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[to chastise or correct them, as they hold it as an
established truth, that chastisement only renders
men base and cowardly.

27. Food , — The usual diet of'the Araucanians is
very simple ; their principal subsistence is several
kinds of grain and pulse, which they prepare in a
variety of different modes. They are particularly
fond of maize, or Indian corn, and potatoes; of the
last they have cultivated more than SO different
kinds from time immemorial, esteeming them a very
healthy nutriment. Although they have large and
small animals and birds in plenty, yet they eat but
liUle flesh, and that is simply boiled or roasted.
They have the same abstemiousness in the use of
pork, from which they know very well how to pre-
pare black puddings and sausages. Their seas and
rivers abound with excellent fish, but they do not
much esteem this kind of aliment. Instead of
bread, which they are not accustomed to eat, ex-
cept at their entertainments, they make use of small
cakes of maize ,or roasted potatoes with a little
salt. Their usual drinks consist of various kinds
of beer, and of cider made from Indian corn, from
apples, and other fruits of the country. They
nevertheless are extremely fond of wine, which
they purchase from the Spaniards, but hitherto,
either for political reasons, or more probably from
carelessness, they have paid no attention to the
raising of vines, -n^hich, as has been proved by ex-
periment, produce very well in all their provinces.
The master of the house eats at the same table with
the rest of his family. The plates are earthen, of
their own manufactory, and the spoons and cups
are made of horn or wood. The ulmenes have in
general wrought plate for the service of their
tables, but they only make use of it when they en-
tertain some stranger of rank ; upon such occa-
sions they ostentatiously display it, being naturally
fond of show, and of being considered rich. Their
seasonings are made of Guinea-pepper, of modi,
and salt. In summer they are fond of dining in
the shade of trees, which for this purpose are al-
ways planted around their houses. They do not
use the flint for the purpose of obtaining fire, but
employ, like the Kamschatdales, two pieces of dry
wood, one of which they place upon another, and
turn it in their hands until it takes fire, which is
very soon. Besides dinner, supper, and breakfast,
they have every day without fail their luncheon,
which consists of a little flour of parched corn,
steeped in hot water in the morning, and in cold
in the evening. But they often deviate from this
simple mode of living when at their public enter-
tainments, which they give each other on occasion
of funerals, marriages, or any other important

event. At such times no expence is spared, and
they are profuse of every thing that can promote
festivity. In one of these banquets, at which it is
common for 300 persons to be present, more meat,
grain, and liquor is consumed, than would be suf-
ficient to support a whole family for two years. It
is usual for one of these feasts to continue two or
three days : they are called cahu'm^ or circles,
from the company seating themselves in a circle
around a large branch of cinnamon. Such enter-
tainments are made gratuitously, and any person
whatever is permitted to partake of them without
the least expence. But this is not the case with
the mingacos, or those dinners which they are ac-
customed to make on occasion of cultivating their
land, threshing their grain, building a house, or
any other Avork Avhich requires the combined aid
of several. At such times all those who wish to
partake in the feast, must labour until the work is
completed. But as these people have abundant
leisure, the labourers collect in such numbers, that
in a very few hours the work is finished, and the
rest of the day is devoted to feasting and drinking.
The Spaniards who live in the country have also
adopted a similar plan, availing themselves of the
same kind of industry to complete their rural la-
bours. Fermented liquors, in the opinion of the
Araucanians, form the principal requisites of an
entertainment; for Avhenever they are not in plenty,
Avhatever may be the quantity of provisions, they
manifest great dissatisfaction, exclaiming go/in-
gelai, “ it is a wretched feast, there is no drink.”
These bacchanalian revels succeed each other al-
most without ititerruption throughout the year, as
every man of property is ambitious of the honour
of giving them ; so that it may be said, that the
Araucanians, when not engaged in war, pass the
greater part of their lives in revelry and amuse-

28. Music and other diversions. — Music, danc-
• ing, and play, form their customary diversions.
As to the first, it scarcely deserves the name ; not
so much from the imperfection of the instruments,
which are the same they make use of in war, but
from their manner of singing, which has some-
thing in it harsh and disagreeable to the ear, until
one has been accustomed to it for a long time.
They have several kinds of dances, which are
lively and pleasing, and possess considerable va-
riety. The women are rarely permitted to dance
with the. men, but form their companies apart,
and dance to the sound of the same instruments.
If what the celebrated Leibnitz asserts is true, that
men have never dicovered greater talents than in
the invention of the different kinds of games, thej

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