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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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[beds. From their swine, which are very nume-rous, they make excellent haras, the most esteemedof any in S. America. Notwithstanding thegreat quantity of timber taken from them, theseislands are covered with thick woods ; and as itrains there almost incessantly, the cultivatedgrounds continue w'et the whole year. From henceit follows that the inhabitants, although they havecattle, make no use of them for ploughing, but tillthe earth in a very singular manner. About threemonths- before sowing time they turn their sheepupon their lands, changing their situation everythree or four nights. When the field is sufficientlymanured in this manner, they strew the grain overit. One of their strongest men then attempts toharrow it by means of a machine formed of twolarge sticks of hard wood, made sharp, and fas-tened together, which he forces against the groundwith his breast, and thus covers the seed. Not-withstanding this imperfect tillage, a crop of wheatwill yield them ten or twelve for one. They alsoraisegreat quantities of barley, beans, peas, qidnoa^and potatoes, which are the largest and best of anyin Chile. From the excessive moisture of the at-mosphere, the grape never acquires sufficient ma-turity to be made into wine, but its want is suppliedby various kinds of cider, obtained from applesand other wild fruits of the country. The neces-sity they are under of often going from one islandto another, where the sea is far from deserving thename of the Pacific, renders the Chilotes excellentsailors. Their 'pirogues are composed of three orfive large planks seAved together, and caulked Avitha species of moss that groAvs on a shrub. Theseare in great numbers throughout the Avhole of theArchipelago, and are managed Avith sails and oars,and in these frail skiffs the natives Avill frequentlyventure as far as Concepcion : and here it maynot be improper to observe, that the Indians, Avhoform the principal part of the sailors of the S. seas,are very cictive and docile, and excellent seamen.These people are fond of fishing, an occupation towhich they are led from the great variety of fishwith which their coasts abound. Large quantitiesof these are dried and seiit to foreign countries.They likcAvisc dry the testaceous kinds, particularlythe conchs, the chimps, and thepfio’cs. P'or thispurpose they arrange them in a long trench, co-vering them Avith the targe leaves of the panlcetincloria. Over these they place stones, on Avhichthey make a hot fire for several hours. They thentake the roasted animals from their shells, andstring them upon threads, Avhich they hang forsome time in the smoke : in this manner they findthem to keep very well, and so carry them to Cujo,

and other places at a distance from the sea. Assoon as the Christian religion was preached inChiloe, it was readily embraced by the natives, whohave ever since continued faithful and obedient toits precepts. Their spiritual concerns are underthe direction of the bishop of Concepcion, andtheir temporal were administered by a governorappointed by the captain-general of Chile ; but in1792 it was vested in the viceroyalty of Lima.The Spaniards at present established in this Archi-pelago amount to about 15,000, and its commerceis conducted by means of three or four shipswhich trade there annually from Peru and Chile.These purchase of the natives large quantities ofred cedar boards, timber of different kinds, suitablefor carriages, upwards of 2000 ponchos of variousqualities, hams, pilchards, dried shell-fish, whitecedar boxes, cloaks, embroidered girdles, and asmall quantity of ambergris, which is found uponthe shores; giving in exchange wine, brandy, to-bacco, sugar, herb of Paraguay, salt, and severalkinds of European goods. Independently of theabove trade, Chiloe has of late years been made anentrepot of illicit commerce betAveen the Spanishcolonies, and English and N. American shipsengaged in the S. sea fishery.

36. The court of audience established . — But toreturn to our history, the continuation of the war,and the great importance of the conquest, finallyinduced Philip II. to erect a court of royal audi-ence in Chile, independent of that of Peru. Thissupreme tribunal, embracing the political, as Avellas military administration of the kingdom, andbeing composed of four judges of law, and a fiscal,made, on the 13th of August 1567, its solemn entryinto Concepcion, Avhere it fixed its residence. Im-mediately on assuming its functions, it remoA^edQuiroga from the government, and gave the com-mand of the army, Avith the title of general, to RuizGamboa. The military government of the royalaudience Avas soon found to be inadequate to thepurpose of its establishment, and accordingly DonMclehor de Bravo was, in 1568, invested with thetriple character of president, governor, and cap-tain-general of Chile. BetAveen him and Paillatarusome serious battles Avere fought, though not suchas to alter the general state of alfairs, when, untiltlie death of the latter commander, (a period ofabout four years), the tAvo belligerent nations ob-served a truce or suspension of arms. This Avasprobably OAving in a great measure to the generalconsternation caused by a dreadful earthquakewhich Avas felt throughout the country, and did greatinjury to the Spanish settlements, partieularly thecity of Concepcion, which Avas entirely destroyed.]

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[ChiquUIanians, whom some have erroneously sup-posed to be a part of the Pehuenches, live to then. e. of them, on the e. borders of the Andes.These are the most savage, and of course the leastnumerous of any of the Chilians ; for it is an esta-blished fact, that the ruder the state of savage life,the more unfavourable it is to population. Theygo almost naked, merely wrapping around themthe skin of the guanaco : their language is guttural,and a very corrupt jargon of the Chilian. It isobservable that all the Chilians who inhabit the e.valleys of the Andes, both the Pehuenches, thePuelches, and the Huilliches, as well as the Chi-quillanians, are much redder than those of theircountrymen who dwell to the zo. of that mountain.All these mountaineers dress themselves in skins,paint their faces, live in general by hunting, andlead a wandering and unsettled life. They are noother, as we have hitherto observed, than the somuch celebrated Patagonians, who have occasion-ally been seen near the straits of Magellan, and havebeen at one time described as giants, and at an-other as men a little above the common stature. Itis true, that they are, generally speaking, of a loftystature and great strength.

40. Landing and defeat of the Engish. — Nowwhilst the Araucanians endeavoured to oppose theprogress of the Spaniards in their country, andwhilst Don Alonzo Sotomayor, who succeeded Ro-drigo Quiroga in the government, was strenuouslyexerting his influence to [suppress the Pehuenchesand the Chiquillanians on the e. the English alsohad planned an expedition to these remote parts.On the 21st July 1586, Sir Thomas Cavendishsailed with three ships from Plymouth, and in thefollowing year arrived on the coast of Chile. Helanded in the desert port of Quintero, and endea-voured to enter into a negociation with the nativesof the country. But his stay there was of shortcontinuance ; he rvas attacked by Alonzo Molina,the corregidor of Santiago, and compelled to quitthe coast with the loss of several of his soldiers andseamen.

Sect. III. Comprising a period of 201 years^from 1586 to 1787.

The history of the Araucanians, with regard totheir Avars with the Spaniards in the above period,Avould form little more than a recapitulation ofbattles similar to those already described, but bear-ing, nevertheless, a corroborative testimony to theexertions which a brave and generous people Avillever exhibit for the just maintenance of their na-tural rights. The interest of these wars must,therefore, have been in a great measure anticipated,

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and they will consequently be treated of in a man-ner much more general than those which have beenalready mentioned; and this, since they will allowspace for the more free detail of other politicalevents.

41. Nature of the war in anno 1589. — In thetoquiate of Guanoalca, in 1589, the Spanish go-vernor, Don Alonzo Satomayor, apprehensive thathe should not be able to defend them, or not con-sidering them of sufficient importance, evacuatedthe forts of Puren, Trinidad, and Spirito Santo,transferring the garrison to another fortress whichhe had directed to be built upon the river Puchan-qui, in order to protect the city of Angol : so thatthe war now became in a great measure reducedto the construction and demolition of fortifications.To the Toqui Guanoalca sncceeded Quintuguenuand Paillaeco, and it has been observed that therepeated victories gained over them by the Spa-niards, and which they held as the cause of suchexultation, were but the preludes of the severestdisasters that they had ever experienced inChile.

42. Independence restored. — After the death of thelast mentioned toqui, the Araucanians appointed tothe chief command the hereditary toqui of the se-cond uthal-mapu, called Paillamachu, a man ofa very advanced age, but of wonderful activity.Fortune, commonly supposed not to be propitiousto the old, so far favoured his enterprises, that hesurpassed all his predecessors in military glory,and had the singular felicity of restoring his coun-try to its ancient state of independence. Owing tothe continued successes of this general, on the 22dof November 1598, and under the government ofLoyola, not only the Araucanian provinces, but thoseof the Cunchese and Huilliches were in arms, andeven the whole of the country to the Archipelagoof Chiloe. It is asserted, that every Spaniard whohad the misfortune of being found without the gar-risons was put to death ; and it is certain that thecities of Osorno, Valdivia, Villarica, Imperial,Canete, Angol, Coya, and the fortress of Arauco,were nil at once invested with a close siege. Butnot content with this, Paillamachu, without loss oftime, crossed the Biobio, burned the cities of Con-cepcion and Chilian, laid waste the provinces intheir dependence, and returned loaded rvitli spoilto his country. In some successive battles he like-wise caused the Spaniards to cvacute the fort ofArauco, and the city of Canete, and obliged the in-habitants to retire to Concepcion. On the 14th ofNovember 1599, he caused his army to pass thebroad river Calacalla or Valdivia, by swimming,stormed the city at day-break, burned the houses, J

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|]th€ government now devolved upon the eldest sonof die auditor, Don Louis Merlo de la Fuente.

46, Ineffectual efforts of Philip III. to establisha lasting^ peace. — Among the missionaries aboutiliis time charged with the conversion of the Chili-aiis, there was a Jesuit called Luis Valdivia,who perceiving that it was impossible to preach tothe Araucanians during the tumult of arms, wentto Spain, and represented in'! the strongest termsto Philip 111. who was then on the throne, thegreat injury done to tlie cause of religion by thecontinuance of the war. That devout prince, whobad more at lieart the advancement of religion thanthe augmentation of his territories, sent orders im-mediately to the government of Chile, to discon-tinue the war and settle a permanent peace withthe Araucanians, by establishing the river Eiobioas the line of division between tlie two nations.The articles of peace had been discussed, and wereabout to be mutually agreed upon, w hen an unex-pected event rendered abortive all the measuresthat had been taken. Among the wives of Anca-namon, the existing toqui, was a Spanish lady,who, taking advantage of his absence, fled for re-fuge to the governor, with two small children, andfour women, whom she had persuaded to becomeChristians, two of whom were the wives, and theothers the daughters of her husband. The indig-nation of the toqui on this occasion w as carried tosuch an extreme, that, upon some missionariesbeing sent under the superintendence of Valdiviato preach the gospel among the Araucanians, hehastened to meet them at Illicura, where, withoutdeigning to listen to their arguments, he put themall to the swwrd. Thus were all the plans of paci-fication rendered abortive ; Ancanamon incessantlyharassed the Spajiish provinces, and the war w'asrecommenced in 1617, with greater fury than be-fore. From the above-mentioned period to theyear 1637, nothing material occurred in our his-tory, saving the enterprises of the Toquis Lcinturand Pntapichion ; these, however, did not servematerially to change the state of affairs.

47. Second expedition of the Dutch. — In the fol-lowing year the Dutch attempted a second time toform an alliance with the Araucanians, in order toobtain ] ossession of Chile ; but this expeditionwas not more fortunate than the first. Tlie squa-dron, which consisted of four ships, was dispersedby a storm on i(s arrival on the coast, in 1638. Aboat well manned and armed, being afterwards dis-patched to the island of Mocha, belonging to theAraucanians, the inhabitants supposing that theycame to attack them, fell upon the crew, put thewhole to death, and took possession of the boat.

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A iioliicrcrew' experienced a similar misfortune in thelittle island of Ta'ca or Santa Miwia. 'he Arau-canians, as has been already observed, were equallyjealous, and not (as inay be readily imagined)without reason, of every European nation.

48. Second expeddion of the English. — Notwith-standing the ill success of the Dutch, Sir JohnNarborough, an English naval commander, un-dertook some years alter a similar enterprise, byorder of his sovereign Charles II. ; but in pass-ing the straits of Magellan, he lost his whole fleet,which was much better equipped than that of theDutch. The war continued to rage with undi-minished fury until the year 1640, the time whenthe reins of government were assumed by DonFrancisco Zuniga, Marquis de Baydes. It wasunder his milder auspices, that, in January of thefollowing year, the articles of peace were agreedupon, the day of its ratification being fixed for thesixth of that month, and the place of meeting, thevillage of Quillin, in the province of Puren.

49. Peace at length concluded. — At the timeprefixed, the marquis appeared at the appointedplace, with a retinue of about 10,000 persons,from all parts of the kingdom. Lincopichion, theexisting toqui, at the head of the four hereditarytoquis, and a great number of ulraenes and othernatives, opened the conference with a very elo-quent speech. He then, according to the Chiliancustom, killed a llama., and sprinkling some of theblood on a branch of cinnamon, presented it intoken of peace to the governor. The articles ofthe treaty were next proposed and ratified, and inone of these the marquis stipulated that the Arau-canians should not permit the landing of anystrangers upon the coast, or furnish supplies toany foreign nation whatever; which being conform-able to the political maxims of the nation, wasreadily complied with. Thus Avas a period putto a w^ar of 90 years duration, and this grand nego-ciation Avas terminated by a sacrifice of 28 camels^and an eloquent harangue from Antiguenu, cliiefof the district, upon the mutual advantages Avhichbotli nations Avould derive from the peace.

50. Last expedition of the Dutch. — In 1643, twoyears after tlie peace, the importance of the articleinserted by the governor in tlie treaty was renderedvery apparent to the Spaniards, by a last attemptmade by the Dutcli to possess themselves of Chile.Their measures were so Avell taken, that had theybeen in tlie least seconded by the Araucanians, tlieymust liave infallibly succeeded. Having left Bra-zil, Avhich they had conquered, Avith a numerousfleet, Avell provided Avitli men and cannon, theytook possession of the harbour of Valdivia, which]

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[European gazettes of that period, at which timethe war had cost the royal treasury and individuals1,700,000 dollars.

54. Peace restored . — The same year an accom-modation' was agre(?d on; and by this it was al-lowed that the Araucaiiians should afterwards havea minister resident in the city of St. Jago. Withrespect to the other articles of the peace, it is suf-ficient fo state, that the treaties of Quillan andNegrete were by mutual consent revived. On thedeath of Gonzaga, the court of Spain sent DonAugustin Jaiiregui to govern Chile, who has sincefilled with universal approbation the important of-fice of viceroy of Peru. His successor, DonAmbrosio Benavides, has rendered the countryhappy by his wise and beneficent administration.

Chap. V.

Present slate of Chile.

From the brief relation that we have given ofthe occurrences in Chile since its discovery, it willbe seen that its possession has cost Spain moreblood and treasure than all the rest of her settle-ments in America. The Araucanians, occupyingbut a small extent of territory, have with far in-ferior arms not only been able to counterbalanceher power, till then reputed irresistible, but toendanger the loss of her best established possessions.Though the greater part of her officers had beenbred in that school of war, the Low Countries, andher soldiers, armed with those destructive wea-pons before which the most extensives empires ofthat continent had fallen, were considered the bestin the world, yet have these people succeeded inresisting them. The Spaniards, since losingtheir settlements in Araucania, have prudentlyconfined their views to establishing themselvesfirmly in that part of Chile Avhich lies betweenthe s. confines of Peru and the river Biobio,and extends from lat. 24° to 36|° 5. : this they havedivided into 13 provinces. They also possess thefortress of Valdivia, in the country of tiie Cuu-chese, the Archipelago of Chiloe, and the islandof Juan Fernandez.

