The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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AIAPANGO, the head settlement of the district of the akaldia mayor of Chaleo in Nueva Espana. It contains 100 families of Indians, and is annexed to the curacy of Amecaraeca, at two leagues to the s. of its capital.
AIAPATA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, and very opulent, on account of its silver mines. The sands on the banks of the rivers here have been known so richly impregnated with this metal, that lumps of it have been at different times picked up. It is the most considerable population in the province, and the temperature is so salutary, that it is very common to meet with persons of 90 years of age, and many also of 100.
AIAPEL, a town of the province and government of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Granada, situate on the bank of a large lake or swamp of the same name, and which is formed from the waters of the rivers Cauca, San Jorge, and others. In its district are the lavaderos, or washing places for gold, of La Cruz, San Mateo, Thuansi, Can, Ure, Man, San Pedro, and La Soledad.
AIATASTO, a large river of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district and jurisdiction of the city of Salta, on the banks of which are some pasture grounds of the same name, upon which are fed 40,000 head of neat cattle, and 6000 of horses for breeding.
AIAUIRI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lamoa in Peru. In its vicinity are some forts, which were built by the Indians in the time of their gentilism, and now in a state of great dilapidation. There is a lake of warm water here, the bottom of which has never yet been found. The water always keeps at one height, so that it is presumed that it finds its way out through some subterraneous channel. There is also another warm
water spring at two leagues distance, which is very noxious, and, as it runs, has the property of petrifying, in like manner as the spring of water in Guancavelica.
AIAUTLA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teutila in Nueva España, of a warm temperature, and inhabited by 100 Indian families, who support themselves by cultivating and selling the vaynilla plant. Nine leagues s. of its capital.
AICAROPA, a small river Of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It rises in the country of the Armocotos Indians, runs from e. to w. with a slight inclination to the s. and enters the Caura.
AIECTIPAC, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Yxteapan, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva España. It contains 21 Indian families, and is three leagues e. of its head settlement.
AIMARAEZ, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. w. and w. by the province of Andahuailas, of the bishopric of Guamanga, s. by Parinacocha of the same, s. e. by Ghumbivilcas, and e. by Cotabamba. It is 40 leagues in length from «. to s. and 26 in width from e. to ti). including in its figure on the w. side the last mentioned province. It js one of the most uneven soils in the kingdom, being full of lofty sierras and snowy mountains. It is on this account that its climate is very cold, excepting, however, in some vallies, where it is more temperate, and where, on some small sloping grounds, the inhabitants sow seed and grain, and cultivate fruit trees and cane plantations,
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which the inhabitants trade. These are composed of 34 Indian families. It is a little more than three leagues from its head settlement,
AIOZINGO, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Chaleo in Nueva España, situate on the shore of the lake of Mexico, with a good port, at which are embarked the fruits of many provinces for the supply of that capital, (Chaleo), which is within eight or ten hours sail from hence. It has a good convent of S. Augustin, where a most beautiful image of the virgin is reverenced, and supposed to be wonder-working. Its inhabitants consist of 120 Indian families and some Spanish. It is distant one league s, s. e. from its capital.
AIRICOS, a nation of Indians who inhabit the plains of Cazanare and Meta, of the new kingdom of Granada, to the c. of the mountains of Bogota, on the borders of the river Ele. It is numerous, and feared by all its neighbours, on account of its valour and dexterity in the use of arms.
Airicos, with the dedicatory title of San Francisco Xavier, a settlement which belonged to the Jesuits, and founded in 1662 by father Antonio de Monteverde, and composed of some of those Indians who were thus reduced to the Catholic faith.
AIRIHUANCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru.
AIRS, a small city of the province and colony of New Jersey, in the county of Burlington.
AIUDA, Nuestra Senora be la, a village and settlement of the Portuguese, in the province and captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situate upon the sea-coast, and on the shore of the river S. Miguel.
Aiuda, another settlement in the province and captainship of Puerto Seguro, situate upon the coast on the shore of the port.
AIUILA, a river of the province and alcaldia mayor of Soconusco, in the kingdom of Guatemala: It runs into the S. sea between the settlement of Suchitepec and the river Coatlan.
