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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]



tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues to the w. n. w. of Mexico.

Chilchota, another settlement of the head settlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountain which is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80 families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading in cochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits. It is eight leagues from its head settlement.

Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory title of San Pedro. It is of the head settlement of Quimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de los Llanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 families of Indians.

CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlement and real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ixmiquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215 families of Indians, and in the real are 27 of Spaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It is of an extremely cold and moist temperature, and its commerce depends upon the working of the lead mines. Some silver mines were formerly worked here, but these yielded so base a metal, and in such small quantities, that they were entirely abandoned for those of lead, which yielded by far the greatest emolument. Five leagues to the e. of its capital.

CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. America, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by the straits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on the e. by the provinces of Tucuman and Buenos Ayres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, and on the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios. 472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magallanicas from the straits and the plains or deserts of Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. The Inca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carried his conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, in lat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the first Spaniard who discovered this country, in the year 1335, and began its conquest, which was afterwards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pedro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, and afterwards met with a disgraceful death at the hands of the Indians, having been made prisoner by them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are the most valorous and warlike of all in America ) they have maintained, by a continual warfare, their independence of the Spaniards, from whom they are separated by the river Biobio. This is the limit of the country possessed by them ; and though the Spaniards have penetrated through different entrances into their territories, and there built various towns and fortresses, yet have all these been pulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-

fenders of their liberty and their country. They are most dexterous in the management of the lance, sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macana wood ; and although they are equally so in the practice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom, saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” They are very agile and dexterous horsemen, and their horses are excellent, since those which run wild, and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have not degenerated, or become at all inferior to the best which that country produces. The part which the Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends its whole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapo to the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond the isle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues, at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, as it were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera of the Andes ; from these descend infinite streams and rivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys, and forming a country altogether charming and luxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for the convenience and enjoyment of life, producing, in regular season, all the most delicate fruits of America and Europe. The summer here begins in September, the estio (or hot summer) in December, the autumn in March, and the winter in June. The climate is similar to that of Spain, and the temperature varies according to the elevation of the land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru, and which are very low, are of a warm temperature, and lack rain, having no other moisture than what they derive from some small rivers descending from the cordillera^ and running, for the space of 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the other provinces it rains more frequently, in proportion as they lay more to the s. especially in the winter, from April to September ; for which reason they are more fertile. These provinces are watered by more than 40 rivers, which also descend from the cordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snow melted in the summer, swelling them to a great height. They generally abound in fish of the most delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~ gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and many others. The sea-coast is of itself capable of maintaining a vast population by the shell-fish found upon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the most delicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ; here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasy a species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados, pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes, and tunnies, which come at their seasons on the coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadrabas of Andaluda. For some years past they salt down cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a

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constitution left the lower people little more freedom than they would have possessed under the government of the Aztec kings.]

The capital is the city of the same name, founded as far back as the time ofthegentilism of the Mexican empire, when this nation was at enmity with that of Chichimeca ; it was then one of the most populous cities, and contained 30,000 inhabitants and 300 temples, and served as a barrier to Moctezuma, in the attack against the republic of Tlaxclala ; the latter place never having been subjected to the Mexican yoke. This was the city which of all others most thwarted the designs of Hernan Cortes, but the inhabitants were discovered in the conspiracy they had laid against him, when they pretended to receive him with open arrhs and a peaceable and friendly disposition, and were made by him to suffer severely for their hypocrisy ; after which he and his whole army escaped uninjured. This city has many monuments denoting its antiquity ; and although in ancient times idolatry was here carried to its highest pitch, yet the light of the gospel has spread widely around its enlivening rays. It is of a mild and healthy temperature, rather inclined to cold than heat, being situate on a level, fertile, and beautiful plain. It has a good convent of the order of St. Francis, which is also a house of studies. Its inhabitants are composed of 50 families of Spaniards, 458 of Mustees, Mulattoes and Negroes, and 606 of Indians. On a lofty spot which lies close to the entrance, on the c. side of the city, is a handsome chapel, in which is venerated the image of the blessed virgin, which also bears the dedicatory title of Los Rentedios. It is a little more than 20 leagues to the e. of Mexico, and four from Tlaxclala. Long. 98° 14'. Lat. 19° 4'. [Its population is at present estimated at about 16,000 souls.]