1. Civil government . — These provinces are go-verned by an officer, who has usually the rank oflieutenant-general, and combines the title of pre-sident, governor, and captain-general of the king-dom of Chile, lie resides in the city of St. Jago,and is solely dependent upon the king, e.xcept incase of war, when, in certain points, he receiveshis directions from the viceroy of Peru. In qua-lity of captain-general he commands the army, andhas under him not only the three principal officersof the kingdom, the quarter-master, the serjeant-

major, and the commissary, but also the four go- .vernors of Chiloe, Valdivia, Valparaiso, and JuanFernandez. As president and governor, he has thesupreme administration of justice, and presidesover the superior tribunals of that capital, whosejurisdiction extends all over the Spanish provincesin those parts. The principal of these is the tri-bunal of audience, or royal senate, whose decisionis final in all causes of importance, both civil andcriminal ; and is divided into two courts, the onefor the trial of civil, and the other for the trial ofcriminal causes. Both are composed of severalrespectable judges, called auditors, of a regent, afiscal or royal procurator, and a protector of theIndians. All these officers receive large salariesfrom the court. Their judgment is final, exceptin causes Avhere the sum in litigation exceeds10,000 dollars, when an appeal may be had tothe supreme council of the Indies. The other su-preme courts are those of finance, of the cruzada,of vacant lands, and the consulate or tribunal ofcommerce, which is wholly independent of anyother of that kind. The provinces are governedby prefects, formerly called corregidors, but atpresent known by the name of sub-delegates ; these,according to the forms of their institution, shouldbe of royal nomination, but owing to the distanceof the court they are usually appointed by thecaptain-general, of whom they style themselvesthe lieutenants, d hey have jurisdiction both ofcivil and military affairs, and their emoluruents ofoffice depend entirely upon their fees, whichare by no means regular. In each capital of aprovince there is, or at least should be, a munici-pal magistracy, called the cabildo, which is com-posed, as in other parts of the Spanish dominions,of several members, called regidores, who are ap-pointed for life, of a standard-bearer, a procura-tor, a forensic judge, denominated the provincialalcalde, an alguazil or high sllerift, and of twoconsuls or burgo-masters, called alcaldes. Thelatter are chosen annually from among the princi-pal nobility by the cabildo itself, and have juris-diction both in civil and criminal causes in thefirst instance.

2. Military force.— The inhabitants are dividedinto regiments, which are obliged to march to thefrontiers or the sea-coast in case of war. In 1792there were 15,856 militia troops enrolled in the twobishoprics of Santiago and Concepcion; 10,218 inthe first, and 5638 in the latter. Besides this re-gular militia, there are a great many city militias,that are commanded by commissaries, who act ascolonels. A sufficient force also of regular troopsfor the defence of the country is maintained by]

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[{he king. All the veteran troops in Cliile do notexceed 2000, and these consist of artillery, dra-goons, and infantry. The infantry as well as theartillery is under the command of two lieutenant-colonels.

3. Ecdesiasikal government .— respects theecclesiastical government, Chile is divided intothe two large dioceses of St. Jago and Concepcion,which cities are tlie residencies ot the bishops,who are suffragans to the archbishop of Lima.The first diocese extends from the confines of Peruto the river Maule, comprehending the provinceof Cnjo upon the other side of the Andes. Thesecond comprises all the rest of Chile, with theislands, although the greater part of this extent isinhabited by pagans. The cathedrals are sup-plied with a proper mmiber of canons, whose re-venues depend upon the tithes, as do those of thebishops. The court of inquisition at Lima hasat St. Jago a commissioner with several subalternofficers. Pedro Valdivia, on his first enteringChile, brought with him the monks of the orderof Mercy ; and about the year 1553, introducedthe Dominicans and strict Franciscans. The Au-gustins established themselves there in 1595; andthe Hospitallers of St. John of God, about thethe year 1615. These religious orders have all anumber of convents, and the three first form dis-tinct jurisdictions. The brothers of St. John ofGod have the charge of the hospitals, under acommissary, who is dependent upon the provin-cial of Peru. These are the only religious frater-nities now in Chile. The Jesuits, who came intoChile in 1593, with the nephew of their founder,Don Martin de Loyola, formed likewise a separateprovince. Others have several times attempted,but without success, to form establishments, theChilians having always opposed the admission ofnew orders among them. In St. Jago and Con-cepcion are several convents of nuns ; but theyare the only cities that contai?i them.

4. The cities and dwellings . — The cities arebuilt in the best situations in the country. Manyof them, however, w ould have been better placed,for the purposes of commerce, upon the shores ofthe large rivers. This is particularly the case withthose of more recent construction. The streetsare straight, intersecting each other at right angles,and are 36 French feet in breadth. On accountof earthquakes the houses are generally of onestory ; they are, however, very commodious,whitewashed without, and generally painted within.Each is accommodated with a pleasant garden, ir-rigated by an aqueduct which furnishes water forthe use of the family. Those belonging to the

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wealthier classes, particularly the nobility, arefurnished with much splendour and taste. Theinhabitants perceiving that old buildings of twostories have resisted the most violent shocks, ha\ eof late years ventured to reside in the upper rooms,and now begin to construct their houses in theEuropean naanner. In consequence of this thecities have a better appearance than formerly ; andthe more so, as instead of forming their houses of clayhardened in the sun, which was supposed less liableto injury, they now employ brick and stone. Cel-lars, sewers, and wells, were formerly much morecommon than at present; a circumstance whichmay have contributed to render the buildings moresecure from earthquakes. The churches are ge-nerally more remarkable for their wealth than theirstyle of architecture. The cathedral and thechurch of the Dominicans in the capital, whichare built of stone, are however exceptions. Thefirst was constructed at the royal expcnce, underthe direction of the Bishop Don Manuel Alday,an excellent and learned prelate; it is built in amasterly style, and is 384 French feet in front.The plan was drawn by two English architects,who superintended the work : but when it washalf finished they refused to go on, unless theirwages were increased. In consequence of this tliebuilding was suspended, when two of the Indianswho had worked under the Englishmen, and hadsecretly found means of instructing themselves inevery branch of the art, offered to complete it :which they did with as much skill and perfectionas their masters themselves could have displayed.In the capital the follow ing edifices are also worthyof remark : the barracks for the dragoons, themint, which has been lately built by a Homan ar-chitect, and the hospital for orphans.

5. Population . — Spanish Chile, in consequenceof the freedom granted to its maritime trade, ispeopling with a rapidity proportioned to the salu-brity of its climate and the fertility of its soil. Itspopulation in general is composed of Europeans,Creoles, Indians, Negroes, and Musters. TheEuropeans, except a few French, English, andItalians, are Spaniards, who for the most part arefrom the s. provinces of Spain. D. Cosrne Bueno,whose manuscript account of Peru is stated byRobertson, as having been drawn up in 1764,(though the copies w hich v/e have seen of this workcontain facts of a later date by at least 20 years),ffives to Chile a population of 240,000 souls.Malespina, who visited that country in 1790, is ofopinion that this estimate, is greatly under thetruth ; and we hove been lately informed, on goodauthority, that the present population of Chile]

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[amounts to 790,000 souls, including 70,000 inde-pendent Araucanos.

6. Chilian Creoles . — The Creoles, who form thegreater number, are the descendants of Europeans.Their character, with some slight difference, pro-ceeding from climate or government, is preciselysimilar to that of the other American Creoles ofEuropean origin. The same modes of thinking,and the same moral qualities, are discernible inthem all. This uniformity, which furnishes muchsubject for reflection, has never yet been consideredby any philosopher in its full extent. Whateverintelligent and unprejudiced travellers have ob-served respecting the characters of the French andEnglish Creoles, will perfectly apply to that of theChilian. They are generally possessed of goodtfllents, and succeed in any of the arts to whichthey apply themselves. They would make as greatprogress in the useful sciences as they have doneiji metaphysics, if they had the same motives tostimulate them as are found in Europe. They donot readily imbibe prejudices, and are not tena-cious in retaining them.

7. State of arts and sciences, — As scientificbooks and instruments, however, are very scarce,or sold at an exorbitant price, their talents are eithernever developed, or are wholly employed upontrifles. The expences of printing are also so great,as to discourage literary exertion, so that few aspireto the reputation of authors. The knowledge ofthe civil and canonical laws is held in great esteemby them, so that many of the Chilian youth, afterhaving completed their course of academical edu-cation in Chile, proceed to Lima, which is highlycelebrated for its schools of law, in order to be in-structed in that science. The fine arts are in avery low state in Chile, and even the mechanicalare as yet very far from perfection. We may ex-cept, however, those of carpentry, and the work-ing of iron and the precious metals, which havemade considerable progress, in consequence of theinformation obtained from some German artists,who were introduced into the country by thatworthy ecclesiastic, Father Carlos, of Hainhausenin Bavaria. In a w'ord, the arts and sciences ofChile have for these latter years much engaged theattention of the inhabitants, and it is affirmed thatthe state of the country has already assumed a veryditferent appearance.

8. The peasantry . — The peasantry, though formuch the greater part of Spanish origin, dress inthe Araucanian manner. Dispersed over that ex-tensive country, and unencumbered by restraint,they possess perfect liberty, and lead a tranquiland happy life, amidst the enjoyments of that de-

lightful climate. Raynal observes, the principalpart of these robust men live dispersed upon theirpossessions, and cultivate with their own hands agreater or less extent of ground. They are in-cited to this laudable labour by a sky always clearand serene, and a climate the most agreeably tem-perate of any in the two hemispheres, but moreespecially by a soil whose fertility has excited theadmiration of all travellers.” They are naturallygay and fond of all kinds of diversion. Theyhave likewise a taste for music, and compose versesafter their manner, which, although rutle and in-elegant, possess a certain natural simplicity moreinteresting than the laboured compositions of cul-tivated poets. Extemporaneous rhymes, or im~provisatori, are common among them, and arecalled in their language palladores. Those knownto possess this talent are held in high estimation,and apply themselves to no other occupation. Inthe countries dependent on the Spanish colonies,there is generally no other language than the Spa-nish spoken, but on the frontiers the peasants speakthe Araucanian or Chilian, as well as the former.

9. Di'ess, Sfc . — The men dress in the French,and the women in the Peruvian fashion, exceptthat the women of Chile wear their garments longerthan those of Peru. In point of luxury, there is nodifference between the inhabitants of the two coun-tries ; Lima prescribes the fashions for Chile, asParis does for the rest of Europe. Those who arewealthy make a splendid display in their dress,their servants, coaches, or titles. Chile alone, ofall the American provinces, has enjoyed the supe-rior privilege of having two of its citizens exaltedto the dignity of grandees of Spain ; the one DonFernando Irrazabal, Marquis of Valparaiso ; theother, Don Fermin Caravajal, Duke of St. Carlos.

10. Diseases; small-pox., how cured. — The sa-lubrity of the air, and the constant exercise onhorseback to which they accustom themselves fromchildhood, render them strong and active, andpreserve them from many diseases. 'I'he small-poxis not so common as in Europe, but it makes ter-rible ravages when it appears. This disease Avas,in the year 1766, for the first time introduced intothe province of Maule, where it became very fatal.A countryman who had recovered from it, con-ceived the idea of attempting to cure a number ofunhappy wretches, avIjo had been abandoned, bycoAv’s milk, which he gave them to drink, or ad-ministered to them in clysters. With this simpleremedy he cured all those whom he attended ;while the physicians, Avith their complicated pre-scriptions, saved but a very few. This anecdote issupported by, at the same time tiiat it tends strongly]

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[their masters, tliat the greatest punishment inflictedon them would be to sell them to others. Mastersnevertheless exercise the rights of fathers of fami-lies over their slaves, in correcting them for theirfaults.

12. Internal and external commerce, mines,imports, and exports. — The internal commerce ofChile has been hitherto of very little importance,notwithstanding the advantages that the countryoffers for its encouragement. Its principal source,industry, or more properly speaking, necessity, iswanting. An extensive commerce is correlativewith a great population, and in proportion as thelatter increases, the former will also be augmented.Hitherto it may be said, that of the two branchesthat in general give birth to commerce, agricultureand industry, the first is that alone which animatesthe internal: commerce of Chile, and even thatpart of the external which is carried on with Peru.The working of mines also occupies the attentionof many in the provinces of Copiapo, Coquimbo,and Quillota ; but the industry is so trifling thatit does not deserve the name. Notwithstanding theabundance of its fruits and materials of manufacture,as flax, wool, hemp, skins and metals, which mightproduce a flourishing commerce, it is conductedbut languidly. The’inhabitants employ themselvesonly in making ponchos, stockings, socks, carpets,blankets, skin-coats, saddles, hats, and other smallarticles chiefly made use of by the common orpoorer class of people, since those of the middlerank employ those of European manufacture.These, but more particularly the sale of hides andtanned leather, which they have in great plenty,with that of grain and wine, form the whole of theinternal commerce of the kingdom. The external,which is carried on with all the ports of Peru, par-ticularly Callao, arises from the exportation offruits ; this amounts to 700,000 dollars annually,according to the statements given in the periodicalpublications at Lima. The commerce betweenChile and Buenos Ayres is quite otherwise, sincefor the herb of Paraguaj/ dXone, it is obliged to ad-vance 300,000 dollars annually in cash ; theother articles received from thence are probablypaid for by those sent thither. In the trade withSpain, the fruits received from Chile go but a littleway in payment of more than a million of dollars,which are received from thence annually in Euro-pean goods, either directly, or by the way ofBuenos Ayres, and sometimes from Lima. Gold,silver, and copper, are the articles which formnearly the whole of this commerce, since the hidesand vicuna wool are in such small quantities as torender them of little importance.

Notwithstanding theworkingofthe mines in Chilehas in a great measure been relinquished from theex-pence,and from the impediments offered by the war-like spirit of the Araucanians, there are more than athousand now in work between the cities of Co-quimbo and Copiapo, besides those of the provinceof Aconcagua ; and it is a matter of fact that theproduce of its mines has been increasing eversince that the passage into the S. sea by cape Hornwas frequented by the Spanish merchants. Thegold coined in the capital was lately regulated at5200 marks annually ; but the present yearly pro-duce of the mines, as calculated from the amountsof the royal duties, and therefore considerablyunder the truth, amounts to 10,000 Spanish marksof pure gold, and 29,700 do. of pure silver. Thevalue in dollars of both is 1,737,380; the goldbeing estimated at 145i*#^ dollars, and the silverat 9 t'V dollars the Spanish mark. Besides^ this, wemust add for contraband 322,620 dollars ; andthe total produce will then be 2,060,000. Accord-ing to liumboldt, the dollars imported into Chileand Peru in 1803 amounted to 11,500,000, andthe exports consisted of produce to the value of4,000,000 dollars, besides 8,000,000 dollars inspecie. The receipts of Chile, Guatemala, and Ca-racas, are consumed within the country. The re-mittances of gold and silver to Spain are usuallymade from Buenos Ayres ; the first being lessbulky, is carried by the monthly packets insums of 2 or 3000 ounces ; as to the second,it has, till within a very late period, been sent intwo convoy ships in the summer, by which con-veyances gold is also remitted. The copper whichis extracted from the mines is estimated from 8to 10,000 quintals. From these data it will notbe difficult to form a general estimate of all thatChile produces annually. A communication bywater, which greatly facilitates the progress ofcommerce, has been already commenced. In se-veral of the ports, barks are employed in the trans-portation of merchandize, which was before carriedby land upon mules. Several large ships havealso been built in the harbour of Concepcion andthe mouth of the river Maule. The external com-merce is carried on with Peru and Spain. In thefirst, 23 or 24 ships, of 5 or 600 tons each, are em-ployed, which are partly Chilian and partly Peru-vian. These usually make three voyages in ayear; they carry from Chile wheat, wine, pulse,almonds, nuts, cocoa-nuts, conserves, dried meat,tallow, lard, cheese, sole-leather, timber for build-ing, copper, and a variety of other articles, andbring back in return silver, sugar, rice and cotton.The Spanish ships receive in exchange for Euro-1

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]^pean merchandise gold, silver, copper, vicugnawool, and hides. A trade with the East Indieswould be more profitable to the Chilians'than anyother, as tlieir most valuable articles have eitherbecome scarce, or are not produced in that wealthypart of Asia ; and the passage, in consequence ofthe prevalence of the s. winds in the Pacific, wouldbe easy and expeditious. No money is coined orhas currency in Chile except gold and silver, acircumstance very embarrassing to the internaltraffic. Their smallest silver coin is one sixteenthof a dollar, and their weights and measures are thesame that are used in Madrid.

