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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


ACHA, Mountains of, in the province and government of Guayana; they run from N to S on the shore of the river Caroni.

ACHACACHE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Omasuyos, the capital of this province, in Peru. It contains, besides the parish chapel, another, in which is an image of Christ, with the dedicatory title of La Misericordia. [Lat. 16° 33' 30" S. Long. 79° 23' 20" W.]

ACHAGUA, a nation of Indians of the nuevo Reyno de Granada, who dwell among the plains of Gazanare and Meta, and in the woods which skirt the river Ele. They are bold in their engagements with wild beasts, but with human beings they have recourse rather to poison and stratagem; they are dexterous in the use of the dart and spear, and never miss their aim; are particularly fond of horses, of which they take the utmost care, anointing and rubbing them with oil ; and it is a great thing among them to have one of these animals of peculiar size and beauty. They go naked, but, for the sake of decency, wear a small apron made of the thread of aloes, the rest of their bodies being painted of different colours. They are accustomed, at the birth of their children, to smear them with a bituminous ointment, which hinders the hair from growing, even upon the eyebrows. The women's brows are also entirely deprived of hair, and the juice of jagua being immediately rubbed into the little holes formed by the depilatory operation, they remain bald for ever after. They are of a gentle disposisition, but much given to intoxication. The Jesuits reduced many to the catholic faith, forming them into settlements, in 1661 .

ACHALA, Mountains of, in the province and government of Tucuman, bounded by the mountains of Cuyo or Mendoza, of the kingdom of Chile; they run from N N W to S S E at the sources of the river Quarto.

Achamqui. See CHANQUI.

ACHAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Guamanga in Peru, situate on the confines which divide the above province from Huanta.

ACHEPE, Bay of, a small port of the N. sea, on the E, coast of the Isla Real, or Cape Breton. It is close to N. cape.

[ACHIACHICA, a town in Mexico. See Angelos.]

ACHIANTLAS, Miguel de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepozcolula. It contains a convent of monks of Santo Domingo, and 260 families of Indians, who occupy themselves in cultivating and improving the land. It is eight leagues to the W with an inclination to the S of its capital.

ACHIBAMBA, a river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito; it rises in the mountains, and enters the Marañon.

ACHINUTLAN, a very lofty mountain of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It is on the shore of the river Orinoco, and to the E of the Ciudad Real, (royal city), the river Tacuragua running between them.

ACHIRA. See Cata-Magu.

ACHITE, a small river of the province and government of Guayana. It runs from S to N and enters the Cuyuni.

ACHOCALLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pacages in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Viacha.

ACHOGOA, a settlement of the province and government of Cinaloa, founded by the missionaries of the Jesuits, between the rivers Tuerte, Mayo, and Ribas.

ACHOMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru. In its vicinity is a volcano, called Amboto and Sahuarcuca, which vomits smoke and flames; the latter of which are seen clearly at night.

ACHONGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Lircay.

ACHOUPEKAHIGAN, a river of Canada. It runs E afterwards turns to the S and enters the lake of St. Thomas.

[ACKLIN'S Island. See Crooked Island.]

ACLA, a small city of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province of Darien, founded by Gabriel de Roxas, in 1514, on the coast of the S. sea, at the mouth of the gulph of Uraba, in front of the island of Pinos, with a good fort, then much frequented and very convenient, from having a good bottom, but somewhat incommoded by currents. Pedro Arias Davila built here a fort for its defence in 1516; but the settlement, nevertheless, did not keep long together, the Spaniards having abandoned it, on account of its unhealthiness, in 1532. [Lat. 8° 56' N. Long. 77° 40' W.]

ACOBAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru. It was the capital, but at present the town of Guancavelica bears that title, on account of its being the residence of the governor and other people of consequence. It is of a good temperature, and so abundant in grain, that its crops of wheat amount to 25,000 bushels yearly. In an estate near it, are some pyramidical stones, and in other parts

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Needs Review

the same being the case with regard to the numerous rivers which intersect and fertilize the province ; all of them entering and augmenting the already abundant stream of the Mississippi. In the middle of the lake is a pyramidical mount, of above 100 yards in circumference, composed of a stone similar to crystal, and being the loftiest of any in the province. Its borders abound with cattle, called cibolas, a sort of wild cow, having the neck well covered with a long and soft wool, and affording delicious food to the natives. By the fat which they procure from the numerous anteaters, which breed here, they supply {he want of oil. There are also some castors, and other kinds of mountainanimals. Two leagues from the garrison.

