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at that critical moment received fresh succours,
that were sent from Cuzco by his brother the Mar-
quis Don Francisco Pizarro, he would have fallen
a sacrifice, with the whole of the Spanish army, to
that undertaking : but being invigorated by this
assistance, he succeeded in routing the Indians,
and in obliging them to surrender to the Spanish
government. In 1539 the Marquis Don Fran-
cisco Pizarro, seeing the importance of making an
establishment here, resolved upon building of a
town, giving a commission to Captain Pedro Au-
zures to execute the same. This person actually
put into effect the plan suggested, founding the
town in exactly the same spot in which formerly
stood the settlement of Chuquisaca. Here many
of its conquerors settled and became citizens, and
they gave it the name of La Plata, or Silver, from
some mines of this metal which are found in the
mountain of Porco, which lies at a small distance
from this city, and from which the Inca Emperors
were accustomed to extract immense emolument.
Notwithstanding this name it has never lost its
original title, Chuquisaca, although indeed it is
badly pronounced by the Spaniards ; since the In-
dians, and with great propriety, will have it Cho-
quezaca, Choquechaca, or Choquisacha; all of
which, however pronounced, signify, the first,moun-
tains of gold ; the second, cunchos of gold, or
fields of brambles with yellow twigs ; and the third,
bridges of gold. Although this province is exten-
sive, it is composed of various others, which we
shall notice under their proper heads. This keeps
its present name, from being the one of all the
others the most abounding in minerals, seeds, and
cattle ; as well as being the one best peopled with
Indians. It is watered by many large rivers ; and
the whole of it composes an archbishopric, to
which arc suffragan the bishoprics of La Paz,
Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Tucuman, Paraguay,
and Buenos Ayres. It belongs to the viceroyalty
of this latter place since the time that this was
erected, and that the government was entrusted to
the royal audience established in 1559. The afore-
said district comprehends in its jurisdiction all
the following provinces and corregimientos :
Tomino, Cochabamba,

Porco, Chayanta,

Tarija, Paria,

Lipes, Carangas,

Amparaez, Cicasica,

Oruro, Atacama ;


In which are contained 188 settlements and cura-
cies, in which there were in 1651 about 100,000
Indians. The capital of the whole jurisdiction is

the aforesaid city of Chuquisaca or La Plata. —
[Charcas joined the new government of Buenos
Ayres in 1810. See La Plata,]

Those who have been Presidents in the Royal
Audience of Charcas.

1. The Licentiate Pedro Ramirez de Quinones,
first president, in 1559.

2. The Licentiate Juan de Matienzo, a cele-
brated jurisconsult, in 1580.

3. The Licentiate Zepeda, in 1588.

4. The Licentiate Alonso Maldonado de Torres,
in 1606.

5. Don Juan de Lizarazu, knight of the order
of Santiago ; he passed over to the presidency of
Quito in 1612.

6. Don Diego de Portugal, in 1614.

7. Don Alonzo Perez de Salazar, who was pre-
sident of Quito, and was promoted to this, where
he governed until the year 1620.

8. Don Juan de Caravajal y Sande, promoted
in 1633.

9. Don Dionisio Perez Manrique, knight of
the order of Santiago, collegiate in the college
of Los Manriques de Alcala, rector of the uni-
versity there, oidor of Lima, and president of
Quito, from whence he was removed to be pre-
sident of this audience of Charcas in 1646 ; whence,
having exercised it till 1654, he was removed to
that of Santa Fe.

10. Don Pedro Vazquez de Velasco, who pre-
sided until the year 1661.

11. Don Bartolome Gonzalez de Poveda, pro-
moted in 1678 ; he was made archbishop of the
holy church of Charcas, remaining in the presi-
dency until 1688.

12. Don Diego Mesia, native of Lima, oidor of
its royal audience, and formerly of that of Quito ;
he was promoted to the presidency of Charcas in

13. Don Jorge Manrique de Lara, who was
oidor of Panama, afterwards of Charcas, as also

14. Don Gabriel Antonio Matienzo, president in

15. Don Francisco de Herboso, who was ap-
pointed in 1725, and presided until 1732.

16. Don Agustin de Jauregui, knight of the
order of Santiago, and native of Lima.

17. Don Juan Francisco Pestana, adjutant-
major of the regiment of Spanish guards ; he was
nominated in 1752, and presided until 1769.

18. Don Ambrosio de Benavides, who entered
in the above year, and presided until 1777.

19. Don Agustin de Pinedo, who succeeded
the former, and governed until 1782.

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