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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
THE GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES.
[AARONSBURGH lies at the head of Penn's Creek, Northumberland county, Pennsylvania; about 30 miles W from Lewisbursrh, and 40 W by N from Sunbury. Lat. 40° 52' 30" N Long. 77° 31' 30" W.]
ABACACTIS, a settlement of Indians, of this name, in the province of the Amazonas, and in the part or territory possessed by the Portuguese. It is a reduccion of the religious order of the Carmelites of this nation, situate on the shores of a lake of the same name. It lies between this lake and a river, which is also so called, and which is a large arm of the Madeira, which, passing through this territory, afterwards returns to that from whence it flowed, forming the island of Topinambes.
[ABACO, one of the largest and most northern of the Bahama islands, situate upon the SE end of the Little Bahama bank. The Hole in the Rock, or (as it is most commonly called) the Hole in the Wall, is the most southern point of the island, and bears about 18 leagues north from the island of New Providence, about 9 or 10 leagues in a NW direction from Egg Island, and about 10 or 12 in a NW direction from the Berry Islands. About 10 leagues to the N of the Hole in the Wall, on the E side of the island, is Little Harbour, the entrance to which is between the main land of Abaco and Ledyard's Key, and within which there is good anchorage. There is also an anchorage to the W of the Hole in the Wall. The island of Abaco is at present uninhabited. In 1788 it contained about 50 settlers and 200 Negroes. The lands granted by the crown, previous to May 1803, amounted to 14,058 acres, for the purpose of cultivation; but the settlers who occupied it have since removed. It contains great quantities of the various kinds of woods which are common to almost all the Bahama islands.] To the northward of Abaco, is a long chain of small islands or keys, (including Elbow Key, Man of War Key, Great Guana Key, the Galapagos, &c. &c.) reaching, in a NW direction, almost to the Matanilla reefs on the Florida stream; from whence the Little Bahama bank extends, in a southerly direction, to the west point of the island of the Grand Bahama. [Lat. 26° 22' N Long. 77° 14' W See Bahamas.]
ABACOOCHE, a large river, rising in the SW territory, passing into Georgia, through the Cherokee into the Creek country, where it unites with the Oakfuskee, and forms the Alibama.]
ABACQUA, a settlement of the province and government of Buenos Ayres, situate on the shore of the river Paraná, near the spot where it enters the Paraguay, to the E of the city of Corrientes,
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as to render it impracticable to cross them. In the road they usually take lies the steep declivity of San Antonio, extremely difficult to be passed. The mules however are so well versed in the manner of letting themselves slide down it, that there has never been an instance of these animals falling. The 'vegetable productions of this province are confined to bark, and from this no emolument is derived, although it was discovered, after much search and solicitude, by the Lieutenant-colonel Don Miguel de Santistevan. It accordinglj'- provides itself with all that it may require in this way from the adjoining provinces of Riobamba and Tacunga. It is of a very cold temperature, from its being so near to the mountainous desert of Chimborazo. Its natives amount to 2000 souls, the greater part of them being Mustees, and the ■whole are divided into seven settlements, of which the capital bears the same name ; and although this was formerly the residence of the corregidor, yet has it of late been deserted for the settlement of Guaranda. The seven settlements are,
San Lorenzo, Guaranda,
CHIMBORAZO, a very lofty mountain or desert of the cordillera of the province and corregimiento of Riobamba, in the kingdom of Quito; which, in the language of the country, signifies mountain of the other side. It is covered with everlasting snow, and is the loftiest mountain in the known world, since its height, taken by the academicians of the sciences of Paris, is 3220 toises from the level of the sea to its top, which terminates in a cone or truncated pyramid. Its sides are covered with a kind of white sand or calcined earth with loose stones, and a certain herb called pajon, which affords pasture for the cattle of the neighbouring estates. The warm streams flowing from its n. side should seem toAvarrantthe idea that within it is a volcano. From its top flow down many rivers, which take different winding courses; thus the Guaranda runs 5. the Guano s. e. and the Machala e. On its skirt lies the road which" leads from Quito to Guayaquil ; and in order to pass it in safety, it is requisite to be more cautious in choosing the proper season than were the Spanish conquerors of this province, who were here frozen to death. North of the town of Riobamba, in lat. 1° 21' 18" s. according to the observations of M. La Condamine. fThis mountain was visited, on the 23d of June 1797, by Humboldt; who with his party reached its €. slope on that day, and planted their instru-
ments on a narrow ledge of porphyritie rock Avhich projected from the vast field of unfathomcd snow. A chasm, 500 feet wide, prevented their further ascent. The air was reduced to half its usual density, and felt intensely cold and piercing. Respiration was laborious and blood oozed from their eyes, their lips and their gums. They stood on the highest spot ever trod by man. Its height, ascertained from barometrical observation, was 3485 feet greater than the elevation attained in 1745 by Condamine, and 19,300 feet above the level of the sea. From that extreme station, the top of Chimborazo was found, by trigonometrical measurement, to be 2140 feet still higher.