Adaes, a river of the above province, which runs 5. e. in the district or country of the Indians, who give it the denomination ; and enters the river Mexicano.

[ADAIZE are Indians of N. America, who live about 40 miles from Natchitoches, below the Yattasses, on a lake called Lac Macdon, which communicates with the division of Red river that passes by Bayau Pierre. They live at or near where their ancestors have lived from time immemorial. They being the nearest nation to the old Spanish fort, or mission of Adaize, that place was named after them, being about 20 miles from them to the s. There are now but 20 men of them remaining, but more women. Their language differs from all others, and is so difficult to speak or understand, that no nation can speak ten Avoids of it; but they all speak Caddo, and most of them French, to whom they were always attached, and join them against the Natchez Indians. After the massacre of Natchez, in 1798, while the Spaniards occupied the post of Adaize, their priests took much pains to proselyte these Indians to the Roman Catholic religion, but, we are informed, were totally unsuccessful.]

[ADAMS, a township in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, containing 2040 inhabitants, is about 140 miles n. w. of Boston. In the n. part of this town is a great natural curiosity. A pretty mill stream, called Hudson's brook, which rises in Vermont, and falls into the n. branch of Hoosuck river, has, for 30 or 40 rods, formed a very deep channel, in some places 60 feet deep, through a quarry of white marble. Over this channel, where deepest, some of the rocks remain, and form a natural bridge. From the top of this bridge to the water is 62 feet ; its length is about 12 or 15, and its breadth about 10. Partly undcrthis bridge, and about 10 or 12 feet below it, is another, Which is wider, but not so long ; for at the e. end they form one body of rock, 12 or 14 feet thick, and under this the water flows. The rocks here are mostly white, and in other places clouded, like the coarse marble common at Lanesborough, and in other towns in Berkshire county.]

ADAMSTOWN, a town in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, containing about 40 houses; 20 miles n. e. of Lancaster.]

ADAUA, a river of the province and government of St. Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises between the Meta and Meteta, runs e. and enters the Orinoco in the port of San Francisco de Borja.

ADAUQUIANA, a small river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia, which rises near the sierra of Parime ; and running from to. to e. enters the sources of the Cauca.

ADA YES. See Mexicano River.]

ADDI, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of a small river, between the settlements of Uquitoa and Tibutana.

ADDIS, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, one of the Antilles ; situate in the district of the parish of Christ Church, on the s. coast.

ADDISON, a township of the district of Maine in Washington county, 10 miles s. w. of Machias, on the seaboard, between Englishmen's bay and Pleasant river. It was called No. 6. until it was incorporated in Feb. 1797.]

[Addison County], in Vermont, is on the e, side of lake Champlain, and is divided nearly int© equal parts by Otter creek ; has Chittenden county on the n. and Rutland county on the s. and contains 6449 inhabitants, dispersed in 21 townships. It is about SO miles by 27. A range of the green mountains passes through it. Chief town Middlebury, granted Nov. 1761.]

Addison, a town of the above county (Addison County), containing 401 inhabitants. It lies on lake Champlain, and is separated from Newhaven, on the e. by Otter creek. Snake mountains on the s. e. lie partly in this township, granted 1761.1

ADEQUATANGIE Creek, in New York state, is the eastern headwater of Susquehannah river.]

ADICONI, a port on the coast of the N. sea, in the province and government of Venezuela. It is e. of the peninsula of Paraguana.

[ADMIRALTY Bay, and Port Mulgrave, on the n. w. coast of America, lie in Lat. 59° 31' n. Long. 140° 18'.]