13. Natural divisions. — Chile, properly called,or that part which is situated between the Andes andthe sea, and within lat. 24° and 45° s. is at least 120miles in breadth. It is commonly divided intotwo equal parts, that is, the maritime country, andthe midland country ; the maritime country is in-tersected by three chains of mountains, runningparallel to the Andes, between which are numerousvalleys watered by delightful rivers. The midlandcountry is almost flat ; a few insulated hills only areto be seen, which diversify and render the appear-ance of it more pleasing. The Andes, which areconsidered as the loftiest mountains in the world,cross the whole continent of America, in a directionfrom s. to n. for we cannot consider the mountainsin North America in any other light than as a con-tinuation of the cordilleras. The part appertainingto Chile may be 120 miles in breadth ; it consistsof a great number of mountains, all of tliernofaprodigious height, which appear to be chained toeach other, and where nature displays all thebeauties and all the horrors of the most picturesquesituations. Although it abounds witli frightfulprecipices, many agreeable valleys and fertile pas-tures are to be found there; and the rivers, whichderive their sources from the mountains, often ex-hibit the most pleasing as well as the most terrify-ing features. That portion of the cordilleras whichis situated between lat. 24° and 33° is wholly de-sert ; but the remainder, as far as the 45°, is in-habited by some colonies of Chilians, who areCcallcd Chiquillanes, Pehuenches, Puelches, andHuilliches, but are more generally known by thename of Patagonians. The surface of Chile isestimated at 378,000 square miles. There areabout eight or nine roads which cross its cordillera ;of which that leading from the province of Acon-cagua to Cuyo, although dangerous, as being nar-row, and having on either side lofty and perpendi-cular mountains, is the most travelled. Mules areoften precijiitated from these roads into the riversbeneath.

14. Political divisions . — The political divisionsof Chile consist of the part occupied by the Spa-niards, and that which is inhabited by the Indians.The Spanish part is situated between lat. 24° and37° s. and is divided into 13 provinces, viz.Copiapo, Coquimbo, Quillota, Aconcagua, Meli-pilla, and St. Jago, (which contains the capital cityof the country of the same name), Rancagua, Cal-diagua, Maule, Ytata, Chilian, Puchacay, andIluilquelemu. The Indian country is situated be-tween the river Biobio and the Archipelago ofChiloe, or lat. 36° and 41°. It is inhabited by threedifferent nations, the Araucanians, the Cunches,and the Huilliches. The Araucanians do not, asMr. De Paun pretends, inhabit the barren rocks ofChile, but, on the contrary, the finest plains in thewhole country, situate between the rivers Biobioand Valdivia.

15. Climate . — Chile is ono of the best countries

in America. The beauties of its sky, the constantmildness of its climate, and its abundant fertility,render it, as a place of residence, extremely agree-able ; and with respect to its natural productions,it may be said, without exaggeration, not to be in-ferior to any portion of the globe. The seasons suc-ceed each other regularly, and are sufficientlymarked, aithougli the transition from cold to heatis very moderate. The spring in Chile commences,as in all the countries of the s. hemisphere, the 22dSeptember, the summer in December, the autumnin March, and the winter in June. The followingaccount is from Robertson s History of America^vol. IV. c. 7. “ That part of Chile which may

properly be deemed a Spanish province, is a narrowdistrict, extending along the coast from the desertof Atacamas to the island of Chiloe, above 900miles. Its climate is the most delicious of thenew world, and is hardly equalled by that of anyregion on the face of the earth. Though border-ing on the torrid zone, it never feels the extremityof heat, being screened on the e. by the Andes, andrefreshed from the w. by cooling sea-breezes. Thetemperature of the air is so mild and equable, thatthe Spaniards give it the preference of that of the

provinces in their native country. The fertiliU’of the soil corresponds with the benignity of theclimate, and is wonderfully accommodated toEuropean productions. The most valuable ofthese, corn, wine, and oil, abound in Chile, as ifthey had been native in the country. Ail the fruitsimported from Europe attain to full maturity there.The animals of our hemisphere not only multiply,but improve in this delightful region. The hornedcattle are of larger size than those of Spain. Itsbreed of horses surpasses, both in beauty and in]

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[spirit, the famous Andalucian race, from whichthey sprang. Nor has Nature exhausted herbounty on the surface of the earth ; she has storedits bowels with riches ; valuable mines of gold, ofsilver, of copper, and of lead, have been discoveredin various parts of it. A country distinguishedby so many blessings, we may be apt to conclude,would early become a favourite station of theSpaniards, and must have been cultivated withpeculiar predilection and care ; instead of this, agreat part of it remains unoccupied. In all thisextent of country there are not above 80,000 whiteinhabitants, and about three times that number ofNegroes and people of a mixed race. The mostfertile soil in America lies uncultivated, and someof its most promising mines remain unwrought.”16. Of rain . — From the beginning of springuntil autumn, there is throughout Chile a con-stant succession of fine weather, particularly be-tween tlie 24° and 36° of latitude ; but in the islands,which for the most part are covered with woods,the rains are very frequent, even in summer. Tlierainy season on the continent usually commencesin April, and continues until the end of August.In the n. provinces of Coquimbo and Copiapo itvery rarely rains ; in the central ones it usuallyrains three or four days in succession, and thepleasant weather continues 15 or 20 days ; in thes. the rains are much more frequent, and oftencontinue for nine or ten days without cessation.These rains are never accompanied with stormsor hail, and thunder is scarcely known in thecountry, particularly in places at a distance fromthe Andes, where, even in summer, it is seldomever heard. Lightning- is wliolly unknown in theprovince of Chile; and although, in the above-mentioned mountains, and near the sea, stormsoccasionally arise, yet they, according to the di-rection of the wind, pass over, and take theircourse to the n. or s. In the maritime provincessnow is never seen. In those nearer the Andes itfalls about once in five years ; sometimes not sooften, and the quantity very trifling; it usuallymelts while falling, and it is very uncommon tohave it remain on the ground for a day. In theAndes, however, it falls in such quantities fromApril to November, that it not only lies there con-stantly during that time, but even renders themwholly impassable during the greater part of theyear. The highest summits of these mountains,which are constantly covered with snow, are dis-tinguishable at a great distance l)y their whiteness,and form a very singular and pleasing appear-ance. Those of the inhabitants who are not suf-ficiently wealthy to have ice-houses, procure

snow from the mountains, which they transportupon mules. The consumption of this article isvery considerable, as a general use is made of itin summer to cool their liquors. The maritimecountries being at a distance from the Andes, donot enjoy this advantage, but they feel the priva-tion of it less, as the heat is much more moderateupon the coast than in the interior. In the mid-land provinces is sometimes seen, in the month ofAugust, a white frost, accompanied by a slight de-gree of cold, which is the greatest that is expe-rienced in those districts. This coldness continuestwo or throe hours after sun-rise; from which timethe weather is like that of a fine day in spring.The dews are abundant throughout Chile in thespring, summer, and autumual nigids, and in agreat measure supply the want of rain duringthose seasons. Although the atmosphere is thenloaded with humidity, its salubrity is not injuredthereby, for both husbandmen and travellerssleep in the open air with perfect security. Fogsarc common on the coast, especially in the au-tumn ; they cordinue but a few hours in the morn-ing, and as they consist only of watery particles,are not prejudicial either to the health of the inha-bitants, or to the vegetation.

17. Winds . — The n. and n. w. winds usuallybring rain, and the s. and s. e. a clear sky ; theseserve as infallible indications to the inhabitants,who are observant of them, and furnish themselveswith a kindofbarometer to determine previously thestate of the weather. The same winds producedirectly contrary effects in the s. and in the n.hemisplieres. The n. and northerly winds, be-fore they arrive at Chile, cross the torrid zone,and there becoming loaded with vapours, bringwith them heat and rain; this heat is, however,very moderate, and it would seem that these winds,in crossing the Andes, which are constantlycovered with snow, become qualified, and losemuch of their heat and unhealthy properties. InTucuman and Cujo, where they are known bythe name of sonda^ they are much more incom-modious, and are more suffocating than even thesiroc in Italy. The s. winds coming immediatelyfrom the antarctic pole, are cold and dry ; theseare usually from the s. w. and prevail in Chileduring the time that the sun is in the hemis-phere ; thej' blow constantly towards the equator,the atmosphere at that period being highly rare-fied, and no adverse current of air opposing itselfto their course : as they disperse the vapodrs,and drive them towards the Andes, it rains butseldom during their continuance. The cloudscollected upon these mountains, uniting with those]

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[w hich come from the n. occasion very heavy rains,accompanied with thunder, in all the provincesbey ond the Andes, ^particularly in those of Tucu-man and Cujo, while at the same time the atmos-phere of Chile is constantly clear, and its inhabi-tants enjoy their finest season. The contrarytakes place in winter, wl)ich is the fine season inthese provinces, and the rainy in Chile. Thes.wind never continues blowing during the wholeday with the same force ; as the sun .approaclicsthe meridian, it falls very considerably, and risesagain in the afternoon. At noon, when this windis scarcely perceptible, a fresh breeze is felt fromthe sea, which continues about two or three hours ;the husbandmen give it the name of the twelveo’clock breeze, or the countryman’s watch, as it.serves to regulate them in determining tliat hour.Th is sea-breeze returns regularly at midnight, andis supposed to be produced by the tide; it isstronger in autumn, and sometimes accompaniedwith hail. The e. winds rarely prevail in Chile,their course being obstructed by the Andes. Hur-ricanes, so common in the Antilles, are unknowuhere; there exists indeed a solitary example of ahurricane, which, in 1633, did much injury to thefortress of Caremalpo, in the part of Chile.The mild temperature which Chile almost alwaysenjoys must depend entirely upon the succession ofthese winds, as a situation so near thetroj)ic wouldnaturally expose it to a more violent degree ofheat. In addition to those, the tide, the abundantdews, and certain winds from the Andes, whichare distinct from the e. wind, coot the air so muchin summer, that in the shade no one is ever in-commoded with perspiration. The dress of theinhabitants of the sea-coast is the .same in the win-ter as in the summer ; and in the interior, Avherethe heat is more perceptible than elsewhere, Reau-mur’s thermometer scarcely ever exceeds 25°.The nights, throughout the country, are generallyof a very agreeable tem.pcraturc. Notwithstand-ing the moderate heat of Chile, all the fruits ofAvarin countries, and even those of the tropics,arrive to great perfection there, Avhich renders itprobable that the Avarmth ofthe soil far exceedsthat ofthe atmosphere. The countries borderingon the e. of Chile do not enjoy these refreshingwinds ; the air there is suffocating, and as oppres-sive as in Africa under the same latitude.

18. ]\Teleors . — Meteors are A'ery frequent inChile, especially those called shooting stars, whicharc to be seen there almost the Avliole year ; alsoballs of fire, that usually rise from the Andes, andfall into the sea. The aurora australis, on thethe contrary, is very uncommon ; that which was

observed in 1640 was one of the largest; it wasvisible, from the accounts that have been left usfrom the month of February until April. Duringthis century they have appeared at four differenttimes. This phenomenon is more frequently vi-sible in the Archipelago of Chiloe, from the greaterelevation ofthe pole in that part of the country.

19. Volcanoes . — That a country producing suchan abundance of sulphureous, nitrous, and bitu-minous substances, should be subject to volcaniceruptions, is not to be Avondered at. The nume-rous volcanoes in the cordilleras wmdd, of them-selves, furnish a sufficient proof of the quantity ofthese combustible materials ; there are said tobe 14 Avhich are in a constant state of eruption,and a still greater number that discharge smokeonly at intervals. 'J’hese are all situated in thatpart of the Andes appertaining to Chile, and nearlyin the middle of that range of mountains ; so thatthe lava and ashes thrown out by them never ex-tend beyond their limits. These mountains andtheir vicinities are found, on examination, to con-tain great quantities of sulphur and sal-ammoniac,marcasite in an entire and decomposed state, cal-cined and crystaliized stones, and various metallicsubstances. The greatest eruption ever known inChile was that of Peteroa, Avhich happened on theSd of December 1760, when that volcano formeditself a new crater, and a neighbouring mountainAvas rent asunder for many miles in extent; theeruption was accompanied by a dreadful explo-sion, Avhich Avas heard throughout the wholecountry ; fortunately it Avas not succeeded by anyvery violent shocks of an earthquake : the quan-tify of lava and ashes was so great that it filledthe neighbouring valleys, and occasioned a rise oftlie Avaters of the Tingeraca, which continued formany days. At the same time the course of theLontue, a very considerable river, was impededfor 10 days, by a part of the mountain which felland filled its bed ; the Avater at length forced itselfa passage, overfloAved all the neighbouring plains,and formed a lake which still remains. In theAvhole ofthe country not included in the Andes,there are but two volcanoes ; the first, situate atthe mouth of the river Rapel, is small, and dis-charges only a little smoke from time to time ; thesecond is the great volcano of Villarica, in thecountry of Arauco. This volcano may be seen atthe distance of 130 miles ; and although* it appearsto be insulated, it is said to be connected by itsbase Avith the Andes. 'J'he summit of the moun-tain is covered with snoAv, and is in a constantstate of eruption ; it is 14 miles in circumferenceat its base, which is principally covered with]

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ipleasant forests : a great number of rivers derive*heir sources from it, and its perpetual verdureturnishes a proof that its eruptions have never beenvery violent.

