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404

CHILE.

[modesty and simplicity ; their dress is entirely of
wool, and, agreeable to the natural taste, of a
greenish blue colour ; it consists of a tunic, a gir
dle, and a short cloak, called ichella, which is
fastened before with a silver buckle. The tunic,
called chiamal^ is long, and descends to the feet ; it
is without sleeves, and is fastened upon the shoul
der by silver broches or buckles ; this dress,
sanctioned by custom, is never varied ; but to
gratify their love of finery, they adorn themselves
with all those trinkets which caprice or vanity sug
gests. They divide their hair into several tresses,
Avhich float in graceful negligence over their shoul
ders, and decorate their heads with a species of
false emerald, called glianca, held by them in high
estimation ; their necklaces and bracelets are of
glass, and their ear-rings, which are square, of
silver ; they have rings upon each finger, the
greater part of which are of silver. It is calculated
that more than 100,000 marks of this metal are
employed in these female ornaments, since they
are worn even by the poorest class.

4. Dwellings . — We have already given some
account of the dwellings of the ancient Chilians :
the Araucanians, tenacious, as are all nations not
corrupted by luxury, of the customs of their
country, have made no change in their mode of
building. But as they are almost all polygamists,
the size of their houses is proportioned to the num
ber of women they can maintain ; the interior of
these houses is very simple ; the luxury of conve
nience, splendour, and show, is altogether un
known in them, and necessity alone is consulted
in the selection of their furniture. They never
form towns, but live in scattered villages or ham
lets on the banks of rivers, or in plains that are
easily irrigated. Their local attachments are
strong, each family preferring to live upon the
land inherited from its ancestors, which they cul
tivate sufficiently for their subsistence. The genius
of this haughty people, in which the savage still
predominates, will not permit them to live irt
walled cities, which they consider as a mark of
servitude.

5. Division of the Araucanian state.— Although
in their settlements the Araucanians are wanting in
regularity, that is by no means the case in the
political division of their state, which is regulated
with much nicety and intelligence. They have
divided it from n. to s. into four tdhal-mapiis, or
parallel tetrarchates, that are nearly equal, to
which they give the names of Laiiquen-mapu, the
maritime country ; L,elbun-mapu^ the plain coun
try ; Inapire-mapUy the country at the foot of the
Andes ; and Pire-mapuj or that of the Andes.

Each uthal-mapu is divided into five aillaregues
or provinces; and each aillaregue, into nine regues
or counties. The maritime country comprehends
the provinces of Arauco, Tucapel, lllicura, Bo
roa, and Nagtolten ; the country of the plain in
cludes those of Encol, Puren, Reposura, Ma
quegua, and Mariquina ; that at the foot of the
Andes contains Mar veil, Colhue, Chacaico, Que
cheregua, and Guanagua ; and in that of the
Andes is included all the valleys of the cordillerasy
situate within the limits already mentioned,
which arc inhabited by the Puelches. These moun
taineers, who were formerly a distinct nation, in
alliance Avith the Araucanians, are now united
under their government, and have the same ma
gistrates. In the second and third articles of the
regulations of Lonquilmo, made in the year 1784,
the limits of each uthal-mapu are expresslj" defined,
and its districts marked out. It declares to be
appertaining to that of the cordilleras., the Huilli
ches of Changolo, those of Gayolto and Rucacho
roy, to the s. ; the Puelches and Indian pampas to
the n. from Malalque and the frontiers of Mendoza
to the Mamil-mapu in the pampas of Buenos
Ayres ; the whole forming a corporate body with
the Puelches and Pehuenches of Maule, Chilian,
and Antuco; so that at present, in case of an in
fraction of the treaty, it may easily be known what
uthal-mapu is to make satisfaction. This divi
sion of Araucania, Avhich discovers a certain de
gree of refinement in its political administration, is
of a date anterior to the arrival of the Spaniards,
and serves as a basis for the civil government of
the Araucanians, w'hich is aristocratic, as that of
many other barbarous nations has been. This
species of republic consists of three orders of no
bility, each subordinate to the other; the toqiiis,
the apo~ulmenes, and the ulmenes, all of Avhom
have their respective vassals. The toquis, who
may be styled tetrarchs, are four in number, and
preside over the uthal-mapus. The appellation of
toqui is derived from the verb toquin, which sig
nifies to judge or command ; they are independent
of each other, but confederated for the public
Avelfare. The apo-iilmenes or arch-ulmenes go
vern the provinces under their respective toquis.
The ulraenes, who are the prefects of the regues or
counties, are dependent upon the apo-ulmenes ;
this dependence, however, is confined almost en
tirely to military affairs. Although the ulmenes
are the lowest in the scale of the Araucanian aris
tocracy, the superior ranks, generally speaking,
are comprehended under the same title, which is
equivalent to that of cacique. The discriminative
badge of the toqui is a species of battle-axe, made]

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