The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
THE GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES.
ABACACTIS, a settlement of Indians, of this name, in the province of the Amazonas, and in the part or territory possessed by the Portuguese. It is a reduccion of the religious order of the Carmelites of this nation, situate on the shores of a lake of the same name. It lies between this lake and a river, which is also so called, and which is a large arm of the Madeira, which, passing through this territory, afterwards returns to that from whence it flowed, forming the island of Topinambes.
[ABACO, one of the largest and most northern of the Bahama islands, situate upon the SE end of the Little Bahama bank. The Hole in the Rock, or (as it is most commonly called) the Hole in the Wall, is the most southern point of the island, and bears about 18 leagues north from the island of New Providence, about 9 or 10 leagues in a NW direction from Egg Island, and about 10 or 12 in a NW direction from the Berry Islands. About 10 leagues to the N of the Hole in the Wall, on the E side of the island, is Little Harbour, the entrance to which is between the main land of Abaco and Ledyard's Key, and within which there is good anchorage. There is also an anchorage to the W of the Hole in the Wall. The island of Abaco is at present uninhabited. In 1788 it contained about 50 settlers and 200 Negroes. The lands granted by the crown, previous to May 1803, amounted to 14,058 acres, for the purpose of cultivation; but the settlers who occupied it have since removed. It contains great quantities of the various kinds of woods which are common to almost all the Bahama islands.] To the northward of Abaco, is a long chain of small islands or keys, (including Elbow Key, Man of War Key, Great Guana Key, the Galapagos, &c. &c.) reaching, in a NW direction, almost to the Matanilla reefs on the Florida stream; from whence the Little Bahama bank extends, in a southerly direction, to the west point of the island of the Grand Bahama. [Lat. 26° 22' N Long. 77° 14' W See Bahamas.]
C H I
C H I
as to render it impracticable to cross them. In theroad they usually take lies the steep declivity ofSan Antonio, extremely difficult to be passed.The mules however are so well versed in the man-ner of letting themselves slide down it, that therehas never been an instance of these animals falling.The 'vegetable productions of this province areconfined to bark, and from this no emolument isderived, although it was discovered, after muchsearch and solicitude, by the Lieutenant-colonelDon Miguel de Santistevan. It accordinglj'- pro-vides itself with all that it may require in this wayfrom the adjoining provinces of Riobamba andTacunga. It is of a very cold temperature, fromits being so near to the mountainous desert ofChimborazo. Its natives amount to 2000 souls,the greater part of them being Mustees, and the■whole are divided into seven settlements, of whichthe capital bears the same name ; and althoughthis was formerly the residence of the corregidor,yet has it of late been deserted for the settlementof Guaranda. The seven settlements are,
San Lorenzo, Guaranda,
CHIMBORAZO, a verylofty mountain or desert of the cordillera of theprovince and corregimiento of Riobamba, in thekingdom of Quito; which, in the language ofthe country, signifies mountain of the other side.It is covered with everlasting snow, and is theloftiest mountain in the known world, since itsheight, taken by the academicians of the sciencesof Paris, is 3220 toises from the level of the seato its top, which terminates in a cone or truncatedpyramid. Its sides are covered with a kind ofwhite sand or calcined earth with loose stones,and a certain herb called pajon, which affords pas-ture for the cattle of the neighbouring estates.The warm streams flowing from its n. side shouldseem toAvarrantthe idea that within it is a volcano.From its top flow down many rivers, which takedifferent winding courses; thus the Guarandaruns 5. the Guano s. e. and the Machala e. Onits skirt lies the road which" leads from Quito toGuayaquil ; and in order to pass it in safety, it isrequisite to be more cautious in choosing the properseason than were the Spanish conquerors of thisprovince, who were here frozen to death. Northof the town of Riobamba, in lat. 1° 21' 18" s. ac-cording to the observations of M. La Condamine.fThis mountain was visited, on the 23d of June1797, by Humboldt; who with his party reachedits €. slope on that day, and planted their instru-
ments on a narrow ledge of porphyritie rock Avhichprojected from the vast field of unfathomcd snow.A chasm, 500 feet wide, prevented their furtherascent. The air was reduced to half its usualdensity, and felt intensely cold and piercing.Respiration was laborious and blood oozed fromtheir eyes, their lips and their gums. They stoodon the highest spot ever trod by man. Its height,ascertained from barometrical observation, was3485 feet greater than the elevation attained in1745 by Condamine, and 19,300 feet above thelevel of the sea. From that extreme station, thetop of Chimborazo was found, by trigonometricalmeasurement, to be 2140 feet still higher.
CHIMBUZA, a large lake of the province andgovernment of Barbacoas, of the kingdom ofQuito, to the s. w. of the river Patia, formed by anarrow canal, through ■which the Avater of thisriver enters, and so forms the same lake into asheet of water of an oblong figure, two leagues inlength, and half a league in breadth. This lakehas another narrow canal, through which the wa-ter issues, and re-unites itself with the sameriver.
CHIMICA, a small province of the governmentof Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada. It is almost as it were desert and aban-doned, notwithstanding that it produces a goodquantity of maize. The climate is hot and un-healthy ; and although it was formerly peopled bythe Chimicas Indians, none of these are now foundto reside here.
CHIMILAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the province ofSanta Marta. They inhabit the Avoods to the e.of the large river Magdalena, go naked, and haveno fixed abodes. They are cruel and treacherous,and are bounded by the nation of the Guaxiros.
CHIMIRAL, a river of the province and corregimiento of Copiapo in the kingdom of Chile.It rises in the SnoAvy sierra, runs w. and enters thesea in the point of its name. It in many partsruns in so inconsiderable a stream as frequently tobe in all appearance lost before it enters the sea.