20. Earthquakes . — The quantity of inflammablesubstances with which the soil of Chile abounds,rendered active by the electric fluid, may be con-sidered as one of the principal causes of earth-quakes, the only scourge that afflicts this favouredcotintry. Another, however, not less capable ofproducing this terrible phenomenon, is the elas-ticity of the air contained in the bowels of theearth, in consequence of the water which, insinuat-ing itself by subterranean passages from the sea,becomes changed into vapour. This hypothesiswill explain why the provinces to the e. of theAndes, at a distance from the sea, are so little in-commoded by earthquakes. Two, however, Co-piapo and Coquimbo, although near the sea, andas rich in minerals as the others, have never suf-fered from earthquakes ; and whilst the otherparts of the country have been violently shaken,these have not experienced the least shock, orbeen but slightly agitated. It is a general opinionthat the earth in these provinces is intersected bylarge caverns. The noises heard in many places,and which appear to indicate the passage of waters,or subterraneous winds, seem to confirm this opinion,and it is highly probable that by affording a freevent to the inflamed substances, these caverns mayserve to counteract the progress of those convul-sions to which the neighbouring country is subject.The inhabitants usually calculate three or fourearthquakes at Chile annually, but they are veryslight, and little attention is paid to them. Thegreat earthquakes happen but rarely, and of thesenot more than five have occurred in a period of244 years, from the arrival of the Spaniards to thepresent period, J8I2. From a course of accurateobservations it has been ascertained, that earth-quakes never occur unexpectedly in this country,but are always announced by a hollow sound pro-ceeding from a vibration of the air; and as theshocks do not succeed each other rapidly, the in-habitants have sufficient time to provide for theirsafety. They have, however, in order to securethemselves at all events, built their cities in avery judicious manner ; the streets are left so broadthat the inhabitants would be safe in the middle ofthem, should even the bouses fall upon both sides.In addition to this, all the houses have spaciouscourts and gardens, which would serve as places ofrefuge ; those who are wealthy have usually intheir gardens several i^eat wooden barracks,where they pass the night whenever they are

I L E.

threatened wdth an earthquake. Under these cir-cumstances the Chilians live without apprehension,especially as the earthquakes have never beenhitherto attended with any considerable sinking ofthe earth, or falling of buildings ; this is probablyowing to subterranean passages coramunicatino-with the volcanoes of the Andes, w Inch are so manyvent-holes for the inflamed substances, and serveto counteract tlieir effects. Were it not for thenumber of these volcanoes, Chile would, in allprobability, be rendered uninhabitable. Somepretend that they can foretel an earthquake fromcertain changes in the atmosphere : although tinsdoes not appear to be impossible, it is altogetlierdiscredited by many of the best writers on Chile :these observe that they will occur both in therainy and dry seasons, during a storm as well as acalm.

21. Some detail of productions . — Chile pro-duces none of those dangerous or venomous ani-mals which are so much dreaded in hot countries ;and it has but one species of small serpent, whichis perfectly harmless, as the French academiciansascertained when they went to Peru, in 1736, tomeasure a degree of the meridian. IJIIoa also, inhis Voyage, part II. vol. 111. observes, “ Thiscountry is not infested by any kind of insect ex-cept the chiguas, or pricker, or any poisonousreptile ; and although in the w oods and fields somesnakes are to be found, their bite is by no meansdangerous ; nor does any savage or ferociousbeast excite terror in its plains. The puma, orAmerican lion, which is sometimes met w'ith in thethickest and least frequented forests, is distinguish-ed from the African lion, both by its being with-out a mane and its timidity ; there is no instanceof its ever having attacked a man, and a personmay not only travel, but lie down to sleep withperfect security, in any part of the plain, andeven in the thickest forests of the mountains. Nei-ther tigers, wolves, nor many other ferociousbeasts that infest the neighbouring countries, areknown there. Probably the great ridge of theAndes, which is every where extremely steep,and covered with snow, serves as a barrier to theirpassage. The mildness of the climate may alsobe unfavourable to them, as the greater part ofthese animals are natives of the hottest countries.Horses, asses, cattle, sheep, goats, many kindsof dogs, cats, and even mice, have been broughthither by the Spaniards. All these animals havemultiplied exceedingly, and increased in size.The price of the best horses is from 100 to 500crowns ; the asses are strong and stately, thoughhunted chiefly for their skins; and the mules are]

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rdistinguished for being very sure-footed and active.The horned cattle have, through the favourabletemperature of the climate, acquired a larger size,while their flesh has become better and more nu-tritive ; the sheep imported from Spain retain awool as beautiful as that of the best Spanish sheep,each sheep yielding annually from 10 to 15 lbs. ofwool ; they breed twice a-year, and have gene-rally two at a birth. The common price of cattlethroughout the country is from three to fourfilippi (fifteen or twenty francs), but in the sea-ports the price is fixed by an ancient regulation,at 10 crowns ; of which the commandant of theport receives four, and the owner six.

The different kinds of trees known in Chileamount to 97, and of these only 13 shed theirleaves : amongst the plants, there are 3000 notmentioned in botanical works. _The melons hereare, according to Molina, three feet long, and theonly fruits unknown are medlars, service apples,three-grained medlar, and the jujubre. Of theindigenous worms, insects, &c. are 36 species,andthetunicated cuttle-fish found here is of 150 lbs.weight. There are 13 species of crabs and craw-fish found on the sea-coast, and four species in thefresh waters. There are 135 species ofland-birds,and of quadrupeds 36, without those imported.The various kinds of esculent fish found upon thecoast are computed by the fishermen at 76, the mostof them differing from those of the n. hemisphere,and appearing to be peculiar to that sea.

Amongst the earths of this country is a claythought to be very analogous to kaolin of theChinese ; another kind called roro, producing anexcellent black dye, and represented by Feuilleand Frazier as superior to the best Europeanblacks. The membraneous mica^ otherwise Mus-covy grass, is also found here in the greatest per-fection, both as respects its transparency and thesize of its laminae ; of this substance the countrypeople manufacture artificial flowers, and like theRussians, make use of it for glazing their houses.The thin plates which are used for windows are bymany preferred to glass, from their being pliableand less fragile, and possessing what appears to bea peculiar property, of freely admitting the lightand a view of external objects to those within,while persons without are prevented from seeingany thing in the house.

22. Present revolution. — In Chile, the autho-rity of the mother country has been supersededby the aristocracy of the colony. The govern-ment has fallen, peaceably and without resistance,into the hands of the great Creole families, whoseem hitherto to have used their power with tem-per and moderation. See La PijAta.]

Same name, a river of the former kingdom (Chile), in thedistrict of Tolten Baxo. It runs w. and entersthe sea between the rivers Tolten and Budi.

Same name, a point of the coast of the province andcorregimienio of Arequipa,

Same name, a small island of the S. sea, in the sameprovince and corregimiento.

CHILENO, Paso del, a ford of the riverJazegua, in the province and government of BuenosAyres, close to the river Cordobes.

CHILERIOS, a river of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Aires. It runs North Carolinan and cnler§the river Negro.

CHILES, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Pasto in the kingdom of Quito.

[CHILHOWEE, mountain, in the s. e. partof the state of Tennessee, and between it and theCherokee country.]

CHILIA, a settlement of the province and|corregimiento of Caxaraarquilla and Collay inPeru.

CHILINTOMO, a mountain of the provinceand government of Guayaquil in the kingdom ofQuito ; inhabited by some Indians, who, althoughreduced to the Catholic faith, are nevertheless ofsuch vile habits as constantly to manifest howdeeply idolatry is rooted in them.

CHILIPUIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru.

[CHILISQUAQUE, a township on Susque-hannah river, in Pennsylvania.]

CHILLAHUA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Carangas in Peru, and of thearchbishopric of Charcas.

[CHILLAKOTHE, an Indian town]on theGreat Miami, which was destroyed in 1782 by abody of militia from Kentucky. General Harmarsupposes this to be the “ English Tawixtwi,” inH utchins’s map. Here are the ruins of an old fort,and on both sides of the river are extensive mea-dows. This name is applied to many differentplaces, in honour of an influential chief who for-merly headed the Shawanoes. See Tawixtwi.]

[Chillakothe, Old, is an Indian town des-troyed by the forces of the United States in 1780.It lies about three miles s. of Little Mimia river jthe country in its vicinity is of a rich soil, and isbeautifully chequered with meadows.]

CHILLAN, a city, the capital of the districtand corregimiento of this name (Chillan) in the kingdom ofChile. It is very small and poor, although itcontains some families of distinction. It consists.

2h

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at the most, of 360 houses : for having been des-troyed by tlie Araucanians, in 1599, it as neversine e been able to reach its former degree of splen-dour. Jt lies between the river Nuble to the n.and the Itala to the s. in lat. 35° 56' s.

another, a mountain or volcano of the sameprovince and corregimiento (Chillan), at a little distancefrom the former city. On its skirts are the Indiannations of the Puclches, Pehuenches, and Chiquillanes, who have an outlet by the navigation ot theriver Demante.

another, a small river of the same province (Chillan).

CHILLAOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of this name in Peru. It is of ahot temperature, and produces some tobacco andalmonds.

CHILLOA, a llanura of the kingdom of Quito, near this capital, between twochains of mountains, one very lofty towards thee. and the other lower towards the s. It is wateredby two principal rivers, the Pita and the Amaguana,which at the end of the llanura unitethemselves at the foot of the mountain calledGuangapolo, in the territory of the settlement ofAlangasi, and at the spot called Las Juntas. In thisplain lie the settlements of Amaguana, Sangolqui,Alangasi, and Conocoto, all of which are curacies ofthe jurisdiction of Quito. It is of a mild and pleasanttemperature, although sometimes rather cold, fromits proximity to the mountains or paramos of Pintac, Antisana, Rurainavi, and Sincholagua. Herewas formerly celebrated the cavalgata, by the col-legians of the head- college and seminary of SanLuis dc Quito, during the vacations. The soilproduces abundance of wheat and maize. It ismuch resorted to by the gentlemen of Quito as aplace of recreation, it is eight or nine leagues inlength, and six in width.

CHILLOGALLO, a settlement of the kingdomof Quito, in the district of Las Cinco Leguasde su Capital.

[CHILMARK, a township on Martha’s Vineyard island, Duke’s county, Massachusetts, con-taining 771 inhabitants. It lies 99 miles s. by e.of Boston. See Maktha’s Vineyard.]

CHILOE, a large island of the Archipelago orAncud of the kingdom of Chile, being one of the18 provinces or corregimientos which compose it.It is 58 leagues in length, and nine in width at thebroadest part ; and varies until it reaches onlytwo leagues across, which is its narrowest part. Itis of a cold temperature, being very subject toheavy rains and fresh winds ; notwithstanding '

which its climate is healthy. Around it are fourother islands ; and the number of settlements inthese are 25, which are,

Achau,

Quehuy,

Lin-lin,

Chelin,

Llinua,

Limuy,

Qnenac,

Tanqui,

Meulin,

Chiduapi,

Cahuac,

Abtau,

Alau,

Tabor,

Apiau,

Quenu,

Chanlinec,

Llaycha,

Anihue,

Huar,

Chegniau,

Calbuco,

VAita-Chauquis,

Caucahue,

Isla Grande.

All of these are mountainous, little cultivatad,and produce only a small proportion of wheat,barley, flax, and papas ^ esteemed the best of anyin America ; besides some swine, of which hamsare made, which they cure by frost, and are of sodelicate a flavour as not only to be highly esteemedhere, but in all other parts, both in and out of thekingdom, and are in fact a very large branch ofcommerce. The principal trade, however, con-sists in planks of several exquisite woods, the treesof which are so thick, that from each of them arscut in general 600 planks, of 20 feet in length,and of 1| foot in width. Some of these treeshave measured 24 yards in circumference. Thenatives make various kinds of woollen garments,such as ponchos f quilts, coverlids, baizes, and bor~dillos. The whole of this province is for the mostpart poor ; its natives live very frugally, and withlittle communication with any other part of theworld, save with those who are accustomed to comehither in the fleet once a-year. Altliough it hassome small settlements on the continent, in Val-divia, yet these are more than 20 or 30 leagues dis-tant from this place, and are inhabited by infidelIndians. These islands abound in delicate shell-fish of various kinds, and in a variety of otherfish ; in the taking of which the inhabitants aremuch occupied, and on which they chiefly sub-sist. This jurisdiction is bounded on the n. bythe territory of the ancient city of Osorno, whichwas destroyed by the Araucanian Indians, bythe extensive Archipelagoes of Huayaneco andHuaytecas, and others which reach as far as thestraits of Magellan and the Terra del Fuego, e.by the cordilleras and the Patagonian country, andw. by the Pacific or S. sea. On its mountains arefound amber, and something resembling gold dust,which is washed up by the rains, although no

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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]

CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.

CHILOSTUTA, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Zedales in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

CHILPANSINGO, a settlement of the intendancy of Mexico, surroundedwith fertile fields of wheat. Elevation 1080 me-tres, or 3542 feet.

CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.

to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,

Araipalpa,

San Lorenzo,Parapacucho,

Ceapa,

Cuchirihuay,

Tucuyachi,

Coron,

Pacopata,

Aicha-Urinzaba,

Pilpinto,

Huayaconga,

Accha-Amansaia,

Parco,

Pocoray,

Hanoquite,

Corea,

Paucartarnbo,

Amacha,

Antapalpa,

Quilli,

Acca,

Vilque,

Capi,

Cavabamba,

Huancahuanca,

Yaurisque.

Same name, another settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in the same king-dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pucquin.

CHILTAL, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Atacames or Esmeraldas in thekingdom of Quito ; situate in the valley of Chota,on the shore of the river Mira.

CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.

Same name, a river of the province and alcal-diamayor of Tabasco, which runs into the sea.

CHILUA, San Marcos de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru ;annexed to the Curacy of Huamanguilla.

CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.

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CHIMALAPA, Santa Maria de a settlement of the head settlement of the district andalcaldia mayor of Tehuantepec in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, and the whole of itsdistrict is covered with very large trees, especiallyfirs fit for ship-building. Twenty-five leaguesn.w. of its capital,

CHIAMLHUACAN, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Coatepec inNueva Espana. It contains a good convent of thereligious order of St. Domingo, 300 families ofSpaniards, il/wsfees, and Mulattoes, who employthemselves in labour, and in the commerce of seedsand large and small cattle, which are bred in theestates contiguous ; but the latter in no great de-gree, owing to the scarcity of water and pasturewhich prevails here.

Same name, another settlement and headsettlement of the district in the alcaldia mayor ofChaleo, of the same kingdom. It contains 166families of Indians, and a convent of the religiousorder of St. Domingo. Five leagues n. of itscapital.

CHIMALTENANGO, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Guatemala ; situatein the valley of this capital. It is very pleasantand fertile, and peopled with Indians.

CHIMALTEPEC, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 29families of Indians, and is two leagues from thereal of the mines of Cairo.

Same name, another small settlement of thehead settlement of Malcatepec, and alcaldia mayorof Nexapa, very near its head settlement.

CHIMAN, a settlement of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate near the coast of the S. sea, and onthe shore of the river of its name, having a smallport, which is garrisoned by a detachment fromPanama, for the purpose of restraining the inva-sions which are continually made by the Indians.

Same name, a river of this province, and govern-ment, which rises in the mountains on the s. coast,and runs into the sea opposite the island of Nar-ranjal,

CHIMBA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It has the celebrated talc gold-mine whichwas discovered 36 years ago by a fisherman, whopulling up a plant of large and prickly leaves,called cordon, or fuller’s thistle, for the purpose offuel for his fire, observed that particles of golddropped from its roots; and having more narrowlyinspected it, found pieces amidst the mould ofconsiderable size and of very fine quality. Thus

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a mine became established here, and when it wasfirst dug it yielded from 300 to 500 dollars eachcaxon.

Same name, another settlement of the province andcorregimienio of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Andajes.

CHIMBACALLEa settlement of the kingdom of Quito, inthe corregimienio of the district of Las CincoLeguasde la Capital, (ofthe Five Leagues from theCapital), of which this is looked upon as a suburbfrom its proximity.

CHIMBARONGO, a river of the kingdom ofChile. It rises in the mountains of its cordillera^and unites itself with that of Tinguiragua to enterthe Napel. This river waters and fertilizes somevery pleasant and delightful valleys, abounding inpastures, whereon breed and fatten an infinite num-ber of cattle. On its shores are two convents, oneofthe religious order of Nuestra Senora de la Mer-ced, for the instruction of the Indians in the Chris-tian faith ; and another a house for novices, whichbelonged to the regulars of the society of Jesuits ;and also within a league’s distance from the latter,is a convent of the order of St. Domingo.

