395

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395

CHILE.

[lized state.— ‘6 The metals.— 1 . Substitute for
writing.

Chap. II. Fi rst expedition of the Spaniards in
Chile.— Encounters with the natives., with various
success, until the alliance formed between the
Spaniards and Promaucians.

1. Almagvo marches against Chile. —2. Road from
Peru to Chile.-— o. Kindhj received at Copiapo.
—4. First European blood shed.— 5. Battle with
the Promaucians.— Q. Expedition abandoned,
and why.—l. Valdivia marches against Chile.—
8. Province of St. Ja go describe'd.—'il. The ca
pital founded.— \0. Steady enmitnj of the Mapo
chinians.—l\. The mine of Quillota.— 12. The

compassionate ulmena. 13. Recruits fom

Peru, under Monroy.—-\t^. Stratagem of the
Quillotanes.-—\5. Serena founded.— \Q. Pro
maucian cdlies.—ll . Valdivia sets sail for Peru,
and returns with men and supplies.— \8. Con
cepcion founded.

Chap. III. Of the character and manners of the
Araucanians .

1. Local situation.— 2. Character .-—3. Dress.—

4. Dwellings.— b. Division of the Araucanian

state.— 6. Its political form.-— 7. Civil institu
tions.— 8. Military system.— 3. Their arms,
and mode of making av/r.— -10. Division of the
spoil.— 1\. Sacrifice after the war. — \2. Con
gress of peace.— 13. System of religion.—!^.
Funeral ceremonies.— \b. Division of time.—
16. Astronomical ideas.— \7. Measures.— \8.
Phetoric.— \9. Poetry . — 20. Medical skill.—
21. Commerce.— 22. National pride.— 23. Kind
ness towards each other.— 2^. Mode of saluta
tion. 25. Proper names.-— 20. Domestic em-

ployments. — 27. Food. -— 28. Music, and other
diversions.

Chap. IV. The wars of the Araucanians with the
Spaniards, and concomitant events.

1. The Toqui Aillavila.—2. The Toqui Lincoyan.
—3. Imperial founded.---!^. Villariqa founded. —

5. The Cunches.—G. Valdivia founded.-— 7 . For
tresses of Fiiren, Tucapel, and Araiico built.—
8. City of the Frontiers founded. -— 9. Three
principal military offices instituted at Concepcion.

— \Q. The Toqui Caupolican. 11. Valdivia

slain.— Lautaro appointed lieutenant-general,—
12. The mountain Mariguenu. 13. The Go-

vernor Villa gr an. —1^. Conception destroyed.—
15. The small-pox appears.-— \0. Decision of
the audience of Lima 1 'especting the governors.
-—17. Concepcion rebuilt, and destroyed by Lau
taro.— Lautaro arrives at Santiago.— 19.
Death of Lautaro.— 20. Caupolican raises the
siege of Imperial.— 21. The Governor Don Gar-

cia Hurtado de Mendoza.— 22. Caupolican taken
prisoner and impaled.— 23. Cahete founded.—
24. The Cur.ches, their curious embassy and stra
tagem.— 25. Archipelago of Chiloe discovered.-—
26. City of Osorno founded.— 27 . Caupolican the
Second.— 28. The Guarpes subjected.— 29. St.
Juan and Mendoza founded,— 30. Villagran re
instated. — 31. The province of Tucuman re
stored, afterwards retaken. 32. Cahete de
stroyed.— 33. Pedro Villagran. ---34. The To
qui Pcdllataru,— 35. Archipelago of Chiloe sub
jected; description of the same ; its inhabitants,
fc.-—36. The court of audience established.—

37. Suppression of the tribunal of audience.— -

38. Description of the Pehuenches .—39 . De
scription of the Chiquillanians . — 40. Landing
and defeat of the English.— ^1. Nature oj the
war in anno 1589. — 42. Independence restored.
--43. Expedition of the Dutch.-— All the
Spanish settlements destroyed.— 1^5. Court of au
dience re-established.— i6. Ineffectual efforts of
Philip III. to establish a lasting peace. — VI .
Second expedition of the Dutch.— F8. Second
expedition o f the English.— ^9. Peace at length
concluded.-— 50. Last expedition of the Dutch.
— 51. Dreadful earthquake. — 52. Commerce
with the French.— 53. How the Pehuenches be
came inimical to the Spaniards.— 51. Peace re
stored.

Chap. V. Present state of Chile.

1. Civil government.— 2. Military force.— -3. Ec
clesiastical government. 4. The cities and
dwellings.— 5. Population.— 6. Chilian Creoles.
—7. ^ate of arts and sciences.— 8. The pea
santry .—9. Dress, S;c.— 10. Diseases; small
pox, how cured.— 11 . Manners, moral and phy
sical. 12. Internal and external commerce,

mines, imports, and exports. — 13. Natural divi
sions.— U. Poliiiced divisions.— 15. Climate.—
16. Of rain. — 11 . Winds.— -IS. Meteors.— 19.
Volcanoes. — 20. Earthquakes. —21. Some de
tail of productions.— 22. Present revolution.

Chap. I.

Origin and language of the Chilians .—Conquest
of the Peruvians, and state of Chile before the
arrival of the Spaniards.-— What was then its
political establishments, government, and arts.
Of the origin and huiguage of the Chilians, no
traces are to be found further back than the middle
of the 15th century, -which was the time when (he
Peruvians first began (heir conquests in this de
lightful country. It is the general opinion that
America was settled from the n. e. part of Asia,
but the opinion entertained by the Chilians is, (hat '
3 E 2

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