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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, on the shore of the river Choromoros.

(CHAUDIERE River, a s. e. water of the St. Lawrence, rising in Lincoln and Hancock counties, in the district of Maine. The carrying place from boatable waters in it, to boatable Avaters in the Ketmebeck, is only five miles.)

(CHAUDIERE Falls are situate about nine miles above Quebec, on the opposite shore, and about three or four miles back from the river St. Lawrence, into which the river Chaudiere disembogues itself. The river is seen at a distance, emerging from a thick wood, and gradually expanding from an almost imperceptible stream till it reaches die cataract, whose breadth is upwards of 360 feet. Here the disordered masses of rock, which iippear to have been rent from their bed by some violent convulsion of nature, break the course of the waters, and precipitate them from a height of 120 feet into an immense chasm below. In some parts large sheets of water roll over the precipice, and fall unbroken to the bottom ; while in other places the water dashes from one fragment of the rock to another, with wild impetuosity, bellowing and foaming with rage in every hollow and cavity that obstructs its progress ; from thence it rushes down with the rapidity of lightning into the boiling surge beneath, where it rages with inconceivable fury, till driven from the gulf by fresh columns, it hurries away and loses itself in the waters of the St. Lawrence. The scenery which accompanies the cataract of Chaudiere is beautiful and romantic beyond description. In the centre, a large fragment of rock, which first divides the water, at the summit of the precipice, forms a small island ; and a handsome fir-tree, which grows upon it, is thus placed in a most singular and picturesque situation. The forest on either side the river consists of firs, pines, birch, oak, ash, and a variety of other trees and shrubs, intermingled in the most wild and romantic manner. Their dark green foliage, joined with the brown and sombre tint of the rocky fragments over which the water precipitates itself, form a striking and pleasing contrast to the snowy whiteness of the foaming surge, and the columns of sparkling spray which rise in clouds and mingle with the air.)

CHAUGE, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river Tugelo.

CHAUICO, San Pedro de, a settlement of the head settlement of Tlacotepec, and alcaldía

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mayor of Juxtlahuaca, in Nueva España. It contains 57 families of Indians.

CHAUIN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro-Vireyna in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chupamarca in the province of Yauyos.

Chauin, another settlement in the province and corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru.

CHAUINA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Paraisancos.

CHAUINILLOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huamalies in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Pachas.

CHAUITAS, La Presentacion de, a settlement of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito.

CHAULAN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huacar.

CHAUNAMILLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Maule in the kingdom of Chile ; situate upon the shore and at the source of the river Jecudahue.

CHAUPICOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Atabillos Baxos.

CHAUPIMARCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Tapú.

CHAUTLAN, a settlement of the province and alcaldía mayor of Zoques in the kingdom of Guatemala.

CHAUX, PUNTA DE, an extremity of the e. coast of the island of Martinique, one of the Antilles. It runs into the sea nearly equal with that of Carabelle.

CHAXAL, a river of the province and alcaldía mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guatemala. It runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of Higueras.

CHAYANTA, or Charcas, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Cochabamba, n. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, e. by the province of Yamparaez, s. e. and s. by that of Porco, and w. by that of Paria ; is 36 leagues in length from w. to e. and 44 in width, n. s. Its temperature is various, since it contains the settlements of Puna and Valles ; in the former of these are found in abundance the productions of the sierra^ and in the latter wheat, maize, and other seeds and herbs : they have equally a traffic with the surrounding provinces, especially in the articles of wheat and flour of maize. Here are bred

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CHETU, Santissima Trinidad de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru.

CHEUELUS, or CHAVELOS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the country of Marañon, who inhabit the woods bordeiing upon the river Aguarico, to the e. and in the vicinity of the lakes. They arc warlike, of a cruel and treacherous nature, and in eternal enmity with their neighbours. M. de la Martiniere will have it, that the name Chavelos is derived from the French wovd chevezLV, the men and the women both allowing and encouraging the growth of their hair till it reaches down to the waist ; supposing, forsooth, that these Indians must either have known French when they were discovered, or that their discoverers, at all events, must have been French.

CHEURA, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It runs w. ?z. e. and e. washing the country of the ancient Esmeraldas Indians: it afterwards entersthe river of its name on the e. side, in lat. 1° 23' n.

CHEWOCHEE, a settlement of North Carolina ; situate on the skirt of the mountains of Tclliquo.

CHIA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zipaquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; celebrated in the time of the Indians for having been the title of the kings ox npas of Bogota; the investiture of which dignity was always transferred with the greatest possible solemnity. It is of a very cold temperature, although salutary ; and is situate on a beautiful plain, on the shore of the river Bogota, four leagues to the n. of Santa F6.