Same name, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienio of Colchagua in the same king-dom ; situate in the Former valley, between therivers Tinguiririca and Teno. There is alsoanother small settlement annexed, with a chapelof ease. In its district is a convent of the religiousorder of La Merced.

[CHIMBO, a jurisdiction in the province ofZinto in South America, in the torrid zone. Thecapital is also called by the same name.]

CHIMBO Y ALAUSI, a province and corregimientoof the kingdom of Quito ; bounded n. oythe serrania of the asiento of Ambato ; s, by thegovernment and jurisdiction of Guayaquil ; e. bythe district of the point of Santa Elena of this govern-ment; and ro. by the province of Riobamba. Its dis-trict is barren and poor, and the country beingmountainous, the inhabitants have no resource forgetting their livelihood other than by acting ascarriers between the provinces of Riobamba andTacunga on the one hand, and the warehouses ofBabahoyo on the other, where also are the royalmagazines ; and thus they bring back goods fromthe provinces of Peru, having for this traffic anumber of requas, or droves of mules, amountingin the whole to 1500 head. This commerce canonly be carried on in the summer, the roads beingimpassable in the winter through the mountains,when they say that these are shut up : at the sameseason the rivers become swollen to such a degree

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as to render it impracticable to cross them. In theroad they usually take lies the steep declivity ofSan Antonio, extremely difficult to be passed.The mules however are so well versed in the man-ner of letting themselves slide down it, that therehas never been an instance of these animals falling.The 'vegetable productions of this province areconfined to bark, and from this no emolument isderived, although it was discovered, after muchsearch and solicitude, by the Lieutenant-colonelDon Miguel de Santistevan. It accordinglj'- pro-vides itself with all that it may require in this wayfrom the adjoining provinces of Riobamba andTacunga. It is of a very cold temperature, fromits being so near to the mountainous desert ofChimborazo. Its natives amount to 2000 souls,the greater part of them being Mustees, and the■whole are divided into seven settlements, of whichthe capital bears the same name ; and althoughthis was formerly the residence of the corregidor,yet has it of late been deserted for the settlementof Guaranda. The seven settlements are,

San Lorenzo, Guaranda,

Asancoto, Guanujo,

Chapacoto, Tomabelas.

San Miguel,

CHIMBORAZO, a verylofty mountain or desert of the cordillera of theprovince and corregimiento of Riobamba, in thekingdom of Quito; which, in the language ofthe country, signifies mountain of the other side.It is covered with everlasting snow, and is theloftiest mountain in the known world, since itsheight, taken by the academicians of the sciencesof Paris, is 3220 toises from the level of the seato its top, which terminates in a cone or truncatedpyramid. Its sides are covered with a kind ofwhite sand or calcined earth with loose stones,and a certain herb called pajon, which affords pas-ture for the cattle of the neighbouring estates.The warm streams flowing from its n. side shouldseem toAvarrantthe idea that within it is a volcano.From its top flow down many rivers, which takedifferent winding courses; thus the Guarandaruns 5. the Guano s. e. and the Machala e. Onits skirt lies the road which" leads from Quito toGuayaquil ; and in order to pass it in safety, it isrequisite to be more cautious in choosing the properseason than were the Spanish conquerors of thisprovince, who were here frozen to death. Northof the town of Riobamba, in lat. 1° 21' 18" s. ac-cording to the observations of M. La Condamine.fThis mountain was visited, on the 23d of June1797, by Humboldt; who with his party reachedits €. slope on that day, and planted their instru-

ments on a narrow ledge of porphyritie rock Avhichprojected from the vast field of unfathomcd snow.A chasm, 500 feet wide, prevented their furtherascent. The air was reduced to half its usualdensity, and felt intensely cold and piercing.Respiration was laborious and blood oozed fromtheir eyes, their lips and their gums. They stoodon the highest spot ever trod by man. Its height,ascertained from barometrical observation, was3485 feet greater than the elevation attained in1745 by Condamine, and 19,300 feet above thelevel of the sea. From that extreme station, thetop of Chimborazo was found, by trigonometricalmeasurement, to be 2140 feet still higher.

CHIMBOTE, a small pointed island of the S.sea, on the coast of Peru, and province and corregimiento of Santa. It lies close to another calledCorcobado.

CHIMBUZA, a large lake of the province andgovernment of Barbacoas, of the kingdom ofQuito, to the s. w. of the river Patia, formed by anarrow canal, through ■which the Avater of thisriver enters, and so forms the same lake into asheet of water of an oblong figure, two leagues inlength, and half a league in breadth. This lakehas another narrow canal, through which the wa-ter issues, and re-unites itself with the sameriver.

CHIMENE, a port of the e. coast of the islandof San Juan in Nova Scotia.

CHIMICA, a small province of the governmentof Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada. It is almost as it were desert and aban-doned, notwithstanding that it produces a goodquantity of maize. The climate is hot and un-healthy ; and although it was formerly peopled bythe Chimicas Indians, none of these are now foundto reside here.

CHIMILAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the province ofSanta Marta. They inhabit the Avoods to the e.of the large river Magdalena, go naked, and haveno fixed abodes. They are cruel and treacherous,and are bounded by the nation of the Guaxiros.

CHIMIRAL, a river of the province and corregimiento of Copiapo in the kingdom of Chile.It rises in the SnoAvy sierra, runs w. and enters thesea in the point of its name. It in many partsruns in so inconsiderable a stream as frequently tobe in all appearance lost before it enters the sea.

CHIMIRAL ALTO, a settlement of this province and kingdom ; situate on the shore of theformer river.

Same name, a point of the coast ef thesame kingdom.

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CHIMOR, a settlement of the province andforregimiento of Paucartambo in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Challabamba.

CHINA, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; one of those which enter the greatcienega, or quagmire, on the e.

Same name, a point of land of the coast of Peru, inthe province and corregimienlo of Cañete.

Same name, a settlement of Indians of the provinceand colony of Georgia ; situate on the shore of theriver Apalachicola.

CHINACATES, a settlement of the provinceof Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.

CHINACOTA, a small settlement of the jurisdiction and government of Pamplona in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot tempe-rature, produces sugar-cane, plantains, maize, andis extremely fertile in wheat ; but this not withoutcultivation. The natives amount to about 90 poorfamilies, and as many Indians. It is situate in anextensive valley, from whence it derives its title,and which is also called. Of Meer Ambrosio, fromthe Indians having killed here the GermanGeneral Ambrosio de Alfinger, by whom it w^as dis-covered in 1531. Four leagues n. e. of Pam-plona.

CHINANTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espaha. It contains 40 fami-lies of Chinantecas Indians, and is very fertile,and abounding in maize and cotton. Eightyleagues s. of Mexico.

CHINANTEPEC, Santa Catalina, asettlement and head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Guayacocotla in NuevaEspana. Its territory is somewhat extensive, andthe settlements or wards belonging to it are far re-moved from each other, the greater part of thembeing situate within the deep glens, or on theheights, so that the roads to them are very diffi-cult. It contains, in all, 1340 families of In-dians.

CHINAPA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of La Sonora ; situate on the shore ofthe river of its name, between the settlements ofArispo and Bacuachi.

CHINAS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Popayan.

CHINATAGUAS, a barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru ; situate to the n. of the city of Gua-nuco. They are descendants of the Panataguas,of whom few remain at the present day, and ofwhom but little is known.

CHINATECA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reynode Granada ; situate on the skirt of a mountain.

CHINATOS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, who inhabit theforests to the n. e. 1 to the e. of the city of Pam-plona. They are relics of the Chitareros, whohave been always found very troublesome, fromtheir proximity to the aforesaid city.

CHINAUTLA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teuzitlan in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy ofthis capital. It contains 108 families of Indians,and lies a league and an halPs distance from thesame capital.

CHINCHA, Santo Domingo, el Real de asettlement of the province and corregimiento ofCanete in Peru ; situate on the sea-coast.

Same name, an island of the S. sea, near the coast,in the same province and corregimiento, oppositethe port of Sangallo.

Same name, formerly the name of the provinceor district now called Chunchasuyu in Peru, tothe is. of Cuzco. Its natives were valorous, andresisted for eight months the Emperor Pachacutec,who subjected it to his controul. The country ispleasant, fertile, and abounding in cattle. Hereare to be seen vestiges and ruins of some magnifi-cent fabrics, which belonged to the Incas, andwhich strike the imagination with wonder and sur-prise, at viewing the immense stones used in theirarchitecture, and when it is considered that theIndians knew not the use of engines, whereby theymight raise them.

CHINCHAIPUCQUIO, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Abancay in Peru.

CHINCHAN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Huariaca.

CHINCHAO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Santa Maria del Valle; situate onthe confines of the infidel Pataguas Indians.

CHINCHAYCOCHA, a large lake of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It ismore than nine leagues in length and three inwidth ; and from it rises the river Pari or Paria,also called Xauxa, towards the n. side. Thisriver runs s. dividing the province of Xauxa, andgiving it its name, both in Xauxa Alta, or High,and Baxa, or Low ; it then turns e. and after run-ning for more than 40 leagues, flows back to the n.until it enters the Maranon on the s. side. M. Dela Martiniere, with his accustomed error, says that

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the river Marailon has its rise in tins lake ; its realorigin being in the lake Lauricociia, as may beseen under that article.

CHINCHERO, a settlement of the provinceand correghniado of Calca y Lares in Perú. Thecemetery of its church is composed of some large,thick Avails of Avrouglit stone, well fitted together,and having in them certain niches similar to sentryboxes ; so that they appear as having formerly be-longed to some fortress.

Same name, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Andahuailas in the same king-dom.

Same name, a lake in the province of Cuzco,five leagues distant from this city.

CHINCHILCA, as otherswill have it, a river of the district of Guadalabquien and kingdom of Chile ; it runs n. n. w. andenters the river Callacalla.

CHINCHIPE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito.

Same name, a river of this province, whichrises from the mountain desert or paramo of La Sabanilla. It Avashes the city and territory of Val-ladolid, and on its c. side receives the rivers Nnm-balla, Vergel, Patacones, Sangalla, San Francisco,and Nambacasa ; and on its zs. side those of Pa-landa, Simanchi, Namballe, and Guancabamba ;when, being sAA'^elled to a considerable size by all ofthese, it enters the Maranon on the n. shore, to thew. w. of the settlement of Tompenda.

CHINCHIRU, a large lake of the province andcorregimiento of Cuzco in Peru, from whence it liestwo leagues to the n.

CHINCHULAGUA, a very lofty desert mountainor paramo, covered with eternal snow, in theprovince and corregimiento of Tacunga in thekingdom of Quito. It lies five leagues to the n. ofTacunga, Avith a slight inclination to the n. c.

CHINCONTLA, a settlement of the head set-tlement of Olintla, and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan,in Nueva Espana ; situate in a delightful defile ornarroAV tract, watered by various rivers. Eightleagues from its head settlement.

CHINCOTEAG, a small island near the coastof the N. sea, in the province and colony of Maryland,between the Cedar isle and the river Si-wanscut.

CHINGA, a fortress of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; one of the six Avhich were held by the%ipas or kings of Bogota, against the Punches na-tion, who border upon their country ; 10 leaguesto the s. w. of Bogota.

CHINGOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Gongor.

CHINI, a small island of the S. sea; situateclose to the coast of the province and governmentof Costarica in the kingdom of Guatemala, withinthe gulf ofNicoya, and in the innermost part of it.

CHINIJO, a settlement of the missions whichAvere held by the religious order of St. Augustin,in the country of the Gran Paititi, of the provinceand corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHINIPAS, a settlement of the missions of theprovince and government of Cinaloa.

Same name, some sierras of this province.

CHINGUINTILEA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Aneo.

CHINU, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cartagena in the kingdom ofTierraFirme ; founded in the sahanas, and formed by are-union of other settlements, in 1776, by the G'o-A^ernor Uon Juan Piraiento.

CHIPACO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huamalies in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Chavin de Pariarca.

CHIPALO, a river of the province and governmentof Neiva in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ;one of those Avhich enter the great river Mag-dalena.

CHIPALZINGO, a settlement and head ettlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tixtlanin Nueva Espana. It contains 353 families ofIndians, and of Spaniards, Mustces, and Mn-lattoes, and lies three leagues from the sett lemcn!,of Zurnpango.

CHIPAN, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lucanas in Peru.

CHIPANGA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom oiQuito. It rises in the sierra, Avhich divides thedistrict of Macas from the province of Mainas, runsfrom n. to s. and enters the Morona.

CHIPAQUE, a settlement of the corregimientoof Ubaque in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Itis of a mild temperature, and abounds in fruits andseeds peculiar to a warm climate. It consists of150 housekeepers, and of as many Indians. It isso infested with snakes, that it is impossible to findany part of it clear of them. Eight leagues .9. .of Santa Fe, in the road which leads to San Juande los Llanos.

CHIPASAQUE, a settlement of the corregimiento of Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of an hot temperature, lying 24 leagues to thes. e. of Santa Fe, and close to the settlement ofChaqueta, in the road Avhich leads to San Juan dc

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los Llanos. Its inhabitants amount to about 200,besides 100 Indians.

CHIPATA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofthe jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of an hot temperature, and it ishealthy, though by no means abounding in theproductions peculiar to its climate. Its inhabi-tants are very few, and the number of Indians is 50.It was one of the first settlements entered by theSpaniards, and where the first mass ever celebratedin that part of the world was said by the Friar Do-mingo de las Casas, of the order of St. Domingo ;and is situate very close to the city of Velez.

[CHIPAWAS. See Chepawas.]

CHIPAYA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carangas in Peru, and of thearchbisnoprhe of Charcas ; annexed to the curacyof Huachacalla.

CHIPEOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, ofthe country of Las Amazonas, who inhabit the fo-rests near the river Ucayala. Very little is knownof their customs.

[CHIPPAWYAN Fort, in N. America, fromwhence M‘Kenzie embarked, on the lake of theHills, when he made his way as far as the N. sea,in 1789.1

[CUJPPEWAY River runs s. w. into Missis-sippi river, in that part where the confluent watersform lake Pepin.]

CHIPURANA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Mainas. It rises in the mountainswhich are to the s. of Yurimaguas ; runs in a ser-pentine course from s. to n. and enters the Gual-laga on the e. side, in lat. 7° 8' s.

CHIQUALOQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district and alcaldia mayor ofPopantla in Nueva Espana; inhabited by 12 fami-lies of Indians, and lying 12 leagues to the n. w. ofits capital.

CHIQUIAN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru.

CHIQUIGUANITAS, a barbarous nation of Indians in former times, but now reduced to theCatholic religion. It is in Perú, to the s. of Lima,in the province of Condesuyos de Arequipa.

CHIQUILIGASTA, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucaman, in the districtof its capital ; situate to the s. e. of the same.

CHIQUILIXPAN, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Zayula inNueva Espana. It contains 50 families of In-dians, and in the mountains in its vicinity aresome mines of copper, which have been workedat different times ; but not having produced a be-nefit proportionate with the expences incurred, theyhave been abandoned. It is, 15 leagues n. w. ofits head settlement.

CHIQUILLANIANS. Sec Index to new mat-ter concerning Chile, chap. IV.

CHIQUIMULA Y SACAPA, a province andalcaldia mayor of the kingdom of Guatemala.

