The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
nardo. On the shore at its mouth the French, under Robert la Sale, made their first establishment in the year 1683.
CANELOS, a large province of the kingdom of Quito, discovered by Gonzalo Pizarro in the year 1540, who gave it this name on account of the quantity of cinnamon trees found in it, which grow very strong, shedding an odour something like camphor, and very pungent. This cinnamon, which is called raspado, is carried to Quito, and sold at six reals a pound, being made use of instead of the fine cinnamon. A small viper is frequently met with in it of the same colour as the cinnamon, and extremely venomous. This province is uncultivated, full of impenetrable forests and rivers, and contains only one settlement of the same name, on the n. shore of the river Bobonaza, in which is the port of Canoas, and the residence of a religious Dominican, who is the curate of those few miserable Indians. In lat. 1° 32' 20" s.
CANES AND Canches, a province and corregiminto of Peru, bounded on the e. by Carabaya, towards the town of Mauclani, on the s. e. by Lampa in the cordillera of Villacanota, on the s. by Cailloma, s. e. by a part of the province of Condesuios of Arequipa, w. by Chumbivilca, being divided by the river Apurimac, and n. w. by Quispicanchi. It is in length from n. to s. 30 leagues, and 15 in width : Its climate is, for the greater part, extremely cold, on account of its being nearly covered with mountains of snow ; nevertheless they cultivate here barley, maize, potatoes, cavi, and quinoa; and in the warm parts, which consist of uneven and broken grounds near the rivers, some kinds of fruit, though in no abundance. Here also are great quantities of animals which breed upon the mountains from the luxuriance of the pastures ; and of these are the vigognes, huanacos, and viscachas, which latter are a species of hare or rabbit ; deer also, and partridges, abound here. In the rivers are found bagres a foot in length. The principal rivers which water this province, are the Vilcamayo, which runs from the province of Quispicanchi, into which runs another flowing down from the snowy sierras on the e. part called Combapata.
This river has a stone bridge, and descends from the heights of Cailloma. This province has many lakes, which are filled with water-fowl, such as ducks, widgeons, and others ; these birds are found more particularly in lake Lanchug, which is three leagues long and one and a half broad, and in it there is also found the load-stone. Linen cloth is fabricated here. In the district of San Pedro de Cacha, in a place called Rache, there is an ancient and grand edifice with nine gates, half of the walls of which, as high as the first stories, are made of carved stone ; the rest of the edifice being of earth upon five galleries of stone, forming as it were so many other walls. This building is said to have served as a temple in Viracocha in the time of the gentilism of the Indians. At a small distance there is an artificial lake with aqueducts which keep it always at a proper height ; this lake is situate upon a black mountain, which may be about two leagues in circumference ; also in the same vicinity are vestiges of a considerable population, and here is found a mineral earth from which they fabricate jars, large pitchers, and other vessels, which are carried to be sold in the neighbouring provinces. In this province are many mines of silver, but they are not worked, on account of their being some of them filled with water, and some of them broken in, with the exception, however, of those of Condoroma, which, although they have experienced the former calamity, do not fail to render yearly many marks of gold, a pretty good testimony of their riches. Great indeed have been the labour and expence in the attempts to empty them of the water, but in this they have not as yet succeeded. Here are also four good sugar-mills ; and in the jurisdiction of the town of Yauri, are two mines of copper, which are worked : Some gold mines also are not wanting, although they be of little note. In the establishment of Condoroma it is not unusual to experience, in the tempests of thunder and lightning, a sort of prickly sensation on the hands and feet and other parts of the body, which they call moscas, or flies, without, however, being able to discover any of these insects ; and it should seem that the effect is to be attributed to the state of the atmosphere, since the heads' of canes, buckles, and silver or gold galloons, though during such times highly affected by the electric matter, cease to be so on the cessation of the tempest. The inhabitants of this province amount to 18,000 souls, dwelling in 24 settlements, which are,
San Pablo, Yanacoa,
sels can go 25 miles above Wilmington, and large boats 90 miles, to Fayetteville. The n. e. branch joins the n. w. branch a little above Wilmington, and is navigable by sea vessels 20 miles above that town, and by large boats to S. Washington, 40 miles further, and by rafts to Sarecto, which is nearly 70 miles. The whole length of Cape Fear river is about 200 miles.)