CHONE, a settlement which in former times was considerable, but now much impoverished, in the ancient province of Cara, which is at present united to that of Esmeraldas. It lies upon the shore of the river Chones to the n. and is of an hot and moist climate, in lat. 33° s.

CHONES, a large river of the province of Cara in the kingdom of Quito. It runs to the w. and collects the waters of the Sanchez and theTossagua on the n. and on the s. those of the Camaron and the Platanal. At its entrance on the n. stood the city of Cara, of which the vestiges still remain. Where it runs into the sea it forms the bay of Cara, between the s. point of Bellaca and the n. point of laca. Its mouth is nearly two miles and an half wide.

CHONGO, San Miguel de, a settlement of the alcaldíta mayor of Huamelula. It is of a very cold temperature, from its being situate in the vicinity of the sierra Nevada (or Snowy) of the Chontales, which lies on the n. side of it. Its inhabitants amount to 24 families of Indians, who trade in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, of which the country, being naturally luxuriant, produces great quantities. It is watered by rivers which pass at a little distance, and is annexed to the curacy of Tepaltepec of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayor of Nexapa, from whence it lies 20 leagues. It is-, on account of this great distance, combined with the badness of the roads, that the natives so seldom can avail themselves of any instruction in the holy faith ; dying, as they often do, without the administration of the sacraments. Indeed, there is only one day in the year, which is the 29th of September, and on which the Indians celebrate the festival of their titular saint Michael, when they are visited by their curate, who then hears their confessions and says mass. At this time this settlement has somewhat the appearance of a Catholic people ; but being all the rest of the year left to themselves, it is not to be wondered that many relapse into their pristine state of gentilisra and idolatry. Three leagues w. of its capital.

CHONGON, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito; situate near a small torrent, renowned for the stones which it washes down, of a certain crystallized matter, which being polished, resemble brilliants, and are used as buttons, rings, and other trinkets.

CHONGOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Xauxa in Peru.

CHONTA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Abancay in Peru.

Other, another settlement in the province and corregimiento of Guamalies of the same kingdom, famous for its mine of quicksilver.

CHONTAI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chorrillo.

CHONTALES, a district of the corregimiento or alcaldia mayor of Matagulpa, in the kingdom of Guatemala and province of Nicaragua. It is but small, and its natives have this name from the Spaniards, who would by it express their natural uncouthness and stupidity.

CHOPADA, a settlement of the Portuguese, in the kingdom of Brazil and country of the Guayazas Indians ; situate on the bank and at the source of the river Tocantines.

CHOPARE, a river of the province and government of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito. It flows

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belongs to the bishopric of La Paz, and is so situate as to have a fine view of the lake. It is a settlement at once the most pleasant and convenient, fertile, and abounding in fruits and cattle, but its temperature is excessively cold. It has two parishes, with the dedicatory title of Santo Domingo and La Asuncion, and two hermitages dedicated to St. Barbara and St. Sebastian. The other settlements are,