CHIQUINQUIRA, a settlement of the corregi-miento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of a cold temperature, but is healthy ; itssituation is delightful, and it abounds in produc-tions. It is watered by a river which runs throughthe centre of it, the waters of which are unwhole-some : at a small distance another river passesthrough a plain ; this is called Balsa, or Raft, since,before the bridge was thrown across it, it was passedby rafts. It rises from the lake Fuguene, andabounds in most exquisite fish. The settlement,which was formerly but small, is now of great note,and its inhabitants are about 500, besides 70 In-dians. It has a good convent of the religious orderof S. Domingo, and is noted for the sanctuary ofthe virgin of its title. Under the large altar, atwhich is placed this image, there is a small foun-tain of water, renowned for the curing of infirmities,as is also the earth which is extracted from thence;it being by no means the least part of the prodigy,that although this earth has been constantly takenout for upwards of 200 years, the excavation formedthereby is comparatively exceedingly small. Thefaith in, and devotion towards this image, arethroughout the kingdom very great, and not lesaso with regard to strangers, who visit it in greatnumbers from far distant provinces. This settle-ment is nine leagues from Tunja, and 15 to then. zeJ. of Santa Fe.

CHIQUITI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.It runs from s. w. to n. e. between the rivers Vichiand Cuche, and enters on the s. side into the riverof Las Esrneraldas.

CHIQUITOI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It is at presentdestroyed, and the few surviving inhabitants after-wards collected together at the settlement of San-tiago de Cao, and it then became merely a smallestate or hamlet, preserving its original name, andbeing inhabited by a few Indians.

CHIQUITOS, a numerous and warlike nation of Indians of Perú, whose country or territory ex-tends from lat. 16° to 20° s. It is bounded w. bythe province and government of Santa Cruz de laSierra ; on the e". it extends itself for upwards of140 leagues as far as the lake of Los Xarayes ; onthe n, as far as the mountains of the Tapacures,the which divide this country from that of Moxos ;

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dried flesh, hung up to preserve them from corrup-tion. Their garments are a shirt without sleeves,reaching down to the middle of their legs. Themarried people wear drawers of baize with colouredpuckers for festival days, and those who enjoyoffices of state wear a baize jacket : they neitheruse hatnorshoes, and no one of them ever goes outwithout slinging round his neck some medals and arosary. The hair is worn short until they marry,and when they become old they suffer it to growlong. The women wear close gowns which reachdown to the ground, and which they call tapoyes:they never swathe or bind themselves round thewaist, but carry on their necks, on gala-days, somethreads strung with glass intermixed with beadsmade of cacao nuts, and coloured beans ; thesethreads usually amount to 20 or SO rows ; on en-tering the church they always loosen their hair.The regulars of the company of the Jesuits taughtthem offices, in which they assisted most dexte-rously ; and it really excites admiration that In-dians, acquainted only with their own barbariandialect, should be able to manage the compass ofthe notes, understand their proportions and num-bers, and apply the rules of music to its execution.At certain times of the year they go a mdear, orto hunt for honey among the woods : from thencethey bring back wax of two sorts, one which iswhite and odoriferous, Jhe other of less substance,as the wax of Europe, manufactured by a speciesof bees without stings, called opernus; also an-other kind of wax, made by a still different sort ofbees, but which are all properly denominated wildwax. This wax is delivered to the curate, whopreserves it in his house to send to the provinces ofPeru ; and from the product of this article, andfrom that of the cotton, which is made into woofs,to the amount of two pounds weight yearly byeach Indian, he procures in 3xchange whatever isnecessary for the settlement, such as baizes, colouredwools, bags, iron and steel articles, choppingknives, wedges, hatchets, scissars, pocket-knives,needles, medals, bugles, and other articles of hard-ware and little necessaries, which, being stored upby him, is distributed amongst the natives accord-ing to their necessities, and in a manner that theymay want for nothing, but live happy and con-tented. The settlements are as follows :

San Xavier, San Joseph,

La Concepcion, Santiago,

San Miguel, San Juan,

San Ignacio, El Santo,

Santa Ana, Corazon.

San Rafael,

CHIQUIZA, a settlement of the corregimientoof Sachica in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Itis of a cold temperature, and produces wheat,maize, barley, papaSy and the other fruits peculiarto its climate. Its ijihabitants are so few as scarcelyto amount to 30 housekeepers, and about the samenumber of Indians. Four leagues to the n. w. ofTunja, and somewhat less from Velez.

CHIRA, a settlement and seat of the silver minesof the province and corregimiento of Piura in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Paita.

Same name, another settlement of the province andalcaldia mayor of Nicoya in the kingdomof Guate-mala.

[CHIRAGOW. See Plein River.]

CHIRAMBIRA, an island situate in the largebay of St. Juan, on the coast of the province andgovernment of Choco in the S. sea, which gives itsname to a small creek formed by this island and thecontinent.

CHIRCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Sicasica in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Chulumani.

CHIRE, Santa Rosa de a city of the govern-ment and province of Los Llanos in the NuevoReyno de Granada ; founded by the GovernorFrancisco Anciso. It is of a very hot and un-healthy temperature, but affords the same vegetableproductions as the rest of the province. It is somean and reduced as to contain hardly 100 house-keepers, and scarcely deserves the name of a city.This settlement lies the furthest to the n. w. extre-mity of any in this kingdom, and is bounded inthat quarter by the province and bishopric of Ca-racas.

Same name a river of the aboveprovince and government. It rises at the foot ofthe lomas del Viento, runs e. and enters the Meta,traversing the country of the Betoyes Indians.

CHIRGUA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It rises in the mountain of Ta-cazuruma on the s. runs s. and enters the Gamalo-tal, after having collected the waters of many otherrivers.

CHIRIBIQUI, Santa Fe de a settlement ofthe province and government of Cumana in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the coast,between the rivers Mosina and Marecapana.

CHIRICOAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, to the e. of themountains of Bogota, and at the entrance of thellanos or plains of Cazanare and Meta. Theylead a wandering life through the woods in com-pany with the Guaibas ; they are crafty and verydexterous thieves, but of a docile and pacific dis-position. In 16.64; some of them were reduced into

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a settlement founded seven leag'ues from the placecalled the Puerto, but in 16GS they tied, all ofthem, to the mountains, although in the same yearthey returned back again to the settlement.

CHIRIGUANA, a large settlement of the pro-vince and government of Santa Marta in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature,and the territory is level, fertile, and beautiful.It has besides the parish church a convent or houseof entertainment of the religious order of St.Francis.

CHIRIGUANOS, a country and nation of theinfidel Indians of the province and government ofSanta Cruz de la Sierra in Peru, from whence itlies 20 leagues to thes. It is bounded on the e.by the province of Tomina, and s. e. by that ofChuquisaca ; is composed of different settlements,each governed by its captain or cazique, subject,in a certain degree, to the above government.These people, though they refuse to adopt the Ca-tholic religion, are in perfect amity with the Spa-niards, trading with them in wax, cotton, andmaize. This nation, by the incursions which tlieymade, used at first to give frequent alarm to theprovince, and once had the address to capture thecity of Chiquisaca. The Inca Yupanqui en-deavoured in vain to subdue them, and neither henor the Spaniards could avail aught with them■until they were reduced by the missionaries, theregulars of the extinguished company of the Je-suits ; since that time they have been stedfast insupporting the Spaniards against the other infidels,serving them as a barrier, and having for their ownline of defence the river Guapay. They are veryvalorous, but inconstant and faithless ; they aredescended from the nations which are found to thee. of Paraguay ; and fled from thence, to the num-ber of 4000, ^hen avoiding the threatened chastise-ment of the Portuguese, who were about to inflictcondign punishment on them for having treache-rously murdered the Captain Alexo Garcia in thetime of the King Don Juan 111. of Portugal.They were foi'merly cannibals, and used to fattentheir prisoners that these might become better fare ;but their intercourse and trade with the Spaniardshas caused them by degrees to forget this barbarouspractice, and even to give them a disgust at theirsavage neighbours, who still continue in the samepractices. They are at the present day so greatlyincreased in numbers, that they are one of themost numerous nations of America ; are besidesvery neat and clean ; and it is not uncommon forthem to rush out of their dwellings in the middleof the night to plunge and wash themselves in ariver in the most severe seasons ; their wives too.

immediately after parturition, invariably do thesame, and on their return lay themselves on a heapof sand, which they have for this purpose in thehouse; but the husband immediately takes to hisbed, and being covered all over with very largeleaves, refuses to take any other nourishment thana little broth made of maize ; it being an incorri-gible error of belief amongst them that these cere-monies will be the cause of making their childrenbold and warlike. They have shewn great powerand address in their combats with our troops whenthese first endeavoured to enter their territories,and they threw themselves in such an agile and un-daunted manner upon our fire-arms that it wasfound necessary, on our part, to insert in the rantsa lance-man between every two fusileers : the vare, moreover, so extremely nimble that it isimpossible to take them prisoners but by sur-prise.

CHIRIMICHATE, a river of the provinceand government of Venezuela. It rises in thesierra opposite the point of Hicacos, and entersthe sea in this point.

CHIRINOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the king-dom of Quito.

CHIRIQUI, a district of the province and go-vernment of Santiago de Veragua in the kingdomof Tierra Firme, the last district of this province ;dividing the government from that of Guatemala,and touching upon the province of Costarica.It is of limited extent ; the country is mountainous,and its climate hot and unhealthy, surrounded onall sides by infidel Indians. Here are bred num-bers of mules, which are carried to be sold at Pa-nama and Guatemala ; upon the coast of the S.sea are found crabs which distil a purple colourused for dyeing cotton, which, although it mayfade a little, can never be entirely eradicated.They have plenty of swine, and some vegetable pro-ductions ; with which they carry on a trade, nowfallen much to decay, with the city of Panama.The capital is Santiago de Alanje.

Same name, a river of the above province (Santiago de Veragua), whichrises in the mountains on the s. and enters the sea,serving as limits to that province, and dividing itfrom that of Costarica in the kingdom of Gua-temala.

CHIRIS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru; annexedto the curacy of Huachos.

CHIRISU, a settlement of the province andcorregimieto of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a rather cold temperature, andabounds in wheat, maize, barley, a/berjas, andS M 2

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papas; likewise in cattle, from the fleeces of whichgreat quantities of woven clotlis are made. Its'population amounts to 150 house-keepers and 100Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its capital,and near to the settlement of Turmeque.

CHIROBIO, a river of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela. It runs e. and enters thesea opposite the island Tarata.

CHIRTA, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chachapoyas in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Yambrasbamba.

CHIRU, a settlement of the alcaldia mayorand jurisdiction of Penonome in the kingdom andgovernment of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shoreof the S. sea, upon an extensive plain.

Same name, a river of this jurisdiction, which risesin the mountains of Penonome, and enters the S.sea near the settlement of Anton.

Same name, a very small island of the same juris-diction, close upon the coast, and called El Fa-rallon.

CHISAHALO, a settlement of theprovince and corregimienlo of Tacunga in thekingdom of Quito.

==CHISCAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate at the foot of the Snowy sierra^and therefore of a cold and unpleasant temperature.Its productions correspond with those of a similarclimate ; it contains about 80 Indians, with a veryfew whites. Thirty-two leagues n. e. of Tunja.

CHISGAS, Paramo de, a very lofty mountain covered with eternal snow, in the provinceand government of San Juan de los Llanos of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, between the riversApure and Sinaruco.

CHISLOCA, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chichas and Tarija in Peru ; be-longing to the district of the former. It is annexedto the curacy of Tupisa.

CHISME, a settlement of the head settlementof Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor of Villalta.It contains 71 families of Indians, and lies 18leagues from its capital.

CHISPAS, Punta de las, a point on the s.coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo,in the territory possessed by the French ; lyingbetween the settlement and parish of the English,and the point of Burgados.

CHISQUE, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Canta in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Atabillos Altos.

CHISQUILLA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimienlo of Chachapoyas in Peru.

[CHISSEL, a fort in the state of Tennessee,two miles and a half from English ferry, on Newriver, 43 from Abingdon, and 107 from Longisland, on Holston.]

CHITA, a province and corregimienlo of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, and vice-royalty ofSanta Fe. It was formerly called Chisca. It isbounded w. by the province of Bogota, and n. bythe country bt the Laches Indians, or province ofCochuy, and e. and s. by the llanuras of theOrinoco. It was discovered by George Spira, aGerman, and he was the first who entered it withhis companions in 1535. This territory is fertile,abounds in wheat and maize, the grain of which isextremely large, as also in other seeds, and hasgoats and neat cattle in plenty. It is of an hotand unhealthy temperature, and has palms similarto those of Palestine and Barbary, producing ex-cellent dates. The capital is of the same name.This is situate at the foot of the mountains of Bo-gota ; it is a large settlement, and was formerly en-titled a city. Its inhabitants consist of upwardsof 700 whites and about 200 Indians. Twenty-four leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.

Same name, another settlement, which is the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofVillalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tempe-rature, contains 90 families of Indians, and is threeleagues and a half to the s. of its capital.

CHITAGA, Punta de, a bridge in the province and government of Merida, to the s. ofthe city of Pamplona, and upon the river of thisname.

CHITANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians;bounded by that of the Chiscas, but distinct fromit, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. They in-habit the woods to the n. e. of the mountains ofBogota and the shores of the rivers Ele, Cuiloto,and Arauca ; are an intractable and. cruel people,and dreaded by all their neighbours. In 1535,having joined company with the Jiraras, theytook and destroyed the city of Las Palmas.

CHITARAQUE, a settlement of the corregi-mienlo and jurisdiction of Velez in the NuevoReyno de Granada, it is of an hot but healtliytemperature, produces yucas, maize, plantains,cotton, and great quantities of sugar, from whichare made fine and much esteemed conserves.

CHITAREROS, a barbarous and brutal nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada,who inhabit the mountains in the vicinity of Pam-plona ; they are mixed with some families of theLaches. This nation is extremely numerous, andpass a wandering life without any fixed abode ;they go entirely naked, and are much given to sen-sual gratifications ; some of them have embraced2

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the Catholic faith, and are reduced to settlements,though the number of these is very small.

CHITEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapain Nueva Espaiia. It is of a cold temperature,and contains 39 families of Indians, who live bysowing maize, the only vegetable production oftheir territory. Five leagues w. n. w. of its capi-tal.

CHITO, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito, upon the s. shore of the river Sangalla,and in the royal road of Loxa, which leads to To-mependa. In its vicinity are some gold mines,but which are not worked ; its temperature is hotand moist, and consequently unhealthy.

[CHITTENDEN County, in Vermont, lieson lake Champlain, between Franklin county onthe w. and Addison s. ; La Moille river passesthrough its n. w. corner, and Onion river dividesit nearly in the centre.' Its chief town is Burling-ton. This county contained, by the census of1791, 44 townships and 7301 inhabitants. Sincethat time the n. counties have been taken from it,so that neither its size or number of inhabitants cannow be ascertained.]

[Chittenden, a township in Rutland county,Vermont, contains 159 inhabitants. The roadover the mountain passes through this township.It lies seven miles e. from the fort on Otter creek,in Pittsford, and about 60 n. by e. from Ben-nington.]

[CHITTENENGO, or Canaserage, a con-siderable stream which runs n. into lake Oneida,in the state of New York.]

CHIUAO, a small river of theprovince and colony of Surinam, or the part ofGuayana possessed by the Dutch . It rises in themountain of Sincomay, runs n. and turning w.enters another river which is without a name, andwhere several others unite to enter the Cuyuni onthe s. side.