AIUINOS, a nation of Indians of the province and government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana, converted to the faith by father Francisco Olinano, of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1624. They live towards the n. of the above province, and in the times of their heathenism they dwelt in the lofty mountains, in order that they might defend themselves from the other nations with whom they were at war. They are docile, well-inclined, and of good habits.
AIUN, or luMERi, a river of the province and
viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. It runs s. and enters the Rio Negro.
AIUNCHA, Pago BE, a settlement of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district and jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, from whence it is 22 leagues distant. It is situate on the shore of the river Dulce.
AIUTLA, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold temperature, containing 187 Indian families, and a convent of the religious order of S. Domingo ; distant 13 leagues to the e. of its capital.
Aiutla, another settlement in the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Autlan of the same kingdom, with 23 Indian families, who have large stores of pulse and fruit, so rich and fertile is their country. It is annexed to the curacy of Tenamaztlani, from whence it lies one league s,
AlUA, a small town of the island of St. Domingo, situate in the line which divides the Spanish territory from the French. It was the inhabitants of this town who chiefly contributed to ensure the victory which was gained against the Spaniards in the plain of Puerto Real, by the president Don Francisco de Segura y Sandoval, in 1691.
AIX, Palmar be, a large beach on the coast of Florida, within the channel of Bahama, near the point of Canaveral ; memorable for the shipwreck of 22 vessels, composing the fleet of Nueva Espana, which took place in 1715, being under the command of Don Antonio de Ubila ; memorable also for the loss of two galleons from Tierra Firme, commanded by Don Antonio de Echevers ; the loss of the one and the other amounting to nearly 20 million dollars.
Aix, a river of the same province, which runs into the sea very near the Palmar.
AJOIANI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Coaza.
[AJOS, a parish situate on the foot of the mountains which separate the rivers Paraguay and Parana, about 24 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23° 26' 34" s. Long. 56° 30' w.~\
AJOUES, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Louisiana, in which the French held a garrison and fort for its defence, on the shore of a lake near the Missouri.
A joues, another settlement of the same province and government, situate on the shore of the river Missouri.
AKANCEAS, a nation of savage Indians of N. America, who live at the conflux of the rivers Mississippi, and another abundant stream of its
(CHEGOMEGAN, a point of land about 60 miles in length, on the s. side of lake Superior. About 100 miles w. of this cape, a considerable river falls into the lake ; upon its banks abundance of virgin copper is found.)
CHEGONOIS, a small river of the same province and colony as the former. It runs s. w, and enters the Basin des Mines.
(CHELMSFORD, a township in Middlesex county, Massachusetts ; situated on the s. side of Merrimack river, 26 miles n. w. from Boston, and contains 1144 inhabitants. There is an ingeniously constructed bridge over the river at Pawtucket falls, which connects this town with Dracut. The route of the Middlesex canal, designed to connect the waters of Merrimack with those of Boston harbour, will be s. through the e. part of Chelmsford.)
(CHELSEA, called by the ancient natives Winnisimet, a town in Suffolk county, Massachusetts, containing 472 inhabitants. Before its incorporation, in 1738, it was award of the town of Boston, It is situated n. e. of the metropolis, and separated from it by the ferry across the harbour, called Winnisimet.)
(Chelsea, the name of a parish in the city of Norwich, (Connecticut), called the Landing, situated at the head of the river Thames, 14 miles n. of New London, on a point of land formed by the junction ofShetucket and Norwich, or Little rivers, w hose united waters constitute the Thames. It is a busy, commercial, thriving, romantic, and agreeable place, of about 150 houses, ascending
one above another in tiers, on artificial foundations, on the 5. point of a high rocky hill,)
(CHEMUNG is a township in Tioga county, New York. By the state census of 1796, 81 of its inhabitants were electors. It has Newton w. and Oswego e. about 160 miles n. w. fiom New York city, measuring in a straight line. Between this place and Newton, General Sullivan, in his victorious expedition against the Indians in 1779, hada desperate engagement with the Six Nations, whom he defeated. The Indians werestrongly entrenched, and it required the utmost exertions of the American army, with field pieces, to dislodge them ; although the former, including 250 tories, amounted only to 800 men, while the Americans were 5000 in number, ami well appointed in every respect.)
