Pennsylvania.]
[CHILLAKOTHE, an Indian town]on theGreat Miami, which was destroyed in 1782 by abody of militia from Kentucky. General Harmarsupposes this to be the “ English Tawixtwi,” inH utchins’s map. Here are the ruins of an old fort,and on both sides of the river are extensive mea-dows. This name is applied to many differentplaces, in honour of an influential chief who for-merly headed the Shawanoes. See Tawixtwi.]
[Chillakothe, Old, is an Indian town des-troyed by the forces of the United States in 1780.It lies about three miles s. of Little Mimia river jthe country in its vicinity is of a rich soil, and isbeautifully chequered with meadows.]
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CINCO-SEÑORES, a settlement of the pro-vince of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Viz-caya ; one of the missions of the BabosariganesIndians, held there by the regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits. Within eight leagues to the s.of its district is a great unpeopled tract, called Delas Manos, (Of the Hands), from the infidel Indianshaving nailed up against some temples in thoseparts many hands of some unfortunate Spaniards•whom they had killed, when the latter had en-tered the country under the idea of making pro-selytes.
CINGACUCHUSCAS, a barbarous nation ofIndians, who inhabit the woods to the s. of theriver Marañon. In 1652 they were united to thePandabeques, and established themselves in thesettlement of Xibaros of the missions of Maynas,with the exception of some few, who still remainin their idolatry, and lead a wandering life throughthe woods.
CINTU, a spacious llanura or plain, of theancient province of Chimu, now Truxillo, on thecoast of the S. sea. It was taken possession of byHuaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor of the Incas.It is very fertile, and of a good and healthy cli-mate ; but it is but little inhabited.
CIPOYAY, a country and territory of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay, called also theprovince of Vera, towards the e. and where thenation of the Guaranis Indians dwell. It is of ahot climate, but very fertile, abounding in woods,and well watered by many rivers ; some of whichrun from e. to w. and enter the Uruguay, andothers from s. to n. and enter the Plata.
CIPRE, a river of the province and govern-ment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.It takes its course from e. to w. and opposite tlieriver Sola, empties itself into that of Esmeraldas,on the w. side, in lat. 28' n.
CIRANDIRO, a settlement and the capital ofthe alcaldia mayor of Guimeo in the province andbishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a hot tempera-ture, and inliabited by 90 families of Tarascos In-dians. In its vicinity is the estate of Quichandio,in which eight families of Spaniards, and 15 ofMustees and Mulattoes, are employed in makingsugar. Also in the estate of Santa Maria are fivefamilies of the former. It is 75 leagues to the w.and one-fourth to the s. w. of Mexico.
[CIRENCESTER. See Marcus Hook.]
CIUAPA, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile,towards the «. It is notorious from a species offish caught in it, called tache, of an extrem.ely deli-cate flavour. It runs into the S. or Pacific sea,terming a small port of little depth.
CIUDAD REAL, a city of the province andgovernment of Paraguay ; founded in 1557. byRui Diaz Melgarejo, on the shore of the river Pi-quiri, three leagues from Parana. It Was des-troyed by the Mamalukos Indians of San Pablo ofBrazil, in 1630, and in its place was substituted therich town of Espiritu Santo, the territory of whichabounds in fruits, vines, and mines of copper.In the vicinity of the present town is a great wa-terfall, formed by the above river, upwards »f3p 2
seasons, and is flooded by waters rushing downthrough a neighbouring channel, and in factAvould be hereby rendered iinitdiabitable, but forthe mounds Avhich have been raised for its defence.One half of the city experiences in one day a va-riation of all the winds from n. to s. These winds,thus changing, are accompanied with great tem-pests of thunder and lightning. At one momentthe heat which accompanies the n. wind is ex-cessive, and at another the cold which accompaniesthe s. is intolerable. It is, indeed, to this causethat the number of sudden deaths which occurhere are attributed. The city is small, and nearlyof a square figure, but the buildings are superiorto any in the province. It has three convents ;those of the religious order of St. Francis, St. Do-mingo, and La Merced, an hospital of Bethleraites,with the dedicatory title of San Roque ; two mo-nasteries of nuns, tlie one of Santa Teresa, the otherof Santa Clara, and two colleges with the titles ofuniversities, it is the head of a bishopric, erectedin 1570, and is very rich, owing to the great com-merce which it carries on in mules bought in theprovince of Buenos Ayres, and fattened in thepastures here, for the purpose of being sold for thesupply of the other provinces, and in fact of thewhole of Peru. It abounds in all kinds of pro-ductions, and is 70 leagues from Santiago del Es-tero, to the s. in 62° 39'; long. 31° 20' s. lat. (Foran account of the late revolutions of this place,see La Plata.)