CHIMBOTE, a small pointed island of the S. sea, on the coast of Peru, and province and corregimiento of Santa. It lies close to another called Corcobado.
CHIMBUZA, a large lake of the province and government of Barbacoas, of the kingdom of Quito, to the s. w. of the river Patia, formed by a narrow canal, through ■which the Avater of this river enters, and so forms the same lake into a sheet of water of an oblong figure, two leagues in length, and half a league in breadth. This lake has another narrow canal, through which the water issues, and re-unites itself with the same river.
CHIMENE, a port of the e. coast of the island of San Juan in Nova Scotia.
CHIMICA, a small province of the government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is almost as it were desert and abandoned, notwithstanding that it produces a good quantity of maize. The climate is hot and unhealthy ; and although it was formerly peopled by the Chimicas Indians, none of these are now found to reside here.
CHIMILAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the province of Santa Marta. They inhabit the Avoods to the e. of the large river Magdalena, go naked, and have no fixed abodes. They are cruel and treacherous, and are bounded by the nation of the Guaxiros.
CHIMIRAL, a river of the province and corregimiento of Copiapo in the kingdom of Chile. It rises in the SnoAvy sierra, runs w. and enters the sea in the point of its name. It in many parts runs in so inconsiderable a stream as frequently to be in all appearance lost before it enters the sea.
CHIMIRAL ALTO, a settlement of this province and kingdom ; situate on the shore of the former river.
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papas; likewise in cattle, from the fleeces of which great quantities of woven clotlis are made. Its 'population amounts to 150 house-keepers and 100 Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its capital, and near to the settlement of Turmeque.
CHIROBIO, a river of the province and government of Venezuela. It runs e. and enters the sea opposite the island Tarata.
CHIRTA, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Chachapoyas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Yambrasbamba.
CHIRU, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor and jurisdiction of Penonome in the kingdom and government of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the S. sea, upon an extensive plain.
Same name, a river of this jurisdiction, which rises in the mountains of Penonome, and enters the S. sea near the settlement of Anton.
Same name, a very small island of the same jurisdiction, close upon the coast, and called El Farallon.
CHISAHALO, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito.
==CHISCAS, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate at the foot of the Snowy sierra^ and therefore of a cold and unpleasant temperature. Its productions correspond with those of a similar climate ; it contains about 80 Indians, with a very few whites. Thirty-two leagues n. e. of Tunja.
CHISGAS, Paramo de, a very lofty mountain covered with eternal snow, in the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, between the rivers Apure and Sinaruco.
CHISLOCA, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Chichas and Tarija in Peru ; belonging to the district of the former. It is annexed to the curacy of Tupisa.
CHISME, a settlement of the head settlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor of Villalta. It contains 71 families of Indians, and lies 18 leagues from its capital.
CHISPAS, Punta de las, a point on the s. coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo, in the territory possessed by the French ; lying between the settlement and parish of the English, and the point of Burgados.
CHISQUE, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Atabillos Altos.
CHISQUILLA, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Chachapoyas in Peru.