CHIUATA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Cumana in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises from some plains in this territory,runs s. collecting the waters of several otherrivers, particularly that of the Suata, and thenenters the sea, just as it becomes navigable.

Same name, another river of the same provinceand government (Cumana), which rises at the foot of theserramas of Paraguay, to the w. of the town ofSan Fernando, runs s. and enters the Orinoco.

CHIUCHA, S. Juan de, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Lipes, and arch-bishopric of Charcas, in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of San Christoval.

CHIUCHIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Canchas. In its district there is amineral hot-water spring, much renowned for thecuring of various kinds of maladies.

CHIUCHIU, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Atacama, and archbishopric ofCharcas, in Peru.

CHIUGOTOS, a barbarous na-tion of Indians of the province and government ofVenezuela, bordering upon the settlement of Mara-capana. They are very few, and live retired in themountains ; they are cruel even to cannibalism.

CHIUICOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Buenos Aires ; situate to the s. ofits capital.

CHIXILA, a settlement and head settlement ofthe district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta inNueva Espana. It is of an hot temperature, con-tains 134 families of Indians, and lies 12 leaguesto the n. of its capital.

CHOCAIA, Nueva, a settlement of the pro-vince of Chichas and Tarija in Peru ; of the dis-trict of the former, and annexed to the curacy ofTatasi.

CHOCAMAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Zacan, and alcaldia mayorof Cordoba, in Nueva Espana. It is of a coldand moist temperature, contains 103 families ofIndians, and is five leagues to the n, n. w. of thecapital.

CHOCAN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Piura in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Aabaca.

CHOCAYAS, a mountain of the province andcorregimiento of Chichas and Tarija in Peru, andjurisdiction of Chuquisaca. It is celebrated forits rich gold mines.

CHOCO, a large province and government ofthe jurisdiction of Popayan ; by the territory ofwhich it is bounded e. and s. e . ; on the w. by thePacific or S. sea; n. by the barbarous nations ofIndians, and by the province of Darien ; and s. bythat of Barbacoas. The whole of this provinceabounds in woods and mountains, and is crossedby a chain of the Andes, which run as far as theisthmus of Panama. It is watered by several riversand streams, all of which run w. and enter the S.sea. The districts of Citara and Raposo form apart of this province ; very few of their ancientinhabitants remain at the present day ; the greaterpart of them having perished in the war of the

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Spaniards, and the rest having fled, and thuspenetrating n. have confounded themselves withother nations. It abounds in maize, plantains,and cacao of an excellent quality ; its gold minesrender it rich and well peopled ; it also carries on,through this branch of revenue, a great commercewith the province of Popayan, the nativ'es of thatplace coming here to purchase gold, and leavingin exchange whatever is necessary for the comfortand convenience of life. There is no inconsider-able number of Negro slaves employed in work-ing the mines, and in 1750 they amounted to20,000, without mentioning the men of colour,such as the Mustees and Mulattoes, and even Whiteswho are engaged in this lucrative concern. Theclimate is warm, but moist from the continualrains, and consequently unhealthy. This countryabounds in tigers, wild boars, alligators, parrots,monkeys of various sorts, and a multitude of rep-tiles and insects, especially in vipers and ve-nomous snakes ; such as corales, exis, and rattle-snakes. Here are also an infinite variety of beau-tiful sorts of wood, curious balsams, herbs, fruits,and flowers. It was subject to the government ofPopayan, until it became divided in the time ofDon Fernando Guerrero. All the gold which istaken out of the mines here, and which is the cur-rent money, was formerly carried to be coined atthe mint of Santa Fe, until that the house ofValencia established another, at its own cost, in thecity of Popayan ; this privilege having been firstgranted that house by the mayoralty, though itwas afterwards taken away and added by the kingto the crown, upon the payment of a compensationof 100,000 reals per annum to the original pro-prietors. This province extends 48 leagues froms. to n. and is 39 in width from e. to w. Thecapital is the city of Nevita.

[Choco, Canal of. In the interior of the pro-vince of Choco, the small ravine (quebrada) Dela Raspadura unites the neighbouring sources ofthe Rio de Noanama, called also Rio San Juan,and the small river Quito : the latter, the RioAndageda, and the Rio Zitasa, form the Riod’Atrata, which discharges itself into the Atlanticocean, while the Rio San Juan flows into the S.sea. A monk of great activity, cure of the villageof Novita, employed his parishioners to dig asmall canal in the ravine De la Raspadura, bymeans of which, when the rains are abundant,canoes loaded with cacao pass from sea to sea.Th is interior communication has existed since1788, unknown in Europe. The small canal ofRaspadura unites, on the coasts of the two oceans,

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two points 75 leagues distant from one ano-ther.]

CHOCO, San Juan Chrisostomo de , anothersettlement of the province and corregimiento ofCondesuyos de Arequipa in Peru.

[CHOCOLATE Creek, a head-water of Tiogariver in New York, whose mouth lies 10 miless. w. of the Painted post.]

[CHOCOLOCO-CA, which the Spaniards callCastro Vireyna, a town of Peru, 60 leagues s. e.of Lima, is very famous for its silver mines,which are at the top of a great mountain alwayscovered with snow, and but two leagues from thetown. The stones of the mine are, of a dark bluecolour ; these being calcined and powdered, thensteeped in water and quicksilver, the filth is sepa-rated, and the silver melted and formed into bars.These veins are not very rich, but the metal is veryfine. They make plenty of wine here, where itattains a greater degree of perfection, owing to thepureness of the air, than it is observed to have else-where.]

CHOCONA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paria in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of Toledo.

CHOCONTA, a settlement of the corregimientoof Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of a cold but healthy temperature, beingsituate upon a llanura. It produces abundanceof wheat, maize, papas, barley, and garlic, of thewhole of which an abundant crop is gathered ;these indeed form the principal branches of itscommerce, as they supply all the neighbouringprovinces. It was , in the time of the Indians alarge, rich, and populous city, and the barrierof the province of Tunja; also the place wherethe zipas held a garrison of their best troops.This city was entered by Gonzalo Ximinez deQuesada in 1537, when he gave it the name ofEspiritu Santo, from this festival having beencelebrated here. After the conquest of the Spa-niards it became a became a curacy of the relio-ionof St. Domingo, and was one of those which wasconsidered the first step to the advantages to bederived from these missions. It was close to thissettlement that the sanguinary conflict took placewhich was fought between Michua, king of Tunja,and Saguanmachica, zipa or king of Bogota, inwhich both princes fell dead upon the field ; atpresent it is a small village of Indians, who amountto the number of 200, besides 400 other inhabi-tants, who consist of whites. Ten leagues n. ofSanta Fe, and as many from Tunja, just midwaybetweeen these two jurisdictions.

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CHOCOPE, San Pedro y San Pablo de,a small settlement of the province and corregi-miento of Truxillo in Peru ; situate in the valleyof Chicama, watered and fertilized by the river ofthis name. It produces in abundance grapes,sugar-canes, olives, and every kind of Europeanfruit of the most excellent flavour. It was formerlya large population, since that the few inhabitantswho had been lel't at Concepcion, and those ofLicapa in the same valley, have incorporatedthemselves here. It has a very large and handsomechurch, although this underwent some damagefrom an earthquake experienced in this provincein 1759; the settlement suffered much also in 17S6,as did all the other towns of the coast, as, verycontrary to the custom of the climate here, it rainedwithout cessation for a period of 40 days, fromfive o’clock in the evening to the same hour in thefollowing morning, so that the houses were almostall entirely destroyed. Itis 10 leagues from the capi-tal, in the royal road which leads to Lima, andwhich is called De Valles. Lat. 7° 52' s.

[CHOCORUA, a mountain in Grafton county,New Hampshire, on the n. line of Strafford county,n. of Tamworth.]

[CHOCUITO. See Chucuito.]

CHOGUY. See Laches.

[CHOISEUL Bay, on the n. w. coast of theislands of the Arsacides, w. of port Praslin. Theinhabitants of this bay, like those at port Praslin,have a custom of powdering their hair with lime,which burns it and gives it a red appearance.]

CHOIX, a port of the w. coast of the island ofNewfoundland.

CHOLCHOL, a settlement of the district ofRepocura in the kingdom of Chile ; situate at themouth of the river Rumulhue before it enters theCauten.

CHOLCO-COCHA, a great lake of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru,upon the heights of the mountains of the Andes.It is navigated by rafts made by the Indians;fish it has none, from the excesisve cold of itswaters ; from it springs the river Caica-mayu.Mr. De la Martiniere confounds this lake, whichis called Chocolo-cocha, with the city of CastroVireyna, maintaining that the Indians call it bythe latter name, but which is erroneous.

CHOLI, a settlement and establishment of theEnglish in S. Carolina, and country of the Che-rokees Indians; situate at the source of the riverApalachicola.

CHOLIQUE, San Pablo de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxaraarca la Grande in Peru.

CHOLOAPA, San Bartolome de, a settlement of the head settlement of Huitepec, andalcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espana.It contains 84 families of Indians.

CHOLOSCOPO, San Mateo de, a settlementof the district, and alcaldia mayor of Mexilcaltzingo,in Nueva Espana, somewhat more thanhalf a league’s distance to the m. of ^his place.It contains 102 families of Indians, and has ahandsome convent of the strict observers of St.Francis, which is also a college for studies.

CHOLULA, a district and jurisdiction of analcaldia mayor in Nueva España. Its extent isvery limited, being only three leagues in length atthe widest part ; but it is nevertheless well filled withinhabitants ; its territory is level, and very fertilein wheat, maize, and pepper, which is here calledchile^ as also in other seeds, of which abundant cropsare gathered ; it formerly acquired agreat emolumentfrom the sale of cochineal, but this is laid asideand entirely abandoned. The Spaniards, Mustees^and Mulattoes, busy themselves in making clothsand woven stuffs of cotton, and they have manyworkshops, by which they supply with these articlesthe other provinces. Its population consists of 43settlements of Indians, which are,

San Juan Quantlazingo, Sta. Maria Quescomate,Santiago de Momospan, San Bernardino,

Santa Barbara, Sta. Clara Ocovica,

Todos Santos, Sta. Maria Malacatepe»

San Luis, que,

San Gregorio de Saca- Sta. Maria Coronango,pecpan, S. Miguel Coztla,

S. Francisco de Quapan, San Francisco Ocotlan

S. Diego Cuaucotla, San Antonio, ^

S. Sebastian, San Francisco,

S. Juan Cuautla, San Mateo,

Tonanchin, San Gabriel,

Santa MariaZacatepeque, San Lucas,

San Geronimo, San Martin,

San Pablo Zochimehua, San Lorenzo,

San Andres de Oiolula, TIantenango,

San Francisco Acate- Santa Isabel,peque, Los Santos Reyes,

San Bernardo Tlaxcal- S. Pablo Ahuatempa,zingo, S. Mateo, distinct from

S.AntonioCacalotepeque, the other,

Santa Ana, S. Miguel Papalotla,

San Martin TIanapa, S. Andres de Cholula.

[The district of Cholula contained in 1793 apopulation of 22,423 souls. The villages amount-ed to 42, and the farms to 45. Cholula, Tlax-clala, and Huetxocingo, are the three republicswhich resisted the Mexican yoke for so many cen-turies, although the pernicious aristocracy of theiff

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constitution left the lower people little more free-dom than they would have possessed under thegovernment of the Aztec kings.]

The capital is the city of the same name, foundedas far back as the time ofthegentilism of the Mexi-can empire, when this nation was at enmity withthat of Chichimeca ; it was then one of the mostpopulous cities, and contained 30,000 inhabitantsand 300 temples, and served as a barrier to Moc-tezuma, in the attack against the republic ofTlaxclala ; the latter place never having been sub-jected to the Mexican yoke. This was the citywhich of all others most thwarted the designs ofHernan Cortes, but the inhabitants were discoveredin the conspiracy they had laid against him, whenthey pretended to receive him with open arrhs anda peaceable and friendly disposition, and weremade by him to suffer severely for their hypocrisy ;after which he and his whole army escaped un-injured. This city has many monuments denotingits antiquity ; and although in ancient times idolatrywas here carried to its highest pitch, yet the lightof the gospel has spread widely around its enliven-ing rays. It is of a mild and healthy temperature,rather inclined to cold than heat, being situate ona level, fertile, and beautiful plain. It has a goodconvent of the order of St. Francis, which is alsoa house of studies. Its inhabitants are composedof 50 families of Spaniards, 458 of Mustees, Mu-lattoes and Negroes, and 606 of Indians. On alofty spot which lies close to the entrance, on thec. side of the city, is a handsome chapel, in whichis venerated the image of the blessed virgin,which also bears the dedicatory title of Los Rente-dios. It is a little more than 20 leagues to the e.of Mexico, and four from Tlaxclala. Long. 98°14'. Lat. 19° 4'. [Its population is at presentestimated at about 16,000 souls.]

CHONE, a settlement which in former timeswas considerable, but now much impoverished, inthe ancient province of Cara, which is at presentunited to that of Esmeraldas. It lies upon theshore of the river Chones to the n. and is of anhot and moist climate, in lat. 33° s.

CHONES, a large river of the province ofCara in the kingdom of Quito. It runs to the w.and collects the waters of the Sanchez and theTos-sagua on the n. and on the s. those of the Cama-ron and the Platanal. At its entrance on the n.stood the city of Cara, of which the vestiges stillremain. Where it runs into the sea it forms thebay of Cara, between the s. point of Bellaca andthe n. point of laca. Its mouth is nearly twomiles and an half wide.

CHONGO, San Miguel de, a settlement ofthe alcaldíta mayor of Huamelula. It is of a verycold temperature, from its being situate in the vi-cinity of the sierra Nevada (or Snowy) of the Chon-tales, which lies on the n. side of it. Its inhabi-tants amount to 24 families of Indians, who tradein cochineal, seeds, and fruits, of which the coun-try, being naturally luxuriant, produces great quan-tities. It is watered by rivers which pass at alittle distance, and is annexed to the curacy ofTepaltepec of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayorof Nexapa, from whence it lies 20 leagues. It is-,on account of this great distance, combined withthe badness of the roads, that the natives so sel-dom can avail themselves of any instruction in theholy faith ; dying, as they often do, without theadministration of the sacraments. Indeed, there isonly one day in the year, which is the 29th ofSeptember, and on which the Indians celebrate thefestival of their titular saint Michael, when theyare visited by their curate, who then hears theirconfessions and says mass. At this time this settle-ment has somewhat the appearance of a Catholicpeople ; but being all the rest of the year left tothemselves, it is not to be wondered that many re-lapse into their pristine state of gentilisra and idola-try. Three leagues w. of its capital.

CHONGON, a settlement of Indians of theprovince and government of Guayaquil in the kingdomof Quito; situate near a small torrent, re-nowned for the stones which it washes down, of acertain crystallized matter, which being polished,resemble brilliants, and are used as buttons, rings,and other trinkets.

CHONGOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Xauxa in Peru.

CHONTA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Abancay in Peru.

Other, another settlement in the province andcorregimiento of Guamalies of the same kingdom,famous for its mine of quicksilver.

CHONTAI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Chorrillo.

CHONTALES, a district of the corregimientoor alcaldia mayor of Matagulpa, in the kingdom ofGuatemala and province of Nicaragua. It is butsmall, and its natives have this name from the Spa-niards, who would by it express their natural un-couthness and stupidity.

