509

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CONNECTICUT.

509

(which, with that degree of industry that is neces-
sary to happiness, produces the necessaries and
conveniences of life in great plenty. The inhabi-
tants are almost entirely of English descent. There
are no Dutch, Phench, or Germans, and very few
Scotch or Irish people, in any part of the state.
The original stock from which have sprung all the
present inhabitants of Connecticut, and the nume-
rous emigrants from the state to every j)art of tlie
United States, consisted of 3000 souls, who settled
in the towns of Hartford, New Haven, Windsor,
Guilford, Milford, and Weathersfield, about the
years 1635 and 1636. In 1756, the population of
the state amounted to 130,611 souls ; in 1774, to
197,856; in 1782, to 202,877 whites, and 6273
Indians and Negroes; in 1790, to 237,946 per-
sons, of whom 2764 w'ere slaves ; and by the cen-
sus of 1810, to 261,942 souls. The people of
Connecticut are remarkably fond of having all
their disputes, even those of the most trivial kind,
settled according to law. The prevalence of this
litigious spirit affords employment and support for
a numerous body of lawyers. That party spirit,
however, which is the bane of political happiness,
has not raged with such violence in this state as in
Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Public pro-
ceedings have been conducted generally with 'nucli
calmness and candour. The people are well in-
informed in regard to their rights, and judicious in
the methods they adopt to secure them. Tiie
state enjoys an uncommon share of political tran-
quillity and unanimity.

All religions, that are consistent with the peace
of society, are tolerated in Connecticut : and a
spirit of liberality and forbearance is increasing.
There are very few religious sects in this state.
The bulk of the people are Congregationalists.
Besides these, there are Episcopalians and
Baptists.

The damage sustained b}’- this state in the late
war was estimated at 461,235/. I6s. Id. To com-
pensate the sufferers, the general court, in May
1792, granted them 500,000 acres of the w. part of
the reserved lands of Connecticut, which lie w.
of Pennsylvania. There are a great number of
very pleasant towns, both maritime and inland, in
Connecticut. It contains five cities, incorporated
with extensive jurisdiction in civil causes. Two
of these, Hartford and New Haven, are capitals of
the state. The general assembly is holden at the
former in May, and at the latter in October, an-
nually. The other cities are New London, Nor-
wich, and Middleton. Weathersfield, Windsor,
Farmington, Litchfield, Milford, Stratford, Fair-
field, Guilford, Stamford, Windham, Suffieid, and

Enfield, are all considerable and very pleasant
towns. In no part of the world is the education
of all ranks of people more attended to than in
Connecticut. Almost every town in the state is
divided into districts, and each district has a pub-
lic school kept in it a greater or less part of
every year. Somewhat more than one-third of the
moneys arising from a tax on the polls and rateable
estate of the inhabitants is appropriated to the sup-
port of schools in the several towns, for the educa-
tion of children and youth. The law directs that
a grammar-school shall be kept in every county
town throughout the state. Yale college is an
eminent seminary of learning, and was founded
in the year 1700. See Yace College. Acade-
mics have been established at Greenfield, Plain-
field, Norwich, Windham, and Pomfret, some of
which are flourishing.

The constitution of Connecticut is founded on
their charter, which was granted by Charles II. in
1662, and on a law of the state. Contented with
this form of government, the people have not been
disposed to run the hazard of framing a new consti-
tution since the declaration of independence.
Agreeable to this charter, the supreme legislative
authority of the state is vested in a governor, de-
])iity-governor, twelve assistants, or counsellors,
and the representatives of the people, styled the
general assembly. The governor, deputy-gover-
nor, and assistants, are annually chosen by the
freemen in the month of May. The representa-
tives (their number not to exceed two from each
town) arc chosen by the freemen twice a-year, to
attend the two annual sessions, on the second
Tuesdays of May and October. The general as-
sembly is divided into two branches, called the up-
per and lower houses. The upper house is com-
posed of the governor, deputy-governor, and as-
sistants ; the lower house of the representatives
of the people. No law can pass without the con-
currence of both houses.

Connecticut has ever made rapid advances in
population. There have been more emigrations
from this than from any of the other states, and
yet it is at present full of inhabitants. This in-
crease may be ascribed to several causes. The
bulk of the inhabitants are industrious, sagacious
husbandmen. Their farms furnish them with all
the necessaries, most of the conveniences, and but
few of the luxuries of life. They, of course, must
be generally temperate, and if they choose, can
subsist with as much independence as is consistent
with happiness. The subsistence of the farmer is
substantial, and does not depend on incidental
circumstances, like that of most other professions.)

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