(CHENENGO is a n. branch of Susquehannah river. Many of the military townships are watered by the n. w. branch of this river. The towns of Fayette, Jerico, Greene, Clinton, and Chenengo, in Tioga county, lie between this river and the e. waters of Susquehannah.)
(Chenengo, a post town, and one of the chief in Tioga county, New York. The settled part of the town lies about 40 miles w. e. from Tioga point, between Chenengo river and Susquehannah ; has the town of Jerico on the n. By the state census of 1796, 169 of its inhabitants are electors. It was taken off from Montgomery county, and in 1791 it had only 45 inhabitants. It is 375 miles n. n. w. of Philadelphia.)
(CHENESSEE or GENESSEE River rises in Pennsylvania, near the spot, which is the highest ground in that state, where the eastern most water of Alleghany river, and Pine creek, a water of Susquehannah, and Tioga river, rise. Fifty miles from its source there are falls of 40 feet, and five from its mouth of 75 feet, and a little above that of 96 feet. These falls furnish excellent mill-seats, which arc improved by the inhabitants. After a course of about 100 miles, mostly n, e. by n. it empties into lakeQntario, four
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upon the loftiest part of that most beautiful lltinura, from which the prospect is so enchanting ; sliewing on one side the sea, on another the river which waters tlie precincts, and on another some shady poplar groves. It is of an extremely benign temperature, and enjoying throughout the year a perpetual spring, being neither incommoded by heat nor cold. It is extremely fertile, and abounds in whatever can conduce to the comfort and convenience of life. The city is tolerably large ; all the streets are drawn at straight lines ; and the houses are disjoined from each other by large gardens, which are all well supplied with water brought by aqueducts from the river. The parish church is very beautiful, and not less so are those of the religious orders of St.. Francis, St. Domingo, St. Augustin, La Merced, San Juan de Dios, and the college which formerly belonged to the regulars of the company of the Jesuits. It has a port, which is convenient ajid much frequented by vessels ; upon the shore of which are caught tunnies, abacoras, and various other kinds of fish ; also many delicate kinds of shell-fish. At a small distance is a very abundant copper mine, from which much metal is extracted and carried to Europe ; and it is of this, as well as of its excellent breed of horses, its wine, oil, tallow, cow-hides, and dried meats, that its commerce is composed ; sending, as it does yearly, four or five vessels loaded with these effects to Lima. Although it has mines of the purest gold, yet these are but little worked. The whole of the town is covered with beautiful myrtles, and of these there is a delightful grove. It was destroyed by the Araucanos Indians in 1547 ; and in 1579 it was attempted to be taken by Francis Drake, who was repulsed by the inhabitants, la 1680 it seemed to be rebuilt only that it might undergo a sacking the same year by the English pirate, Bartholomew Sharps. Its population consists of 500 families of Spaniards and people of colour, and some Indians. Fifteen leagues from the city of Concepcion, and 58 from the capital of the kingdom, Santiago. Lat. 30° s. Long. 71° 18'. [See Chile,]
COQUIMBO, an island of the coast of this province and corregimiento.
CORAS, Santiago de los, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits in California ; situate at an equal distance from both coasts. It is composed of Indians of the nation of its name, and is the place where the Father Lorenzo Carranza, a missionary, suffered martyrdom.
CORAZON DE Jesus, a settlement of the corregimiento and jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Its population i* small, and it is situate in a country mountainous and full of pools, being scanty in vegetable productions, with 200 inhabitants, a miserable race. It is near the settlement of Chiquinquira, and to the s. of Velez.
CORAZON, another, called De Maria, of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of J esLiits, in the province and government of Maynas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the river Aguarico.
CORAZON, another, called De Jesus, in the province and government of the Chiquitos Indians in Peru ; situate at the foot of the cordillera of San Fernando, a reduccion of the missions which were held there by the regulars of the company,