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[family often assumes the right of pursuing the ag-
gressor or his relations, and of punishing them.
From this abuse are derived the denominations and
distinctions, so much used in their jurisprudence,
of gengiieritiy genguman^ g^nla^ &c. denoting the
principal connections of the aggressor, of the in-
]ured, or the deceased, who are supposed to be
authorised, by the laws of nature, to support by
force the rights of their relatives. A system of
judicial proceedings so irregular, and apparently
so incompatible with the existence of any kind of
civil society, becomes the constant source of dis-
orders entirely hostile to the primary object of all
good government, and public and private security.
When those who are at enmity have a consider-
able number of adherents, they mutually make
incursions upon each other’s possessions, where
they destroy or burn all that they cannot carry off'.
These private quarrels, called malocas^ resemble
much the feuds of the ancient Germans, and are
very dreadful when the ulmenes are concerned,
in which case they become real civil wars. But
it must be acknowledged, that they are generally
unaccompanied with the etfusion of blood, and
are confined to pillage alone. This people, not-
withstanding their propensity to violence, rarely
employ arms in their private quarrels, but decide
them w'ith the fist or with the club.

8. Military system . — The military government
of the Araucanians is not only more rational and
better systematized than the civil, but in some re-
spects appears to be superior to the genius of an
uncultivated nation. Whenever the grand coun-
cil determines to go to war, they proceed imme-
diately to the election of a commander in chief,
to which the toquis have the first claim, as being
the hereditary generals or stadtholders of the re-
public. If neither of them is deemed qualified
for the command, dismissing all regard for rank,
they entrust it to the most deserving of the ul-
menes, or even the officers of the common class,
as the talents necessary for this important station
are what alone are required. In consequence, Vi-
lumilla., a man of low origin, commanded the
Araucanian army, with much honour, in the war of
1722 ; and Curignanca, the younger son of the
ulmen of the province of Encol, in that which
terminated in 1773. On accepting his appoint-
ment, the new general assumes the title of toqui,
and the stone hatchet, in token of supreme command ;
at which time the native toquis lay aside theirs,
it not being lawful for them to carry them during
the government of this dictator. They likewise,
sacrificing private ambition to the public good,
take the oaths of obedience and fealty to him, to-

gether with the other ulmenes. Even the people,
who in peace shew themselves repugnant to all sub-
ordination, are then prompt to obey, and sub-
missive to the will of their military sovereign.
He cannot, however, put any one to death without
the consent of the principal officers of his army ;
but as these are of his own appointment, his orders
may be considered as absolute. From the arrival of
the Spaniards in the country to the present time, it
isobservable, that all the toquis who have been ap-
pointed in time ofwar were natives ofthe provinces of
Arauco, of Tucapel, of Encol, or of Puren. Whe-
ther this partiality be owing to some superstitious no-
tion, or rather to some ancient law or agreement, we
are unable to determine ; it appears, however, to
be repugnant to the principles of sound policy, as
it is very rare for the component parts of a state to
maintain themselves long in any sort of union when
they do not all participate equally in the advan-
tages of the government. But it is a peculiarity
worthy of admiration, that this discrimination has
liitherto produced no division among them. One
of the first measures of the national council, af-
ter having decided upon war, is to dispatch cer-
tain messengers or expresses, called guer-quenis^
to the confederate tribes, and even to those Indians
Avho live among the Spaniards, to inform the first
of the steps that have been taken, and to request
the others to make a common cause with their
countrymen. The credentials of these envoys are
some small arrows tied together with a red string,
the symbol of blood. But if hostilities are actually
commenced, the finger, or (as Albedo will have it)
the hand of a slain eneiuy is joined to the arrows.
This embassy, called pulchitum^ to run the arrow,
is performed with such secrecy and expedition in
the Spanish settlements that the messengers are
rarely discovered. The toqui directs what num-
ber of soldiers are to be furnished by each uthal-
mapu ; the tetrarchs, in their turn, regulate the
contingencies of the apo-ulmenes, and these last
apportion them among their respective ulmenes.
Every Araucanian is born a soldier. All are
ready to proff'er their services for war, so that
there is no difficulty in raising an army, wh^ich
usually consists of five or six thousand men, be-
sides the corps de reserve, which are kept in readi-
ness for particular occasions, or to replace those
killed in battle. The commander in chief ap-
points his vicc-toqui, or lieutenant-general, and
the other officers of his staff’, who in their turn
nominate their subaltern officers : by this method
harmony and subordination are maintained be-
tween the respective commanders. The vicc-to-
qui is almost always selected from among the]

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