(Cape May is the s. westernmost point of the state of New Jersey, and of the county to which it gives name. Lat. 38° 59' n. Long. 74° 55' w. It lies 20 miles n. e. from cape Henlopen, which forms the s. w. point of the mouth of Delaware bay, as cape May does the n. e.)
(Cape May County spreads n. around the cape of its name, is a healthy sandy tract of country, of sufficient fertility to give support to 2571 industrious and peaceable inhabitants. The county is divided into Upper, Middle, and Lower precincts.)
CAPETI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains in the interior of this province, runs from e. to w. and enters the large river of Tuira.
Capi, a small river of the country of the Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese. It runs from e. to w. and enters the Marañon opposite the city of Pará. Don Juan de la Cruz, in his map of S. America, calls it Cupiu.
CAPIATA, a small settlement of the province and government of Paraguay ; situate on the shore of the river of its name, three leagues e. of the city of Asuncion. [Lat. 25° 21' 45". Long. 57° 31' 48" w.]
Santiago del Estero, on the bank of the river Choromoros.
Capillucas, a lake of the same province and government; formed from an overflow or channel of the river Napo, and at no great distance from the banks of this river.
CAPINOTA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cochambaba in Peru, and of the archbishopric of Charcas ; in which there is, independent of the parish-church, a convent of the order of San Agustin.
CAPITANEJO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the new kingdom of Granada; situate on the bank of the river Sogamoso, in the territory called Cabuya de Chicamocha, which is the direct road from Tunja to Santa Fe. It is of a very hot temperature, abounding in sugar-cane, and other productions of a warm climate. The natives are very subject to an epidemic disorder of lumps or swellings under the chin. Its population consists of 100 housekeepers.
Of Guadalupe, between the Three Rive*‘s and the Agujero del Ferro.
CARCAI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Soras. It has a hot spring of water of very medicinal properties, and its heat is so great that an egg may be boiled in it in an instant.
CARCARANAL, a river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It rises in the province of Tucuman, in the mountains of the city of Cordoba, runs nearly from e. torw. with the name of Tercero, and changing it into Carcaraiial, after it becomes united Avith the Saladillo, joins the Plata, and enters the Salado and the Tres Hecmanas.
CARCAZI, a settlement of the government and Jurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, situate betAveen two mountains, which cause its temperature to be very moderate. It produces much Avheatand maize ; in its cold parts such fruits as are peculiar to that climate, and in the milder parts sugar-cane. Its neighbourhood abounds Avith flocks of goats ; and the number of inhabitants may amount to about 200 Spaniards and 30 Indians. It is situate on the confines Avhich divide the jurisdictions of Tunja and Pamplona.
(CARDIGAN, about 20 miles e. of Dartmouth college, New Hampshire. The township of Orange once bore this name, which see.)
CARDINALES, Sombreros de. See article Pitangoas.
CARDOSO, Real de, a settlement and real of gold mines in the province and captainship of Todos Santos in Brazil; situate on the shore of the large river of San Francisco, to the n. of the village of Tapuyas.
CAREN, a valley or meadow-land of the kingdom of Chile, renowned for its pleasantness, beauty, and extent, being five leagues in length; also for a fountain of very delicate and salutary water, which, penetrating to the soil in these parts, renders them so exceedingly porous, that a person treading somewhat heavily seems to shake the ground under him. There is an herb found here that keeps green all the year round: it is small, resembling trefoil, and the natives call it caren: it is of a very agreeable taste, and gives its name to the valley.
CARENERO, a bay of the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme in the province and government of Venezuela. It is extremely convenient for careening and repairing ships, and from this circumstance it takes its name. It lies behind cape Codera towards the e.
CARET, Anse be, a bay of the island of St. Christopher, one of the Antilles, on the n. e. coast, and in the part possessed by the French before they ceded the island to the Englissh. It is between the bays of Fontaine and Morne, or Fuente and Morro.
CARGUAIRASO, a lofty mountain and volcano of the province and corregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom of Quito. It is in the district of the asiento of Ambato, covered with snow the whole year round. Its skirts are covered with fine crops of excellent barley. In 1698 this province was visited by a terrible earthquake, which opened the mountain and let in a river of mud, formed by the snows which were melted by the fire of the volcano, and by the ashes it threw up. So dreadful were the effects of this revolution that the whole of the crops were completely spoiled ; and it was in vain that the cattle endeavoured to-