Asiento de Minas de Mi- Asiento del Desagua-

chacani, dero,

Asiento de San Ante- Acora,

nio de Esquilache, Hi lave,

Pomata, *July,

Asiento de Huacullani, Santiago,


Same name, The lake of, which, although it be thus called, is also known by the name of Titicaca, is 51 leagues in length from n. w. to s. e. and 26 in width, although in some parts less. On its shores are six provinces or corregimientos^ which are. The province of this Paucarcolla, name, Lampa, Pacages, Asangaro. Omasuyos, This lake is of sufficient depth for vessels of any size, since in many bays not far in from its shores there are from four to six fathoms of water, and within it, some places from 40 to 50. It is, as far as is ascertained, without any shoals or banks. Near it grow some herbs, called clacchos, eaten by the cows and pigs ; also a great quantity of the herb called totora, or cat’s tail, which in some parts grows to the length of a yard and an half. Of this the Indians make rafts, not only for fishing but for carrying to and fro the cattleand productions of the harvest and crops growing in the various islands lying in this lake. Some of these islands are so covered and hemmed in with the herb totora that it requires much force and labour to cut a passage through it. In one of the largest of these islands the Incas had a magnificent temple, dedicated to the sun, the first that was ever built. This lake is not without its tempests and squalls ; they are, on the contrary, frequent, and have at times caused no inconsiderable mischief. Its waters are thick, but are nevertheless drank by the cattle, and even the Indians ; particularly by those of the nation of the Uros, who are a poor ignorant people, who formerly lived upon the islands in great wretchedness, and who by dint of great solicitations have been prevailed upon to leave them for the mainland^ where they now reside in some miserable caves, excavated places, or holes in the earth covered over with fiags of totora^ maintain-



ing themselves by fishing. This lake contains likewise various kinds of fish, such as trout, ormantos, cuches, anchovies, and boquillas in abundance; these are, for the most part, about the length of a man’s hand, and three fingers thick. The Indians of Yunguyo take upwards of 700 yearly, and sell them at four and six dollars the thousand. They also catch some small pejereyesy and an infinite variety of birds, which are salted, and afford excellent food. It is confidently and repeatedly asserted by the Indians, that the greater part of the riches of the country was thrown into this lake when the Spaniards entered it at the time of the conquest ; and amongst other valuables the great gold chain made by the order of the Inca Huayanacap, which was 2S3 yards in length, and within which 6000 men could dance.

CHUCURPU, an ancient settlement of warlike Indians of the province and corregimiento of Cuzco in Peru. It lies to the e. of this city, and was subjected and united to the empire after a long resistance by Pachacutec, emperor of the Incas.

CHUCUTI, a river of the province and government of Darien in the government of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains towards the e. and following this course, enters the Taranena at a small distance from its source.

CHUDAUINAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the kingdom of Quito, to the s, e. of this city. They inhabit the part lying s. w. of the river Pastaza, and are bounded on the s. e, by the Ipapuisas, and w. by the Xibaros. They are not numerous, owing to the continual wars which they have maintained with their neighbours ; and though of a martial spirt, they are of a docile and humane disposition. Some of them have 'United themselves with the Andoas, in the settlement of this name, which lies upon the w. shore of the river Pastaza.

CHUECA, San Agustin de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lipes, and archbishopric of Charcas, in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of San Christoval.

CHUETI, a river of the province and government of Choco. It rises in the sierras of Abide, runs w. and enters the Paganagandi.

CHUFIAS, a barbarous nation of Indians who inhabit the e. of the river Aguaricu, bounded on the n. w. by the nation of the Encabellados, with whom they are in continual warfare.

CHUGOD, Santa Catalina de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Chetu.

CHUI, a river of the province and captainship 3 o

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kingdom of Chile. It rises from one of the lakes of Avendafio, runs w. and then turning s. enters the river Laxa. On its shore the Spaniards have a fort, called Yumbel, or Don Carlos de Austria, to restrain the Araucanos Indians.

Same name, another river in the province and corregimiento of Maule of the same kingdom. It runs w. and enters the Maule.

Same name, another river of the province and government of Mariquita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises in the valley of Corpus Christi, and running through it, enters the great river Magdalena.

Same name, another, a small river of the province and government of Paraguay. It runs w. and enters the Mbotetei.

Same name, another small river of the kingdom of Brazil, which also runs w. and enters the Preto or Palma, opposite the Benito.

Same name, another (river) of the same kingdom of Brazil, distinct from the former. It rises in the country of the Araes Indians, runs n. n. e. and enters the Parcuipasa, to the w. of the toM'n Boa.