€ H I
C H I
papas; likewise in cattle, from the fleeces of whichgreat quantities of woven clotlis are made. Its'population amounts to 150 house-keepers and 100Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its capital,and near to the settlement of Turmeque.
==CHISCAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate at the foot of the Snowy sierra^and therefore of a cold and unpleasant temperature.Its productions correspond with those of a similarclimate ; it contains about 80 Indians, with a veryfew whites. Thirty-two leagues n. e. of Tunja.
CHISPAS, Punta de las, a point on the s.coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo,in the territory possessed by the French ; lyingbetween the settlement and parish of the English,and the point of Burgados.
[CHISSEL, a fort in the state of Tennessee,two miles and a half from English ferry, on Newriver, 43 from Abingdon, and 107 from Longisland, on Holston.]
CHITA, a province and corregimienlo of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, and vice-royalty ofSanta Fe. It was formerly called Chisca. It isbounded w. by the province of Bogota, and n. bythe country bt the Laches Indians, or province ofCochuy, and e. and s. by the llanuras of theOrinoco. It was discovered by George Spira, aGerman, and he was the first who entered it withhis companions in 1535. This territory is fertile,abounds in wheat and maize, the grain of which isextremely large, as also in other seeds, and hasgoats and neat cattle in plenty. It is of an hotand unhealthy temperature, and has palms similarto those of Palestine and Barbary, producing ex-cellent dates. The capital is of the same name.This is situate at the foot of the mountains of Bo-gota ; it is a large settlement, and was formerly en-titled a city. Its inhabitants consist of upwardsof 700 whites and about 200 Indians. Twenty-four leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.
Same name, another settlement, which is the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofVillalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tempe-rature, contains 90 families of Indians, and is threeleagues and a half to the s. of its capital.
CHITANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians;bounded by that of the Chiscas, but distinct fromit, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. They in-habit the woods to the n. e. of the mountains ofBogota and the shores of the rivers Ele, Cuiloto,and Arauca ; are an intractable and. cruel people,and dreaded by all their neighbours. In 1535,having joined company with the Jiraras, theytook and destroyed the city of Las Palmas.
CHITARAQUE, a settlement of the corregi-mienlo and jurisdiction of Velez in the NuevoReyno de Granada, it is of an hot but healtliytemperature, produces yucas, maize, plantains,cotton, and great quantities of sugar, from whichare made fine and much esteemed conserves.
CHITAREROS, a barbarous and brutal nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada,who inhabit the mountains in the vicinity of Pam-plona ; they are mixed with some families of theLaches. This nation is extremely numerous, andpass a wandering life without any fixed abode ;they go entirely naked, and are much given to sen-sual gratifications ; some of them have embraced2
C H O
C H O
down from the mountains to the jy. of the RachcsIndians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. untilit enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix,opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto,which lies to the s.
CHOPO, a settlement of the government andjurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a very mild climate, andabounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and manysorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branchof its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them forsale to the capital, which lies at a small distancefrom hence, in the road leading to M6rida andGibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost asmany indigent settlers.
[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are threemiles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]
CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians,of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwellingimmediately upon the mountains and forests ofFosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitchtheir huts near the river Bermejo. But little isknown of their customs and of their country.
CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plainsor llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touchingtoAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogo-les, and extending n. as far as the mountains ofthe Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They areat present reduced to the Catholic religion, and aremixed with those of other nations ; but some fewof them still persist in their idolatry, and livedispersed upon the mountains.
[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres, near a small lakeabout 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35°33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]
[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, thoughonly two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth.It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions,in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they foundits temperature to be intensely sultry.]
c o c
COCO, a river of the province and governmentof Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountains of the n. and enters the seaopposite the island of Las Palmas, and gives itsname to the territory of a Cacique, thus called.
COCOMERACHI, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara, andkingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. It is 40 leagues tothe w. s.zo. of the town 'And real of the mines ofChiguaga.
COCONUCO, See Cucunuco.
COCOS, some small islands of the Pacific orS. sea, lying close together, and divided by somenarrow channels. They abound in cocoa-trees,and from thence take their name. They are alsocalled Santa Cruz, from having been discoveredon the day of the invention of the cross. Theclimate here is pleasant, but the isles are unculti-vated and desert. Lat. 5° n.
COCUI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Tunja in the NueVo Reyno de Gra-nada ; situate at the foot of the sierra Nevada. Itis of a cold temperature, but abounds in all kindsof productions, and particularly in wheat, maize,barley, &c. It contains 700 white inhabitants,and 150 Indians. Thirty-two leagues from Tunja,and eight from the settlement of Chita.
COCUPAC, a city and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofValladolid in Nueva Espana, and of the bishopricof Mechoaean. Its situation is in a nook to the n.of the great lake. On the e. and ze. are two loftymountains, which form so many other entrances,the one to the 5. and the other to the n. Its tem-perature is rather cold than w'arm ; and althoughit does not want for fruits, it is but ill supplied withwater, the only stream it has not running morethan the distance of a stone’s throw before it entersa lake. The inhabitants are thus under the ne-cessity of supplying themselves by wells. Thepopulation of this city consists in 45 families ofSpaniards, 52 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 150of Indians. They occupy themselves in the mak-ing of tiles or flags ; and the inferior order aremuleteers. It has a convent of the religious orderof St. Francis.
COD, a cape of the coast of New England andprovince of Massachusetts. It runs for many leaguestowards the sea, forming a large semicircle, andafterwards returning, forms the bay of Barnstable.[See Cape Cod, Barnstable, &c.]