CHIAMILA, a head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Motines in Nueva España, contains SO families of Indians.

CHIAMOTO. See Seyota.

CHIANTLA, a settlement of the province and nlcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guatemala.

CHIAPA, a province and alcaldia mayor of the kingdom of Guatemala ; bounded on the«. by the province of Tabasco, c. by that of Vera Paz, w. by that of Oaxaca of Nueva Espaha, and s. e. by that of Soconusco. It extends 85 leagues from e. to w. and is nearly 30 across at its widest part. It was conquered by Captain Diego Marariegos in 1531 : is divided into districts or alcaldias mayores^ which are those of Zoques, Chontales, Los Llanos, and Xiquipila ; is of a warm and moist temperature, although it has some parts in which the cold predominates. Its woods abound with large trees of pine, cypress, cedar, and walnut; and of others of a resinous kind, from which

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are extracted aromatic gums, balsams, and liquid amber, tacamaca, copal, &c. It produces also, in abundance, maize, swine, honey, cotton, cochineal, which is only made use of for the purpose of dyeing the cotton ; also cacao, and much pepper and achoie, or the heart-leaved bixa'; also vfirious kinds of domestic and wild birds, especially parrots, which are very beautiful and highly esteemed ; a small bird, called tolo, less than a young pigeon, with green wings ; this is caught by the Indians, who pluck from its tail some feathers, Avhich they prize highly, and then restoring it to liberty; it being a capital offence, according to their laws, to destroy it. The sheep, goats, and pigs, which have been brought from Europe, have multipled in this province in a most extraordinary manner ; so also have horses, which are of such an esteemed breed, that the colts are taken from hence to Mexico, a distance of 500 miles. In the woods breed many lions, leopards, tigers, and wild boars, a great number of snakes, some being 20 feet in length, and others of a beautiful crimson colour, streaked with black and white. Tlie territory is, for the most part, rugged and mountainous, and watered by different rivers : none of these, however, are of any particular consideration, although that which bears the name of this province is the medium by which the aforesaid productions are carried to the other provinces ; and although this province may be accounted comparatively poor, from being without mines of gold or silver, it is nevertheless of the greatest importance, as being the outwork or barrier to New Spain, from the facility with which this kingdom might be entered by the river Tabasco. The capital is the royal city of Chiapa, situate on a delightful plain. It is the head of a bishopric, erected in 1538; and has for arms a shield, upon which arc two sierras, with a river passing between them : above the one is a golden castle, with a lion rampant upon it ; and above the other a green palm, bearing fruit, and another lion, the whole being upon a red field. These arms were granted by the Emperor Charles V. in 1535. The cathedral is very beautiful. It contains three convents of the order of St. Francis, La Merced, and St. Domingo ; a monastery of nuns, and five hermitages. Its population is scanty and poor, and the principal commerce consists in cocoa-nuts, cotton, wool, sugar, cochineal, and other articles. Its nobility, although poor, are very proud, as having descended from some ancient families of the first nobility of Spain ; such as those of Mendoza, Velasco, Cortes, &c. The women suffer great debility at the stomach on account of the excessive heat, ami they can never

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11. Don Juan Zapata y Sandoval, native of Mexico, of the order of St. Augustin ; he came to Spain, was regent of the college of San Gabriel de Valladolid, and elected bishop of Chiapa in 1612 ; then promoted to the archbishopric of Guatemala in' 1622.

12. Don Bernardino de Salazar y Frias, native of Burgos, canon of Jaen, .collegiate in the college of San Antonio de Portaceli de Siguenza ; presented to the bishopric in 1622 : he died in 1623.

13. Don Alonzo Munoz, dean of the holy church of Mexico, professor of theology ; he died before he was consecrated.

14. Don Agustin Ugarte de Saravia, elected in 1628 ; he was promoted in 1630 to the archbishopric of Guatemala.

15. Don Fray Marcos Ramirez de Prado, of the order of St. Francis, native of Madrid ; he studied in Salamanca arts and theology with great credit, was guardian of the convent of Lucena, vice-commissary general of the Indies, and guardian of the convent of Granada, when he was elected bishop of Chiapa in 1632 ; he entered its church in 1635, and was promoted to that of Mechoacan in 1639.

16. Don Fray Christoval de Lazarraga, a monk of the order of St. Bernard, native of Madrid, was master and professor in Salamanca, abbot of the monastery of that city, and qualificator of the inquisition ; he was presented to the bishopric of Chiapa in 1639, and promoted to that of Cartagena of the Indies in 1641.

17. Don Fray Domingo de Villaescusa, a monk of the order of St. Jerome, collegian in the college of San Lorenzo el Real, prior of the monastery of Espeja, and of those of Parral de Segovia, of San Geronimo de Guisando of Madrid, visitor of the two Castillas, and general of his order ; was presented to the bishopric of Chiapa in 1641, governed until 165 1 , when he was promoted to the church of Y ucatan.