Same name, a port of the coast of the South sea, in the province and government of Choco in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It lies between the port Quemado and the bay of San Francisco Solano.

CLAUCAC, a settlement of the head settlement of Xonacatepec, and alcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espana.

CLAUDIO, San, a small island of the North sea, near the e. coast of Nova Scotia in N. America, in the strait which this coast forms with the island of San Juan.

[CLAVERACK, a post-town in Columbia county. New York, pleasantly situated on a large plain, about two miles and a half e. of Hudson city, near a creek of its own name. It contains about 60 houses, a Dutch church, a court-house, and a goal. The township, by the census of 1791, contained 3262 inhabitants, including 340 slaves. By the state census of 1796 tkere appears to be 412 electors. It is 231 miles from Philadelphia. 1

CLAYCAYAC, a head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Zultepec in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy of Teraascaltepec. It contains 84 families of Indians, and is four leagues s. of its capital.

CLEAUER, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district of the parish of San Juan.

CLERC, Ensenada de, a bay of the n. coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo, in the French possessions, between the bay of Los Cairaitos and the Agujero or Trou of Jeremias.

[CLERK’S Isles lie s, w. from, and at the entrance of Behring’s straits, which separate Asia from America. They rather belong to Asia, being very near, and s. s. w. from the head-land which lies between the straits and the gulf of Anadir in Asia. They have their name in honour of that able navigator, Captain Clerk, the companion of Captain Cook. In other maps they are called St. Andrea isles.]

[CLERMONT, a post-town in Columbia county, New York, six miles from Red hook, 15 from Hudson, 117 miles n. of New York, and 212 from Philadelphia. The township contains 867 inhabitants, inclusive of 113 slaves.]

[Clermont, a village 13 miles from Camden, S. Carolina. In the late war, here was a block-house encompassed by an abbatis; it was taken from Colonel Rugely of the British militia, in December 1781, by an ingenious stratagem of Lieutenant-colonel W ashington.]

CLEYALI, a settlement of Indians of South Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river Alabama.

[CLIE, Lake Le, in Upper Canada, about 38 miles long and 30 broad; its waters communicate with those of lake Huron,]

[CLINCH Mountain divides the waters of Holston and Clinch rivers, in the state of Tennessee. In this mountain Burk’s Garden and Morrises Nob might be described as curiosities.]

[Clinch, or Peleson, a navigable branch of Tennessee river, which is equal in length to Holston river, its chief branch, but less in width. It rises in Virginia, and after it enters into the state of Tennessee, it receives Powel’s and Poplar’s creek, and Emery’s river, besides other streams. The course of the Clinch is s. w. and s. w. by w . ; its mouth, 150 yards wide, lies 35 miles below Knoxville, and 60 above the mouth of the Hiwasse. It is beatable for upwards of 200 miles, and Powel’s river, nearly as large as the main river, is navigable for boats 100 miles.]

[CLINTON, the most n. county of the state of New York, is bounded n. by Canada, e. by the deepest waters of lake Champlain, which line separates it from Vermont, and s. by the county of Washington. By the census of 1791, it contained 16 14 inhabitants, including 17 slaves. It is divided into five townships, viz. Plattsburgh, the capital. Crown Point, Willsborough, Champlain, and Peru. The length from n. to s. is about 96 miles, and the breadth from e. to w. including the line upon the lake, is 36 miles. The number of souls was, in 1796, estimated to be 6000. By the state census, in Jan. 1796, there were 624 persons entitled to be electors. A great proportion of the lands are of an excellent quality, and produce

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c o c

c o c


venerated an image of Oar L idy, the most celebrated for miracles of any in the whole kingdom. The wonderful things, indeed, that have been wrought here, have caused it to be the object of great devotion ; accordingly an handsome temple has been erected, and the riches and ornaments which adorn the same are exceedingly valuable. People conse here from all the distant provinces to offer up their prayers, to implore the protection of the Holy Virgin, and to thank her for benefits received. The festival here celebrated is on the 8th of September, when the quantity of people assembled is so large as to give the place, for the space of 12 days, t!ie‘ appearance of a fair.

COCHAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru.

COCHE, an island of the North sea, near the coast of Nueva Andalucia, and belonging to the island of Margarita. It is nine miles in circumference, and its territory is low and barren. It was celebrated for the pearl-fishery formerly carried on here. It is four leagues to the e. of Cubagiia.

COCHEARI, a river of the province and country of Las Amazonas. It runs w. and enters the Madera opposite the Yamari.

[COCHECHO, a n.w. branch of Piscataqua river in New Hampshire. It rises in the Blue hills in Strafford county, and its mouth is five miles above Hilton’s point. See Piscat.xqua.J

COCHEIRA, Cumplida, a river of the country of Brazil. It rises to the n. of the gold mines of La Navidad, runs w. and enters the Tocantines on the e. side, between the Salto de Ties Leguas and the settlement of the Portal de San Luis.

COCHIMATLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of Almololoyan, and alcald'ia mayor of Colima, in Nueva Espana. It contains 100 families of Indians, whose trade consists in the manufacturing of salt, and the cultivation of their gardens, which produce various kinds of fruits. Two leagues to the w. of its head settlement.

COCHINOCA, a settlement of the province and governmeist of Tucuman, in the jurisdiction of the city of Xnjui. It has an hermitage, with the dedicatory title of Santa Barbara, which is a chapel of ease, and three other chapels in the settlement of Casivindo. The Indians of this place manufacture gunpowder equal to that of Europe, and in its district are some gold mines.

COCHINOS, Ensenada de, a bay on the s. coast of the island of Cuba, between the point Gorda and the bay of Xagua, opposite the falls of i)iego Perez.

COCHITI, a settlement of the kingdom of Nuevo Mexico ; situate at the source of a river which enters the large river Uel Norte, or of the North.

COCHOAPA, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana; situate upon a dry and barren plain. It contains 150 families of Indians, who are busied in the cultivation of cotton, the only production of the place.

COCHON, a small isle of the North sea, near the island of Guadalupe, in the bay of the Cul de Sac Petit, or Cala Angosta.

COCHUTA, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana.

COCHUY, a province of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, to the n. e. ; bounded by the province of Chita. It has now the name of Laches, from having been inhabited by this nation of Indians. It is very thinly peopled, of a hot climate, and abounding in Avoods.

COCKAHISPEN, a small river of Canada, which runs n. e. and enters Hudson’s bay.

[COCKBCRNE, a township in the n. part of New Hampshire, Grafton county, on the e. bank of Connecticut river, s, of Colebrooke.]

[COCKERMOUTH, a town in Grafton county, New Hampshire, about 15 miles n. e. of Dartmouth college. It was incorporated in 1766, and in 1775 contained 118 inhabitants ; and in 1790, 373.]

[COCKSAKIE. See Coxakie.]

COCLE, a large river of the province and government of Panama in the kingdom of Tierra Firmc. It is formed by the union of the Penome and the Nata, which run to the right and left of the mountain of Toabre, becoming navigable from that part to their entrance into the sea. A contraband trade was in former times constantly carried on through this river into the S. sea ; for which reason Don Dionisio de Alcedo (the father of the author of this Dictionary) built a fort which defended its entrance, as likewise a rvatch-tower or signal-house, to give notice of any strange vessels which might enter the river for the above purposes. The English took this tower, and built another fort by it in 1746, having been assisted by a company of at least 200 smugglers. These w ere dislodged in their turn by the aforesaid president, who inflicted condign punishment upon the heads of all the offenders.

COCMONOMAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who inhabit the mountains ol' the province of Guanuco. They are docile, of a noble spirit, and in continual warfare with the Callisecas and Mazupes.

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