The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
C A X
C A X
from six to 20 feet diameter, worn almost perfectlysmooth, into the solid body of a rock.]
CAXAMARCA, a province and corregimientoof Peru, in the bishopric of Truxillo ; boundeds. e. by the province of Caxamarquilla, e. by thatof Chachapoyas, n.w. by that of Luya and Chil-Igos : all these three being situate at that part oft^e Maranon which serves as a limit to this pro-vince of Caxamarca. It is bounded ». by the pro-vince of Jaen, n. w. by that of Piura, w. by thatof Saha and by a part of Truxillo, and s. by thatof Huamachuco. It is in length 40 leagues froms. e. ion. w. ; and in breadth, or across, 36 leagues.To enter it through the province of Truxillo, whichis the grand road, it is necessary to pass the cordil-lera, which is not here so lofty as in the s. pro-vinces. This province, however, abounds witheminences which are branches of the cordillera;and on account of the height and situation ofthese, a great variety of temperature is experienced,some parts being subject to an intense heat, andothers to , a severe cold. Thus it partakes of thenature of the sierra, and its uneven figure no lesscorresponds with it : but it is for the most part of agood temperature, particularly in the capital. Theprovince abounds greatly in all kinds of fruits andcattle : in it are fabricated cloths, baizes, blankets,canvas for sails of ships, and cotton garments of aVery fine and excellent quality. Formerly its prin-cipal commerce was in swine ; at present it is not,though these animals still abound in some parts.It is watered by many rivers, of which those risingon the w. side of the cordillera, as the Sana, Lam-bay eque, and those passing through the provinceof Truxillo, all enter the S. sea. The others,amongst which that of the Criznejas is the largest,incoporate themselves with the Maranon. On itsshores are lavaderos, or washing-places of gold;and its rivers in general abound in very good andwholesome fish. Besides the fruits and the pro-ductions of every kind found in this province, ithas to boast many gold and silver mines, some ofwhich are worked. There a e also some of copper,
very fine lead, brimstone, and alcaparrosa. To-wards the n. part, where it touches the province ofJaen, are found some bark-trees, the production ofwhich, although not equal to the trees of Loxa, isof the colour of heated copper, and possesses allthe virtues of the common bark. Here are alsomany medicinal herbs, and amongst them the cele-brated calagimla. In the time of the Indians, andbefore the conquest, it was so well peopled that itsnatives formed upwards of 500 settlements. Atpresent they amount to 46,000, being divided into46 settlements. The capital bears the same title,and the repartimiento of the corregidor used toamount to 80,000 dollars, and it paid an alcavalaof 640 dollars per annum.
The settlements are.
Caxamarca, the ca-pital,
Trinidad de Chetu,S. Francisco doCay an,
Santa Catalina deChugod,
San Pablo de Cha-lique,
S. Luis de Tuniba-din,
S. Bernardino de
S. Juan de Llallan,Nepos,
San Miguel de Pal-laques,
San Juan de Huam-bos,
Todos Santos deChota,Tacabamba,Yauyucan.
its figure is
The capital is large and handsomeirregular, and it is situate upon a level plainT Thehouses are of clay, and the streets are wide andstraight. The parish church, Avhich has threenaves, is of finely worked stone, and the buildingexpences of it Avere defrayed by King Charles II.in the time of the viceroy the Duke of La Palata,in 1682. It has a parish of Spaniards, calledSanta Catalina ; two of Indians, which are SanPedro and San Joseph ; two convents of the orderof St. Francis, one of the Observers, and anotherof the Recoletans ; an hospital and a convent ofBethlemites, a monastery of nuns of La Concepcion,an house of entertainment of Nuestra Senora de