[CHISSEL, a fort in the state of Tennessee, two miles and a half from English ferry, on New river, 43 from Abingdon, and 107 from Long island, on Holston.]
CHITA, a province and corregimienlo of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, and vice-royalty of Santa Fe. It was formerly called Chisca. It is bounded w. by the province of Bogota, and n. by the country bt the Laches Indians, or province of Cochuy, and e. and s. by the llanuras of the Orinoco. It was discovered by George Spira, a German, and he was the first who entered it with his companions in 1535. This territory is fertile, abounds in wheat and maize, the grain of which is extremely large, as also in other seeds, and has goats and neat cattle in plenty. It is of an hot and unhealthy temperature, and has palms similar to those of Palestine and Barbary, producing excellent dates. The capital is of the same name. This is situate at the foot of the mountains of Bogota ; it is a large settlement, and was formerly entitled a city. Its inhabitants consist of upwards of 700 whites and about 200 Indians. Twentyfour leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.
Same name, another settlement, which is the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild temperature, contains 90 families of Indians, and is three leagues and a half to the s. of its capital.
CHITAGA, Punta de, a bridge in the province and government of Merida, to the s. of the city of Pamplona, and upon the river of this name.
CHITANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians; bounded by that of the Chiscas, but distinct from it, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. They inhabit the woods to the n. e. of the mountains of Bogota and the shores of the rivers Ele, Cuiloto, and Arauca ; are an intractable and. cruel people, and dreaded by all their neighbours. In 1535, having joined company with the Jiraras, they took and destroyed the city of Las Palmas.
CHITARAQUE, a settlement of the corregimienlo and jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, it is of an hot but healtliy temperature, produces yucas, maize, plantains, cotton, and great quantities of sugar, from which are made fine and much esteemed conserves.
CHITAREROS, a barbarous and brutal nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, who inhabit the mountains in the vicinity of Pamplona ; they are mixed with some families of the Laches. This nation is extremely numerous, and pass a wandering life without any fixed abode ; they go entirely naked, and are much given to sensual gratifications ; some of them have embraced 2
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down from the mountains to the jy. of the Rachcs Indians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. until it enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix, opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto, which lies to the s.
CHOPO, a settlement of the government and jurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a very mild climate, and abounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and many sorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branch of its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them for sale to the capital, which lies at a small distance from hence, in the road leading to M6rida and Gibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost as many indigent settlers.
[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are three miles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]
CHOPTANK, a large navigable river of the province and colony of Maryland, [emptying itself into Chesapeak bay.]
CHOPTANK, Little, another (river) of the same province Maryland. It runs w. and enters the sea in the bay of Chesapeak.
CHOQUE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Acros.
CHOQUECAMATA, a settlement of the province and corregtmiento of Cochabamba in Peru.
CHOQUELIMPE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Copia.
CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians, of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwelling immediately upon the mountains and forests of Fosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitch their huts near the river Bermejo. But little is known of their customs and of their country.
CHORAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huamalies in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Jesus.
CHOROMA, a settlement of the province and corrregimiento of Chichas and Tarija, in the district of the former, and annexed to the curacy of Tupisa.
CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plains or llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touching toAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogoles, and extending n. as far as the mountains of the Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They are at present reduced to the Catholic religion, and are mixed with those of other nations ; but some few of them still persist in their idolatry, and live dispersed upon the mountains.
CHORONI, a port of the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Venezuela, between the mountain of Ocumara and the port of Chuapo.
CHOROS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. It has the hard lot of being scantily supplied Avith Avater, even as much as is necessary lor drinking.
Same name, a point of the coast of this province and kingdom (Chile).
Same name, an island near the coast and point of its name (Choros),
CHORRERA, a settlement of the jurisdiction and akaldia mayor of Nata in the kingdom of Tierra Firme; situate near the coast of the S. sea.
Same name, a creek of the island of Cuba, on the 71. coast, having a fort for its protection, with a detacliment of troops from the Havana.
CHORILLO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru.
Same name, another (settlement), in the province and corregimento of Cercado in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Surco.
CHORRILLOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cañete in Peru; situate on the coast, close to the point of China.
CHORROS, a settlement of the province and government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.
CHORROU, Chike du, a rivulet and establishment of the French, in their possessions in Guayana.
CHORUNGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Andaray ; situate in the valley of its name.
CHOSAPACK, a large and beautiful bay on the coast of the province and colony of Virginia]]. [See Chesapeak.]
CHOSCHAMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huacaiia.
[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province and government of Buenos Ayres, near a small lake about 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35° 33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]
CHOTA, Todos Santos de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru.
[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, though only two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth. It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions, in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they found its temperature to be intensely sultry.]
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COCO, a river of the province and government of Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains of the n. and enters the sea opposite the island of Las Palmas, and gives its name to the territory of a Cacique, thus called.
Same name, a point of the coast of the South sea, and kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the bay of Panama.
COCOLI, a river of the province and government of Honduras. It runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of this name.
COCOLI, a point of the coast, in the same province and kingdom (Honduras).
COCOLOT, a city, which some liave supposed to be in the province of Chaco in Peru, but of the existence of which no proofs are at present to be found.
COCOMERACHI, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. It is 40 leagues to the w. s.zo. of the town 'And real of the mines of Chiguaga.
COCOMICO, a settlement of the province and government of Popayan in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada,
COCONUCO, See Cucunuco.
COCORALE, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela in the kingdom of Tierra Firme; situate at the w. of the town of San Felipe.
COCORIN, a settlement of the province of Ostimuri in Nueva Espana; situate on the shore of the river Hiagui, between the settlements of Bacun and Comoriopa.
COCOROTE, some copper mines in the province and government of Venezuela, much celebrated.
COCOS, some small islands of the Pacific or S. sea, lying close together, and divided by some narrow channels. They abound in cocoa-trees, and from thence take their name. They are also called Santa Cruz, from having been discovered on the day of the invention of the cross. The climate here is pleasant, but the isles are uncultivated and desert. Lat. 5° n.
Same name, a point of the island of Trinidad, on the e. coast.
COCOSPERA, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate at the source of a river,
COCOTA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja, in the jurisdiction of the city of Pamplona, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.
COCOTZINGO, S. Geronimo de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca in Nueva Espana.
COCUI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the NueVo Reyno de Granada ; situate at the foot of the sierra Nevada. It is of a cold temperature, but abounds in all kinds of productions, and particularly in wheat, maize, barley, &c. It contains 700 white inhabitants, and 150 Indians. Thirty-two leagues from Tunja, and eight from the settlement of Chita.
COCUISAS, a settlement of the province and government of Cumana in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, It lies to the s. of the city of Cariaco.
Same name, a river of the province and government of Venezuela, being one of those which enter the Gamaiotal, before this runs into that of La Portuguesa.
COCULA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tlajomulco in Nueva Espana. It contains a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and is six leagues to the w. of its capital.
COCUPAC, a city and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Valladolid in Nueva Espana, and of the bishopric of Mechoaean. Its situation is in a nook to the n. of the great lake. On the e. and ze. are two lofty mountains, which form so many other entrances, the one to the 5. and the other to the n. Its temperature is rather cold than w'arm ; and although it does not want for fruits, it is but ill supplied with water, the only stream it has not running more than the distance of a stone’s throw before it enters a lake. The inhabitants are thus under the necessity of supplying themselves by wells. The population of this city consists in 45 families of Spaniards, 52 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 150 of Indians. They occupy themselves in the making of tiles or flags ; and the inferior order are muleteers. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Francis.
COCUS, Punta de, a point on the e. coast of the island of Newfoundland, between cape Spear and the bay of Tor.
COD, a cape of the coast of New England and province of Massachusetts. It runs for many leagues towards the sea, forming a large semicircle, and afterwards returning, forms the bay of Barnstable. [See Cape Cod, Barnstable, &c.]
CODDINGTON, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district of the parish of San Juan.
CODEBORE, a small river of New Britain,