18. Don JFrqy Francisco Nunez de la Vega, a monk of the order of St. Dominic.

19. Don Christoval Bernardo de Quiros, native of Tordelaguna, canon of the churches of Arequipa, Quito, and of Lima, pro visor and vicargeneral of the archbishopric, and judge of the inquisition ; he was elected in 1660, and was promoted to the archbishopric of Popayan in 1670.

20. Don Manuel Fernandez de Santa Cruz y Sahagun, a native of Palencia in Castilla de Cuenca, in the university of Salamanca, first canon of Segovia, was elected in 1672, and before he arrived was promoted to Guadalaxara.

21. Don

22. Don

23. Don J uan Bautista Alvarez de Toledo, na-

tive of the town of San Salvador, in the province of G uatemala, of the religious order of St. Francis, professor in his religion, and prelate of many convents ; he was elected in 1708, and promoted to the archbishopric of Guatemala in 1714. ,

24. Don

25. Don Fray Joseph Cubero Ramirez de Arellano, a monk of the order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced ; elected in 1734, governed 19 years, until 1753, when he died.

26. Don Fray Joseph Vidal de Montezuma, of the order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced, a native of Mexico ; elected in 1753, governed till 1767, when he died.

27. Don Miguel de Cilieza y Velasco ;• elected in the above year, governed until 1768, when he died.

28. Don Fray Lucas Ramirez, of the order of St. Francis ; he was promoted to the archbishopric of Santa Fe in 1769.

29. Don Fray Juan Manuel de Vargas y Rivera, a native of Lima, monk of the order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced ; elected in the aforesaid year of 1769, governed until 1774, when he died.

30. Don Antonio Caballero y Gongora, until the following year of 1775, when he was promoted to the church of Yucatan.

31. Don Francisco Polanco, until 1785, when he died ; and,

32. Don Joseph Martinez Palomino Lopez de Lerena, elected in 1786.

Chiapa, with the appellation of Mota, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Xilotepec in Nucva Espana. It contains 960 families of Otomies Indians, and is seven leagues to the n. w. of its capital.

CHIAPANTONGO, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Xilotepec in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it lies two leaffues to the n. It contains 102 familes of Indians.

CHIAPAS, a settlement of the province and government of Cinaloa.

CHIAPILLA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Guatemala, in the district of its capital.

CHIARA, a settlement of the province and bishopric of Huamanga in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of the parish of Santa Maria Magdalena in that city, from whence it is three leagues distant.

CHIAUTLA, S. Andres De, a settlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco

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mines have as yet been discovered here. These islands have some ports, but such as are small, insecure, and without any defence, with the exception of that of Chacao. The inhabitants should amount to 22,000 souls, and these are divided into 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed by the reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis, and consisting at the present day, for the most part, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is the city of Santiago de Castro, in the large island of Chiloe. [For further account, see index to additional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]

CHILON, a settlement of the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ; situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile, and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leagues from the settlement of Samaypata.

CHILOSTUTA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Zedales in the kingdom of Guatemala.

CHILPANSINGO, a settlement of the intendancy of Mexico, surrounded with fertile fields of wheat. Elevation 1080 metres, or 3542 feet.

CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded by the province of Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ; s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that of Abancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperature is various, the proportion of heat and cold being regulated by its different degrees of elevation ; so that in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm, and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13 leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered by three rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passing through the valley of this name, the Velille, and the Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extended seven bridges, which form a communication with the other provinces. It has likewise eight small lakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl. The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; in wheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stocked with some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer. Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the country ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, by means of chorillos, or running streams, as they have no mills for fulling, since a royal licence is necessary for the making use of the same. Although the appearance of mines has in many places been discovered amongst the mountains, yet no mines have as yet been worked, and two only have been known to have been opened in former times. This province has suffered much from earthquakes ; and the greatest of these happened in 1707, when many settlements were made desolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, and these contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital is Paruro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimiento used to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamla The other settlements are.

to 676 dollars per ann. Colcha,

Araipalpa,

San Lorenzo, Parapacucho,

Ceapa,

Cuchirihuay,

Tucuyachi,

Coron,

Pacopata,

Aicha-Urinzaba,

Pilpinto,

Huayaconga,

Accha-Amansaia,

Parco,

Pocoray,

Hanoquite,

Corea,

Paucartarnbo,

Amacha,

Antapalpa,

Quilli,

Acca,

Vilque,

Capi,

Cavabamba,

Huancahuanca,

Yaurisque.

Same name, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Pucquin.

