354

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354

C H A

another whose note resembles atrumpet. It abounds
in quadrupeds, as mules, horses, and cattle of the
large and small kind, the antas, which is called
here gran bestia^ (great beast), huanacos, vicunas,
llamas, or native sheep, stags, bears, ant-eaters,
wild bears, otters, tigers, mountain cats, visca
chas, (or large hares), large and small foxes, tor
toises, higuanos, and others ; all of which afford
food to tlie voracious Indians. In this province
are also found many insects, such as scorpions,
vipers, snakes of several kinds, some of two heads,
and some with rattles, squirrels, mocamucas, am
palabas, or what are called in other countries owls,
which are extremely deformed, and attract small
animals to them by their screeching, quiriquinchos
of various sorts, glow-worms, a great variety of
flies and spiders, and of these a large kind very
venomous, silk-worms, Avhich, if taken care of,
would yield an abundance of silk, locusts, Avhich
are eaten by the Indians both dry and fresh ; also ants,
the beds of which are so deep as to render the road
dangerous for men and for horses to pass, these
insects being of such an undaunted and trouble
some nature as often to attack a viper or locust in
large bodies, and in some settlements to enter a
house like a plundering army, devouring every in
sect and worm in their way, not leaving a single
eatable thing untouched ; scarcely shall these have
finished their operations, but they are succeeded by
another band, and indeed it is very liazardous to
disturb them, since they bite very fiercely and
cause much pain. This province has no mines,
although it is said that formerly some were worked
by the Indians ; some little time since, however,
one of iron was discovered, when it was thought to
have been of gold. This extensive and pleasant
country is inhabited by a multitude of infidel In
dians, of different nations and of various barbarous
customs. It was casually discovered in 1586 by
Juan de Banos, a native of Chuquisaca, a factor
of the settlement of Yala ; he had an Indian slave
who used frequently to run away from his master
for a time and return again, and who being asked
once whither he went, replied toChacu; this it
Avas tliat led to its discovery, and to the subse
•quent attempts at several times made to conquer
it; first by Martin de Ledesma, afterwards by
.Tuan Manso, Don Pedro Lasarte, and lastly by
D >11 Christoval de Sanabri, all of which were in
effectual. San Francisco Solano entered the coun
try, and succeeded in reducing some of the natives
to the Christian faith ; these, however, soon re
turned to their idolatry. The regulars of the com
pany of Jesuits likewise engaged themselves in the
reduction of this country in 1587, the first of their

C H A

preachers here being Father Alonzo Barzana,
called the apostle of Peru ; they continued here
for a number of years, and during their stay
founded seven settlements. The inhabitants of
the whole province are computed at 100,000.
Catalogue of the nations which inhabit Chaco.

Chiriguanas,

Abayas,

Churumutas,

Yapayaes,

Mataguayos,

Niguaraas,

Tobas,

Ivirayaras,

Macobies,

Socondues,

Aquilotes,

Marapanos,

Malbalaes,

Cipores,

Agoyas,

Ayusequeteres,

Amulalaes,

Cororaetes,

Palomos,

Taparunas,

Lules,

Bayatuis,

Toconotes,

Layanos,

Toquistineses,

Payaguas,

Tanuyes,

Poreromos,

Chunipies,

ChilacutiquieSj

Bilelas,

Chiquinos,

Yxistineses,

Gortonos,

Oristineses,

Humayonos,

Guamalcas,

Tainuyes,

Zapitalaguas,

Tracanos,

Ojotaes,

Tobotionos,

Chiebas,

Pildoris

Orejones,

Caramais,

Guaicurues,

Perequanos,

Callagaes,

Cucroyenos,

Calchaquies,

Bocaracanas,

Abipones,

Xolotas,

Teutas,

Curetes,

Palalis,

Upionos,

Huarpas,

Morionos,

Tanos,

Bocoos,

Mogosnas,

Motitis,

Choroties,

Corotonos,

Naparus,

Guanas,

Chiribionos.

(Chaco, a large plain of the above province,
in which Azara noticed a singular phenomenon,
which he calls a large piece of pure iron, flexible
and malleable in the forge, but at the same time
so hard as not to be cut, though obedient to the
file. It contains about 468 cubic feet, and lies
on the surface of the large plain of Chaco, on which
not a single stone excepting this is to be found ;
and what is still more curious, there is no volcano
within 300 leagues, nor any iron mine to be heard
of in that part of tho country.)

CHACOCHE, a settlement of the province and
corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru ; annexed to
the curacy of Sirca.

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