CHOPADA, a settlement of the Portuguese, inthe kingdom of Brazil and country of the GuayazasIndians ; situate on the bank and at the sourceof the river Tocantines.

CHOPARE, a river of the province and government of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito. It flows

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down from the mountains to the jy. of the RachcsIndians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. untilit enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix,opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto,which lies to the s.

CHOPO, a settlement of the government andjurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a very mild climate, andabounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and manysorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branchof its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them forsale to the capital, which lies at a small distancefrom hence, in the road leading to M6rida andGibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost asmany indigent settlers.

[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are threemiles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]

CHOPTANK, a large navigable river of theprovince and colony of Maryland, [emptying it-self into Chesapeak bay.]

CHOPTANK, Little, another (river) of the same pro-vince Maryland. It runs w. and enters the sea in the bay ofChesapeak.

CHOQUE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Acros.

CHOQUECAMATA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregtmiento of Cochabamba in Peru.

CHOQUELIMPE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Arica in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Copia.

CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians,of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwellingimmediately upon the mountains and forests ofFosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitchtheir huts near the river Bermejo. But little isknown of their customs and of their country.

CHORAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huamalies in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Jesus.

CHOROMA, a settlement of the province andcorrregimiento of Chichas and Tarija, in the dis-trict of the former, and annexed to the curacy ofTupisa.

CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plainsor llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touchingtoAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogo-les, and extending n. as far as the mountains ofthe Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They areat present reduced to the Catholic religion, and aremixed with those of other nations ; but some fewof them still persist in their idolatry, and livedispersed upon the mountains.

CHORONI, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Tierra Firme, in the province and governmentof Venezuela, between the mountain of Ocumaraand the port of Chuapo.

CHOROS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It has the hard lot of being scantily sup-plied Avith Avater, even as much as is necessary lordrinking.

Same name, a point of the coast of this provinceand kingdom (Chile).

Same name, an island near the coast and point ofits name (Choros),

CHORRERA, a settlement of the jurisdictionand akaldia mayor of Nata in the kingdom ofTierra Firme; situate near the coast of the S.sea.

Same name, a creek of the island of Cuba, onthe 71. coast, having a fort for its protection, witha detacliment of troops from the Havana.

CHORILLO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru.

Same name, another (settlement), in the province and corregimento of Cercado in the same kingdom ; an-nexed to the curacy of Surco.

CHORRILLOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cañete in Peru; situate onthe coast, close to the point of China.

CHORROS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

CHORROU, Chike du, a rivulet and establishmentof the French, in their possessions inGuayana.

CHORUNGA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Andaray ; situate in thevalley of its name.

CHOSAPACK, a large andbeautiful bay on the coast of the province and colony of Virginia]]. [See Chesapeak.]

CHOSCHAMA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Huacaiia.

[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres, near a small lakeabout 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35°33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]

CHOTA, Todos Santos de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxamarca inPeru.

[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, thoughonly two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth.It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions,in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they foundits temperature to be intensely sultry.]

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CHOTE, a settlement of Indians of N. Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river Tennessee.

CHOTECHEL, a settlement of Indians of the kingdom of Chile ; situate in theinterior of it, and on the shore of the river Como-Leuvre.

CHOUEE, Montañas de, mountains in theprovince and colony of N. Carolina, which followthe course of the river Tennessee,

CHOUMANS, a settlement or village of theprovince and colony of Louisiana ; situate on thebank, and at the source of the river Maligna orSabloniere.

CHOUSSIPI, a small river of the country ofLabrador. It runs s. w. and enters that of St.Lawrence.

CHOWAN, a district and jurisdiction of theprovince and colony of Virginia, between that ofPequima and the river Pansemond. The principalsettlement bears the same name.

[Chowan County, in Edenton district, N.Carolina, on the n. side of Albemarle sound. Itcontains 5011 inhabitants, of whom 2588 are slaves.Chief town, Edenton.]

[Chowan River, in N. Carolina, falls intothe n. w. corner of Albemarle sound. It is threemiles wide at the mouth, but narrows fast as youascend it. It is formed, five miles from the Vir-ginia line, by the confluence of Meherrin, Notta-way, and Black rivers, which all rise in Vir-ginia.]

CHOXLLA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cicasica in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Yanacache.

[CHRIST CnuacH, a parish in Charleston dis-trict, S. Carolina, containing 2954 inhabitants, ofwhom 566 are whites, 2377 slaves.]

[CHRISTENOES, a wandering nation of N.America, who do not cultivate, nor claim any par-ticular tract of country. They are well disposedtowards the whites, and treat their traders Avith re-spect. The country in which these Indians roveis generally open plains, but in some parts, parti-cularly about the head of the Assinniboin river, itis marshy and tolerably Avell furnished with timber,as are also the Fort Dauphin mountains, to whichthey sometimes resort. From the quantity ofbeaver in their country, they ought to furnish mofeof that article than they do at present. They arenot esteemed good beaver-hunters. They mightprobably be induced to visit an establishment onthe Missouri, at the Yellow Stone river. Theirnumber has been reduced by the small-pox sincethey Avere first known to the Canadians.]

[CHRISTIANA, a post-town in Newcastlecounty, Delaware, is situated on a navigable creekof its name, 12 miles from Elkton, nine s. w. ofWilmington, and 37 s. w. of Philadelphia. Thetown, consisting of about 50 houses, and a Presby-terian church, stands on a declivity which commandsa pleasant prospect of the country towards the De-laware. It carries on a brisk trade with Philadel-phia in flour. It is the greatest carrying place be-tween the navigable Avaters of the Delaware andChesapeak, which are 13 miles asunder at thisplace. It was built by the Swedes in 1640, andthus called after their queen.]

[Christiana Creek, on which the above townis situated, falls into Delaware river from the w.a little below Wilmington. It is proposed to cut acanal of about nine miles in length, in a s. to. direc-tion from this creek, at the toAvn of Christiana (sixmiles w. s. w. of Newcastle) to Elk river in Mary-land, about a mile below Elkton. See Delawareand Wilmington.]

[Christiana, St. one of the Marquesa isles,called by the natives Waitahu, lies under the sameparallel with St. Pedro, three or four leagues moreto the w. Resolution bay, near the middle of thew. side of the island, is in lat. 9° 58' s. long. 139'^840' w. from Greenwich ; and the w. end of Do-minica 15 71. Captain f^ook gave this bay thename of his ship. It Avas called Port Madre deDios by the Spaniards. This island produces cot-ton of a superior kind. A specimen of it is depo-sited in the museum of the Massachusetts HistoricalSociety.]

CHRISTIANO, San, a settlement of the province and captainship of Serigipé in Brazil ; situateon the coast, and at the mouth of the river Cirii.

[CHRISTIANSBURG, the chief town of Mont-gomery county, Virginia. It contains A’ery fewhouses ; has a court-house and goal, situated neara branch of Little river, a water of the Kanhaway.Lat. 37° 5' ».]

[CHRISTIANSTED, the principal town in theisland of Santa Cruz, situated on the n. side of theisland, on a fine harbour. It is the residence of theDanish governor, and is defended by a stone for-tress.]

[CHRISTMAS Island, in the Pacific ocean,lies entirely solitary, nearly equally distant fromthe Sandwich islands on the n. and the Marquesason the s. It Avas so named by Captain Cook, onaccount of his first landing there, on Christmasday. Not a drop of fresh Avater was found by dig-ging. A ship touching at this desolate isle mustexpect nothing but turtle, fish, and a few birds. Itis about 15 or 20 leagues in circumference, andbounded by a reef of coral rocks, on the xc. side of

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wliich there is a bank of fine sand, extending amile into the sea, and affording good anchorage.Lat. 1° 59' n. Long. 157° 35' w.]

[Christmas Sound, in Tien a del Fuego, S.America. Lat. 55° 21' n. Long. 69° 48' tw.]

CHRISTOVAL, San, atown of the government and jurisdiction of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Rey no de Granada; foundedby Captain Juan de Maldonado in 1560. It is of•a hot but healthy temperature, produces abundanceof sugar-canes, of which are made honey, sugar,and conserves, in immense quantities ; also a greatproportion of smoking tobacco, which is carried toMaracaibo. It has a good church and a conventt)f St. Augustin, which latter has fallen much todecay with regard to its establishment. The po-pulation of the town consists of 400 housekeepers.It lies 20 leagues n. e. of Pamplona, from the juris-diction of which it is divided by the river Pam-plonilla. It is the native place of Don Gregoriode Jaimes, archdeacon of Santa Fe, and bishop ofSanta Marta.

Same name, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lipes, archbishopric of Char-cas in Peru ; in which took place the following ex-traordinary occurrence: The curate of this placegoing to confess a sick person in the settlement ofTahisa of the province of Paria, which was annexedto this, sunk into a spring of water in the pampasor llanos dela Sal, when he was drowned, and withthe two Indians who accompanied him on horse-back, never more appeared, nor were any vestigesever found of them : this was the reason why thelatter settlement has since been disunited from thecuracy of San Christoval.

Same name, a capital city of the provinceand captainship of Sergipé in the kingdom of Bra-zil ; being also known by that name. It is foundedon the sea-shore, and has a fine and well defendedport. It has a magnificent parish church with thetitle of Nuestra Senora de la Victoria ; two fineconvents, the one of the order of the Franciscans,and the other of the Carmelites ; also a chapel ofdevotion of the Virgin of the Rosary. The council-house is a very fine edifice, and in the suburbs isa hermitage of San Gonzalo, which is frequentedas a pilgrimage by this and other settlements of thejurisdiction. In this city resides the chief captain,who governs this province, and who is attended bya company of troops as a body-guard. In earlytimes it was filled with nobility, descended from thefirst families in Portugal; but it is now reduced to600 housekeepers. in its district, towards thepart called Coninquiva, is a parish with fourchapels, and towards the river Vaza-Barris fiveothers. It has also 25 engines, by which abundanceof sugar of an excellent quality is manufactured ;this article affords a great commerce w ith t!ic bayof Todos Santos. Lat. ll°40's. Long. ST'* SO' tw.

Same name, an island of the N. sea ; oneof the Antilles, discoverctl by Admiral Christoj)herColumbus, who gave it his name, in 149S. It isfive leagues in circumference, and is very fertile,and abounding in productions, particularly in cot-ton, tobacco, indigo, sugar, and brandy ; by allof which it carries on a great commerce. Here arcsome good salines, and in the mountains are somewoods of fine timber, well adapted for the buildingof ships. The English and the French both esta-blished themselves here in 1625, holding a dividedpossession, when they were driven out by the Spa-niards. After this the former again returned andre-established themselves in the greatest part of theisland, leaving, however, a small share to theFrench, until the year 1713, when the latter, inconjunction with the Spaniards themselves, cededit entirely to the English, who from that time haveheld it and kept it well fortified. [St. Christopher,situate in lat. 17° 21', long. 62° 48' ze. was calledby its ancient possessors, the Charibes, Liamuiga,or the Fertile Island. It was discovered in Novem-ber 1493 by Columbus himself, who was so pleasedwith its appearance, that he honoured it with hisown Christian name. But it was neither plantednor possessed by the Spaniards. It was, however,(notwithstanding that the general opinion ascribesthe honour of seniority to Barbadoes), the eldest ofall the British territories in the \V. Indies, andin truth, the common mother both of the Englishand French settlements in the Charibean islands.A Mr. Thomas Warner, an Englishman, asso-ciated himself Avith 14 other persons in the year1622, and with them took his passage on board aship bound to Virginia. From thence he and hiscompanions sailed from St. Christopher’s, wherethey arrived in January 1623, and by the monthof September following had raised a good crop oftobacco, which they proposed to make their staplecommodity. By the generality of historians whohave treated of the affairs of the W. Indies, it isasserted that a party oflhe French, under the com-mand of a person of the name of D’Esnambuc,took possession of one part of this island, on thesame day that Mr. Warner landed on the other;but the truth is, that the first landing of Warnerand his associates happened two years before thearrival of D’Esnambuc; who, it is admitted byDu Tertre, did not leave France until IG25. Un-fortunately the English settlers, in the latter end of

1623, had their plantations demolished by a dread- j

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[And the Import of Slaves, by report of privycouncil, 1788, at a medium of four years, andby a return to house of commons in 1805, at amedium of two years from 1803, was as follows :

Average of

Imports.

Re-exports.

Retained.

Four years to 1787

658

102

556

Tw o years to 1803

971

124

847

By report of privy council, 1788, and by subse-quent estimate, the population amounted to

Years.

Whites.

People of

Slaves.

Colour.

1787

1912

1908

20,435

1805

1800

198

26,000

See Caribe (Leeward) Islands; and for thelater political inquiries, see West Indies.]

Same name, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district and alcaldia mayor ofToluca in Nueva Espana. It contains 64 familiesof Indians, and lies a small distance to the n. of itscapital.

Same name, another, of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan in the samekingdom, lying two leagues from its capital.

Same name, another, of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tetelaxonotla in thesame kingdom, lying two leagues to the w. of thatplace.

Same name, another settlement of the province andcorregimienio of Angaraes in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of San Antonio, and situate on the contraryside of the river.

Same name another, settlement of the province andeorreghniento of Conchucos in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of San Marcos.

Same name, another settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of its capital.

Same name, another settlement of the head settlement of Pinotepa, and alcaldia mayor of Xicayan,in Nueva Espana. It contains 24 families ofIndians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its headsettlement.

Same name, another settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuquio in the samekingdom ; situate near to the conflux of the riversMesquital and Grande, its population is large.

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and it lies 15 leagues to the w. of its capital, an^10 to the n. w. of the capital of the province ofGuadalaxara.

Same name, another settlement of the head settle-ment of Axixique, and alcaldia mayor of Zayula,in the same kingdom ; situate on the shore of thegreat lake or sea of Chapala. It contains 70 faj-milies of Indians, who employ themselves in fish-ing and agriculture ; is 13 leagues to the s. of itshead settlement.

Same name another settlement of the provinceand country of the Amazonas, in the PortugueseK ossessioiis ; situate on the shore of the riverlaranon, at the mouth where it enters the Ovari-pana.

Same name another settlement of the provinceand government of Cartagena in the district ofSinu ; situate on the bank of the river Pichelin, inthe division of this jurisdiction and that of Tolu.It is one of those which were founded, in 1776, bythe Governor Don Juan Piraienta.

Same name another settlement of the kingdom ofBrazil ; situate on the shore of a river whichenters the Yguan to the s. of the settlement of JesusMaria.

Same name another settlement of the provinceand captainship of Sergipé in the same kingdom (Brazil) ;situate on the sea-coast, between the river Sirugipaand thatof Vazabaris.

Same name another settlement of the provinceand kingdom of Nueva Galicia ; situate near itscapital.

Same name,of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof the Jesuits in the province of Tepeguana, andkingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.

Same name another settlement of Nuevo Mexico ;situate on the shore of the Rio Grande del N.(Large River of tlie N.) where this enters the Con-ch os.

Same name, a bay on the coast of theprovince of California, in the part opposite thecoast of Nueva Espana.

Same name another settlement, an isle of the N. sea, in theinterior of the bay and port of the Cul de Sac Grand,of the island of Guadalupe.

[CHRISTOPHER, Sr. See Christovae.]CHUAO, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Tierra Firme, in the province and governmentof Venezuela, to the w. of the port of La Guaira.

==CHUAPA, a settlement and head settlement ofthe alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana.It contains 112 familes of Indians, and is 12 leaguesn. e. of its capital.

Same name, a river of the kingdom of Chile.

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