CHILTAL, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Atacames or Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito ; situate in the valley of Chota, on the shore of the river Mira.

CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settlement of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its temperature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdiction. It is situate in the middle of a plain, extending over the top of a hill, on two sides of which are large chasms, so immensely deep, that it is really astonishing to observe how the Indians contrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges. It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leagues to thes. of its head settlement.

Same name, a river of the province and alcaldiamayor of Tabasco, which runs into the sea.

CHILUA, San Marcos de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru ; annexed to the Curacy of Huamanguilla.

CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito, in the government and corregimiento of Chirnbo or Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asancoto. It is entirely covered with woods and with streams, which flow down from the heights into the plains of Babahoyo. The river named De la Chima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol. A way has been opened through this mountain which leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it is passable in the summer only. There is also another pass equally difficult and dangerous, called Angas. The cold is great at the top of the mountain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.s in lat. 44' s.

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CHIMALAPA, Santa Maria de a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tehuantepec in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold temperature, and the whole of its district is covered with very large trees, especially firs fit for ship-building. Twenty-five leagues n.w. of its capital,

CHIAMLHUACAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Coatepec in Nueva Espana. It contains a good convent of the religious order of St. Domingo, 300 families of Spaniards, il/wsfees, and Mulattoes, who employ themselves in labour, and in the commerce of seeds and large and small cattle, which are bred in the estates contiguous ; but the latter in no great degree, owing to the scarcity of water and pasture which prevails here.

Same name, another settlement and head settlement of the district in the alcaldia mayor of Chaleo, of the same kingdom. It contains 166 families of Indians, and a convent of the religious order of St. Domingo. Five leagues n. of its capital.

CHIMALTENANGO, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Guatemala ; situate in the valley of this capital. It is very pleasant and fertile, and peopled with Indians.

CHIMALTEPEC, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 29 families of Indians, and is two leagues from the real of the mines of Cairo.

Same name, another small settlement of the head settlement of Malcatepec, and alcaldia mayor of Nexapa, very near its head settlement.

CHIMAN, a settlement of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate near the coast of the S. sea, and on the shore of the river of its name, having a small port, which is garrisoned by a detachment from Panama, for the purpose of restraining the invasions which are continually made by the Indians.

Same name, a river of this province, and government, which rises in the mountains on the s. coast, and runs into the sea opposite the island of Narranjal,

CHIMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. It has the celebrated talc gold-mine which was discovered 36 years ago by a fisherman, who pulling up a plant of large and prickly leaves, called cordon, or fuller’s thistle, for the purpose of fuel for his fire, observed that particles of gold dropped from its roots; and having more narrowly inspected it, found pieces amidst the mould of considerable size and of very fine quality. Thus

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a mine became established here, and when it was first dug it yielded from 300 to 500 dollars each caxon.

Same name, another settlement of the province and corregimienio of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Andajes.

CHIMBACALLE a settlement of the kingdom of Quito, in the corregimienio of the district of Las Cinco Leguasde la Capital, (ofthe Five Leagues from the Capital), of which this is looked upon as a suburb from its proximity.

CHIMBARONGO, a river of the kingdom of Chile. It rises in the mountains of its cordillera^ and unites itself with that of Tinguiragua to enter the Napel. This river waters and fertilizes some very pleasant and delightful valleys, abounding in pastures, whereon breed and fatten an infinite number of cattle. On its shores are two convents, one ofthe religious order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced, for the instruction of the Indians in the Christian faith ; and another a house for novices, which belonged to the regulars of the society of Jesuits ; and also within a league’s distance from the latter, is a convent of the order of St. Domingo.

Same name, a settlement of the province and corregimienio of Colchagua in the same kingdom ; situate in the Former valley, between the rivers Tinguiririca and Teno. There is also another small settlement annexed, with a chapel of ease. In its district is a convent of the religious order of La Merced.

[CHIMBO, a jurisdiction in the province of Zinto in South America, in the torrid zone. The capital is also called by the same name.]

CHIMBO Y ALAUSI, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Quito ; bounded n. oy the serrania of the asiento of Ambato ; s, by the government and jurisdiction of Guayaquil ; e. by the district of the point of Santa Elena of this government; and ro. by the province of Riobamba. Its district is barren and poor, and the country being mountainous, the inhabitants have no resource for getting their livelihood other than by acting as carriers between the provinces of Riobamba and Tacunga on the one hand, and the warehouses of Babahoyo on the other, where also are the royal magazines ; and thus they bring back goods from the provinces of Peru, having for this traffic a number of requas, or droves of mules, amounting in the whole to 1500 head. This commerce can only be carried on in the summer, the roads being impassable in the winter through the mountains, when they say that these are shut up : at the same season the rivers become swollen to such a degree

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