Cordova, another city, in the province andgovernment of Cumaná, founded by Gonzalo deOcampo in 1525, near the sea-coast. It is so re-duced and poor, that it does not deserve the nameof a city. It is bounded by the Caribes Indians.
CORE, Bank of, an isle of the N. Sea, nearthe coast of S. Carolina, between those of Oca-cook and Drum.
CORENA, a port on the coast of the province
and captainship of the Rio Janeiro in Brazil, closeto the island of Santa Maria.
CORENTIN, a river of the province and co-lony of Surinam, or part of Guayana in the Dutchpossessions, according to the last advices ot theFather Bernardo Rosclla of the extinguished so-ciety, Avhich advices were received from theDutch, and served, in 1745, to the making the mapof this province and the Orinoco. It rises in then. part of the famed lake Parime, which some havethought to exist merely in fable. It runs s. wa-teringtlie Dutch colonies; and five leaguesto the w.of Berbice, and to the s. e. of the Orinoco, emptiesitself into the sea, in 5° 22' n. lat. : at its entranceit is one league wide. The English call it Devil’screek, which signifies Barranco del Diablo. Inthe interior of its course it has some sand-banks,which extend for three leagues, and render its na-vigation difficult, notwithstanding that at the lowtide there arc still some channels of water. In thisriver are likewise three small well cultivated islands,lying in a direction from n. tov. They are veryfertile, and covered with trees, and the soundingsof the river about them varies from five to sixfathoms.
CORIANA. See Coro.
Ostimiiri in Nueva Espana ; situate 45 leaguesfrom the river Chico.
CUNDAUE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada.
Cundurmarca|CUNDURMARCA]], a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of its capital.
CUNGIES, a barbarous nation of Indians, whoinhabit the «. of the river Napo, between therivers Tambur to the e. and the Blanco, a smallriver, to the w. These infidels are bounded n. bythe Ancuteres, and dwell near to the Abijiras andthe Icahuates.
[Cuniue|CUNIUE]], a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito ;in the district of which are many estates, as thoseof Pillachiquir, Guanacauri, Tianorte, Pugni,Tambo de Marivina, Alparupaccha, and Chi-nan.
CUNIUOS, a barbarous and ferocious nationof the province and country of Las Amazonas, tothe c. of the river Ucayale, and to the s. of theMaranon. It is very numerous, and extends asfar as the mountain of Guanuco, and the shore ofthe river Beni. These Indians are the friends andallies of the Piros, and were first converted by theregulars of the company of Jesuits, the mission-aries of the province of Maynas ; but in 1714 theyrose against these holy fathers, and put to deaththe Father Bicter, a German, and the LicentiateVazquez, a regular priest, who accompanied thesaid mission.
[Cuntuquita|CUNTUQUITA]], a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Carabaya ; annexed to thecuracy of Coaza.
[Cunuri|CUNURI]], a settlement of the province andgovernment of Guayana, one of those belongingto the missions held there by the Capuchin fathers.It is on the shore of the river Y uruario, near thesettlement of San Joseph de Leonisa.
CUNURIS, a river of the same province as theabove settlement (Guyana). It rises in the mountain of Oro,or of Parima, and runs s. until it enters the Mara-non, in lat. 2° SO' s. It takes its name from thebarbarous nation of Indians who live in the woodsbordering upon its shores.
CUPANDARO, Santiago de, a settlementof the head settlement and alcaldia mayor ofCuiceo in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore ofthe lake. It contains 33 families of Indians, whohave the peculiarity of being very white and goodlooking ; they live by fishing in the same lake.The settlement is two leagues from its capital.
CUPE, a large and abundant river of the pro-vince and government of Darien, and kingdom ofTierra Fir me. It rises in the mountains in theinterior, runs many leagues, collecting the watersof other rivers, and enters the Tuira.
[CUPICA, a bay or small port to the s. e. ofPanama, following the coast of the Pacific ocean,from cape S. Miguel to cape Corientes, Thename of this bay has acquired celebrity in thekingdom of New Granada, on account of a newplan of communication between the two seas. FromCupica we cross, for five or six marine leagues, asoil quite level and proper for a canal, whichwould terminate at the Embarcadero of theRio Naipi ; this last river is navigable, and flowsbelow the village of Zatara into the great RioAtrato, which itself enters the Atlantic sea. Avery intelligent Biscayan pilot, M. Gogueneche,was the first rvho had the merit of turning theattention of government to the bay of Cupica,which ought to be for the new continent whatSuez was formerly for Asia. M. Gogueneche pro-posed to transport the cacao of Guayaquil by the4 c