ADOLES, a settlement of Indians, of the pro

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[1803 amounted to 5,500,000, and the exports consisted of produce to the value of 4,000,000 dollars. He also states the population in 1808 at 900,000 souls. The receipts of Caracas, Guatemala, and Chile, are consumed within the country. The population of some of the chief cities is thus stated ; Caracas 40,000, La Guaira 6000, Puerto Cabello 7600, Coro 10,000. The harbour, or La Vela de Coro, as it is commonly called, and its environs, are supposed to contain not less than 2000. In 1797 three state prisoners were sent from Spain to Caracas, on account of their revolutionary propensities. Being treated with great indulgence by the officers and soldiers to whose care they were committed, they formed the project of a conspiracy against the government. They engaged a number of persons, some of them of consequence, in their party. After gaining their first converts, the spirit did not spread. The coldness and apathy of the people did not admit of the effervescene they desired. After the plot had been kept a secret for many months it was disclosed to the government. Some of the ringleaders escaped, and others were taken. It was found that seventy-two had entered into the conspiracy; six were executed. The rest either escaped, or were sent to the galleys or banished from the country. For an account of the recent revolution in Caracas, see Venezuela.]

Caracas, some islands of the N. sea near the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Cumana. They are six in number, all small and desert, serving as places of shelter to the Dutch traders, who carry on an illicit commerce on that coast.

Caracas, a small port of the coast of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Vene;zuela, between the capital and cape Codera.

CARACHE, a settlement of the province and government of Maracaibo, situate n. of the city of Truxillo, on the shore of a small river which enters the Matazan.

CARACHIS, San Carlos de a settlement of the province and country of the Amazonas ; a reduccion of the missions which belonged to the abolished order of the Jesuits. It is at the mouth of the river Huerari, where this enters the Maranon.

CARACOA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Parinacoche in Peru, where there is a spring of warm medicinal water.

CARACOL, Port, on the coast of the S. sea, and of the province and government of Panamá ; it is near the point of Garachine, behind mount Zapo.

CARACOLI, a port of the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, and of the province and government of Venezuela, to the w., of cape Codera.

Caracoli, a bay formed by the s. coast, in the province and government of Darien, of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; it lies at the back of point Garachine.

Caracoli, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande de la Magdalena, and on the n, of the town of Maria.

CARACOLLO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Oruro in Peru, eight leagues distant from its capital.

=CARACOTO== a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lampa in Peru.

Caracoto, another, in the province and corregimienlo of Sicasica in the same kingdom.

==CARAGAIAS, a town of the island of Cuba, situate on the n. coast between Cadiz and Nizao,

CARAGUATAI, a river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres ; it runs s. s. w. and enters the Ayum or Yumeri.

CARAGUET, a small river of Nova Scotia or Acadia ; it runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of St. Lawrence, opposite the island of its name.

CARAHUACRA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru; annexed to the curacy ofYauli.

CARAIBAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chalvanca.

CARAIMA Alta, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile ; situate on the coast between point Caraimilia and point Pena Blanca.

CARAIMILLA, a settlement on the coast of the province and corregimiento aforementioned, between point Caraima Alta, and the isle of Obispo.

CARAMA, a settlement of the province and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Granada.

CARAMANTA, a city of the province and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Gratiada ; founded by Sebastian de Benalcazar in 1543, near the river Cauca. Its temperature is hot and unhealthy, but it is fertile in maize, vegetables, grain, and abounds with herds of swine : near it are many small rivers which enter the Cauca, and some salt pits of the whitest salt. On the mountains within its jurisdiction, are some settlements of barbarian Indians very little known. This city is indifferently peopled, and is 65 leagues distant to the n. e. of Popayan, and 50 from Antioquia. Long. 75° 33' w. Lat. 5° 58' «.

CARAMATIBA, a settlement of the province and captainship of Rio Grande in Brazil ; situate on the shore of the river Carabatang.

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C A R I B E.

It was formerly a very rich tract of land, situate on the shore of the river Cazanare, a stream which crosses and stops the pass into the country and for this reason there was a considerable establishment formed here by persons who belonged to tlie curacy of Santa Rosa de Chire. Its temperature is hot, but it is very fertile, and abounds in productions, which serve to provide for the other settlements belonging to the same missions : at present it is under the care of the religious order of St. Domingo.

CARIBANA, a large country, at the present day called Guayana Maritania, or Nueva Andaiucia Austral. It extends from the mouth of the river Orinoco to the mouth of the Marahon ; comprehends the Dutch colonies of Esquibo, Surinam, and Berbice, and the French colony of Cayenne. It takes its name from the Caribes Indians, who inhabit it, and who are very fierce and cruel, although upon amicable terms with the Dutch. Nearly the whole of this province is uncultivated, full of woods and mountains, but watered by many rivers, all of which run for the most part from s. to e. and empty themselves into the sea ; although some flow from s. ton. and enter the Orinoco. The climate, though warm and humid, is healthy ; the productions, and the source of its commerce, are sugar-cane, some cacao, wild wax, and incense. The coast, inhabited by Europeans, forms the greater part of this tract of country, of which an account will be found under the respective articles.

Caribana, a port on the coast of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Darien, at the entrance of the gulf of Uraba.

CARIBE, a small port of the coast of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Venezuela, to the w. of cape Codera.

Caribe, Caribbee, or Charaibes, some islands close upon the shore of the province and government of Cumana, near the cape of Tres Puntas. [The Caribbee islands in the West Indies extend in a semicircular form from the island of Porto Rico, the easternmost of the Antilles, to the coast of S. America. The sea, thus inclosed by the main land and the isles, is called the Caribbean sea; and its great channel leads n. zo. to the head of the gulf of Mexico through the sea of Honduras. The chief of these islands are, Santa Cruz, Sombuca, Anguilla, St. Martin, St. Bartholomew, Barbuda, Saba, St. Eustatia, St. Christopher, Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat, Guadalupe, Dcseada, Mariagalante, Dominica, Martinica, St. Vincent, Barbadoes, and Grenada. These are again classed into Windward and Leeward isles bv

seamen, with regard to the usual courses of ships from Old Spain or the Canaries to Cartagena or New Spain and Porto Bello. The geographicaltablesand maps class them into Great and Little Antilles ; and authors vary much concerning this last distinction. See Antilles. The Charaibes or Caribbecs were the ancient natives of the Windward islands ; hence many geographers confine the term to these isles only. Most of these were anciently possessed by a nation of cannibals, the terror of the mild anti inotfensive inhabitants of Hispaniola, who frequently expressed to Columbus their dread of these fierce invaders. Thus, when these islands were afterwards discovered by that great man, they were denominated Charibbean isles. The insular Charaibs are supposed to be immediately descended from the Galibis Indians, or Charaibes of S. America. An ingenious and learned attempt to trace back the origin of the Caribes to some emigrants from the ancient hemisphere may be found in Bryan Edwards ; and it is to the valuable work of this author that we are indebted for the following illustrations of the manners and customs of this people. — The Caribes are avowedly of a fierce spirit and warlike disposition. Historians have not failed to notice these among the most distinguishable of their qualities. Dr. Robertson, in Note X Cl II. to the first vol. of hisHistory of America, quotes from a MS. History of Ferdinand and Isabella, Avrittenby Andrew Bernaldes, the cotemporary and friend of Columbus, the folloAving instance of the bravery of the Caribes : A canoe with four men, two Avomen, and a boy, unexpectedly fell in with Columbus’s fleet. A Spanish, bark with 25 men was sent to take them; and the fleet, in the mean time, cut off their communication with the shore. Instead of giving way to despair, the Caribes seized their arms with imdauntcd resolution, and began the attack, wounding several of the Spaniards, although they had targets as well as other defensive armour ; and even after the canoe was overset, it was with no little difficulty and danger that some of them Avere secured, as they continued to defend themselves, and to use their bows with great dexterity while swimming in the sea. Herrera has recorded the same anecdote. Restless, enterprising, and ardent, it would seem they considered war as the chief end of their creation, and the rest of the human race as their natural prey ; for they devoured, without remorse, the bodies of such of their enemies (the men at least) as fell into their hands. Indeed, there is no circumstance in the history of mankind better attested than the universal prevalence of these practices among them. Columbus was not]

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an hermitage dedicated to St. Denis the Areopagite. It lies to the s. of the city of Barquisimeto, Between that of Tucuyo and the lake of Maracaibo. (Carora is 30 leagues to the s. of Coro. Its situation owes nothing to nature but a salubrious air. Its soil, dry and covered with thorny plants, gives no other productions but such as owe almost entirely their existence to the principle of heat. They remark there a sort of cochineal silvestre as fine as the misleca, which they suffer to perish. The land is covered with prolific animals, such as oxen, mules, horses, sheep, goats, &c. ; and the activity evinced by the inhabitants to make these advantageous to them, supports the opinion that there are but few cities in the Spanish West Indies where there is so much industry as at Carora. The principal inhabitants live by the produce of their flocks, whilst the rest gain their livelihood by tanning and selling the hides and skins. Although their tanning be bad, the consumer cannot reproach the manufacturer, for it is impossible to conceive how they can sell the article, whatever may be its quality, at the moderate price it fetches. The skins and leather prepared at Carora are used in a great degree by the inhabitants themselves for boots, shoes, saddles, bridles, and strops. The surplus of the consumption of the place is used throughout the province, or is sent to Maracaibo, Cartagena, and Cuba. They also manufacture at Carora, from a sort of aloe disthica, very excellent hammocs, which form another article of their trade. These employments occupy and support a population of 6200 souls, who, with a sterile soil, have been able to acquire that ease and competency which it appears to have been the intention of nature to deny them. The city is well built ; the streets are wide, running in straight parallel lines. The police and the administration of justice are in the hands of a lieutenant of the governor and a cabildo. There is no military authority. Carora lies in lat. 9° 50' n. and is 15 leagues e. of the lake of Maracaibo, 12 n. of Tocuyo, IS n. w. of Barquisimeto, and 90 w. of Caracas.)

Carora, a great llanura of the same province, which extends 16 leagues from e. to w, and six from n. to s. It was discovered by George Spira in 1534, abounds greatly in every kind of grain and fruit, but is of a very hot temperature. Its population is not larger than that of the former city, to which it gives its name.

CARORI, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of the Chirimichale, in the point of Hicacos.

(CAROUGE Point, the northernmost extremity

of the island of St. Domingo in the W. Indies ; 25 miles n. from the town of St. Jago.)

CARPE, Island of the, in lake Superior of New France, between the n. coast and Cape Breton.

CARPINTO, Punta De, a point on the coast of the province and government of the Rio del Hacha.

CARQUIN, a port of the coast of Peru and S. sea, in the province and corres^imiento of Chancay.

(CARR, a small plantation in Lincoln county, district of Maine.)

(CARRANTASCA Lagoon, or Cartago, is a large gulf on the s. side of the bay of Honduras, about 70 miles n. w. of cape Gracios a Dios, and nearly as far s. e. from Brewer’s lagoon.)

CARRASCAL, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cuio in the kingdom of Chile; situate s. of the city of Mendoza, and on the shore of the river of this name.

CARRETAS, Puerto de las, a port in the sierra of its name, in Nueva España,

CARRETO, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena ; situate on the shore of the cano or dike near the sea-coast.

Carreto, a river of the province and government of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme ; it rises in the mountains of the n, coast, and enters the sea behind the bay of Calidonia.

CARRION DE Velazco, a small but beautiful and well peopled city of the kingdom of Peru, in the pleasant llanura of Guaura ; it is of a mild, pleasant, and healthy climate, of a fertile and delightful soil, and inhabited by a no small number of distinguished and rich families.

CARRIZAL, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela; situate on the coast and point of Coro, to the n. of this city.

Carrizal, sierra or chain of mountains of the same province and government, which runs from e. to w. from the shore of the river Guarico to the shore of the Guaya.

Carrizal, another settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate near a river, between the settlements of Bategui and San Marcelo.

Carrizal, another, of the province and corregimiento of Rancagua in the kingdom of Chile, to the s. of the city of Mendoza, and on the shore of the river of this name.

Carrizal, another, of the province and government of the Rio del Hacha, situate on the coast of the country of the Guajiros Indians, be-

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